WorldWideScience

Sample records for katus enel pungas

  1. Rahvastikuregister peaks olema keskne / Enel Pungas ; interv. Alo Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Enel

    2003-01-01

    Intervjuu siseministeeriumi rahvastikutoimingute osakonna juhataja Enel Pungasega riigiasutuste andmebaaside kooskõlastamisest, rahvastikuregistrist ja e-riigist. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud rahvastikuregistri töötajaga: Eesti e-riik ei ühti iseendaga

  2. Elukoha registreerimine pole sissekirjutus / Enel Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Enel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 12. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 12. okt. 2004, lk. 2. Autori väitel on plaanitav kohustuslik elukoha registreerimine euroopaliku süsteemi kehtestamine ning riik vajab statistikat, et kavandada regionaalset arengut, planeerida eelarvet.

  3. Inimene - infokandja ametnike vahel? / Enel Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Enel

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu struktuurifondide toel siseministeeriumis teostatavatest projektidest "Rahvastikuregistri tarkvara täiendamine" ja "Pereregistri arendamine". Lisatud statistiline tabel 2004. a. Eestis registreeritud perekonnasündmuste kohta maakondade kaupa

  4. ENEL gushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the 1995 Annual Report and Accounts for ENEL for 1995. This successful company enjoyed an 11% rise in net profits, with total sales revenues up by 8.2%. Staff numbers were down, but ENEL's staff were paid more overall. (UK)

  5. Enel Graduates in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvani, L

    2009-01-01

    Enel constructs two reactors of second generation in Mochovce. Commissioning is expected at the end of 2013, a few months after Italy returns to nuclear. The power plant relies on the support of the public in the country, free way to adopted safety requirements from Brussels. So did inform assigned redactor Laura Galvagni in the edition of the most read Italian economic daily Il Sole 24 Ore on 24 November 2009. (author)

  6. Katus ajas korteriühistu pankrotti / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas hulga kinnisvara omandanud vandeadvokaat Margus Fink esindab ehitajat, kes lubas remontida Niguliste 2 maja ja ehitada katusekorruse, kuid jättis töö pooleli ja nõuab elanikelt läbitilkuva katuse eest 1,7 miljonit krooni

  7. ENEL's DSM actions in the international scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, P.; Russo, S.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of national policies which, since the end of the 70s, have had the target of making consumers rationally use the natural sources, in particular energy, and in the pursuit of environmental goals, the Governments and the utilities have driven several DSM (Demand-Side Management) actions, in many countries. The activities implemented by ENEL have included the analysis of the different components of the energy chain, from the primary sources to the final uses in industry, agriculture, residential and commercial buildings. This is in order to improve the energy efficiency by new electrotechnologies and more effective appliances. ENEL has carried out commercial initiatives by specific contractual agreements based on the marginal costs of the electric service. The paper explains ENEL's strategies and the actions implemented by the utility on DMS; the results in terms of energy efficiency, electric demand dynamics and of load curve changing are also explained. Finally the paper explores the DSM perspectives in the Italian future scenario, where energy companies will act in a more competitive market. (author)

  8. ENEL Slovenske elektrarne. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the ENEL Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) in 2006 year is presented. These activities are reported under the following headings: (1) Evaluation Report and Foreword of the Chairman of the Board of Directors; (2) SE, a.s., Board of Directors in 2006; (3) SE, a.s., Supervisory Board in 2006; (4) The year in brief; (5) SE, a.s., Organisation Structure; (6) Company stakes; (7) Company strategy; (8) Electricity and heat generation; (9) Trade in electricity, support services and heat; (10) Investments; (11) Nuclear safety; (12) Occupational health and safety and fi re protection; (13) Environment; (14) Human resources; (15) Report on Financial Statements and Performance of the Company; (16) Auditor's report; (17) Abbreviations

  9. Enel expects privatization to be completed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the coalition will probably mean that the sale of state-owned stakes in two distribution companies and all the heating plants will not be completed and nor will privatisation at Zapadoslovenska energetika. Most important for the energy sector is uncertainty regarding the major privatization project of this government - finding a new owner of 66% of Slovenske elektrarne shares. The state expects to receive about 32 billion Slovak crowns (842.105 million EUR) from Enel for this stake. 'The cabinet has approved the privatization under certain conditions and those have to be met now,' answered the leader of the KDH deputy's club, Pavol Minarik, to the question whether the cabinet would still be able to muster sufficient votes in parliament to pass the Act on the national nuclear account. All other so-called delaying conditions are in the competence of the cabinet or the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic and the opposition, which opposes privatization, cannot influence them. The act will address the financing of debts related to the liquidation of the V1 and A1 nuclear power plants. (authors)

  10. Pioneering corporate responsibility in Italy: the Enel experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comin, Gianluca

    2007-07-01

    Enel, the largest Italian utility for production, distribution of electricity and the second largest for natural gas distribution has started its Corporate Responsibility practice in 2002 and ever since has gained a leading role within the Italian sustainability scene. By rapidly integrating Corporate Responsibility in its strategic planning and in its reporting procedures, Enel also could develop a state of the art sustainability plan, a wide array of key performance indicators to monitor it and an outstanding knowledge in Corporate Responsibility mainstreaming. The acceleration imposed by Enel's management in implementing Corporate Responsibility as a basic integrator into its corporate procedures also allowed the company to be acknowledged as one of the best practices in the world. Along the implementation of Corporate Responsibility Enel also developed traditional and intranet based training programs that impacted on 4,500 middle managers and 48,000 employees. International sustainability indices recognised the company's effort including it in their listings as of 2003. Active in stakeholder dialogue, Enel is also implementing a way to gather fresh and direct opinions from an esteemed universe of 60,000 people with an unprecedented web based polling tool derived from multidimensional scaling techniques aimed at questioning appreciation on 25 topics of mutual concern. (auth)

  11. SE and ENEL - One Year Together One Year after Privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    In Bratislava, one year ago, exactly in April 28, the privatization deal of a 66% stake in Slovenske elektrarne (SE) was finally closed. The Slovak government and the Italian company ENEL signed final documents and ENEL thus definitely entered into SE. In May 2006, Miroslav Pikus, a former CEO, was replaced by Marco Arcelli, who, as a regional manager for Slovakia, had been preparing the entry of ENEL into SE since March 2005. Not only did he sometimes cook for us, in his 'kitchen' but also there were prepared 160 investment projects, e.g the improvement of nuclear safety and resistance of the Bohunice power plant, electricity sale through the so-called 'virtual power plant', ensuring a non-attended operation in hydro power plants, reconstruction and modernization of the Orava and Dobsina hydro power plants. (author)

  12. Enel waiting for the state to act first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Enel will only answer the basic question whether Slovenske elektrarne will complete the reactors 3 and 4 in nuclear power plant in Mochovce next year. Initial analyses made by Enel indicate that the completion of Mochovce would cost over 60 billions Sk (1,54 billions EUR). Since National Property Fund has approved the strategic investment plan two more conditions have to be met before Enel can acquire Slovenske elektrarne. The first condition is that a part of the company assets has to taken over by state owned joint stock company GovCo. This regards reactor V-1 in nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice that should be made ready for closure by end of 2008, damaged reactor A-1, nuclear equipment decommissioning and disposal unit VYZ and hydroelectric power plant in Gabcikovo. The other condition that still has to be fulfilled is passing of a new act on disposal of nuclear power generating equipment. The new act should distribute the fund's resources amongst the individual nuclear energy sources. M. Arcelli (regional manager of Enel for Slovakia) stresses that the money nuclear power station in Mochovce and V-2 earned and will earn during their time in operation will have to remain in the fund to cover their later liquidation i.e. should not be used on liquidation of reactors V-1 or A-1. (authors)

  13. ENEL overall PWR plant models and neutronic integrated computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, G.; Pollachini, L.; Vimercati, G.; Cori, R.; Pretolani, F.; Spelta, S.

    1987-01-01

    To support the design activity of the Italian nuclear energy program for the construction of pressurized water reactors, the Italian Electricity Board (ENEL) needs to verify the design as a whole (that is, the nuclear steam supply system and balance of plant) both in steady-state operation and in transient. The ENEL has therefore developed two computer models to analyze both operational and incidental transients. The models, named STRIP and SFINCS, perform the analysis of the nuclear as well as the conventional part of the plant (the control system being properly taken into account). The STRIP model has been developed by means of the French (Electricite de France) modular code SICLE, while SFINCS is based on the Italian (ENEL) modular code LEGO. STRIP validation was performed with respect to Fessenheim French power plant experimental data. Two significant transients were chosen: load step and total load rejection. SFINCS validation was performed with respect to Saint-Laurent French power plant experimental data and also by comparing the SFINCS-STRIP responses

  14. Enel seeks strategic re-entry into the photovoltaic market. Cooperations promise economic efficiency; Enel strebt strategischen Wiedereinstieg in die Photovoltaik an. Kooperationen versprechen Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, W. [Orizzonti, Verona (Italy)

    2008-12-01

    Major Italian utility Enel has embarked again in activities in the field of photovoltaics (pv) after years of standstill caused by the company's privatisation in 1999. Now attractive feed-in tariffs, much untapped potential and strong interest of Italians in pv have opened the door for the development of new business in this unfolding mass market. More recently Enel has also strengthened ties with pv-cell and module production industry. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of Italian national electric power system: Relationship between ENEL and local operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of facilitating the option to privatize the Italian national electricity system known as ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), new laws have been passed which have modified the legal framework pertaining to the management of ENEL's activities and have given ENEL a new status of state concessionaire. The modifications to the existing laws, however, were made in such a way as not to jeopardize the present integral nature of ENEL's activities relative to power generation and distribution. This paper discusses the impact of the new laws on the management of municipal and industrial power plants run by public administrations and private industrial firms licensed to operate under existing and future agreements made with ENEL

  16. Research and development activity at ENEL for next generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaciari, P.

    1992-01-01

    Italy, a world leader in nuclear electricity production in the mid sixties, became the only large industrialized country which renounced nuclear energy; a fact hardly understandable for a country that, in addition has a worrisome dependence on imported foreign energy. The paper reports the political events that brought Italy to a condition not easy to be sustained in the long run, citing in particular: the so-called 'reconversion' of the Alto Lazio nuclear plant into a fossil fuelled plant, the closure of the Caorso plant after the encouraging outcome of an IAEA inspection, and finally, the contrasting resolutions voted on the matter by the two Parliament chambers. The paper then deals with the issues which need to be solved to allow a nuclear renaissance in Italy. The research program on future reactor designs has been carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) in the framework of a wide international co-operation with the ambitious goal to demonstrate that, even in the case of a severe accident, no population evacuation, nor any long term limitation as to ground utilization is to be planned. On this important issue a large international consensus is growing worldwide. The willingness of ENEL to remain part of the nuclear community has been also proved by its adhesion to the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), created to enhance the operational safety of nuclear plants worldwide

  17. Nitrogen oxide control at power plants of the ENEL company (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vserossiiskii Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1993-03-01

    Analyzes experiences of the ENEL electricity company in Italy in controlling pollutant emission from fossil-fuel power plants. In 1990, the company produced 87% of the country's electricity. Until the year 2000, ENEL plans to increase coal use for power generation by 23.5% and install 9,300 MW of new coal-fired power plant capacity. New European and Italian emission standards require ENEL to reduce NO[sub x] emissions by 30% from 1986 to 1998. NO[sub x] emission values from various fuel-oil and pulverized-coal fired steam generators operated by the company are given. Modifications to existing combustion technologies and equipment installed to lower NO[sub x] content in flue gases at various ENEL power plants are considered. The most promising coal combustion technologies and ongoing research programs are pointed out. 4 refs.

  18. More electric power for cleaner air: ENEL air pollution abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, P.; Segreto, F.

    1991-01-01

    ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) is conducting an intensive anti-pollution campaign that is expected to lead to overall reductions by about 80% in polluting emissions by the year 2000. Existing plants are being equipped with low NOx burners and electrostatic precipitators; coal units are receiving flue gas desulfurization systems. New poly-fuel plants, to be located far from residential zones, are to use low sulfur fuels or natural gas, and employ 250 meter high smoke-stacks. ENEL's anti-pollution campaign also involves a series of co-ordinated research studies directed towards the development of new sulfur and nitrogen oxides emission control technologies and innovative fluidized-bed and coal-water fuel slurry combustion systems. ENEL will also participate with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests in environmental protection programs. These will involve the setting-up of acid rain monitoring and sampling networks and atmospheric circulation mapping and modelling

  19. An example o French - Italian cooperation in the area of energy: ENEL in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremieux, M.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization also allows to renew European industrial cooperation. As a symbol of such cooperation, Enel, the first both Italian and Spanish operator, develops an integrated position in France where industrial cooperation with Electricite de France in the EPR project goes with a business activity competing with the historical operator. Such industrial cooperation allows Enel to benefit by experience in all available technologies and is of crucial importance in light of the Italian government's choice to develop nuclear energy in Italy. Those industrial agreements, beneficial both for consumers and for the European development, cannot develop unless a number of economic properties are complied with. (author)

  20. Italian cogeneration legislation (Laws 9 ampersand 10): ENEL's (Italy) point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pello', P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Referring to recently legislated Italian normatives governing on-site electric power generation by private industry, in particular, to the clauses which regard rate structure in the case of auto-producers ceding power to the national grid controlled by ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), this paper determines auto-production economic feasibility limits, based on cogeneration plant annual power production, ceded power quality, type of fuel, and overall operating costs. Some consideration is then given to the long term implications that this legislation, encouraging on-site production on a wide scale, has on ENEL's strategic planning and natural gas marketing in Italy

  1. What Enel and Rusko will not find in the privatization documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The lawyers of Enel will be spending the pre-Christmas period studying the transaction documents relating to the privatization of a 66% stake in Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric). At the beginning of the year, the Italian company Enel is set to sign the document that Cabinet approved in December 2004. Neither the draft privatization documents, nor the version approved by Parliament are publicly available. The Ministry promised to publish them after Enel signed the contracts. But Cabinet-level discussions prior to the approval of the documents uncovered problematic parts of the agreements related to the relationship between Enel, Slovak Electric and the state. Lawyers are examining the changes that were implemented based on recommendations of Cabinet members during the period after the postponement of the signing of the contract. Minister Pavol Rusko does not expect that Enel will reject the approved conditions, as that would mean the end of negotiations. But despite this, TREND asked whether he had an alternative plan prepared for such an eventuality. The Minister repeated that he had no doubt that the sale would be completed successfully and as of June Enel would become the new majority shareholder of Slovak Electric. He believes the 'the contract, which was very thoroughly prepared, will be very acceptable for both the selling and purchasing parties'. However, both the lawyers of Enel and the Minister should be aware of new facts they cannot be found in the privatisation documentation. And this is good news for both parties. This week Slovak Electric completed the process of financial restructuring and fulfilled the 'stabilization scenario'. Debt repayment has been postponed, debts will be repayable under standard conditions and will reflect the current capacity of the loan market. State guarantees have been decreased to a minimum and Slovak Electric will be able to request a new rating. More good news, mainly for P. Rusko, although he has not spoken

  2. David and Goliath : the procedures for selling ENEL distribution lines to city-owned companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzed the economic impacts of the provisions under Article 9 of the Bersani Decree, relating to the sale of the ENEL distribution networks to city-owned companies, with particular reference to the ENEL-AEM Milano case. The Bersani Decree states that the sale of networks must be made according to normal market rules, but also rules that ENEL is obliged to sell its own distribution network. Through the use of analytical instruments inspired by the contract theory, this study highlighted several contradictions in the decree. It was noted that the deferment to private parties bargaining to perform the sale was contradictory, as it was counterbalanced and blocked by the legal compulsion to sell. The Bersani Decree influences the bargaining power of the parties by handing it over to the city-owned company, who then make as low an evaluation of the contract as possible. This has prompted several companies to seek arbitration. If the arbitrators are unable to arrive at a satisfactory price, the contract will not be completed. The refusal to accept a proposed price may be seen as an attempt to negotiate a different purchase price. In addition, magistrates undertake the bargaining power that would be be granted to both parties to respect the Bersani Decree, in that the magistrate has the power to order one or both parties to conclude the contract. The independent setting of the sale is compromised and does not necessarily reflect the evaluations of parties involved. Appeals to appraisers, hearings and research mean that the costs to both parties, and society, increases. It was suggested that legislators should allow the market to work independently, without mandating the terms of private companies' transactions, and without additional procedural phases. A market-oriented formulation could avoid useless extensions and costs in the sale of ENEL-owned distribution networks to city-owned companies. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  3. ENEL high and medium voltage electrical substations for power supply to urban centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; Boatto, C.; Di Mario, A.; Fava, N.; Sciarra, S.; Speziali, R.

    1991-12-01

    Modular high and medium voltage gas insulated electrical substations are being used by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) to meet the specific needs of urban centers with special design and sizing constraints of a historical/architectural nature. This paper illustrates the key design, construction operation and performance characteristics of these standardized units. The descriptions include brief notes on equipment-transformer interconnection, interchangeability and environmental compatibility. Performance test procedures and results of actual reliability and certification tests on some substations are reported

  4. ENEL (Italy) 3.3 MW photovoltaic power plant at Serre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.; Corsi, S.; Belcastro, G.N.; Vigotti, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the key design and performance features of a demonstration 3.3 MW photovoltaic power plant which is being built by ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) to determine the technical-economic feasibility of such installations and to augment national engineering know-how and construction capability in this field. The plant is to be made up of 60,000 modules, each equipped with sets of 36 or 72 10x10 cm polycrystalline silicon cells. The paper also provides sketches of module support systems, main electrical layouts and computerized control systems, as well as, a breakdown of project costs

  5. ENEL and application of Italian November 14, 1990 Decree CIP 34/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazio, A.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives an idea of how ENEL, the Italian National Electricity Board, administers contracts involving the ceding of on-site generated power to the national utility's grid. Reference is made to the specific provisions incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34, dated November 14, 1990

  6. Upgrading of operation and maintenance. Lessons learned by ENEL- Nuclear Plant Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolla, Giuseppe; Panini, Giulio

    1999-01-01

    A presentation and general information on ENEL are given. The Italian Authority for Electric Energy (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Electrica - ENEL), entirely owned by the Italian Ministry of Treasury, is the third largest utility in the world after EDF of France and TEPCO of Japan. The following figures are featuring its size: - Net maximum capacity = 52.463 GW; - Power generation = 182,500 GW h; - Customer = 28.2 Million; - Hydroelectric power plants = 651 (16.327 MW); - Thermoelectric power units = 206 (35,666 MW); - Geothermal power units = 36 (470 MW). The ENEL core business consists of generation, transmission, distribution and sale throughout Italy of electric power produced from any source as well as the importation and exportation of electric power and the co-ordination of operational and planning activities in order to ensure adequate availability throughout Italian territory of electric power at minimum cost. Before the decision taken for political reason by Italian Government in 1988 to terminate nuclear power plants operation and construction, 4 NPPs have been successfully operated. The whole production of the four plants has been about 90 billion kWh. The management experience for these plants has been good, both for plant availability and safety. No operating events occurred arising any risk for workers, population and environment. The Chernobyl power plant accident induced Italy to promote the 'nuclear referendum' in November 1987. Following the referendum the nuclear power production was interrupted. After 1988 the following nuclear activities has been carried out: - plant safe conservation, decommissioning planning, cost evaluation and safe enclosure preparation; - investigation for waste treatment methods; - participation in requirement definition and design activity for next NPP generation. A specific experience has been accumulated in the decommissioning of Italian NPPs, due to their anticipated shutdown, in particular in the field of

  7. Enhanced distribution automation system based on new communication technology at ENEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comellini, E.; Gargiuli, R.; Gelli, G.; Tonon, R.; Mirandola, P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of extensive research aimed at the assessment of the feasibility of a cost effective two-way telecommunications system, and of the experience gained during the eighties in the field of remote control of the primary distribution network where new digital techniques were introduced, and in the field of metering apparatus, where about 7,000 HV and MV customers were equipped with Ferraris meters associated with electronic devices for the application of multirate tariffs, ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) has designed a new distribution automation system aimed at: remote control of the MV distribution network, and MV and LV customer meter service automation. This report describes the key choices that determined the architecture of the new system and the most important features of its main components, in view of: an improvement of energy usage efficiency, better service to the customers, as well as, increased simplicity and transparency in customer relationships

  8. Quality of electric service in utility distribution networks under electromagnetic compatibility principles. [ENEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizzolini, P.; Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Sani, G. (ENEL, Rome Milan (Italy))

    1989-03-01

    The development of electromagnetic compatibility criteria, being worked out in international standardization activities, requires the establishment of the characteristics of public utility distribution networks as a reference ambient. This is necessary for gauging the immunity levels towards users and for defining the disturbance emission limits. Therefore, it is a new way to look at the quality of electric service. Consequently, it is necessary to check and specify, in an homogeneous manner, the phenomena that affect electric service. Use must be made of experimental tests and of the collection and elaboration of operation data. In addition to testing techniques, this paper describes the checking procedures for the quality of electric service as they are implemented in the information system developed by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) for distribution activities. The first reference data obtained from the national and international fields about voltage shape and supply continuity are also indicated.

  9. PV plants for Alpine huts: Installation and operating experience at seven ENEL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, G.; Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of supplying electric power to isolated users far from the electricity distribution grid is one of general interest. Such consumers are nowadays generally supplied with electricity produced by small diesel generator-sets, and only recently have photovoltaic arrays and wind-turbines offered an alternative to the internal combustion engine. ENEL, as a State-owned electricity utility, is interested in the development of this particular application of renewable energy sources. Enlarging a low-voltage distribution network to connect consumers whose power requirements are extremely low (about 1000 kWh/year) may, in certain conditions, be uneconomical, both for the utility, which has to absorb most of the expense involved in construction and maintenance, and for the consumer himself. The paper reports the design criteria, the tests and the problems encountered in electrifying seven alpine huts belonging to CAI (Italian Alpine Club)

  10. Valorización de Enel Generación Piura S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Matthew; Quintanilla Pacheco, Mario; Sulca Gómez, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Enel Generación Piura S.A. tiene como actividad principal la generación de energía eléctrica con un negocio secundario de venta de gas natural. La generación de energía eléctrica es la primera actividad en la cadena de producción y suministro de energía y por su naturaleza pertenece a un mercado competitivo y altamente regulado. En la industria de la generación es fundamental la disponibilidad y continuidad de las fuentes de materia prima, así como las diversas tecnologías que se encuentran e...

  11. Enhanced distribution automation system based on new communications technology at ENEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comellini, E; Gargiuli, R; Gelli, G; Tonon, R; Mirandola, P

    1992-12-31

    On the basis of extensive research aimed at the assessment of the feasibility of a cost effective two-way telecommunications system, and of the experience gained during the eighties in the field of remote control of the primary distribution network where new digital techniques were introduced, and in the field of metering apparatus, where about 7,000 HV and MV customers were equipped with Ferraris meters associated with electronic devices for the application of multirate tariffs, ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) has designed a new distribution automation system aimed at: remote control of the MV distribution network, and MV and LV customer meter service automation. This report describes the key choices that determined the architecture of the new system and the most important features of its main components, in view of: an improvement of energy usage efficiency, better service to the customers, as well as, increased simplicity and transparency in customer relationships.

  12. Advanced diagnostics and predictive maintenance to improve availability and reliability of ENEL plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenci, V.; Ghironi, M.; Guidi, L.; Lauro, M.; Pestonesi, D. [ENEL (Italy). Generation and Energy Management Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the ENEL Generation and Energy Management strategy for diagnostics and predictive maintenance of power plants and provides a comprehensive description of effective applications and systems. Exploiting the most advanced information and communication technologies makes it possible to capture weak and hidden signals and powerful processing can be used to discover forewarning symptoms and identify anomalies both in the process and, above all, inside the devices. The following systems and applications are presented together with results and impact on plant profitability: expert system for the diagnostics of plant main machinery; advanced diagnostics of 'intelligent' fieldbus devices such as on/off valve motor-driven actuators, control-valve positioners and pneumatic actuators, transmitters; control loop and control valve diagnostics in order to investigate valve friction with an estimation of the residual time to failure; multisensorial diagnostics for coal transport and storage systems aimed at preventing firing and structural damages; and wireless sensor networks for the diagnostics of medium and small size components. 4 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Socio-economic and environmental sustainability estimate of ENEL project for the S. Maria in Brasimone basin area; Valutazione della sostenibilita' socio-economica e ambientale del progetto ENEL per l'area del bacino di S. Maria del Brasimone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L; Beone, F; Carrabba, P [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Lorenzelli, E; Cialani, C

    1999-07-01

    During preparatory activities of National Conference on Energy and Environment (CNEA), which took place in Rome in November 1998, the ENEA Biological Diversity Group and ENEL signed an agreement to lead a socio-economic and environmental sustainability analysis of a tourism valorisation project about an ENEL vacant, marginal, fragile or abandoned site. The activities had also the aim to be an effective contribution to individuation of future guidelines on sustainable tourism which the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will discuss and issue, if possible. This work has the purpose of proposing a territorial dialogue example between many parties, which would start a local development that was sustainable, respecting local traditions. Actions proposed by ENEA are: 1. integration of a project based on environmental valorisation to tourist purpose, adding elements of respect and sustainable use of local biological diversity. 2. Analysis, through a series of medium/long term statistic model, both of the interventions proposed by ENEL and of the possible integrations suggested by ENEA. 3. Collaboration in searching for institutional funds (UE), for the achievement of the demonstrative project on sustainable tourism as regards of local biological diversity. The analysis conducts by ENEA allowed the following conclusions: the cost-benefit analysis, for the period taken into account, highlight as the project could have a positive result only if it is possible to rely on Regional or European funds. The possibility to obtain these types of funds in the fields of tourism is proportional to the consideration given into the project to the environment, to the rural development and the diversification of the income in the rural areas. Moreover, the authors suggests that the ENEL project should be wider, inclusive of more interventions, as i.e. the restoration of old building to turn into agritourism, recreational centres and hotels: the improvement of particular local

  14. ENEL's experience in the management of irradiated fuel. Old and new problems encountered by nuclear station operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Cuzzaniti, M.; Zaffiro, B.; Bertini, A.

    1983-01-01

    The experience acquired in recent years in the management of spent fuel discharged from ENEL's reactors has revealed a substantial change in the attitude of nuclear station operators in connection with the end of the fuel cycle downstream from the reactor (back-end). While in the past, after President Carter's outline of US policy in April 1977, the utilities had to face great difficulty in reprocessing their fuel owing to inadequate capacity, today the same problem is regarded as a matter of cost-benefit analysis from an industrial standpoint and of appropriate planning for the utilization of the recovered fissile materials. Since the present technology allows spent fuel storage (dry or underwater) to be planned for rather long periods and plutonium utilization requires a very stringent schedule, the present trend is to ensure medium-term storage of spent fuel and to seek a greater flexibility in the final reprocessing stages so as to render plutonium availability consistent with the programmes for its utilization. As a consequence, the solution to the problems posed by high-activity waste disposal is being delayed, thus allowing an exhaustive and detailed analysis of all the possible solutions to be made. The paper describes a number of solutions to the problems ENEL has encountered in the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  15. Viimane aeg tegutseda / Victoria Punga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti NATO ühingu juhataja ÜRO resolutsioonist nr.1325 - naise rollist rahu, stabiilsuse ja julgeoleku tagamisel. Eesti on üks esimesi, kes on loomas oma konkreetset tegevuskava naiste olukorra parandamiseks maailma relvakonfliktides

  16. Feasibility study of the vectorization of nuclear codes used at the ENEL Thermal and Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pasquantonio, F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is that of analyzing tha problems connected with the vectorization and/or multitasking of several computer codes utilized in the ENEL-DSR Centro Ricerca Termica e Nucleare. After some general remarks on vector computers the analysis is focused on some topic relating to vectorization and multitasking of programs written for scalar computers. The priority for vectorization and/or multitasking has been given at the following codes: 1) DOT 4.2 (radiation transport and shielding); 2) QUANDRY (accidental and operating transients in LWR cores); 3) MORSE and MCNP (Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport and shielding); 4) RELAP (accidental and operating transients in LWR plants); 5) TRAP-MELT and NAUA (evaluation of source term). The principal results of the study are the following: 1) For the DOT 4.2 code it is convenients to improve the vectorized version DOT IV/C developed by Swanson introducing the parallel S.O.R. iterative method; 2) For the code QUANDRY it is proposed to introduce the three dimensional red-black mesh point ordering named ''diagonal method''; 3) To implements, on the CRAY X/MP 48, the multitasked version of the code MCNP developed by the Los Alamos National Lboratory; 4) To implements, on the CRAY X/MP 12, the vectorized and optimized version of the codes RELAP5/MOD1-MOD2 developed by J.R.C. EUROATOM-Ispra; 5) For the codes TRAP-MELT and NAUA the insertion of the vectorized routines LSODP na LSODPK for dominanting stiff cases

  17. Socio-economic and environmental sustainability estimate of ENEL project for the S. Maria in Brasimone basin area; Valutazione della sostenibilita' socio-economica e ambientale del progetto ENEL per l'area del bacino di S. Maria del Brasimone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L; Beone, F.; Carrabba, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Lorenzelli, E.; Cialani, C.

    1999-07-01

    During preparatory activities of National Conference on Energy and Environment (CNEA), which took place in Rome in November 1998, the ENEA Biological Diversity Group and ENEL signed an agreement to lead a socio-economic and environmental sustainability analysis of a tourism valorisation project about an ENEL vacant, marginal, fragile or abandoned site. The activities had also the aim to be an effective contribution to individuation of future guidelines on sustainable tourism which the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will discuss and issue, if possible. This work has the purpose of proposing a territorial dialogue example between many parties, which would start a local development that was sustainable, respecting local traditions. Actions proposed by ENEA are: 1. integration of a project based on environmental valorisation to tourist purpose, adding elements of respect and sustainable use of local biological diversity. 2. Analysis, through a series of medium/long term statistic model, both of the interventions proposed by ENEL and of the possible integrations suggested by ENEA. 3. Collaboration in searching for institutional funds (UE), for the achievement of the demonstrative project on sustainable tourism as regards of local biological diversity. The analysis conducts by ENEA allowed the following conclusions: the cost-benefit analysis, for the period taken into account, highlight as the project could have a positive result only if it is possible to rely on Regional or European funds. The possibility to obtain these types of funds in the fields of tourism is proportional to the consideration given into the project to the environment, to the rural development and the diversification of the income in the rural areas. Moreover, the authors suggests that the ENEL project should be wider, inclusive of more interventions, as i.e. the restoration of old building to turn into agritourism, recreational centres and hotels: the improvement of particular local

  18. Design and build of fieldbus-based control systems for ENEL thermoelectric plants; Sistemi di controllo con bus di campo. Applicazioni in impianti termoelettrici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, G [Automazione e Robotica, Cesi (Italy); Prandoni, W [Business Unit Processi per la Generazione, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The intention to start first plant-wide control applications based on fieldbus in ENEL (Electric Power Production Company) combined cycle plants demands to define appropriate requirements for design, planning, implementation, technical management and maintenance of control systems. One of the first needs is to express, in the bid specifications for Dc san other plant components, those requirements necessary on one side to guarantee the same levels of performance and reliability of traditional systems, and on the other side to ensure the improvement of the operations of installation and commissioning and of management of normal and abnormal plant behaviour, which are among the main benefits expected from this new technology. The definition of such requirements appears to be complex due to the variety and lack of a homogenous approach of the different market solutions, and also because a real experience of systems of considerable size is still missing. The memory introduces the results and problems met in the requirement specification phase, and the activity of definition of a pilot control system for demineralized water production of Fusina power plant. [Italian] In vista delle prime applicazioni negli impianti ENEL a ciclo combinato della tecnologia a bus di campo si presenta la necessita' di esprimere, nelle specifiche di acquisizione del Dcs e dei componenti, i requisiti necessari da un lato a garantire i medesimi livelli di prestazione e sicurezza dei sistemi tradizionali, dall'altro ad assicurare il miglioramento delle operazioni di installazione e delle strategie di conduzione e manutenzione dell'impianto, che sono come i ritorni piu' promettenti di questa nuova tecnologia. L'articolo presenta le principali problematiche emerse e l'attivita' di definizione di un'esperienza pilota su un impianto in esercizio nella centrale termoelettrica di Fusina.

  19. Design and build of fieldbus-based control systems for ENEL thermoelectric plants; Sistemi di controllo con bus di campo. Applicazioni in impianti termoelettrici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, G. [Automazione e Robotica, Cesi (Italy); Prandoni, W. [Business Unit Processi per la Generazione, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The intention to start first plant-wide control applications based on fieldbus in ENEL (Electric Power Production Company) combined cycle plants demands to define appropriate requirements for design, planning, implementation, technical management and maintenance of control systems. One of the first needs is to express, in the bid specifications for Dc san other plant components, those requirements necessary on one side to guarantee the same levels of performance and reliability of traditional systems, and on the other side to ensure the improvement of the operations of installation and commissioning and of management of normal and abnormal plant behaviour, which are among the main benefits expected from this new technology. The definition of such requirements appears to be complex due to the variety and lack of a homogenous approach of the different market solutions, and also because a real experience of systems of considerable size is still missing. The memory introduces the results and problems met in the requirement specification phase, and the activity of definition of a pilot control system for demineralized water production of Fusina power plant. [Italian] In vista delle prime applicazioni negli impianti ENEL a ciclo combinato della tecnologia a bus di campo si presenta la necessita' di esprimere, nelle specifiche di acquisizione del Dcs e dei componenti, i requisiti necessari da un lato a garantire i medesimi livelli di prestazione e sicurezza dei sistemi tradizionali, dall'altro ad assicurare il miglioramento delle operazioni di installazione e delle strategie di conduzione e manutenzione dell'impianto, che sono come i ritorni piu' promettenti di questa nuova tecnologia. L'articolo presenta le principali problematiche emerse e l'attivita' di definizione di un'esperienza pilota su un impianto in esercizio nella centrale termoelettrica di Fusina.

  20. A demographic outline / Kalev Katus, Allan Puur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katus, Kalev, 1955-2008

    2002-01-01

    Ajalooline ülevaade Eesti elanikkonna kujunemisest ning Eestit läbinud migratsioonivoogudest Nõukogude okupatsiooni perioodil, mis on suuresti mõjutanud Eesti tänast demograafilist olukorda. Tabel ja diagrammid: Eestlaste ja välismaalaste arv Eestis 1922-2000; Välismaalaste osakaal Eestis päritolumaa järgi; Rahvusvahelised migratsioonivood Eestis 1946-1999; Välismaalaste osakaal valitud Euroopa riikides. Kaart.

  1. Soolopartiid Von Krahli katuse all / Kristi Eberhart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eberhart, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatri kolmest lavastusest: "Erki ja Tiina" (lavastaja Mart Kangro, tantsivad Erki Laur ja Tiina Tauraite), "Faust" (J. W. Goethe ainetel tekst ja lavastus Taavi Eelmaa, muusika ja laulud Chalice, osades Jarek Kasar ja Rein Pakk), "Hamletid" (William Shakespeare'i ainetel kontseptsiooni, lavastuse, koreograafia, kujunduse, valguse autor Sasha Pepeljajev, video- ja helikunstnik Taavet Jansen. Esitaja Juhan Ulfsak)

  2. ETV katuse all keedeti salaseepi / Tiina Jõgeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgeda, Tiina, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusringhäälingu (ERR) tootmisteenistuse juhataja Janno-Hans Arro, kes seoses pettustega vallandati augustis ERR-ist, valmistas mitu aastat ette suurejoonelist kodumaist teleseriaali. Seriaali filmiti sel suvel Madeiral. Põhjendustest, miks ETV seda ära osta ei taha

  3. Kaks kodu ühe katuse all / Ado Eigi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eigi, Ado, 1938-2008

    1998-01-01

    Arhitekt Maire Annuse projekteeritud, 1997. a. valminud kahekorruseline kellerdatud kaksikelamu, mille keskel on kaht poolt siduva lülina avatud trepihallid. Kummagi elamupoole keskele on projekteeritud kolme korrust läbiv santehniliste ruumide blokk. Avarast kaminaga elutoast avaneb pääs terrassile ja aeda. Keldrikorrusel on puhkeruum, saun, väike bassein. Teisel korrusel on tütarde ja vanemate toad. Tütarde tubade kardinate autor - Kati Sihver

  4. Mida teha järjepideva rahvastikuarengu nimel / Kalev Katus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katus, Kalev, 1955-2008

    2007-01-01

    Rahvastikuteadlane annab ülevaate Eesti rahvastiku sündimustasemest kui rahvastikuprotsesse enim mõjutanud tegurist, analüüsib erinevate meetmete, sh rahakesksete meetmete mõju sündimusele ja pakub välja abinõud, mis aitavad tõsta sündimuse taastetasemele. Lisatud diagramm ja graafikud

  5. NATO pärast Riia-tippkohtumist / Victoria Punga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO ühingu 3. veebruaril toimunud üldkogul olid arutluse all kolm suuremat teemaderingi: NATO tegevus ja operatsioonid Afganistanis, alliansi edasine laienemine ning Riias peetud tippkohtumise poliitiline sõnum

  6. Life-Environment : HASCO-projekt / Toom Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Toom

    2002-01-01

    Sonda vallavalitsuse initsiatiivil on alustatud EU Life-Environment HASCO-projekti, mille raames töödeldakse 50 000 tonni puukoksi, 50 000 m3 turvast ja 50 000 m3 läga mullaparandusaineks Viru Ramm

  7. Rahvastikuteadus ja Eesti rahvastikuarengu pöördepunktid / Kalev Katus, Allan Puur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katus, Kalev, 1955-2008

    2006-01-01

    Järg nr. 3 lk. 491-522. Bibl. lk. 511-521. Rahvastikuteaduse tekke- ja arenguloost, rahvastikuarengu kui iseseisva sotsiaalsüsteemi seaduspärasustest ning demograafilisest üleminekust rahvastikutaaste arenguetapina. Tabelid

  8. Kolm põlvkonda ühe katuse all / Jana Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Jana, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Käsitööõpetaja Eva ja ärimees Peeter Pree avatud planeeringuga kodu Vastse-Kuustes. Sisekujunduse autor Eva Pree. Terrasiga eramu fassaadi kaunistab vapp, magamistuba on rõduga, toad on sisustatud klassikalise mööbliga, viimistluses on kasutatud pastelseid toone. Erinevatel tasapindadel aias on kiviktaimla. 10 ill

  9. Evaluation of the problems associated with ENEL's irradiated fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, L.; Belelli, U.

    1978-01-01

    The present difficulties in the reprocessing field, wich will continue for a period of time not easily definable, impose on the nuclear utilities the research of adequate solutions to solve the problem associated with storage of the fuels discharged by the nuclear power stations in operation. In this context, the paper examines the technical aspects of the various possible alternatives and on the basis of the Italian nuclear program, possible storage strategies are discussed in the assumption of the development of an adequate oxide-fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems related to storage in pools at the station or away from reactor are described in the light of the recent experience made in Italy with the adaptation of an old pool reactor out of service, that is, the Avogadro reactor in Saluggia, to store the fuels of the stations now in operation. Finally some economic aspects are considered in order to ascertain their impact on the cost of energy produced. (author)

  10. Magistritööd : [Piret Jamnes jt.] / Maia Kööts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kööts, Maia

    2001-01-01

    20.12.2000 kaitses TPÜ organisatsioonikäitumise magistritööde kaitsmisnõukogu koosolekul Piret Jamnes magistritöö "Trends in Estonian career Counselling in the Light of Societal Transformation and Constructive Framework"; 21.12 TPÜ kasvatusteaduste ja pedagoogika magistritööde kaitsmisnõukogu koosolekul Olesja Šigajeva "Mõningate psühholoogiliste aspektide kasutamine innovatsiooniliste tehnoloogiate õpetamisel"; Sirje Priks "Kutsekooliõpilaste sotsiaalse valmiduse arendamise võimalusi eesti keele ja kirjanduse tundide kaudu". 9.01.2001 TPÜ demograafia magistritööde kaitsmisnõukogu koosolekul Enel Pungas "Siserändevoogude vanuskäsitlus : Eesti Pere- ja sündimusuuringu andmetel". 11.01 TPÜ sotsioloogia magistritööde kaitsmisnõukogu koosolekul Virve-Ines Laidmäe "Muutused eestimaalaste tervisehinnangutes ja -käitumises 1990. aastatel"

  11. Sibeliuse Akadeemia, Helsingi Linnaorkester ja Raadio Sümfooniorkester saavad ühe katuse alla / Reet Marttila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marttila, Reet

    2004-01-01

    16. XI otsustati, et Helsingi Musiikkitalo ehitamine käivitub aastal 2005 ja lõpeb hiljemalt 2010. 2000. a. toimunud arhitektuurikonkursi võitsid Turu arhitektid Marko Kivistö, Ola Laiho ja Mikko Pulkkinen (LPR-arkkitehdit OY). Akustik Yasuhisa Toyota

  12. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  13. Risk assessment as part of internal auditing in the government institutions of the Estonian Republic / Krisi Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Krisi

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade sisekontrolli mõistest, eesmärkidest ja teostamisest Eesti Vabariigi valitsusasutustes. Sisekontrolli ülesandeks on välja selgitada kõige efektiivsem tee võimalike riskide juhtimiseks ühes organisatsioonis või tegevusvaldkonnas. Skeem

  14. Intervjuu Vene Föderatsiooni loode ringkonna ülema kindral-leitnant Nikolai Kozikuga / Nikolai Kozik ; interv. Kaisa Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozik, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Kindral-leitnant Nikolai Kozik vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad koostööd Eesti Piirivalve ja Vene Föderatsiooni Piirivalve loode ringkonna vahel, Venemaa piirivalve õppimisvõimalustest Eesti Piirivalvelt ning Vene Föderatsiooni Piirivalve töö muutustustest pärast Eesti ühinemist Schengeni viisaruumiga

  15. Effects of Castration, Level ofFeed~"and Body Weight on Enel'gY' i,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    II1creaw in' the rates' of e~ergv ~e~ditufe With, increased lean, tissue growth fXJtential mtiy be attYibured to mcrea\\'e(:l ...... trend could be that. testosterone, which IS known' . ff .. ·.. ..., 'i- ,'. ... degradatIOn leads 1'0 111creased muscle mass via.

  16. Chance for young nuclear professionals in Slovenske Elektrarne, member of Enel Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatnansky, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Main areas and opportunities for young nuclear professionals: → Further increase of safety of NPPs in operation and → Construction of two new NPP units; → Safety and efficiency of NPP decommissioning and radwaste treatment; → CENTA and R&D; → Prototype of gas cooled fast-breader reactor - ALLEGRO. Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is one of the Generation IV reactor concepts and represents one of the three European candidate for fast reactor types. Conclusions: • Human resources are key assets for nuclear organization; • Knowledge of nuclear technology be managed as a resource; • Support of young nuclear professionals is our commitment

  17. Kuhu on Tiiger tänaseks jõudnud? / Enel Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Enel

    2003-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate Tiigrihüppe programmi raames saavutatust alates 1997. aastast ja edasist arengut takistavatest teguritest, mille tõttu Tiigrihüppe Pluss programm on hakanud venima. Diagrammid: õpilaste ja arvuti suhe maakonniti 2003. a. alguses; internetiühendused Eesti koolides 2003. a. alguses; arvutite paiknemine koolis 2002. a. lõpus

  18. Mets ja marutaud / Merje Ottson ; kommenteerinud Kalev Männiste, Kaja Kübar, Enel Niin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ottson, Merje

    2011-01-01

    Marutõvest ja marutaudist. Rebaste ja kährikute marutaudi vastase vaktsineerimise mõjust loomade arvukuse kasvutegurina ning nende põhjustatud ohust lindude, peamiselt metsislaste, ja näriliste arvukusele ning jahimeeste osast rebaste ja kährikute arvukuse piirajana.

  19. Käime katuseid mööda / Aale-Triinu Sonn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sonn, Aale-Triinu

    2005-01-01

    Katuse kattematerjalidest. Vaatluse all kõrtest kate (roo- ja õlgkatus), puidust katus (laud-, laast-, pilbas-, sindel, kimm- ja tohtkatus), õitsev murukatkatus (mätas- ja muru- ehk kerghuumuskatus), kivikatus (keraamilised ja betoonkatusekivid, eterniit), teraskatus (valtsplekk, profiilplekk), bituumenkatus

  20. Horrorismo y biopolítica de la ablación. Racializaciones de lo indio enel conflicto armado colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castañeda V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora las implicaciones biopolíticas de las intervenciones humanitarias de los organismos de Naciones Unidas sobre las mujeres indígenas «acusadas» de practicar la «ablación». Mediante el estudio de los documentos producidos por el Fondo de Poblaciones de las Naciones Unidades y, someramente, algunas producciones de los medios de comunicación se discute cómo la construcción de la vulnerabilidad de las niñas indígenas, la asignación de marcas de corporales y morales a las mujeres madres produce re-racializaciones. El trabajo concluye cómo las lecturas desde el horrorismo a ciertas prácticas adjudicadas a grupos determinados visibilizan el despliegue de dispositivos biopolíticos de selección de poblaciones en medio del conflicto armado.

  1. Õhulised ruumid ja vasekuma / Suvi Ruotsi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruotsi, Suvi

    2008-01-01

    Soomes Reposaarel asuva vaskse katuse ja detailidega puitvilla Luvata (arhitekt Martin Wolff) sisekujundusest. Sisustuse kavandas soome sisearhitekt Helena Karihtala, tema kommentaarid. Plaan, 9 värv. vaadet

  2. Model for the probability of core uncovery in loss of offsite power induced accidents, as applied in the Probabilistic Safety Study for ENEL PWR standard power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, E.; Serra, S.; Paddleford, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses one particular aspect of the Probabilistic Safety Study conducted for the Italian reference PWR or Progetto Unificato Nucleare (PUN) design. The event scenario addressed involves the loss of offsite power (LOOSP) initiating event in conjunction with an independent loss of certain support systems (to the exclusion of the total independent loss of on-site power which is treated similarly in a separate event tree). An event tree is developed to address the potential for a consequential small LOCA due to reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failure under conditions of inadequate seal cooling and the subsequent potential for core uncovery should emergency systems be unavailable and not recovered in adequate time. The event scenario and the quantification methodology used are described. Results and sensitivities are presented

  3. Condición somática de la almeja Polymesoda solida (Veneroidea: Corbiculidae durante el periodo lluvioso, enel Parque Natural Isla de Salamanca, Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia De La Hoz Aristizábal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la condición somática de la almeja Polymesoda solida en tres lagunas del Parque Isla de Salamanca (abril a noviembre de 2004, durante el periodo lluvioso. En 60 individuos por laguna, se analizaron mensualmente índices de condición, rendimiento, relación talla-peso y madurez gonadal en fresco. También se midió salinidad, temperatura, pH, oxígeno disuelto, transparencia y profundidad del agua. Los mayores índices de condición coincidieron con descensos en el nivel del río Magdalena, especialmente en Poza Verde y El Torno. Estos índices fueron más altos en tallas entre 27mm y 33mm, donde también se ubicó la talla media de madurez sexual. En Poza Verde, laguna con mayor influencia del río, se presentaron los mayores índices de condición, rendimiento, peso húmedo y frecuencia de madurez, revelando una mejor condición de los organismos. El índice de condición (peso cuerpo/ peso concha presentó mayor coeficiente de regresión múltiple con la salinidad, pH y transparencia, sugiriendo la importancia del régimen hidrológico en su regulación. Las diferencias espaciales en las variables evaluadas, resaltan la necesidad de tener en cuenta la heterogeneidad de este tipo de estuarios para la conservación y manejo adecuado de la pesquería de P. solida.Somatic condition of the clam Polymesoda solida (Veneroidea: Corbiculidae in the rainy season of the Salamanca Island Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean. The estuarine clam Polymesoda solida is the main fishery resource in the Salamanca Island Natural Park. I sampled the clam in three interconnected lagoons (Poza Verde, El Torno and Atascosa during the rainy period (April to November 2004. Sixty individuals were monthly collected by hand on each lagoon; 30 to analyze two condition indexes (relationship between body and shell weight and between soft dry and wet weight, yield (meat percentage and length-weight relationships. Maturity of female gonad smears was assessed on the remaining individuals. Measures of salinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, transparency and depth, were also taken at the collection places. Increases of the condition indexes occurred when the Magdalena River showed some decreases in its level, especially at Poza Verde and El Torno. The condition indexes were higher at 27-33mm, (range where maturity size was reached. Clams from Poza Verde, the lagoon nearest to the Magdalena River, had the highest values in condition indexes, yield, fresh weight and maturity frequency. Yield was directly correlated to the condition indexes and sexual maturity. The condition index (body weight/shell weight showed a highest multiple regression coefficient with salinity, pH and transparency (R²=74%, indicating the relevance of the hydrological regime in the regulation of the condition of the organisms. P. solida seems to be more adapted to the lowest salinities of the system (0.0-0.4, corresponding to Poza Verde, where the influence of the Magdalena river is more direct and steady. Additionally, differences found between sites in the assessed variables, emphasize the importance of considering spatial heterogeneity of this kind of lagoon estuaries, and should be taken into account for future fisheries management in the rainy period and conservation of P. solida populations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 131-145. Epub 2010 March 01.

  4. Keskkonnasõbralik väikeaed / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Aiakujundaja Stephen Firthi rajatud ökoloogiline aed "After the Lawn" 2004. a. Chelsea aiandusnäitusel. Aiamajake on ehitatud vanadest palkidest ja põrandalaudadest, katus on kaetud kanarbikuga. Istumiskoht on sillutatud kasutatud kiviplaatidega. 4 ill

  5. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  6. Teenuse ait-kuivati vajab kiiret tegutsemist / Maire Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Maire, 1961-

    2009-01-01

    Märjamaa vallale kuuluva arhitektuurimälestsena kaitse all oleva Teenuse mõisa ait-kuivati renoveerimise seisust. Hoone sai uued katuse aluskonstruktsioonid, kuid on katuseta. Taastamine on takerdunud seoses projektide rahastamisega

  7. Hoone nagu üllatusmuna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    2009. a. jaanuaris Tallinnas Vene t. 22 taasavatud Vanalinna Hariduskolleegiumi gümnaasiumi koolimajast. Remonditi ja restaureeriti kõik siseruumid, fassaad, katus ja siseõu. Projekteerija: Amhold AS. Restaureerimisprojekti arhitektuurse osa autor Marie Hammer, sisearhitekt Tiiu Lõhmus

  8. Mütsiga lüües : kuidas väärikalt vananeda? / Imbi Jeletsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jeletsky, Imbi

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Kesknädal 21. nov., lk. 12. ETV saates "Vabariigi kodanikud" arutleti vananemise teemal. Stuudios olid kirjanik Maimu Berg, rahvastikuteadlane Kalev Katus ja kunstnik Heinz Valk, saatejuht oli Aarne Rannamäe

  9. Discurso de aceptación del Premio de Derecho Sanitario 2014, à la Trayectoria enel Marco del Derecho a la Salud, concedido al Dr GERMÁN E. FAJARDO DOLCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN E. FAJARDO DOLCI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Debo empezar diciendo, gracias, muchas gracias a la Red Iberoamericana de Derecho Sanitario, en particular al Consejo Directivo: Karen Vargas, María Celia Delduque, María Cristina Cortesi, Paula Lobato de Farias y mi apreciado amigo Joaquín Cayón de las Cuevas por considerar que un servidor pudiera ser candidato y recipiendario de este importante reconocimiento iberoamericano de Derecho Sanitario.

  10. Quality control for the equipment of Nuclear medicine: experience of the H.U. de la Princesa; Control de calidad del equipamiento en Medicina Nuclear. Experiencia enel H.U. de la Princesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, M.L.; Gracia, A.; Prieto, C.; Lopez F, P. [Servicio de ProteccionRadiologica. Hospital Universitario de la Princesa C/ Diego de Leon 62, 28006Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The quality control of the equipment used in a nuclear medicine service is a fundamental aspect in the Quality Assurance Program that in the present time is starting in our hospital. the objective of this work is to present the internal protocol used, its problematic associated with its starting, and the results obtained in the quality control as of the gamma camera as of the activimeter. In addition to the equipment own to the nuclear medicine service it has been used a Cs-137 source and puppets for several purposes. The results obtained demonstrated the stability of the controlled parameters which has led us to a restating of the established periodicities in our internal protocol, over all for some constancy tests. (Author)

  11. Identidad ética y redes sociales: El debate identitario en las comunidades afrodescendientes de Orkut enel contexto del censo demográfico brasileño de 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Santos, Elza Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Las relaciones raciales en Brasil y las redes sociales constituyen un ámbito de estudio poco explorado en tanto en las universidades brasileñas como en las españolas. Nos resulta relevante desarrollar líneas de investigación que permitan una aproximación científica a estos fenómenos sociales, donde se manifiestan la representación, la mediación comunicativa, la identidad, la negritud y las nuevas tecnologías. Límites de la investigación La investigación tiene como marco temporal los años 2009...

  12. Doktoritöödes näeb eestiainelisust / Lembitu Reio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reio, Lembitu, 1924-

    2004-01-01

    Uppsala Ülikoolis ja Karolinska Instituudis kaitsesid oma doktoritöid: Ann Grubbström, Sigrid Hedin, Salme Timmusk, Anton Terasmaa, Tanel Punga, Mari Kadi. Tanel Käämbrele määras Rootsi Kuninglik Teadusselts 2003. aasta füüsikaauhinna

  13. 3. V avati Tartu Kunstimajas näitus "Rabnitztaler malerwochen"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Austria kunstniku Harro Pirchi korraldatavatest kunstinädalatest Rabnitztalis. Näitusel eksponeeritakse laagrites osalenud austria, saksa, hollandi (loetletud) ja eesti kunstnike (Jüri Kask, Mari Kurismaa, Rein Maantoa, Anne Parmasto, Jaan Punga, Valeri Vinogradov) töid

  14. Kirik aastaks 2000 / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Katoliku kirik tahab aasta 2000 kirikuga tähistada kolmanda kristliku aastatuhande algamist. Rooma äärelinna Tor Tre Testesse planeeritava kiriku konkursi võitis R. Meier. Lihtsa ristkülikulise saaliga kiriku dominandiks on kolm üksteise taga asuvat kaarduvat seina (kolmainsus!), mille klaasitud 'õhuvahed' toimivad valgusallikaina, klaasist on ka katus.

  15. Toorpuidust kodu Dorsetis Inglismaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kuivatamata puit on majaehituses taasavastatud materjal. Arhitektuuri- ja ehitusüliõpilaste puhkuseajaks mõeldud Westminster Lodge'i Hooke Park'is projekteerisid Ted Cullinan, John Romer, Sasha Bhavan. Metsanõlvakul platvormil asuva 8-toalise kuivatamata puidust hoone kaarduv katus on kaetud muruvaibaga, maja sulandub metsa

  16. Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus on Pärnu suurim äri- ja konverentsiklientidele suunatud hotell, mis klientide seas on hinnatud just selle kompleksuse tõttu, kuna kõik, mida külaline vajab ja soovib, on olemas ühe katuse all

  17. Etnomodernne palkmaja = Etno Modern Log House

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eramu (153 m2) katus on ülestõstetud äärtega ja keskele kaldu. Fassaadiaknad on kitsad, roostemetallist uks on klaasseinas. Arhitektid: Tauno Aadma, Laur Pihel. Projektbüroo: Eensalu & Pihel. Sisearhitekt Aet Piel. Valmis: 2007. 2 plaani, 3 värv. välisvaadet, sisevaade

  18. Kõige eest siin elus tuleb maksta / Piret Hartman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartman, Piret

    2006-01-01

    ERL-i fraktsiooni nõunik käsitleb rahvastikuteadlase Kalev Katuse loengut Eesti rahvastikuarengust Euroopa kontekstis. Rahvastiku juurdekasv tuleb seada kõigis valdkondades esmatähtsaks, vaja on terviklikku toetussüsteemi kuni lapse täiskasvanuks saamiseni

  19. Rootsi-Mihkli kirikus on jälle jõulud / Tiina Kanarbik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kanarbik, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    1992. a. tagastatud Rootsi-Mihkli kogudus maja sai 2002. a. kevadeks uue katuse ja välisviimistluse, kirikusaal ning osa koguduseruume olid restaureeritud ja renoveeritud. Kiriku varadest. Altari valmistas 1703. a. puunikerdaja Joachim Armbrust, kantsli 1707. a. Christian Ackermann. Pimedate kaitsepühakust Luciast. Kommentaarid kirikuõpetaja Patrik Göranssonilt

  20. Completion of the privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    In Bratislava on April 28, 2006 the privatisation of 66 % share of the Slovenske Elektrarne, a. s. (SE) has definitively finished. The Slovak Republic with the Italian company ENEL assigned ultimate documents and the ENEL definitively entered into the SE. Italian investor paid for the SE 839 millions EUR, what is about 31.35 billions Slovak crowns. (author)

  1. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizioli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  2. Figuur teeb võidukäiku / Krista Piirimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirimäe, Krista, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu kunstnike aastalõpunäitus Tartu Kunstimajas kuni 22. I. Näituse on kujundanud Maris Palgi ja Rauno Moss. Jaan Punga, Sven Saagi, Albert Gulki, Markus Kasemaa, Saskia Kasemaa, Rauno Mossi, Meiu Mündi, Külli Kalde, Anne Vasara, Piret Mihkelseni, Priit Pajose, Harri Puderselli, Imat Suumanni, Eda Lõhmuse, Sütevaka Andrese, Tiit Tamme, Helle Vahersalu, Malev Toome, Jass Kaselaane, Jaan Luige, Tõnis Paberiti ja Ahti Seppeti töödest

  3. Eestis on üle tuhande lõvi : [Lions-liikumisest] / Vello Talviste, Olev Saluveer, Jaan Palumets...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Lions-liikumisega on ühinenud ka koolidirektorid. Küsimustele - mis ajendas neid seda tegema, mida lõvid ette võtavad ning kui aktuaalne on heategevuse temaatika koolis, vastavad Paide Gümnaasiumi direktor Vello Talviste, Ülenurme Gümnaasiumi direktor Olev Saluveer, Saue Gümnaasiumi direktor Jaan Palumets, Tõrva Gümnaasiumi direktor Ivar Hanvere ja Tabivere Gümnaasiumi direktor Toivo Punga

  4. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  5. Introducing Zenith project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupejova, E.

    2008-01-01

    Zenith ia a international program of continuous improvement, aimed at reaching high work performance in all ENEL activities and in all countries where ENEL is present Zenith covers various projects aimed at cost reduction, processes simplification and performance improvement that have been already initiated in the past (DTC, TTC, QUASAR...) The program includes 5 pillars to reach perfection: - reaching for operational proficiency by underlining the leading role of ENEL and continuous searching possibilities how to improve processes and activities; - to learn methods of continuous the others; - to learn and apply the methods of improvement; - continuously apply the methods of improvement; - continuously monitor and publish the results and implementation of ZENITH standard. (author)

  6. Vaskvilla seinasuuruste akendega / Jana Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Jana, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Ehitusettevõtja Indrek Klampe perekonna ebasümmeetriline väljavenitatud viilkatusega villa Võrus. Hoone katus läheb sujuvalt üle seinteks. Arhitekt Karmo Tõra. Sisearhitekt Hillar Mänd. Mööbel tehti eritellimusel firmas Mipla, pehme mööbel firmas Mang. I ja II korruse plaan, 5 värv. välis- ja 7 sisevaadet

  7. Lider fallen zu wie die Tore der Burg : [luuletused kogust "Simunapäev"] / Kristiina Ehin ; aus dem Estnischen von Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehin, Kristiina, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: die nachricht von der sanktgeorgsnacht = Jüriöö sõnum ; sie standen unter einem schiefen dach = nad seisid viltuse katuse all ; "der soldat steht auf dem hof ..." = "püssimees seisab õues..." ; "der mond heult..." = "kuu ulub..." ; der frauenräuber = naisteröövija ; "ich schlafe als schlamm im wald..." = "magan mudana metsas..." ; "ruhig erhebt sich der weihrauchdunst..." = "vaikselt tõuseb taevasse..."

  8. Palkmaja - moodsalt minimalistlik / Jana Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Jana, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Firma United Logs palkmaja seeriast P.A.L.Kdisain Neeme külas Harjumaal. Arhitektid Laur Pihel ja Tauno Aedma. Sisearhitekt Aet Piel. Maritsa Luki tekstiilid on inspireeritud Ruhnu mustritest. Katus on ülespoole käänatud servadega. Välisuks ja trepi metallist osad on roostetanud terasest. Firma United Logs omaniku Jens Rajaste kommentaar. Põhiplaan, 4 värv. välis- ja 6 sisevaadet.

  9. Uuenenud otsustuskogu : senat / Hille Erik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erik, Hille

    2005-01-01

    12. septembril kogunes esimest korda TLÜ kollegiaalne otsustuskogu - senat: M. Heidmets, H. Mattisen, P. Normak, M. Lepik, M. Talsi, S. Liiv, P. Reiska, K. Port, E. Rüütel, A. Kivinukk, A. Pulver, R. Raud, E. Eisenschmidt, K. Karron, H. Šein, P. Raudkivi, A. Kollist, K. Katus, K. Loogma, R. Vetik, J.-M. Punning, M. Ehala, P. Tammela, T. Tõnise, L. Läänemets, L. Saareväli, A. King

  10. Status of nuclear energy in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work author presents the status of nuclear energy in Slovakia. There are the electricity production; NPP operating results in 2007; ENEL-SE vision, mission and strategy, Continuous improvement programs as well as public acceptance of nuclear presented.

  11. LS1: electrical engineering upgrades and consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, F.

    2012-01-01

    3 different types of activities are planned by the Engineering Department Electrical Engineering (EN-EL) Group for the first long shut down (LS1). First, the consolidation of EN-EL's ageing infrastructure elements. It is part of a 15- year programme aiming at increasing the reliability and availability of the power distribution network. Secondly, the maintenance of the accelerators infrastructure. In addition to the usual periodic operations and those delayed until LS1, the group will address more demanding activities like the replacement campaigns for irradiated cables and non-radiation resistant fibres as well as the removal of unused cables in particularly overcrowded areas. Thirdly, a vast amount of user copper and optical fibre cabling requests: EN-EL estimates that only 50% of LS1 requests are currently known. The main activities will be EN-EL's contributions to the R2E project, BE-BI upgrade projects, and the RF upgrade project in SPS BA3

  12. Unmanned operation of Hydro Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2008-01-01

    Intentions to launch unmanned operation are no news, the very first occurred in Hydro Power Plants (HPP) at the time when the first computer technology was implemented into process of power generation, i.e. no later than in 1960 s . ENEL entering Slovenske elektrarne not only revived but significantly accelerated the implementation process of unmanned operation. Experience of ENEL says that unmanned operation means better reliability of the HPP and this is the priority. (author)

  13. Steam coal markets forum - the buyers` outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graybeal, W.R.; Costa, D.; Iyer, S.; Perego, G. [Apex Resources Group (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The session contains four presentations: a talk on the uncertain future of coal, by Bill Graybeal of Apex Resources Group; a talk on coal procurement at the Sines power plant in Portugal, by Duarte Costa of CPPE-EDP group, Portugal; a presentation by Suresh Iyer of NEPCO on coal at the New England Power Company; and a paper by Giovanni Perego of ENEL Spa, Italy on coal imports and coal use by ENEL.

  14. Economies of scale versus economies of density in the electricity distribution. A quantitative analysis; Economie di scala versus economie di densita' nella distribuzione elettrica. Un'analisi quantitativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the costs of the electricity distribution in Italy. The case examined (Enel's distribution activity) is particularly interesting. In fact the specific organization of Enel allows to separate the effects of firm scale from the influence of the customers territorial concentration (territorial density). On this subject, the results of the econometric analysis shows that density economics are more important than scale economics. [Italian] L'obiettivo di questo articolo e' analizzare i costi nell'attivita' di distribuzione elettrica in Italia. Il caso esaminato, la distribuzione dell'Enel, e' a questo proposito particolarmente interessante, grazie alla specifica organizzazione dell'Enel che prevede la presenza di centri di gestione gerarchicamente separati. E' stato cosi' possibile distinguere nettamente fra effetti dovuti alla scala produttiva ed effetti connessi alla concentrazione territoriale dell'utenza (effetti di densita'). Il modello econometrico costruito sui dati dell'Enel ha, al riguardo, permesso di verificare che le economie di densita' sono piu' importanti di quelle di scala.

  15. Biomass Carbon Content in Schima- Castanopsis Forest of Midhills of Nepal: A Case Study from Jaisikuna Community Forest, Kaski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Tripathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Community forests of Nepal’s midhills have high potentiality to sequester carbon. This paper tries to analyze the biomass carbon stock in Schima-Castanopsis forest of Jaisikuna community forests of Kaski district, Nepal. Forest area was divided into two blocks and 18 sample plots (9 in each block which were laid randomly. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH and height of trees (DBH≥5cm were measured using the DBH tape and clinometer. Leaf litter, herbs, grasses and seedlings were collected from 1*1m2 plot and fresh weight was taken. For calculating carbon biomass is multiplied by default value 0.47. The AGTB carbon content of Chilaune, Katus and other species were found 19.56 t/ha, 18.66 t/ha and 3.59 t/ha respectively. The AGTB of Chilaune dominated, Katus dominated and whole forest was found 43.78 t/ha, 39.83 t/ha and 41.81 t/ha respectively. Carbon content at leaf litter, herbs, grasses and seedlings was found 2.73 t/ha. Below ground biomass carbon at whole forest was found 6.27 t/ha. Total biomass and carbon of the forest was found 108.09 t/ha and 50.80 t/ha respectively. Difference in biomass and carbon content at Chilaune dominated block and Katus dominated block was found insignificant. This study record very low biomass carbon content than average of Nepal's forest but this variation in carbon stock is not necessarily due to dominant species present in the forest. Carbon estimation at forest of different elevation, aspect and location are recommended for further research. International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 72-84

  16. Suudab ta pensionäre toita? / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2000-01-01

    Kuna Eesti rahvastiku vananemine suurendab ülalpeetavate hulka ühiskonnas, siis ei saa praegust solidaarsuspõhimõttel rajanevat pensionisüsteemi enam kasutada, vaid tuleb pensionisüsteemi muuta. Pensionisüsteemi koormusest ja kohustuslikust kogumispensionist. Diagrammid: Eesti rahvaarv 1999-2050; rahvastikupüramiid 1997, 2025 ja 2050; kaua saavad/said mehed ja naised pensionipõlve nautida 1960-2010; vajaliku sotsiaalmaksu % palgast 2000-2070; keskmise pensioni ja brutopalga suhe 1965-2000; vanurite osatähtsus 1881-2030; keskmine eluiga 1950-2050. Kommenteerivad E. Nestor, K. Katus, L. Sakkeus

  17. Rahvusvaheliselt tõsiseltvõetav partner / Leif Kalev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalev, Leif, 1976-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu osalusest Euroopa üliõpilaskondade liitude katusühenduse (ESIB-The National Unions of Students in Europe) kui majandusliku ISIC-kaardi väljaandjate keskühenduse (ISTC-International Student Travel Association) töös. ESIB-i poolaastakoosolekul Genfis oktoobri lõpul võeti vastu avaldused Eesti, Austria ja Suurbritannia üliõpilaskondade liitude toetuseks tegevuses õppemaksude vastu. Septembri lõpul toimus Düsseldorfis rahvusvaheline noorte ja tudengite iga-aastane turismikonverents

  18. Estnisk poesi võgar ta plats / Michel Ekman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ekman, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Rooste, Jürgen. Presidenten bor nõnstans i närheten / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; fs. 2007 / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Kruusa, Kalju. Mötesvis / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Estniska ballader / översättning: Ilmar Laaban. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Laaban, Ilmar. Palingarderomb. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Under, Marie. Gnistor i askan / översättning: Enel Melberg. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Wuolijoki, Hella. Sõngen om kriget / översättning: Enel Melberg. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Alver, Betti. Historien om den vita krõkan / översättning: Enel Melberg. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Kareva, Doris. Tidens gestalt / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007

  19. The legal position of the operator and the constructor as regards construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartorelli, Claudio

    1976-01-01

    Implementation of the Italian nuclear power programme requires that ENEL (the Italian State Electricity Agency) should solve a series of problems which are not only political, technical and financial, but also legal. The latter include the different positions held by constructors and operators in the nuclear law field. Although the operator must necessarily entrust construction work by contract to specialized agencies, the constructor as a person proper is completely ignored by the legislation in force, while the operator, as the holder of the construction licence is responsible with regard to all the provisions concerning controls, tests, inspections, etc. In recent years ENEL has frequently concluded ''turnkey'' contracts, but in future, given the desirability of diversifying the orders, ENEL may adopt a different policy, and negotiate different contracts with the suppliers of various components. (N.E.A.)

  20. Comparing PD results with visual inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, A.; Stone, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    ENEL is the main generation utility in Italy, with more than 200 hydro units and 120 turbine generators, totaling 39,000 MW of capacity. To help identify the maintenance needs of the stator windings in these units, ENEL has been gradually equipping the generators with partial discharge (PD) sensors that facilitate an on-line measurement of the PD. The paper describes results from several machines that have PD. In all cases, the high PD was confirmed by visual inspections. Although PD usually found the units with severe insulation problems, it was not always possible to determine the causes of the deterioration from the PD pattern. (author)

  1. Evolution of Titan's Lakes and Seas: Insights from Recent Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, C.; Seignovert, B.; Lawrence, K.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Hayes, A.; Le Mouelic, S.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's North Pole has been illuminated since the spring equinox in August 2009, allowing optical remote sensing instruments to acquire images of the lakes and seas that were discovered by the radar instrument earlier in the Cassini mission [1]. The illumination geometry continually improves with the incidence angle decreasing to its minimum at the summer solstice in 2017. Combined with highly inclined flybys that allow for small values of the emission angle, the 2013 observations are much less affected by the haze scattering because the optical path through the atmosphere is much shorter. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) can observe Titan's surface in seven infrared atmospheric windows between 0.96- and 5-μm. This study describes observations acquired during the recent T93 flyby on July 26, 2013. The footprint ranges from 10 km/pixel to 3 km/pixel. Maps of the three large seas (Ligeia Mare, Punga Mare, and Kraken Mare) at seven different wavelengths are being constructed and a mosaic of the lake area is being assembled. Ligeia Mare was previously imaged by the VIMS in June 2010 [2]. A preliminary analysis of the 2-μm map suggests that the shoreline has not evolved since 2010. The shape of the 2- μm atmospheric window will be compared between the two images and between the mare and the shore to investigate whether liquid ethane is present as is the case on Ontario lacus [3]. The lake area located between 0 and 90W was imaged with a resolution that allows comparison with the radar images. A preliminary comparison between the two data sets shows a very strong correlation. One part of Punga mare and a lake known as Kivu lacus were acquired on the same image. The northeastern part of Punga Mare seems entailed by a river network. No connections between Punga mare and Kivu lacus are observed on the VIMS image. Kivu lacus seems to lie in the center of a circular depression whose limit is bright at 2-μm. Equipotential maps are built from the

  2. Comparison of different test methods to assess thermal stresses of metal oxide surge arresters under pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; de Nigris, M.; Pigini, A.; Sironi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report deals with the research conducted by ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board, to assess the performance of zinc oxide surge arresters under pollution condition, with special reference to the consequent thermal stress on internal active parts which can affect the energy handling capabality of the arrester and may lead, in particular conditions, even to thermal runaway

  3. A Particular Experience: How a Nuclear Expert Became an Antinuke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari Ruffino, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1987, I was in charge of control activities on nuclear fuel design and fabrication of all nuclear power plants of ENEL. At the same time, I attended to several cooperation agreements signed between ENEL and Euratom focused on Post Irradiated fuel Examination (PIE), which was the largest PIE program realized in Europe on power reactors. After the oil shock of 1973, my attitude toward nuclear power changed because the role of nuclear energy was not longer the one outlined in the program Atoms for Peace “to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world”. On the contrary, its role become to strengthen the position of big energy companies and of the countries that controlled this new technology. So I became an antinuke. Throughout this period, I continued to carry out my control activities on ENEL nuclear fuel, until 1987 when, after the Chernobyl disaster, I decided for a moral objection, as I wrote in an official letter to ENEL, making my decision public.

  4. Kolm tähtsat raamatut Eesti lähiajaloo mõistmiseks / Mai Beijer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beijer, Mai

    2007-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Laar, Mart. September 1944 : Otto Tiefi valitsus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007. Paju, Imbi. Förträngda minnen/ soome keelest tõlkinud Heidi Granqvist. Stockholm : Atlantis, 2007; eesti keeles: Tõrjutud mälestud, 2007. Kross, Jaan. På stället flyg/eesti keelest tõlkinud Enel Mellberg. Stockholm : Natur & Kultur, 2007; originaali pealkiri: Paigallend, 1998

  5. 78 FR 21930 - Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Systems, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and Approving Use of the Traditional Licensing Process a. Type of Filing: Notice of Intent to File License...: November 11, 2012. d. Submitted by: Aquenergy Systems, Inc., a fully owned subsidiaries of Enel Green Power...

  6. Two-band tariff for domestic use: Italian Electricity Board rate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barteselli, R.

    1992-01-01

    ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has begun to introduce a new rate structure for households: the 'two-band tariff'. This article is an effort to examine in principle how the new tariff could optimize load management when applied to the whole household sector

  7. Mejoras sanitarias en instituciones o servicios públicos de La Casona, Coto Brus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Rosales Escalante

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se expone, por un lado, loque se realiza en la comunidad indígenade la Casona, y por otro, la importanciae interrelación de las técnicas parael tratamiento individual de aguasresiduales, así como la relevancia de estasen la infraestructura sanitaria instalada enel país.

  8. NEW JULY SAHARA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    wine (Pison, LeGuenno, Lagarde, Enel & Seck, 1993). Sentinel observer surveys. In each of the three ... Linear or logistic regression models, with age and educational levels as adjusting variables, were fitted to assess any potential association between any of these five indicators. (dependent variables) and the report of ...

  9. Part II. Chapter VII. Lack of knowledge has generated misconceptions about WWER in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucha, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this interview Mr. Giancarlo Aquilanti (Project Director Mochovce NPP, Unit-3 and Unit-4, the Slovenske elektrarne, a. s., a member of ENEL) evaluates reactor safety in Mochovce NPP. Perspectives of development of nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic and Italia are discussed.

  10. Presenting the GIEMS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudy, M.

    2008-01-01

    GIEMS - Generation units international Enel monitoring system, has been introduced to hydro energetic dispatching in Trencin (Slovakia). It ensures the accessibility and confrontation of technological and economic data from operation of hydropower plants, assessment of data processing and archiving. GIEMS and SW tool ESIM assess the date in six steps of which the most important are: Planning production monitoring data assessment business. (author)

  11. Expanding the Work Phases Model: User and Expert Involvement in the Construction of Online Specialised Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    The purpose of this article is to establish new proposals for the lexicographic process and the involvement of experts and users in the construction of online specialised dictionaries. It is argued that the ENeL action should also have a view to the development of innovative theories and methodol...

  12. The contribution of nuclear energy to meeting Italy's electric power needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    ENEL's policy in the development of nuclear energy is based on a number of factors which differentiate Italy's situation from that of most industrialized countries. Among these are the scarcity of natural resources, including energy sources, available in Italy. An extensive recourse to nuclear energy is the best way to achieve that diversification of energy supplies vital to the Italian economy, which, because of the very lack of natural resources, is predominantly based on processing. ENEL's nuclear plan calls for the construction of the four 1000-MW units already on order and of 16 additional units of the same size, divided into two 8-unit blocks, to be decided on respectively in the very near future. The necessary flexibility of the plan for nuclear units to go into service by 1986 is ensured by the subdivision into blocks, with provision for the postponement of the second 8-unit block should the country's economic development require a revision in electric power forecasts. The paper considers in particular the integration between the nuclear plan and ENEL's extensive plan for pumped-storage hydroelectric power plants and the related technical and economic advantages, also on an international scale. The review of Italy's nuclear plan concludes by stressing two essential problems: financing and the availability of sites for nuclear power plants. Finally, the paper supplies some information on the nuclear research, development and demonstration activities connected with the long-term plans; they are centred on the CNEN-ENEL project for the 40,000-kW CIRENE prototype and above all on the EdF-ENEL-RWE joint project for the construction of two over-1000-MW demonstration plants equipped with sodium-cooled breeder reactors. With such reactors it would be possible to achieve a virtually complete energy independence for the nuclear source. (author)

  13. Riigi teaduspreemiate 2003 kandidaadid / Villi Ehatamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehatamm, Villi

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. teaduspreemia kandidaadid: J. Einasto, A.-E. Kaasik, R. Hagelberg, H. Rätsep, R. Pullat, M. Kilp, V. Laan, P. Normak, S. Keevallik, V. Hižnjakov, M. Selg, T. Pehk, T. Rang, M. Mihkla, A. Eek, E. Meister, H.-J. Kaalep, J. Harro, A. Metspalu, T. Jürimäe, J. Haberman, A. Miidel, T. Nõges, E. Pihu, A. Raukas, R. Gross, T. Paaver, A. Valdmann, Ü. Tamm, M. Mandre, K. Ots, H. Pärn, J. Klõseiko, T. Rajasalu, V. Vensel, E. Berg, J. Reiljan, U. Varblane, K. Katus, A. Puur, A. Põldma, K. Rebane, M. Hallik, M. Must, A. Univere, E. Juhkam, I. Käsi, V. Lonn, E. Niit, K. Kirme

  14. University Students with Dyslexia: A Qualitative Exploratory Study of Learning Practices, Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCullagh, Lois; Bosanquet, Agnes; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2017-02-01

    People with dyslexia are vastly under-represented in universities (Katusic et al., , Richardson & Wydell, ; Stampoltzis & Polychronopoulou, ). This situation is of concern for modern societies that value social justice. This study was designed to explore learning experiences of university students with dyslexia and factors that could contribute to their success. Thirteen students with dyslexia and 20 non-dyslexic peers were interviewed about their university learning experiences using a semi-structured qualitative approach. Students with dyslexia described engaging in learning activities intensively, frequently and strategically. They reported challenges and strengths relating to study skills, lectures, assessments, technology and support services. They also described helpful strategies including self-directed adaptive techniques, provisions from lecturers and assistance from the university. These findings suggest that students with dyslexia experience broad challenges at university, but helpful strategies may be available. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D.

    2006-04-01

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  16. Commissioning of qualification of structures, systems and components for seismic and environmental loads of CIRENE nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.; Gatti, F.; Muzzi, F.; Zola, M.; De Pasquali, F.

    1993-01-01

    On behalf of the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) concerning the commissioning of qualification of structures, systems and components of CIRENE NPP, ISMES performed a technical surveillance on the documentation concerning the environmental and seismic qualification of the safety related systems and experimental activities (dynamic and static tests) on plant buildings. The aims of the work were: - the evaluation of the qualification carried out (by test, by analysis, by combination of analysis and test) on the equipment and system, compared with the requirements of the ENEL technical specifications and the most recent international regulations; - the experimental determination of modal quantities (frequencies, damping, mode shapes) of the structures and, in the case of reactor building, the complex impedance of the soil for supporting the analytical work. The present paper deals with the criteria, the system and the results concerning the technical surveillance and with the characteristics and the results of the experimental tests

  17. Review report on the dynamical study of the main building of the Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, F.

    1995-01-01

    The present report deals with the review of the report 'Dynamical Study of the main building of the Paks NPP', issued by Paks NPP (Hungary) on April, 1993, within the frame of the IAEA benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of an existing Nuclear Power Plant (M), and on behalf of ENEL DSR/VDN Rome, in the aims of the nuclear activities of ENEL DSR/VDN (Rome). After a foreword to define the aims of the job (Chapter 1) and the identification of the scope of the work (Chapter 2), a short list of references is given (Chapter 3). In Chapter 4, the criteria followed in the review activity are listed; in Chapter 5, the contents of the Paks NPP report are summarized. In Chapter 6 the results of the review are given, while the main conclusions of the review activities are summarized in the Chapter 7. (author)

  18. The first LINX-2 tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, F. de; Lomperski, S.; Monauni, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental programme was performed in the LINX-2 facility to assess the performance of the thermal hydraulic design of a proposed containment condenser. This component is part of a double, concrete containment proposed by ENEL (the Italian Electricity Company) as a European alternative to the Westinghouse AP600 single-shell metallic containment. The LINX-2 test section corresponds to the preliminary design of one of the sixteen condenser units, and has a heat transfer surface scaled 1:25. It is a compact finned-tube heat exchanger with steam condensation outside the tubes and water evaporation inside. The LINX-2 tests were performed under controlled forced-flow conditions covering the range expected in the containment. The effects of pressure, flowrate, non condensable fraction, and coolant temperature on heat transfer performance were investigated. These tests complemented natural circulation experiments performed by ENEL, and the data were used to optimise the condenser design. (author) 5 figs., tab., 3 refs

  19. The KINA neutronic module of the LEGO code for steady-state and transient PWR plant simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolopoulos, D.; Pollacchini, L.; Vimercati, G.; Spelta, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Automation Research Center (CRA) of ENEl has implemented some models for analyzing both incidental and operational transients in PWR power plants. For such models an axial neutron kinetics module characterized by high computational efficency with adequate results accuracy was called for. CISE has been entrusted with the task of implementing such a module named KINA and based on IQS (Improved Quasi Static) method, to be included in the library of LEGO modular code used by CRA to set up PWR power models. Moreover, The KINA module has been adapted to the neutron constants computing model developed by the EdF-SEPTEN, which has been using and improving the LEGO code for a long time in cooperation with ENEL-CRA. In this paper, after some remarks on the LEGO code, a general description of KINA neutronic module is given. The resylts of a preliminary validation activity of KINA for an EdF 1300 MWe PWR plant are also presented

  20. An application of on-line battery monitoring to the Vulcano PV plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonarota, A.; Menga, P.; Ostano, P.; Scarioni, V.

    1988-05-01

    The reliable knowledge of the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery of a photovoltaic (PV) plant can contribute to improve system management. Unfortunately, the technologies currently adopted to determine the battery SOC are not fully satisfactory. The experience obtained by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) on traction lead-acid batteries, operating under cyclic conditions, led to the formulation of a simple model capable of describing the relationships among the operating conditions (profile of current, temperature, etc.) and the internal SOC of the battery. This model was extended to the stationary accumulators to the Vulcano PV plant of ENEL, and checked by means of laboratory tests at the CESI (Italy) laboratories. Relevant to this work, an automatic system for the on-line evaluation of the SOC of the battery has recently been set up and installed at Vulcano. This paper presents the basis of the methodology, the layout of the system, and the preliminary results.

  1. SELF: expert system for supporting verification of network operating constraints in power transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoria, R; Migliardi, P [Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Pogliano, P [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze (CISE), Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Performing planned studies into very large HV transmission systems is a very complex task which requires the use of simulation models and the application of the heuristic acquired by expert palnners during previous studies. The ENEL Electric Research Center and the CISE Artificial Intelligence Section have developed a knowledge-based system, named SELF, which is aimed at supporting the transmission system palnner. SELF is capable of assisting the engineer both in finding the convergence of the load flow calculation and determining solutions that respect active power, voltage and VAR operating constraints. This paper describes the overall architecture of the system and shows its integration in a larger planning environment called SPIRA, currently utilized at ENEL. More details are given on the least completed modules, the redispatching and network reinforcement subsystems which deal with active power constraint verification.

  2. Market for wind turbines in italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)

  3. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: Swiss voters reject phaseout; EdF confirms order for Civaux 1; NDP surprise victor in Ontario; Czechoslovakia joins Foratom; Poland abandons Zarnowiec; Cogema's UP3 facility operationa; Wismut to clsoe mining operations; court rules in favor of US government in Yucca Mountain waste site; Italian government ratifies ENEL reactor shutdowns; and Seabrook enters commercial operation

  4. Contractual aspects of the establishment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolfi, D.; Mola, C.

    1980-03-01

    This paper analyses the complexity of the system for establishing nuclear power plants in Italy, in the light of ENEL's experience and provides a thorough description of the types of contract involved, the respective rights and obligations of the parties concerned and the problems encountered. Reference is made to the legislation governing the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants and the competent authorities in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  5. Tele command and network automation: strategy and results; Telecomando e automacao de redes: estrategia e resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargigia, Angelo; Cerreti, Alberto; Lembo, Giorgio di; Rogai, Sergio; Veglio, Gianfranco [Enel Distribuzione Spa, Rome (Italy)

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the adopted by the ENEL Distribuzione, Italy, for the tele command and automation in the distribution line. The article describes the medium term implementation program, based on the installation of remote terminal unities, with communication through cell phone GMS for transmission of collected data to the control centers of the network. A cost versus benefit analysis conducted and the obtained results are also evaluated.

  6. Existing Resources, Standards, and Procedures for Precise Monitoring and Analysis of Structural Deformations. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    commonplace, particularly in the monitoring of dams and hydro-electric power generating stations. Italy’s ENEL (Ente Nazionale per 1’ Energia Elettrica...State Commissions to enforce supervision and monitoring of dams by the new owners. Currently, dams owned by state organizations such as Agua y Energia ...Large Dams, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil May. Millmore, J.P. and J.A. Charles (1988). "A -survey of UK embankment dams." Proceedings of Reservoir Renovation 88

  7. Defense Energy Support Center Fact Book FY 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-21

    3 M 21 years Fort Monmouth, NJ Lighting Upgrade, HVAC Renovation , UESC Implementation, GHP, Cogeneration System Site Preparation/Feasibility Ameresco...behalf of Navy Installations in the Sicily, Sardinia and Campania regions of Italy . Awards were made to two companies, ENEL Energia and Energia y...funded $333 million for SRM projects to maintain and renovate military Services owned fuels facilities worldwide . This amount was nearly double the

  8. Leading Players of the European Power and Gas Industry Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: EDF, Enel, Engie, RWE, E.ON, SSE, Iberdrola, Gas Natural Fenosa, Vattenfall, EDP; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  9. 76 FR 58257 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Hills Wind Farm, LLC MBR Tariff to be effective 10/31/2007. Filed Date: 09/12/2011. Accession Number... filing per 35.1: Smoky Hills Wind Project II, LLC MBR Tariff to be effective 10/20/2008. Filed Date: 09..., LLC submits tariff filing per 35.1: Enel Stillwater, LLC MBR Tariff to be effective 12/5/2008. Filed...

  10. Palmse viinaköögi manifest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Manifest. Tõlkijate seminari puhul 17. mail 1996 Palmse viinaköögis Juta Bedia, Eric Dickens, Gyözö Fehérvári, Guntars Godinsh, Maima Grinberga, Irja Grönholm, Leif Hannibal, Cornelius Hasselblatt, Pirkko Huurto, Ivo Iliste, Nora Javorskaja, Gisbert Jänicke, Kaisu Lahikainen, Enel Melberg, Vera Ruber, Arnold Tamm, Leili Tamm, Jonatan Tomesh, Lilia Velic'kova, Marianne Vogel. Inglise k.: Estonian Literary Magazine, autumn 1996, nr. 3

  11. Biomass for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbucci, P.; Neri, G.; Trebbi, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the activities carried out at ENEL-Thermal research center to develop technologies suitable to convert biomass into power with high conversion efficiency: a demonstration project, Energy Farm, to build an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant fed by wood chips; a demonstration plant for converting wood chips into oil by thermal conversion (pyrolysis oil); combustion tests of different oils produced by thermal conversion. 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Känslosvall från vindarnas land / Ann Lingebrandt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lingebrandt, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Rooste, Jürgen. Presidenten bor nånstans i närheten / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; fs. 2007 / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Kruusa, Kalju. Mötesvis / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Estniska ballader / översättning: Ilmar Laaban. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Laaban, Ilmar. Palingarderomb. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Under, Marie. Gnistor i askan / översättning: Enel Melberg. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Wuolijoki, Hella. Sõngen om kriget / översättning: Enel Melberg. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Alver, Betti. Historien om den vita krõkan / översättning: Enel Melberg. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Nõgonstans vid värlends kant / översättning: Juris Kronbergs och Guntar Godị̧. Tollarp : Ariel skrifter, 2007 ; Kareva, Doris. Tidens gestalt / översättning: Peeter Puide. Stockholm : Ellerströms, 2007

  13. The value of electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study aimed at evaluating parts of the distribution network of ENEL, in charge of distributing and supplying electricity to its captive market, that could be sold as a separate entity. To determine the asset value of these hypothetical companies, the discounted cash flow method has been used applied to the 147 ENEL's distributing zones. The econometric analysis shows that the relevant variables are the quantity sold to non residential and non big industrial consumers and the length of medium voltage lines. According to the available data and to the methodology chosen, the per client value of the distribution zones of ENEL varies substantially. The maximum value is bout three times the mean value and the minimum value is largely negative. The article maintains that changes in regulation could greatly modify the asset value of distribution networks. The main regulatory risks are linked to the degree of market opening, the introduction of compensation mechanisms between different distributors and the allowed maximum revenue fixed by energy Authority for a given period of time. This point is developed in the appendix where it is shown that the price cap method is decided on the basis of a rate of return which is valid at the moment of the cap fixing but that could be no longer valid if the rate of inflation varies [it

  14. Fuel quality control: Five years of activity in laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Cimini, G.; Durello, G.; Lucchesi, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    A description of how ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) carries out the activity of fuel quality control is given, and the results of the Round Robin circuit which has been operating for five years in laboratories regulary performing the control analyses of these products are reported. The laboratories taking part in the Round Robin circuit are 41 (out of which 35 are ENEL laboratories and 6 are owned by external companies) and they are situated throughout Italy; the controlled parameters are the following: heat of combustion (PCS), sulphur (S), vanadium (V) and asphaltenes (ASF); the adopted methods are the official ASTM or IP ones. The statistical analysis of the results has permitted, for every parameter, the calculation of the repeatability and the reproducibility which, in most cases, have turned out to be in keeping with the values provided for in the regulations. Among the collateral initiatives promoted in the framework of this Round Robin, the following are reported: preparation of standards of fuel oil with a known content of a sulphur and vanadium; expediting visits to all the ENEL laboratories participating in the RRT; publication of a handbook of the adopted analysis methods (in Italian); definition of guide-lines on the right selection of new automatic equipment

  15. The contribution of nuclear energy to the meeting of Italy's electric power requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses ENEL's policy in the development of nuclear energy, which assigns to this source the role of meeting almost all of Italy's additional future power requirements. This is a position taken some time ago and already outlined on the occasion of the Geneva Conference of 1971. The policy is based on a number of factors, reviewed in the paper, which differentiate, at least in quantitative terms, Italy's situation from that of most industrialized countries. Among these factors stand out the scarcity of natural resources, including energy sources available in Italy. An extensive recourse to nuclear energy is the best way to achieve that diversification of energy supplies vital to the Italian economy which, because of the very lack of natural resources, is predominantly based on processing. While the Caorso Nuclear Power Plant (840 MW) is due to go into service soon, ENEL's nuclear plan, recently approved by the Government, calls for the construction of the four 1,000-MW units already on order and of 16 additional units, of the same size, divided into two 8-units blocks, to be decided on respectively in the very near future and before the end of 1977. The necessary flexibility of the plan concerning the nuclear units that will go into service by the 1986 is ensured by the subdivision into blocks, with provision for the postponement of the second, 8-units block in the country's economy development requires a revision in electric power forecasts. The paper then considers in particular the integration between the nuclear plan and ENEL's extensive plan for pumped-storage hydro-electric power plants and the related technical and economic advantages which also extend to an international scope. The paper concludes the review of Italy's nuclear plan by stressing two essential problems: financing and the availability of sites for nuclear power plants. Upon their timely and satisfactory solution depends the actual construction of the plants by the scheduled dates

  16. Price-capping in partially monopolistic electricity markets with an application to Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco, Bruno; Parisio, Lucia; Pelagatti, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    In many electricity markets the production capacity of a single supplier may be necessary to satisfy the total demand even when its competitors offer their total capacity. These pivotal suppliers are expected to sell at monopolistic prices on their portions of the market demand. In this paper, we show that these market conditions may imply the non-concavity in prices of the pivotal supply function, which in turn means that there can be situations in which a pivotal operator's supply has virtually no price limits. We also show that this monopolistic market power can be significantly reduced by vertical integration and/or regulatory policies such as virtual power plants. Based on these results, we propose a simple price-capping rule that induces the pivotal operator to compete for quantity instead of taking advantage of its monopoly. Then, we infer the profit function of the Italian pivotal operator (Enel) for the sample period 2007–2010 using real auction data and cost curves employed by engineers. We discuss the bidding behaviour of Enel and show how its profit function varies over time and in response to pro-competitive measures introduced during our sample period. We examine the existing price-cap and propose an alternative mechanism. - Highlights: ► We show the profit function of pivotal operators to be non-concave and unbounded. ► We propose a price-cap policy that foster pivotal operators to compete for quantity.► We apply our methodology to Enel and derive a price-cap for Italy. ► We find that vertical integration can be beneficial for moderating wholesale prices

  17. Planning and management of outages in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sica, G.F.; Fusari, W.; Reginelli, A.

    1984-01-01

    At present the Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (ENEL) operates three nuclear power plants, only one of which belongs to the new generation, i.e. the Caorso Nuclear Power Plant which has been in commercial operation since December 1981. Outage planning, implementation and analysis are very important in order to minimize the shutdown time and thus improve plant availability, which is of particular importance for a large nuclear power plant. Such activities are very complicated because of the large number of jobs that have to be performed in accordance with detailed written procedures and which have to be properly documented and controlled. Large off-site resources are required which have to be accurately interfaced with on-site staff. The ENEL is making a great effort to define both the administrative and technical aspects of refuelling outages. As outage planning requires the availability and handling of a large amount of data and information, a maintenance information system that has been widely used in conventional plants was applied, with some modifications made especially for the Caorso Nuclear Power Plant. After two years the following results have been achieved: a large number of raw and processed data are now available, the first refuelling outage was carried out with few problems and according to schedule, and the second refuelling outage, based on the experience of the first, required somewhat less preparation and is developing well even though many special activities have had to be scheduled. The ENEL believes that the efforts made in the planning and management areas will pay off in terms of the short duration, smoothness and economy of further outages, both for Caorso and for future plants. (author)

  18. Current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchy, L.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution shows the basic information about the crucial milestone of 3. building and the current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce. Contribution also shows what activities were realized and what material in area of designation of the technical and safety standard of the project was elaborated in the past, the main activities planned for 2006 have been described, support for Feasibility Study elaborated by ENEL and description of the integrated management system. The basic thesis crucial for the next steps on the project of 3. and 4. block of Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce is presented in the conclusion

  19. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...... Gend en Loos and Costa V. ENEL. The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the ECSC was allegedly conservative dominated by technical and economic considerations less than adventurous activism. Recent historical research has demonstrated the complexity of the legal landscape of the 1950s, in which...

  20. Historia del Hogar Casa Cuna de la ciudad de Mendoza: La institución que permanece

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Carracedo, Ana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la historia del Hogar Casa Cuna en la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina,desde sus orígenes, a principios del siglo XX, hasta la actualidad enmarcando dicha historia enel contexto legislativo nacional y provincial.En sus orígenes, la Casa Cuna fue fundada por las Damas de la Caridad. En 1950 el Estado, pormedio de la Dirección Provincial del Menor, se hizo cargo de dicha institución aunque delegó elcuidado de los niños a las Hermanas de Nuestra Señora del Rosario que desempeña...

  1. Geologia estructural, aprendizaje. discusion

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Guillermo Arturo

    2012-01-01

    La práctica profesional y docente permite establecer algunas de las principales dificultadesde aprendizaje que presentan los estudiantes en el área de Geología Estructural de la carrera deGeología, muchas de las cuales son comunes a todas las ramas de esta ciencia. Aquellas de primerorden y de carácter más general son: el paso de la noción al concepto y de lo abstracto a lo concreto,ambos reflejados en la dificultad para resolver problemas y comprender fenómenos directamente enel campo. Dific...

  2. Visual impact of overhead power transmission lines and dielectric and corona effects constraints on insulation coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deponti, F.; Fini, G.P.; Porrino, A.; Rosa, F.

    1992-06-01

    In assessing overhead power transmission line design and planning criteria for the optimization of visual impact, safety and the reduction of electro magnetic disturbance effects, this paper reviews the research findings of ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board. The on-going research activities involve theoretical calculations and laboratory performance tests to determine the best compact configurations for 380 kV lines. The parameters under examination include: insulator spacing, sizing and salt fog resistivity; allowable overvoltages; maximum line length; behaviour in lightning conditions; radio and acoustics disturbances

  3. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  4. Mercado de trabajo rural y precarización: nuevas condiciones socioeconómicas en el sur del Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Guadalupe Chong González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available en el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de unestudio del mercado de trabajo rural y su precarización enel municipio de Coatepec Harinas, en el sur del Estado deMéxico, donde se muestra la diversidad ocupacional pre-dominante, así como la especialización en la floricultura,aspectos notables de la nueva ruralidad actual. También, conbase en los datos del trabajo de campo, se calculó un índicede precariedad laboral, estratificado en niveles, para saber elgrado de precariedad de la población trabajadora.

  5. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  6. Cogeneration plant environmental impacts, Menaggio, Italy. February 21-22, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piancastelli, E.

    1991-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 28 papers given at the FIRE (Italian Federation for the Rational use of Energy), February, 1991, convention on cogeneration plant environmental impacts. The topics included: Italian and international normatives giving guidelines on methods to evaluate dual-purpose power plant environmental impacts; gas turbine CO, NOx and suspended particulates emission limits; noise pollution limits and abatement measures; ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure for auto-producing industries ceding power to the national grid; international research programs on cogeneration; the use of renewable energy sources for cogeneration systems; the function and role of energy managers; and commercialization of compact cogeneration plants for industry

  7. Evolution of energy tariffs in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, G.

    1991-01-01

    Cogeneration plant economic feasibility studies require a sound knowledge of the relative local government fiscal policies and utility rate structure. Within this context, this paper gives an update of the current Italian situation. Reference is made to the revisions incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provisions No.'s 34 and 45 governing fuel oil and natural gas prices and ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure for on-site procedures of electric power. An example is given of a cost benefit analysis applied to an Italian made industrial cogeneration plant (producing 30Mcal/h heat and 15kWh electricity), called TOTEM

  8. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  9. Status of Italian test data on seismic isolators and comparison with computer predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forni, M.; Martelli, A.; Dusi, A.; Bettinali, F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the reliability of finite element model (FEM) for simulating the behaviour of high damping rubber bearings (HDRBs) is presented. R and D work on seismic isolation development and application, with particular regard to the numerical modelling, is in progress in Italy and encouraging results have already been obtained. Recently, 'optimized' and 'further optimized' isolators were designed, manufactured and tested in the framework of a co-operation among Italian and European partners (ENEL et al., 1993). For all the devices, numerical investigations have been carried out up to very large strains and the response of the FEMs has been verified against experimental evidence. (author)

  10. Electric power. Enron establishes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The US Enron group and the Italian Enel group have decided to create a joint-venture for the production of electric power in Italy. Their activities will be based on the transformation of existing classical thermal power plants into natural gas fueled combined cycle power plants. The total capacity of the converted power plants will be of 5000 MW. Enron should invest about 3 billions of US Dollars in this project and will be in a privileged position when the Italian electric power market will be open to competition in 1999. Short paper. (J.S.)

  11. Contribution of Italy to the activities on intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures: Finite element analysis of lead rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusi, A.; Forni, M.; Martelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the results of nonlinear Finite Element (FE) analyses carried out by ENEL-Ricerca, Hydraulic and Structural Centre and ENEA-ERG-SIEC-SISM, on Lead Rubber Bearings (LRBs). Activities were carried out in the framework of the four years' Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on I ntercomparison of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures . The bearing Finite Element Models (FEMs) are validated through comparisons of the numerical results with experimental test data. The reliability of FEMs for simulating the behaviour of rubber bearings is presented and discussed. (author)

  12. The impact of the Nome law on the French market of electricity. How competition intensity will evolve?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at understanding the Nome law and at assessing its impact on the market, at gathering and analysing key figures of the French market of electricity (energy mix, consumption, gross prices, etc.), at assessing market shares of operators and their evolution, at comparing the commercial position of electricity providers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge EDF's positions. Ten providers have been analysed: Alpiq, Direct Energie, EDF, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, E.ON France, GDF Suez, Gaz Electricite de Grenoble, Poweo, and Soregies

  13. Status report on Italian activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoni, R.

    1999-01-01

    The main features of the Italian energy supply situation is shown. Primary energy demand increased by 2.7% while the total final consumption was mainly attributed to industry, transport, household and services. Nuclear activities of ENEL were related mostly to nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. processing and disposal of nuclear waste from phased out nuclear power plants. The following nine research programs were foreseen: proton source; low and medium energy accelerator section; high energy accelerator section; neutron production for material characterization; general safety criteria and classification; neutronics and transmutation efficiency; thermal-hydraulic analysis; beam window technology; materials technology

  14. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu

    2009-01-01

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Nuevas variedades de rocas ornamentales de la provincia de Buenos Aires : II parte

    OpenAIRE

    Ronconi, Néstor; Marchioni, Daniela; Echeveste, Horacio José

    1994-01-01

    En la presente contribución se exponen los resultados de la segunda etapa de un trabajo de prospección geológico-minera que se está realizando en.el ambiente serrano de la provincia de Buenos Aires en relación con la presencia de rocas con aptitudes ornamentales y cuyo primer adelanto fue plasmado en un trabajo publicado por la Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas en 1991. Dado que el territorio provincial ha sido escasamente explorado en cu...

  16. Los fantasmas de Portales. Bandidaje y prácticas judiciales en Chile, 1830-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Palma Alvarado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir del seguimiento a la trayectoria de unbandido de la zona central de Chile y de susexperiencias enfrentando a la justicia y el castigo,el estudio reconstruye el proceso de conformación del denominado “orden portaliano” enel campo de la justicia criminal. Especialmente interesa examinar la interacción entre el poder y los bandidos en un ámbito donde se ventilaron con particular nitidez las tensiones entre el afán disciplinario de los gobernantes y la reticencia de quienes eran objeto de una mayor vigilancia y sanción.

  17. Production of valuable humified substrate by meansco-composting of source-collected vegetable and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varallo, G.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) Coal-ash Utilization Research Centre has been more and more interested in developing suitable procedures in order to recycle residues from coal combustion in electric power generating stations for use in agricultural and forestry activities. Particular attention is currently being given to the production of humified substrates by means of co-composting mixtures of green waste and fly ash. The transformation process involves a reduction in the waste quantities destined for dumping, a decrease in environmental pollution and the recycling of nutrients which avoid or reduce the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and humid biotopes such as peat mosses

  18. Tratamiento cognitivo-conductual de la sintomatología asociada a la menopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Larroy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El cese definitivo de la menstruación se presenta asociado a una serie de síntomas físicos,psicológicos y sociales susceptibles de ser abordados mediante técnicas cognitivo conductuales. Enel presente trabajo se presenta un programa de intervención basado en dichas técnicas. Treintamujeres climatéricas siguieron este programa durante diez semanas. Los resultados indican que elprograma consigue la reducción de los síntomas y la mejora de la calidad de vida.

  19. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A.

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  20. Digestibility of Ficus roxburghii, Castanopsis indica and Ficus cunia on growing buffalo from Western Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Upreti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine buffalo calves were subjected to three fodder tree species namely; Ficus roxburghii (Nimaro, Castanopsis indica (Dhalne Katus and Ficus cunia (Rai Khanyu for digestibility trial during November 27 to December 3, 2005 in Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Lumle, Kaski Nepal. Animals were kept 7 days for adaptation for these fodders. Weighed amount of fodder tree leaves including twigs and small branches were fed two times a day and observation on fodder offered, refused and faeces voided were recorded daily. Chemical composition of fresh matter and faeces voided were carried out for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, calcium (Ca and phosphorous (P. The mean DM content and their dry matter digestibility (DMD of these three fodder tree species were found 27.86, 46.02, 34.72, 73.21, 65.93 and 71.28 percent respectively. There were strong negative correlations (r=-0.75 to -0.78; p<0.05 observed between Ca. and CP with fiber fraction (NDF and ADF. The weak correlation was also observed between P and other constituents with respect to digestibility. From the results, if there could be provision of low fiber content in dry season, the three main nutrients (Ca, P and CP may easily be absorbed by the animals.

  1. "Ringlemise viis, millesse me kinni jäime : kurvad, heitlikud, lootusrikkad..." : [luuletused] / Joni Pyysalo ; soome keelest tõlkinud Marko Martinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pyysalo, Joni

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: "Ringlemise viis, millesse me kinni jäime: kurvad, heitlikud, lootusrikkad..." ; "Tundmatu linnu huige öisel nõmmel, kordub saamata vastust, vannitoa..." ; "Aga armastus on umbrohi: leiab üles iga võimaluse, iga prao, iga nõrga koha." ; "Oma nõrkuse asetad sõrmeotsa ta silmalaule..." ; "Sa magad kaua, äratad ikka veel selle igatsuse..." ; "Mitu korda ütleb ta lihtsat su nime ja ei jõua lõpuni..." ; "Su hingamine on meister, kui on kiirus peal..." ; "Haige männi latv nagu riidepuu konks..." ; "Aga mingid rahustid ei rahusta enam..." ; "Harva nii ärkvel, et saad aru, mis lahti..." ; "Kui 90-ndate muusikat mängitakse raadios nagu minevikku..." ; "Hommikud peavad olema õrnad siin, kus magatakse üksi..." ; "Kõik on võimalik..." ; "Laps uninub lõpuks..." ; "Maailm, et oleks ometi, millega kalibreerida..." ; "Naine püüab pimeduses nutta nii tasakesi..:" ; "Õunapuu all istub tool..." ; "Mälu tahab meile öelda..." ; "Nii nagu väikeste tissidega naisel ei lähe vaja rinnahoidjaid..." ; "Ma sätin su tekki paremini, nagu kohendaksin tuld..." ; "Mitte keegi pole mu tahtele niimoodi vastu hakanud..." ; "Kolgin vana maja keldris mutrivõtmega..." ; "Naine magab, nägu seina poole, mees tuleb teki alla, kõverdab põlved..." I-III ; "Katus sulab ööga kokku..."

  2. The EU's major electricity and gas utilities since market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2011-06-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. Contents: Executive Summary. Introduction. Seven Case Studies of Changing Strategies of Major European Energy Utilities since Market Liberalization (E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, RWE, Iberdrola, Vattenfall, Other European Utilities). Overview of Major National and Regional Electricity and Gas Market in the EU (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Nordic, Belgium and the Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe). Conclusions. Annex. Bibliography

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  4. Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinelli, A.; Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Ronchetti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Among operative deCommissioning problems, the chemical decontamination of metallic surfaces of LWR, mainly with the use of high vigorous reagents, is being studied in particular. ENEL research activities, partially financed by the European Community Commission, began at the end of 1980, and are being developed by CRTN, Centro di Ricerca Termica e Nucleare, in close connection with ENEL-DPT and CISE. The main aim is the identification, development, and assessment of vigorous decontamination techniques taking into account the amount and disposal cost of liquid radwaste. The test materials come from the primary loop of the BWR-Garigliano plant. Activity levels, mainly due to 60 Co, range from about 0.01 μCi/cm 2 for predecontaminated material to some μCi/cm 2 for virgin material. Moreover, traces of 90 Sr-Y beta pure emitter and alpha emitters are monitored. Research is at first carried out by screening static tests for the optimization of etching static parameters (time, temperature, reagent concentrations). Reagent effectiveness will then be tested in a special experimental loop (DECO), in dynamic conditions simulating in-situ real procedures of decontamination. Hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids and mixtures of them have been used for the first tests. Sometimes total oxide removal is possible, and when this takes place, the final contamination levels are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release materials in some countries. 18 references, 13 figures, 5 tables

  5. Comparison between MAAP and ECART predictions of radionuclide transport throughout a French standard PWR reactor coolant system; Transport des radionucleides dans le circuit primaire d`un REP: comparaison des codes MAAP et ECART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervouet, C.; Ranval, W. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France); Parozzi, F.; Eusebi, M. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of a collaboration agreement between EDF and ENEL, the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) and ECART (ENEL Code for Analysis of radionuclide Transport) predictions about the fission product retention inside the reactor cooling system of a French PWR 1300 MW during a small Loss of Coolant Accident were compared. The volatile fission products CsI, CsOH, TeO{sub 2} and the structural materials, all of them released early by the core, are more retained in MAAP than in ECART. On the other hand, the non-volatile fission products, released later, are more retained in ECART than in MAAP, because MAAP does not take into account diffusion-phoresis: in fact, this deposition phenomenon is very significant when the molten core vaporizes the water of the vessel lower plenum. Centrifugal deposition in bends, that can be modeled only with ECART, slightly increases the whole retention in the circuit if it is accounted for. (authors). 18 refs., figs., tabs.

  6. Completion of Units 3 and 4 at Mochovce NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, G.

    2009-01-01

    After the completion of a feasibility study, SE/ENEL decided to complete Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 in April 2007. In July 2008, after a revision of the Basic Design that led to the inclusion of additional safety improvements, the European Commission issued a positive viewpoint on the decision. In August 2008 the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority issued a permit for 'modification of a construction project prior to its completion', approving the Basic Design modifications: the kick-off of site activities was on November 2008. In December 2008, SE initiated the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedure aimed at obtaining the Operational License by submitting the EIA intent to the Ministry of Environment. A multi contractual strategy was adopted for the completion works: the total number of foreseen contracts is about 250 (90 main and additional 160 minor). In the following the present status of the project is presented: in particular, the Project Management system implemented by SE/ENEL is described and the progress of the engineering, fabrication and construction activities is analyzed. (author)

  7. Comparison between MAAP and ECART predictions of radionuclide transport throughout a French standard PWR reactor coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervouet, C.; Ranval, W.; Parozzi, F.; Eusebi, M.

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of a collaboration agreement between EDF and ENEL, the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) and ECART (ENEL Code for Analysis of radionuclide Transport) predictions about the fission product retention inside the reactor cooling system of a French PWR 1300 MW during a small Loss of Coolant Accident were compared. The volatile fission products CsI, CsOH, TeO 2 and the structural materials, all of them released early by the core, are more retained in MAAP than in ECART. On the other hand, the non-volatile fission products, released later, are more retained in ECART than in MAAP, because MAAP does not take into account diffusion-phoresis: in fact, this deposition phenomenon is very significant when the molten core vaporizes the water of the vessel lower plenum. Centrifugal deposition in bends, that can be modeled only with ECART, slightly increases the whole retention in the circuit if it is accounted for. (authors). 18 refs., figs., tabs

  8. Ten-yearly report on operations at the Garigliano nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is the final report on operation of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station as required under the participation contract between Enel and Euratom and refers to the first ten years of commercial operation (1 May 1964-31 December 1973) of the power station. In the decade in question the Garigliano Power Station has assumed an important position in the world spectrum of nuclear energy since it was the first thermal-power reactor in the world to have irradiated considerable quantities of plutonium as a fuel in its own core for the production of energy. An experimental programme on this was started in 1966 with theoretical study of plutonium recycling and was followed by the charging of the Garigliano reactor with some mixed oxide elements (PuO 2 -UO 2 ) in 1968 and 1970. The excellent performance of these prototype elements, which among other things were examined in detail at the end of each radiation cycle, prompted Enel to decide in favour of the use of entire batches of recycled fuel elements of the PuO 2 -UO 2 type in the reactor from 1975 onwards

  9. The strategies of development of electricity and natural gas providers in France. High gross prices, tariff maintenance...: how do alternate operators come through?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing key figures of the electricity and natural gas markets, at assessing the actual degree of opening to competition of these French markets, at comparing the position and offers of providers, at identifying the best commercial and marketing practices, and at assessing the impact of the GDF Suez merge and of the arrival of E.ON and Enel in France. A first volume addresses the strategic perspectives for electricity and natural gas providers on the French market: current status and perspectives of the French markets of electricity and natural gas, strategic orientations of operators, scenarios of reconfiguration of French markets of electricity and natural gas by 2012. The second volume proposes a deep analysis of position and perspectives of 22 electricity and natural gas providers: Alterna, Atel Energie, Direct Energie, Distrigaz, EDF, Electrabel, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel, Enercoop, E.ON, Endesa, Gas Natural, Gaz de France, Gazprom, Gaz Electricite de Grenoble, HEWenergies, Poweo, Soregies, Tegaz, Usine d'Electricite de Metz, Vialis

  10. The renaissance of Italian nuclear power; La renaissance du nucleaire italien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Cassuto, A. [CEA/Ambassade de France a Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    In the fifties Italy was an advanced country in terms of nuclear electricity but as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident Italy changed drastically its energy policy and closed definitely all its nuclear plants. Now in order to be less dependent on energy imports and to reduce its CO{sub 2} emission, Italy has changed its mind and welcomes nuclear power in its future energy mix. The aim is to reach the following contributions for the production of electricity in 2030: 50% from fossil fuels, 25% from renewable energies and 25% from nuclear energy (13.000 MWe) and with a first reactor operating in 2020. The main actors of the renaissance of nuclear power in Italy are: -) ENEL (the second electricity producer in Europe), -) SOGIN, a company that is mainly in charge of the dismantling of nuclear plants, -) ENEA a state agency for the development of new technologies, energy and sustainable development, and -) companies working in the nuclear industry like ANSALDO. Various collaboration agreements have been signed between ENEL and EDF or between ENEA and CEA concerning staff training, nuclear safety or radioactive waste management. The main difficulties of this renaissance of the nuclear energy are to get the agreement of the national and local populations as well as that of the political class that is strongly marked by a division in 2 wings. (A.C.)

  11. The renaissance of Italian nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Cassuto, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the fifties Italy was an advanced country in terms of nuclear electricity but as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident Italy changed drastically its energy policy and closed definitely all its nuclear plants. Now in order to be less dependent on energy imports and to reduce its CO 2 emission, Italy has changed its mind and welcomes nuclear power in its future energy mix. The aim is to reach the following contributions for the production of electricity in 2030: 50% from fossil fuels, 25% from renewable energies and 25% from nuclear energy (13.000 MWe) and with a first reactor operating in 2020. The main actors of the renaissance of nuclear power in Italy are: -) ENEL (the second electricity producer in Europe), -) SOGIN, a company that is mainly in charge of the dismantling of nuclear plants, -) ENEA a state agency for the development of new technologies, energy and sustainable development, and -) companies working in the nuclear industry like ANSALDO. Various collaboration agreements have been signed between ENEL and EDF or between ENEA and CEA concerning staff training, nuclear safety or radioactive waste management. The main difficulties of this renaissance of the nuclear energy are to get the agreement of the national and local populations as well as that of the political class that is strongly marked by a division in 2 wings. (A.C.)

  12. A model of Alto Lazio boiling water reactor using the LEGO code balance of plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelta, S.; Garbossa, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    An extensive effort has been made at the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) to construct and validate a LEGO model capable of simulating the operational transients of the Alto Lazio Nuclear Station, a two twin-units site with BWR/6 class reactors, rated at 2894 MWt and with Mark III containment. LEGO is a modular package developed at the Research and development Department of the Italian National Electricity Board (CRA-ENEL) for computer aided modeling of fossil-fired and nuclear steam power plants. In this paper a system analysis model capable of describing steady-state and transient performance of the Balance of Plant (BOP) of the Alto Lazio Power Station is presented. This is one of two companion papers devoted to the description of the overall plant model including both the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the BOP. In the paper, after a brief summary of the main LEGO characteristics, a description of the BOP lay-out is presented. The overall model, which has been set-up, including control systems and automation, is very detailed and consists of almost 2000 differential or algebraic equations. After a brief description of the mathematical model, two significant transients obtained using the overall model are presented and discussed

  13. Photovoltaic plants in the electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzio, L.; Vigotti, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article provides a 1998 updated picture of Italy's and the world's photovoltaic market in terms of produced modules and total installed capacity, as well as market growth forecasts up to 2010. After a short description of the state-of-the-art of cell and module manufacturing, ana analysis of the cost of producing a photovoltaic kW is reported for different plant types: stand-alone plants with energy storage batteries, plants connected to low low voltage networks or intended for supporting medium voltage networks, hybrid plants with diesel sets. The article is concluded by illustrating ENEL's (Electric Power Production Company) engagement in the field of photovoltaic solar energy as regards theoretical studies, research and testing of new technologies, and installing plants; over nearly twenty years of activity, ENEL has designed and built a few hundreds of photovoltaic plants for a total capacity of about 4.000 kW, and is currently in the process of setting up a further 370 kW [it

  14. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  15. Advanced on-line monitoring of power plant water/steam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perboni, G.; Rocchini, G.; Sigon, F. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    To improve the behaviour and resistance of materials in the water-steam cycle critical components (steam generator, condensate heaters, turbine) it is necessary to adopt proper actions for promoting formation and integrity of surface protective oxide layers and preventing general and localised corrosion and transport processes of corrosion products throughout the cycle. In this report two important topics are reported: steam side corrosion in the low pressure turbines induced by the `first condensate` in the final stages of the turbine, and the stability of the oxides layers as a function of the condensate chemistry, with particular attention to the transport of corrosion products to the boiler. Furthermore an innovative technique for monitoring some physico-chemical parameters at the actual fluid temperature (150-300C) using new electrochemical sensors improved by ENEL/CRAM is studied: pH, conductivity, corrosion rate, corrosion and redox potentials.ENEL/CRAM validated on lab-scale testing loops these sensors and carried out the following programs: calibration procedures, reliability of the response, long-term stability and assessment of a reduced maintenance. Applications of the electrochemical methods to fossil fired units have demonstrated their validity for monitoring the cycle chemistry and the resistance to corrosion of structural materials in real time.

  16. Elizandra Souza: escrita periférica em diálogo transatlântico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Lorenso Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se discuten las conexiones entre la vida y la obra de Elizandra de Souza, escritora asociada con la producción literaria de la periferia de São Paulo, en el contexto de las discusiones teóricas sobre la diáspora africana, el pensamiento feminista negro y el pensamiento decolonial latinoamericano. Argumento que Elizandra toma como punto de partida una formación identitataria espiralada/sampleada que atraviesa y expande las páginas del libro en su materialidad impresa con la intención de construir un puente entre la música (hip hop, la literatura (Punga e Águas da cabaça y la tecnología (la Radio Comunitaria de Heliópolis. De este modo, Elizandra establece una presencia política que borronea e impugna la percepción que la sociedad tiene respecto a los habitantes de la periferia como sujetos definidos por la falta. Sostengo además que no es posible entender la obra de Elizandra o la actual periferia brasileña si no se toman en cuenta una multiplicidad de elementos, tales como: los mecanismos alternativos de comunicación comunitaria, la cultura hip hop y los saraus. Mi argumento final es que su libro Águas da cabaça desafía una centralidad masculina que se ha tornado predominante en las narrativas sobre la periferia, mientras que señala una alianza transatlántica con otras escritoras de la diáspora africana.

  17. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierantoni, F

    1979-07-01

    Year 1978 in Italy was marked by a standstill in the nuclear energy field. The decisions previously made for the installation of eight 1000 MWe LWR-type reactors could not be acted upon because of the opposition of local authorities and lack of Government power. The construction site at Montalto di Castro (two BWR reactors) was ope ned with difficulty, whereas the decision to install a plant in Mo use equipped with two PWR reactor was postponed. The new presidents of ENEL and CNEN were appointed in January this year and the appointments of the new Boards of Directors are underway. With regard to CNEN, many political bodies are in agreement on an institutional change which would widen field of activity to include new energy sources, solar energy in particular. This will open a big problem: if CNEN will be no more a 'nuclear body, it could be necessary to transfer all the activities connected to the Regulatory Commission to another separate body to be instituted. In this context, the fast reactor programme has continued to develop under the directives of CIPE, and has concentrated its effort on the following three objectives: the PEC-Reactor, the Creys-Malville Power Plant and research and development, and industrial promotion. These objectives are being pursued with the participation of CNEN, ENEL and Italian industry. CNEN has the role of committing and operating the PEC reactor; it is also charged to perform part of the R and D Italian-French programme and to promote industrial development. ENEL participates in the NERSA Company, owner of the Creys-Malville Plant. Italian industry, with its activities of architect-engineering, designing and manufacturing will participate in the construction of the PEC and of the Italian part (33%) of the Creys-Malville Plant. During the last months of 1978 a consortium (COREY) was set up by CNEN and NIRA which has the purpose of integrating and ensuring the smooth running of Italian efforts in the field of long-term research and

  18. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.

    1979-01-01

    Year 1978 in Italy was marked by a standstill in the nuclear energy field. The decisions previously made for the installation of eight 1000 MWe LWR-type reactors could not be acted upon because of the opposition of local authorities and lack of Government power. The construction site at Montalto di Castro (two BWR reactors) was ope ned with difficulty, whereas the decision to install a plant in Mo use equipped with two PWR reactor was postponed. The new presidents of ENEL and CNEN were appointed in January this year and the appointments of the new Boards of Directors are underway. With regard to CNEN, many political bodies are in agreement on an institutional change which would widen field of activity to include new energy sources, solar energy in particular. This will open a big problem: if CNEN will be no more a 'nuclear body, it could be necessary to transfer all the activities connected to the Regulatory Commission to another separate body to be instituted. In this context, the fast reactor programme has continued to develop under the directives of CIPE, and has concentrated its effort on the following three objectives: the PEC-Reactor, the Creys-Malville Power Plant and research and development, and industrial promotion. These objectives are being pursued with the participation of CNEN, ENEL and Italian industry. CNEN has the role of committing and operating the PEC reactor; it is also charged to perform part of the R and D Italian-French programme and to promote industrial development. ENEL participates in the NERSA Company, owner of the Creys-Malville Plant. Italian industry, with its activities of architect-engineering, designing and manufacturing will participate in the construction of the PEC and of the Italian part (33%) of the Creys-Malville Plant. During the last months of 1978 a consortium (COREY) was set up by CNEN and NIRA which has the purpose of integrating and ensuring the smooth running of Italian efforts in the field of long-term research and

  19. Dronedarone: current evidence for its safety and efficacy in the management of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Schweizer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patrick A Schweizer, Rüdiger Becker, Hugo A Katus, Dierk ThomasDepartment of Cardiology, Medical University Hospital, Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Management of AF includes rate control, rhythm control if necessary, prevention of thromboembolic events, and treatment of the underlying disease. Rate control is usually achieved by pharmacological suppression of calcium currents or by applying β-blockers or digitalis compounds. In contrast, the number of compounds available for rhythm control is still limited. Class Ic agents increase mortality in patients with structural heart disease, and amiodarone harbors an extensive side effect profile despite its efficacy in maintaining sinus rhythm. Furthermore, rhythm control by these compounds has not been shown to reduce patient mortality. Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug that has been developed to provide rhythm and rate control in AF patients with fewer side effects compared with amiodarone. This review primarily focuses on clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety of the novel drug. Conclusions from these studies are critically reviewed, and recommendations for clinical practice are discussed. Dronedarone significantly reduced the incidence of hospitalization due to cardiovascular events or death in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation (ATHENA trial. However, dronedarone was less efficient than amiodarone in maintaining normal sinus rhythm (DIONYSOS trial and is contraindicated in severe or deteriorating heart failure (ANDROMEDA trial. In summary, dronedarone represents a valuable addition to the limited spectrum of antiarrhythmic drugs and is currently recommended in patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF to achieve rate and rhythm control, excluding cases of severe or unstable congestive heart failure.Keywords: dronedarone, atrial fibrillation, antiarrhythmic therapy

  20. Renal function in heart transplant patients after switch to combined mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor and calcineurin inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmschrott M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Helmschrott,1 Rasmus Rivinius,1 Thomas Bruckner,2 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Pneumology, 2Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: A calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression combined with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORs seems to be attractive in patients after heart transplantation (HTX in special clinical situations, for example, in patients with adverse drug effects of prior immunosuppression. Previous studies in patients after HTX detected advantageous effects regarding renal function of a tacrolimus (TAC-based vs cyclosporine-A (CSA-based immunosuppression (in combination with mycophenolate mofetil. However, data regarding renal function after HTX in mTOR/CNI patients remain limited. Aim: Primary end point of the present study was to analyze renal function in HTX patients 1 year after switch to an mTOR/CNI-based immunosuppression. Methods: Data of 80 HTX patients after change to mTOR/CNI-based immunosuppression were retrospectively analyzed. Renal function was assessed by measured serum creatinine and by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR calculated from Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: Twenty-nine patients received mTOR/CSA-based treatment and 51 patients received mTOR/TAC-based therapy. At time of switch and at 1-year follow-up, serum creatinine and eGFR did not differ significantly between both study groups (all P=not statistically significant. Analysis of variances with repeated measurements detected a similar change of renal function in both study groups. Conclusion: The present study detected no significant differences between both mTOR/CNI study groups, indicating a steady state of renal function in HTX patients after switch of immunosuppressive regimen. Keywords: heart transplantation, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, risk factors

  1. Evolution of Italian environmental normative on cogeneration and application of Law 10/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piancastelli, E.

    1992-01-01

    From the Proceedings of the FIRE (Italian Federation for the Rational use of Energy), December 12 - 13, 1991, meeting, separate abstracts were prepared for 2 papers. The main topics were: the planning criteria that went into the formulation of the incentives made possible through Italian legislation on cogeneration plants for on-site power generation and the response obtained from small, medium and large industrial firms; the evaluation of cogeneration plants for on-site power generation to allow prospective cogeneration plant owners to build energy/cost efficient plants and to be able to make a proper assessment of eligible financial assistance which may be obtained through the provisions of energy conservation/environmental protection normatives and laws set up by the Italian National Energy Plan; and the determination of optimal contracts with ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), especially for the case of excess power to be ceded to the national grid

  2. Energy rationalization in the dairy industry through the use of ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faletti, L; Peri, C

    1987-02-01

    This study is one of several made by Italian universities on behalf of ENEL to razionalize the energy demand pattern of some industrial branches and identify, among the various solutions, those that might bring about primary energy saving through the use of electricity. Specifically, this study was undertaken to verify the applicability of certain diaphragm separation technologies such as ultrafiltration in Italy, and to assess their energy-efficiency in terms of primary energy. Research carried out on this subject and the industrial experience of the last years point to the possibility of using ultrafiltration in the manufacture of typical soft cheese in direct competition with conventional technologies. The expected benefits of greater yield and energy saving are of great national economic relevance, since Italy imports both the raw material (milk) and energy resources.

  3. Taipei IAP, Taiwan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-07

    p ILA" .O.. (L.’ SPEED ,t MEAN (KNTS) 14-6 7. 10 1 -16 17- 21 22 -27 28 33 34 40 41 %. WEND DIR. iSP~ tD N ___ _ .1! 3_ _ - N .71 I _2 ._ 1 .- 5. ENE...LL .,. ,L - k -- ... 1 1. 117 L53 561 55 .3 3.2 3.0 151 1.1 .31 13Q 119 120 128 54/ 53. ,. 3.7 2 5 1,4 7_ 12A 137 106 52/ 51 .1 2.2 2.21 .2 ,1 86 86...43 1Z 362 74/ 7l . j~e *b .6 .1 .1 𔃻! 41 97 2101 72/ 71 tL. ,. 13 . .A__._ __.. 16 - L53 88 7./ 69 .2 .1 . 6 23 571 ___o zL -- -- .. A. .. 66/ 65

  4. The current wind energy programme in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Foli, U.; Sesto, E.; Vigotti, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, the main activities in the field of wind energy are carried out by two state-owned organizations, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), and two major wind turbine generator manufacturers, Alenia/WEST and Riva Calzoni, within the framework of a national programme which is supervized by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The work currently under way concerns both wind power plant siting and the development and testing of Italian-made wind turbine generators ranging from 5 to 1500 kW in power. In addition, programmes aimed at constructing wind-farms made up of medium-sized machines (200-400 kW) have recently been launched

  5. Italian electricity supply contracts optimization: ECO computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, G.; Savelli, D.

    1993-01-01

    The ECO (Electrical Contract Optimization) code written in the Microsoft WINDOWS 3.1 language can be handled with a 286 PC and a minimum of RAM. It consists of four modules, one for the calculation of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) tariffs, one for contractual time-of-use tariffs optimization, a table of tariff coefficients, and a module for monthly power consumption calculations based on annual load diagrams. The optimization code was developed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) to help Italian industrial firms comply with new and complex national electricity supply contractual regulations and tariffs. In addition to helping industrial firms determine optimum contractual arrangements, the code also assists them in optimizing their choice of equipment and production cycles

  6. La alucinación verbal tiene la estructura de la holofrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Pava Ossa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ¿En qué sentido la alucinaciónauditiva tiene la estructura dela holofrase? La holofrase es lainterjección, dice Lacan en 1958.En 1964, plantea que cuando enel primer par significante no hayintervalo, se solidifica, “se holofrasea”;a lo que añade que algo delmismo orden ocurre en la psicosis.Esta afirmación aporta elementospara pensar que la alucinación esuna holofrase y cómo a partir deella el psicótico construye su delirioparanoico.Palabras clave: holofrase, interjección,alucinación, discurso, funciónfálica.

  7. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  8. Mochovce Unit 3 and 4 Completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the Feasibility Study was to define in detail all technical, economic, financial, legal and authorization aspects of Mochovce NPP Unit 3 and 4 completion in order to provide Slovenske Elektrarne, a. s. (SE) and ENEL Top Management with all the necessary information for a final decision on Mochovce Unit 3 and 4. Feasibility study has started in January 2006. SE had the commitment to complete the Feasibility Study within 12 months from Closing of SE acquisition (April 2007). In order not to delay completion of Mochovce Unit 3 and 4, SE has decided to perform, in parallel to the Feasibility study, also all design and permitting activities which are required for the completion of Plant. This has involved anticipation of expenses for approximately 700 MSKK (or approx. 20 MEuro). SE was able to announce the positive decision about completion on Mochovce NPP Unit 3 and 4, two months in advance of the deadline.

  9. Control of feedwater composition of BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturla, P.; D'Anna, A.; Borgese, D.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour of fuel element cladding, cycle structural materials and dose rate increase are relevant to physico-chemical characteristics of process coolants and to adopted operational conditions. A careful control of cycle chemistry, during loading and shutdown periods, is necessary to verify material choices, the polishing system and chemistry specifications. For this purpose ENEL carried out some preliminary experimental tests employing continuous control system and samples for specific analytical determinations. The cycle points checked during about two months were: main condensate; condensate after polishing system; outlet of low pressure heathers; final feedwater; inlet and outlet of clean-up system; drains to condenser. The physico-chemical analysis were related to corrosion product levels (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co) and water chemistry (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen etc.). The preliminary results allow to express some considerations about sampling procedures, detection limits and reliability of analytical employed methods. The acquisition data time and some morphological oxide pictures are also showed. (author)

  10. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  11. Computer aided planning of distribution systems and connection with medium term load forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Salvatore, F.; Grattieri, W.; Insinga, F.; Malafarina, L.; Mazzoni, M.; Nicola, G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to perform planning studies on HV (40-l50 kV), MV and LV networks, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has developed a computation system composed of a set of integrated programs which utilize the information stored in several data bases, with the aim of: providing energy consumption forecasts for each area of the country; transferring consumption for each area to the distribution network nodes and to evaluating the electric demand by using a statistical power/energy correlation model; analyzing several network development alternatives and selecting the optimum development plan by comparing the overall costs (investments, operation, risk). In order to make its utilization by planners easier, the computation system will be operated with interactive and graphic procedures made available by the use of graphic work stations. This report describes the main objectives and basic hypotheses assumed in the preparation of the computation system, as well as, the system's general architecture

  12. Past and present role of fast breeder reactors in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, G.; Cicognani, G.; Ghilardotti, G.; Musso, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the programme that is under development in Italy for fast breeder reactors. The Italian engagement in the construction of the Creys-Malville plant is discussed as well as the work at present under way in R and D activities and on the PEC reactor. The roles of the different organizations involved in the fast breeder reactor programme are also considered with particular attention to the activities carried out by AGIP NUCLEARE, CNEN, ENEL, NIRA and by the manufacturing companies. An overall picture of the different agreements between European countries is also given with reference to the construction of the Creys-Malville plant and to research and industrial development activities. (author)

  13. Fossil fuel power plant combustion control: Research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasini, S.; Trebbi, G.

    1991-01-01

    Electric power demand forecasts for Italy to the year 2000 indicate an increase of about 50% which, due to the current moratorium on nuclear energy, should be met entirely by fossil fuel power plants. Now, there is growing public concern about possible negative health impacts due to the air pollution produced through the combustion of fossil fuels. In response to these concerns, ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) is investing heavily in air pollution abatement technology R ampersand D. The first phase involves the investigation of pollution mechanisms in order to develop suitable mathematical models and diagnostic techniques. The validity of the models is being tested through through measurements made by sophisticated instrumentation placed directly inside the combustion chambers of steam generator systems. These are allowing engineers to develop improved combustion control methods designed to reduce air pollution at source

  14. The cost of electricity distribution in Italy: a quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the cost of medium and low tension electricity distribution in Italy. An econometric analysis of the cost function is proposed, on the basis of data on 147 zones of the dominant firm, ENEL. Data are available only for 1996, which has forced to carry out only a cross-section OLS analysis. The econometric estimate shows the existence of significant scale economies, that the current organisational structure does not exploit. On this basis is also possible to control to what extent exogenous cost drivers affect costs. The role of numerous exogenous factors considered seems however quite limited. The area of the distribution zone and an indicator of quality are the only elements that appear significant from an economic viewpoint [it

  15. DUELOS FELICES, TEORÍAS ÁGILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión de los límites y los usos posibles de una categoría periférica en la obra deAlfonso Párez-Agote, la del duelo, el artículo hace un "elogio aplicado" de una forma de "hacerteoría investigando" (teoría caliente, teoría de alcance intermedio. El elogio aplicado, pormandato de coherencia, solo puede ser tal si estira los usos de la categoría en Pérez-Agote, si loslleva más allá. Así, además de proponer desindividualizar o socializar el concepto de duelo, eltexto lanza una hipótesis sencilla: que el duelo puede ocupar existencias colectivas completas enel espacio y en el tiempo y que esas existencias colectivas son sociales, pero no sociales comocualquier otra.

  16. Nacimiento de niños pequeños para la edad gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Elena Couceiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Señor editor: Ya que la prevalencia de niños pequeños para la edad gestacional (PEG es casi siempre inversamente proporcional al grado de desarrollo socioeconómico,aquí se presentan resultados de una investigación sobre todos los recién nacidos (40 454 entre 2002 y 2009 enel Hospital Público Materno Infantil de la provincia de Salta, al norte de Argentina, una de las zonas menos desarrolladas del país. En el último decenio nacieron, en promedio,30 000 niños al año: 68% en el sector público y 47% en este hospital. El objetivo fue determinar la influencia de factores preconcepcionales, concepcionales y del proceso de atención a madres residentes en el municipio capital en el peso para la edad gestacional de sus hijos...

  17. PROMOVENDO A ALFABETIZAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA POR MEIO DE ENSINO INVESTIGATIVO NO ENSINO MÉDIO DE QUÍMICA: CONTRIBUIÇÕES PARA A FORMAÇÃO INICIAL DOCENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara de Souza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ese trabajo analizó los niveles investigativos de una secuenciadidáctica y los indicadores de Alfabetización Científica promovidosen estudiantes de química de la Secundaria, en clases elaboradas yministradas por una licencianda participante de un grupo de reflexiónorientada. El trabajo también permitió comprender las posiblescontribuciones de las acciones desarrolladas para la formación inicialde la licencianda participante. Mediante los análisis, fue posible inferirque las clases contemplaron características investigativas e indicadoresque evidenciaron la promoción de Alfabetización Científica (AC enel aula. La investigación tuvo resultado satisfactorio pues los alumnosse involucraron con las investigaciones y las discusiones propuestas yla licencianda tuvo la oportunidad de elaborar y evaluar secuencias declases, contribuyendo significativamente para su formación docente.

  18. Exploratory trend and pattern analysis of Caorso plant through the Tenda program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, P.; Tabellini, M.

    1990-01-01

    The eleven years of operating experience of Caorso NPP supply a consistent and homogeneous data set of events involving safety-related systems and components. The above data, periodically transmitted to the Italian regulatory body (ENEA/DISP) by the utility (ENEL), as required by the italian rules and regulations, are collected into a computerised Data Bank (SEME). A PC software package (TENDA), which uses, as input, the codes from the SEME Data Bank, was set-up inside ENEA/DISP, with the aim to perform automatic Trend and pattern Analysis. Graphic software was also utilized for a more self-explaining presentation of the results. They are being utilized as input for subsequent studies related to other plants (e.g. PRA and living PRA as well). Plans for the utilization of the TENDA program for new plants and in the conventional area are now under consideration

  19. Did the Italian Decision Makers Understand that Nuclear Is Not Business as Usual?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1950s, the confrontation on the nationalization of the electricity power system and the belief that nuclear energy would reach a dominant share in electric power production induced many Italian players to enter the nuclear business. After the nationalization of the electricity power system in 1962, even ENEL was not interested in continuing building nuclear plants. After the 1973 oil crisis, an ambitious nuclear program was issued, which omitted any choice on technologies, any information on plant siting and on the sharing of responsibilities among operators. The only decision taken was the commissioning of a boiling water reactor plant, which was never completed: after the 1987 referendum the Italian Parliament, besides stopping the building of new nuclear plants, closed the existing units. The 2008 farcical attempt to revamp nuclear power was defeated by the 2011 referendum.

  20. Power plant simulation: Experience and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabino, M; Durando, S [Bailey Esacontrol SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    1991-04-01

    In the recent years, a growing number of thermal power plants have been equipped with digital distributed control systems (DCS). This paper, following a brief introduction to the architecture of a DCS, points out how the simulation techniques can be integrated within a DCS, allowing either the building up of training simulators or giving the operator adequate help. The issue describes a new concept in the architecture of 'real time' training simulators developed by ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) and Krupp Atlas Elektronik, together with Bailey Esacontrol for the Piacenza and Port Kelang (Malaysia) training centres. New developments and new architectures are considered for the integration of the control system with process simulation, aimed at global automation and optimization of industrial processes.

  1. Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Rouaud, P.O.; Mairet, C.

    2006-01-01

    The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

  2. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications. PMID:28788372

  3. UNA PERSPECTIVA NEUROCIENTÍFICA SOBRE LA HISTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Amoruso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, el desarrollo y la puesta en marcha delas modernas técnicas de neuroimagen en el campo de laneurociencia cognitiva han proporcionado una nueva vía deacercamiento al estudio experimental de algunos trastornosmentales. Dentro de esta perspectiva, denominada por algunosautores “neuropsiquiatría cognitiva”, la histeria (o trastornode conversión, de acuerdo con la clasificación psiquiátricaactual ha cobrado un amplio protagonismo. De acuerdo conlo anterior, el objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en introducirestudios pioneros basados en una perspectiva neurocientíficade la histeria. Conviene destacar que, si bien estosaportan evidencia significativa sobre algunas de las áreascerebrales y las disfunciones cognitivas comprometidas enel mencionado trastorno, los resultados obtenidos a la fechadistan aún de ser concluyentes.

  4. La crianza como objeto de estudio actual desde el modelo transaccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina García

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es revisar cómo ha evolucionado la investigación enel tema de la crianza y cuáles son, desde el modelo transaccional, las perspectivas y metodologíasactuales. Este modelo plantea relaciones recíprocas entre padres o madres e hijos o hijas, considerandola influencia biológica en relación con la experiencia vital, para llegar a una teoría más complejasobre el desarrollo que la propuesta en las primeras investigaciones. Revisamos la importancia denuevas herramientas estadísticas, como la modelización matemática, que permiten ampliar los tiposde preguntas y los análisis, para aportar evidencia empírica a las hipótesis que se plantean.

  5. Responsabilidad Social Empresarial en el Sector Servicios de Mérida, Yucatán (Corporate social responsability for the service industry sector in Mérida, Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Noemí Ojeda López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir el gradode Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE de las empresasde servicios afiliadas a la Confederación Patronal de laRepública Mexicana (COPARMEX de Mérida, Yucatán,mediante el análisis de cuatro dimensiones: ética empresarial,preservación del medio ambiente, calidad de vida enel trabajo y vinculación empresa-sociedad. Se puede afirmarque, aunque la ética empresarial es la dimensión con mayordesarrollo, la RSE no es una práctica cotidiana.   ABSTRACT This work aims to describe the entrepreneurial socialresponsibility reach (RSE of service companies affiliated tothe Mexican Management Confederation (COPARMEX inMerida, Mexico, by considering four aspects: entrepreneurialethics, environmental preservation, work quality of lifeand company-society interaction. Although entrepreneurialethic is the most developed of the above four, RSE is not awidespread practice.

  6. Information security of remote-reading energy meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts within the field of IT security. The ITSEC security and the ITSEM methods given by the European Community are used as a base. The EC INFOSEC research programme has included the project 'PER DOMUM' which focuses on remote reading of energy meters. The project is a co-operation between TACS (U.K.), GPP (Germany), CESI (Italy) and ENEL (Italy). SP has during the spring and summer of 1994 participated in the concluding of the project. Threats, security functions and security mechanisms are given for remote reading of energy meters. All of the listed functions and mechanisms do not origin from the 'PER DOMUM' project, but are the experiences of SP. The security evaluation is explained in two ways. One description of the required by ITSEM is given. Another description is given of which deliverables are required to perform the evaluation

  7. Europe: a new start for the nuclear energy. BIP-Enerpresse Debate - February 10, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains a synthesis of a debate organised in the context of a gas supply crisis which leads some countries to launch nuclear reactor projects (such as in the United Kingdom) or to carry on their program (France, China). The participants, all representing important French actors (Areva, EDF, GDF Suez, Enel France), are commenting the statement of the French government announcing the construction of a second EPR in France, the evolution of the European institutional context, the legal environment in the United Kingdom and in Italy, the competitiveness and investment issues. They also answer questions about Areva's activity in Europe, the fourth generation reactors, the needs for skilled engineers, technicians and workers, the new start of nuclear energy in Italy

  8. Systems reliability Benchmark exercise part 2-Contributions by the participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1986-01-01

    The report describes aims, rules and results of the Systems Reliability Benchmark Exercise, which has been performed in order to assess methods and procedures for reliability analysis of complex systems and involved a large number of European organizations active in NPP safety evaluation. The exercise included both qualitative and quantitative methods and was structured in such a way that separation of the effects of uncertainties in modelling and in data on the overall spread was made possible. This second part of the report is devoted to the documentation of the single contributions by the participant teams (Swedish, GRS, ENEA, NIRA and ENEL, EWE, EdF, Risoe, KWU/IA, ECN, KEMA/KUL, and Framatome contributions)

  9. Qatar chooses Snam to market LNG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Qatar has chosen Italy's Snam SpA as its European partner to sell liquefied natural gas to Europe from a $4.8 billion joint venture project involving supergiant North offshore gas field. State owned Qatar General petroleum Corp. (QGPC) and Snam signed an agreement in Doha to create a joint company owned 65% by QGPC and the remainder by Snam. Italy's state electricity monopoly, ENEL, which is seeking Qatari gas a fuel for its power plants, may later acquire part of Snam's interest in the project. The joint venture will transport and market North LNG to Europe. Exports to Europe by Snam via Italy, to begin in 1997, are expected to be 283 bcf/year at first and may climb to 459 bcf/year, depending upon demand

  10. Structural behaviour of the GAMMA 60 prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchetta, M.; Matano, F. [ENEA C.R.E., Rome (Italy); Botta, G.; Cavaliere, M. [ENEL C.R.E.,Milano (Italy); Doman, G.S.; Golinelli, S. [West V., Rome (Italy); Viani, S. [ISMES (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    A joint test campaign started in April 1993 on the GAMMA 60 broad range variable speed, yaw controlled, 1500 kW wind turbine prototype, operating at the ENEL test field of Alta Nurra - Sardinia. As part of the test campaign the structural behaviour of the machine has been investigated and the aeroelastic simulation of the machine using GAROS code has been improved and verified with available data. The experimental loads, measured with a number of strain gages at various locations in the rotor, yaw actuator and tower have been compared, as far as possible, with the design loads. No major structural problems have been detected during operation, while measured loads and stress levels are generally comparable with the design assumptions. In addition, substantial experience in the use of the code has been gained, increasing confidence level of predictions. (author)

  11. La etiología de la migración internacional: privación relativa y demanda laboral (el ejemplo tamaulipeco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las teorías de privación relativa y demanda laboralofrecen una explicación antagónica de la etiología de los procesos migratorios internacionales. La primera acentúa los factores colocados del lado de la oferta laboral y enfatiza las fuerzas de expulsión; mientras que la última subraya los elementos situados dellado de la demanda laboral y resalta las fuerzas de atracción. Sin embargo, ambas ofrecen una explicación complementaria de los mismos. En este artículo se parte de los postulados de las teorías de privación relativa y demanda laboral para entender por qué los jornaleros de Tamaulipas emigran a los Estados Unidos, tanto de modo ilegal como con visas H-2A, en busca empleos temporales enel sector agrario.

  12. Substitution of efficient electro-technologies for thermal end-uses to traditional processes. Screening of possibilities and applications under study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menga, P.; Grattieri, W.; Korn, G.; Malinverni, R.

    1996-01-01

    ENEL's long-lasting commitment in rationalizing the energy end-uses, has lead to the assessment of the potential for the substitution, in the field of thermal uses, of traditional processes with efficient electro-technologies. The evaluation has been performed by taking in account the advantages for the user, in terms of the reduction in operating costs (energy included), for the electricity industry (increase in kWh sales), and for the Society (savings in primary energy consumption). The analysis allowed to identify many applications for which the primary energy saving is jointly obtained with significant extra-energy advantages for the end user. In order to validate the effectiveness of innovative electro-technologies, a demonstration activity, by means of pilot plants, is in progress. (author)

  13. Comparison of experimental techniques for measuring fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels by performance of a comparative round-robin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huthmann, H.; Akhurst, K.N.; Bethmont, M.; Picker, C.; Rongen, H.J.M. van; Soulat, P.

    1987-01-01

    The CEC fast breeder coordinating committee, activities group 3 Materials of the working group for codes and standards, has recently examined existing data on the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels. As a result, the committee decided to sponsor a round robin test programme aimed at comparing experimental techniques and assisting in establishing a standard test method for these steels. The contract for this programme was placed with Interatom, who have subcontracted with CEA-Saclay, CEGB-Leatherhead, TNO-Apeldoorn and UKAEA-Risley. Additionally CISE/ENEL-Milano and EdF-Les Renardieres took part in the round robin. This final report presents a common evaluation and discussion of the results gained by the different laboratories

  14. Optimal dewatering schemes in the foundation design of an electronuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeati, G.; Gambolati, G.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model combined with an optimization approach based on linear mixed integer programming is developed and applied to assist in the design of the dewatering system for the electronuclear plant to be built by the Italian Electric Agency (ENEL) in Trino Vercellese, northwestern Italy. The foundations site is encompassed by a 25- to 35-m deep plastic wall with the purpose of protecting the unconfined aquifer from the significant water table lowering required by the construction project. To reduce further the propagation of the depression cone a large amount of the water pumped out is reinjected through ad hoc recharge ditches. The finite element optimization model includes both the natural and the artificial constraints and provides several optimal withdrawal strategies for the dewatering system design concerning the distribution of the abstraction wells and the corresponding pumping rates. Physical and economical objective functions are explored and the related solutions are discussed

  15. The story of the European fast reactor cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a condensed history of European cooperation in the large breeder power plants with powers in excess of 1000 MWe. The beginning, in 1973, was marked by the so-called Utilities' Convention signed by EdF, RWE, and ENEL on the construction of Superphenix and SNR 2. In 1977, cooperation began among the reactor vendors and R and D organizations in France, Germany and Italy as well as Belgium and the Netherlands. After the British had joined in 1984, planning for the European Fast Reactor, EFR, was started in 1988. The conceptual design phase of the 1500 MWe breeder power plant covered a period of five years and was concluded with an economic assessment and a technical safety analysis of EFR in 1983. A number of ongoing studies are being conducted within a specific EFR program. (orig.) [de

  16. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-10-31

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  17. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  18. Nucleco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S.; Gandellini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of Nucleco (an AGIP-ENEA joint company) are presented. The Company approved by CIPE was established in 1980 with the main task of providing the management of low and medium activity wastes on national bases. Nucleco is also active in plant decontamination and decommissioning. Nucleco serves the market both of th small operators (hospitals, laboratories, diagnostic centres, industries) and of the big waste producers like ENEA and ENEL. The management policy and the operational procedures of the Company are described in detail. The headquarter of Nucleco and the main plants are located at ENEA Casaccia Center, near Rome. The Company disposes of fixed and mobile infrastructures and plants, the latter being used to provide services at the customers' sites. The Company is active in the field of the plant design in the area of the back-end of the fuel cycle, with special regard to spent fuel transportation and storage

  19. La aplicación del marketing relacional en mercados masivos de América Latina: estudio de casos en el Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wakabayashi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El marketing relacional surge en un intento por superar las limitaciones del marketing transaccionaly tiene como objetivo el desarrollo y mantenimiento de relaciones a largo plazocon los clientes mediante la satisfacción y creación de un mejor valor del mismo. Sin embargo,en la práctica no se conoce con precisión la forma en que se ha aplicado en mercados deconsumo masivo en América Latina, específicamente en el Perú. En vista de ello, se realizóun estudio de casos múltiple en tres empresas en la ciudad de Lima-Perú, siendo el resultado más importante evidencia de la coexistencia de los paradigmas transaccional y relacional enel campo aplicativo del marketing y no la esperada evolución del primero hacia el segundo.

  20. DETERMINACIÓN DE ALGUNOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS EN TRES MORFOTIPOS DE COCONA (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana E. Cardona J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la presencia y la estructura(mediante el uso de técnicas espectroscópicasy cromatográficas de algunos metabolitossecundarios en tres morfotiposdel fruto de cocona (Solanum sessiliflorumDunal; Solanaceae cultivados en eldepartamento del Guaviare. Se destacóla presencia de ácido p-cumárico, ácidop-hidroxidihidrocumárico, naringenina,salicilato de metilo, hidrocarburos decadena larga, ácidos grasos y sus ésteresmetílicos y etílicos. Algunos de estoscompuestos se acumulan únicamente enel epicarpio de la fruta. La comparaciónde metabolitos volátiles permitió establecerdiferencias químicas entre los tresmorfotipos de la fruta.

  1. Arquitectura defensiva protohistórica. Perspectivas metodológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo López García

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura defensiva es entendida como un fenómeno complejo enel que intervienen multitud de factores. Estructuras como las murallas fueron sometidas acontinuas reconstrucciones y reelaboraciones en relación a las necesidades, los gustos o lascapacidades técnicas de cada momento histórico. En este texto se propone un método integradordonde tiene cabida la exhaustividad de la toma de datos propuesta desde tendencias neopositivistas, el vínculo arquitectónico entre arquitectura y paisajes, sin desdeñar los aspectos simbólicos y culturales intrínsecos al edificio. La intención última es la creación de modelos y tipos susceptibles de comparación, estableciendo en la medida de lo posible patrones cronológicos y culturales repetitivos.

  2. Welcome on the Slovenske elektrarne board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselova, J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the aims of Human Resources Division of Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. is to ensure suitable working conditions for new comers for their fast adaptation in the new working environment, in our company. On the other hand, achieving the attitude of an employee, which may be defined by a phrase 'He/she is the Group Member' belongs to the priorities of the Enel Leadership Model. We will not reach for this attitude and behaviour corresponding to it on the first day, when the new comer starts working. Effective set up of the whole adaptation process in he first thee months and following steps are very important, so that we may show the new employee that we do care about him/her. (author)

  3. CEZ considering building a power station in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    General Manager of Czech concern CEZ, Martin Roman expecting that his company would probably not succeed in tender for Slovenske elektrarne (SE) shares said for BBC that CEZ was considering the possibility of building a thermal power station in Slovakia that would use Polish coal. He made this statement in a time when an approval by the Slovak cabinet was the only missing step to complete the approval process of contractual documentation related to privatization of SE through Italian Enel. The cabinet only discusses the issue on Wednesday as Slovak Minister of Finance raised objections to its contents. Ivan Miklos asked for guarantees that the state would not be responsible for any future risks resulting from long term contracts concluded by SE

  4. Draft resolution aimed at creating an inquiry commission related to the EPR sector - Nr 1251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baupin, Denis; Pompili, Barbara; Rugy, Francois De; Abeille, Laurence; Alauzet, Eric; Allain, Brigitte; Attard, Isabelle; Auroi, Danielle; Bonneton, Michele; Cavard, Christophe; Coronado, Sergio; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Mamere, Noel; Massonneau, Veronique; Molac, Paul; Roumegas, Jean-Louis; Sas, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This draft resolution is based on several problems and issues raised by the construction of the EPR reactor in Flamanville and dealing with the perspectives for this specific sector. The authors outline that the construction may finally take almost twice as long as initially foreseen, that the budget has been multiplied by two and a half, that the safety of this installation is still a matter of questions (notably for the control-command system, for the resistance to a plane crash, and with respect with lessons learned from the Fukushima accident), and that the involved partners (GDF Suez, ENEL, Centrica, Siemens) are becoming always more hesitant. They evoke the problems faced by other EPRs under construction in Finland and in China, and state that export perspectives seem to lead to a failure. The draft resolution proposes the creation of an inquiry commission to examine these issues

  5. Cogeneration in Italian agricultural industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfitto, E.; Jacoboni, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the technical, environmental and economical feasibility of an industrial cogeneration system which incorporates combined gas-steam cycles and a biomass/agricultural waste sludge fired fluidized bed combustion system. It cites the suitability of the use of fluidized bed combustion for the combustion of biomass and agricultural waste sludges - high combustion efficiency, uniform and relatively low combustion temperatures (850 C) within the combustion chamber to reduce scaling, reduced nitrogen oxide and micro-pollutant emissions, the possibility to control exhaust gas acidity through the injection of calcium carbonates, the possibility of the contemporaneous feeding of different fuels. Reference is made to test results obtained with an ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) pilot plant fired by vineyard wastes. Attention is given to an analysis of the fuel's physical-chemical characteristics and the resulting flue gas chemical composition and ash characteristics. Comparisons are made with legal release limits

  6. PISC II: parametric studies. The purpose of the PISC II parametric studies programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.

    1989-09-01

    The results of the PISC I round robin test of the ASME type procedure showed a very large dispersion. The amplitude of response of all defects varied very much among the teams from the 27 laboratories considered for the evaluation of results. Scatter on detection and sizing in PISC I was such that discussions started on the reasons for such a phenomenon when exactly the same procedure was used by all teams. The observation of two teams' results (JRC Ispra and ENEL Piacenza, Italy) induced the NDE Ispra laboratories to insist on the possible importance of equipment characteristics. All PISC members insisted on specific studies of the influence of defect characteristics as well as the role of cladding. These three chapters were the leading PIS laboratory exercises called Parametric Studies

  7. Calculations concerning the capability of passive recombiners to control hydrogen concentration in the containment of an advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fineschi, F.; Vanini, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Constructions of the University of Pisa has developed a computer code, HOCRA, which is able to make an initial evaluation of the capability of catalytic recombiners to remove hydrogen from the atmosphere of the safety containments of nuclear reactors in accident conditions. The code allows the analysis of the average concentration transient of hydrogen in a generic compartment of a safety containment in a nuclear reactor. The software is structured into two groups. The first, mode-1, analyses the average concentration in all the free volume of the containment before a possible venting., whereas the second, mode-2, analyses the average concentration transient in a containment compartment, assuming input and output flow rates into and from the compartment itself The first part of this paper outlines the physical and mathematical model of the code, the second part reports calculations made for an advanced PWR in cooperation with ENEL. (author)

  8. Analysis of SGTR in AP-600 by RELAP5/Mod.3.2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Fruttuoso, G.; Galassi, G.M.; Oriolo, F.; Bassanelli, I.

    2000-01-01

    Five SGTR (Steam Generator Tube Rupture) sequences assumed to occur in the AP-600 system have been analysed in the present framework. These came from PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) studies performed at ENEL in Rome; however, the bounding properties or the realism of the sequences are not discussed hereafter. Rather, the attention is focused toward the thermohydraulic performance of the system. In all the considered sequences, the break is a double ended at the top bend of a single U-tube: this is done to maximise the release to the environment. The break model in the code input deck consists of two pipes having the cross section area equal to that of a single U-tube. These are connected to the primary side in the position of the steam generator plena and to the secondary side at the bottom of the riser zone separating the U-tubes bundle from the steam separator. (author)

  9. The strategies of European energy operators. Which strategic and capitalistic evolutions for the sector on a medium term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at describing the current regulatory context of energy markets in Europe and the degree of openness to competition, at analysing all figures concerning electricity and natural gas in different countries (production, consumption, balance of trade), at analysing development strategies of electricity providers and gas operators and at assessing their strengths and weaknesses, at comparing financial performance of leader groups and at assessing their financial flexibility, and at anticipating the reconfiguration of the sector on a medium term. Fifteen energy companies or operators have been analysed: Centrica, CEZ, E.ON, EDF, EDP, Enel, ENI, Fortum, Gas Natural, GDF Suez, Iberdrola, RWE, SSE, Vattenfall, Verbund

  10. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Montanino, G.

    1992-01-01

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  11. Computer aided planning of distribution systems and connection with medium term load forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    di Salvatore, F; Grattieri, W; Insinga, F; Malafarina, L; Mazzoni, M; Nicola, G

    1991-12-31

    In order to perform planning studies on HV (40-l50 kV), MV and LV networks, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has developed a computation system composed of a set of integrated programs which utilize the information stored in several data bases, with the aim of: providing energy consumption forecasts for each area of the country; transfering consumption for each area to the distribution network nodes and to evaluating the electric demand by using a statistical power/energy correlation model; analyzing several network development alternatives and selecting the optimum development plan by comparing the overall costs (investments, operation, risk). In order to make its utilization by planners easier, the computation system will be operated with interactive and graphic procedures made available by the use of graphic work stations. This report describes the main objectives and basic hypotheses assumed in the preparation of the computation system, as well as, the system`s general architecture.

  12. Subjetivación de la experiencia violenta en el transtorno por estrés postraumático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alfredo Muñiz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A través de este estudio, se buscó establecer el estado de SaludMental de las personas víctimas de violencia armada en el Departamentodel Chocó (Colombia. Específicamente se buscó comprenderel modo en que se ha subjetivado o ha sido integradapsíquicamente la experiencia violenta. La metodología es el deestudio de caso. El estudio es particularista y descriptivo se basó enel razonamiento inductivo a partir del manejo de datos que para elcaso provienen de entrevistas clínicas puesta al servicio de lainvestigación. La mirada cualitativa del problema indica que elnarcisismo protege al sujeto de la experiencia de muerte realimplicado en el trauma por violencia, la lógica paranoide se estableceen relación al Otro, y el repliegue sobre el núcleo familiar se dacomo consecuencia de estos dos aspectos.

  13. A European collaboration research programme to study and test large scale base isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renda, V.; Verzeletti, G.; Papa, L.

    1995-01-01

    The improvement of the technology of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms, as those for base isolation and energy dissipation, needs of testing capability for large scale models of structures integrated with these mechanisms. These kind experimental tests are of primary importance for the validation of design rules and the setting up of an advanced earthquake engineering for civil constructions of relevant interest. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission offers the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment located at Ispra - Italy, as a focal point for an international european collaboration research programme to test large scale models of structure making use of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms. A collaboration contract, opened to other future contributions, has been signed with the national italian working group on seismic isolation (Gruppo di Lavoro sull's Isolamento Sismico GLIS) which includes the national research centre ENEA, the national electricity board ENEL, the industrial research centre ISMES and producer of isolators ALGA. (author). 3 figs

  14. Research on PCPV for BWR - physical model as design tool - main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, E.; Verdelli, G.

    1975-01-01

    ISMES (Experimental Institute for Models and Structures) is now carrying out a series of tests on physical models as a part of a research programme sponsored by DSR (Studies and Research Direction) of ENEL (Italian State Electricity Board) on behalf of CPN (Nuclear Design and Construction Centre) of ENEL with the aim to experience a 'Thin'-walled PCPV for 'BWR'. The physical model, together with the mathematical model and the rheological model of the materials, is intended as a meaningful design tool. The mathematical model covers the overall structural design phase, (geometries) and the linear behaviour, whereas the physical model, besides of a global information to be compared with the results of the mathematical model, supplies a number of data as the non-linear behaviour up to failure and local conditions (penetration area etc.) are concerned. The aim of the first phase of this research programme is to make a comparison between the calculation and experiment tests as the thicknesses of the wall and the bottom slab are concerned, whereas the second phase of the research deals with the behaviour of the removable lid and its connection with the main structure. To do this, a model in scale 1:10 has been designed which symmetrically reproduces with respect to the equator, the bottom part of the structure. In the bottom slab the penetrations of the prototype design are reproduced, whereas the upper slab is plain. This paper describes the model, and illustrates the main results, underlining the different behaviour of the upper and bottom slabs up to collapse

  15. Mujeres en la pianística del siglo XX en el noreste mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, a través de los siglos, como en muchosotros países, el papel tradicional de la mujer fue ser esposa,madre y ama de casa; por lo tanto, no tenían accesoa la educación. Las jóvenes de familias pudientesestudiaban artes y música, en particular como entretenimiento.La música no se consideraba una profesión, nohabía escuelas de música y algunas academias o maestrosparticulares llenaban el vacío. En este contexto el méritoespecial es para aquellas mujeres que tomaron la decisiónde participar en la vida social, cultural y políticade la sociedad en que vivían. Su aporte a la educación,a la difusión de arte musical y, en particular, pianísticoen la región de noreste, no se ha valorado lo suficientea pesar del gran empeño, entusiasmo y entrega que ellasdemostraron. En este artículo se abordará el papel de lamujer en la pianística del siglo XX en el noreste de México,a partir de los siguientes cuestionamientos: ¿Quiénesfueron estas mujeres que realizaron la labor educativa enel ámbito musical y pianístico en el noreste de México enel siglo XX? ¿Quiénes fueron las mujeres que hicieron delpiano su profesión y resultaron de gran valía en la difusiónde arte de piano y del repertorio pianístico en la zonade referencia?

  16. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Europe, and covers the following companies, all among the largest electricity companies in Europe: EdF, Enel, E.ON, GDF Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, RWE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  17. SPES-2, AP600 intergral system test S01007 2 inch CL to core make-up tank pressure balance line break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchiani, M.; Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M. [SIET S.p.A. Piacenza (Italy)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica), ENEA (Enter per le numove Technlogie, l` Energia e l` Ambient), Siet (Societa Informazioni Esperienze Termoidraulich) and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behaviour of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with passive and active safety systems and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the boration capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behaviour. Cold and hot shakedown tests have been performed on the facility to check the characteristics of the plant before starting the experimental campaign. The paper first presents a description of the SPES-2 test facility then the main results of S01007 test {open_quotes}2{close_quotes} Cold Leg (CL) to Core Make-up Tank (CMT) pressure balance line break{close_quotes} are reported and compared with predictions performed using RELAP5/mod3/80 obtained by ANSALDO through agreement with U.S.N.R.C. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The SPES-2 nodalization and all the calculations here presented were performed by ANSALDO and sponsored by ENEL as a part of pre-test predictions for SPES-2.

  18. Information letter 2. Information about operation of plants SE-NPP Bohunice and SE-VYZ during February 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    In this leaflet results of exploitation of four units of the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs are presented. The electricity and heat production in February 2005 are reviewed. Within a February 2005 the electricity was produced: 217 GWh (block 1), 281 GWh (block 2), 277 GWh (block 3), 282 GWh (block 4), totally 1057 GWh, and 2271 GWh within a January - February 2005. The heat production in February 2005 was 266 506 GJ, and within a January - February 2005 it was produced 531 849 GJ of heat. On February 17 Slovak minister of economy Pavol Rusko and general director of ENEL Paolo Scaroni signed the agreement on acquisition of 66 per cent of Slovenske elektrarne (SE) by Italian ENEL for 840 million Eur. SE has capacity of around 7 GW (83 per cent of total Slovakian capacity). In 2004 SE generated 26 TWh of electricity. Processing and storage of radioactive wastes in Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Spent Fuel and Rad-waste Management (SE-VYZ) is presented. Since beginning of this year 58 fibre-concrete containers have been filled up in Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes. Twenty-three pieces of fibre-concrete containers were processed into fibre-concrete containers in Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes (BSC RAO) in February 2005. Twenty fibre-concrete containers were stored into Republic storage of radioactive wastes (RU RAO). Total number in RU RAO reached 830 pieces of fibre-concrete containers, which represent 11.53 per cent of storage capacity (7200 containers). Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes was put into active operation just before five years

  19. 'Thin walled' concept and a new top lid applied to the Scandinavian PCRV for a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotto, F.L.

    1975-01-01

    This research is carried out in the frame of an agreement between AB ATOMENERGI of Sweden and ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica) of Italy, for an exchange of information in the field of PCPV for BWR, and takes as a reference the Scandinavian solution as far as the thermal insulation system and the geometry are concerned, proposing new solutions for the prestressed concrete structure (namely the Author's concept of thin walls and a new concept of top lid). The proposed top lid sealing system solution is in line with the one adopted for the conventional steel pressure vessel enclosures; furthermore the prestressed concrete lid is restricted to the prestressed concrete structure to form a continuous contrete structure, in line with th PCPV conventional solutions for gas reactors. The paper describes in detail the selected design philosophy that is slightly different from the one defined by the Scandinavian project. In fact, as far as the design limits are concerned, it refers mainly to steel pressure vessel philosophy and, as to the concrete behaviour, to the design philosophy proposed by the author for the PCPV 'thin walled' structures for gas-cooled power reactors. Rheological, mathematical and physical models had been suitably devised in order to check the reliability of the proposed assumption. This paper therefore, will also give a brief description of said tools and the main results acquired at the time of the conference, and technical and economical considerations made to support the interest of the research, showing the relevant cut down of the costs. The comparative reference steel pressure vessel belongs to Mark III ENEL VI and VIII BW plant to which design and construction the author gives his contribution

  20. Modeling and Observing the Role of Wind-Waves in Lake-Climate Interactions on Titan using the T104 Flyby of Kraken Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lorenz, R. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Karatekin, O.; Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Poggiali, V.

    2014-12-01

    Punga Mare and a transient radar signature has been observed over the surface of Ligeia Mare. SAR images also reveal morphologies consistent with secondary coastlines, most notably at Ontario Lacus and Ligeia Mare. In addition to the altimetry of Kraken, we will also discuss the potential role of wind-waves in shaping coastal morphologies observed in SAR images.

  1. Conservation et anthropisation en Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen, C.

    2015-01-01

    environmental protection was never so important in our society as it is at the moment. Through their research, these young scientists offer potential solutions by demonstrating to what extent man is connected to this biodiversity and dependant upon it for his survival.By increasing the awareness of this dynamic, we dearly hope to mitigate the harm and facilitate a more accomodating future for the incredible natural resources of our planet. Let us appreciate that this publication would not have come about without the help of many renowned scientists, who agreed to make the selection and the review of the articles. We wish to specifically thank the following individuals :E. Arnhem (WCS, S. Carriere (IRD, N. Gami (ECOFAC V/RAPAC, B. Haurez (ULg/Gembloux, M.-C. Huynen (ULg, C. Julve (Nature+, J. Punga Kumanenge (Université de Kinshasa, C. Vermeulen (ULg/Gemblouxand J. Willie (Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.

  2. SOGIN Decommissioning strategy and funding (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Statement: In Italy, as it is well known, there are no more operational NPPs. The four existing nuclear plants are definitely shutdown and ready for decommissioning. Considerations on decommissioning funding system have to take into account this particular situation. Strategy for decommissioning: New inputs given to SOGIN by the Italian Government are: conditioning all radioactive waste existing on the NPPs within the year 2010, release all nuclear sites - free of radiological constraints - by 2020. The last task is conditioned by availability of the national waste repository by the year 2009. Strategy for decommissioning: Key issue is prompt dismantling considering No more nuclear activities in Italy and Progressive loss of competencies. Previously Existing funds: Before plant shutdown, ENEL has cumulated provisions for decommissioning, even in absence of a clear regulatory framework. These provisions were not sufficient for decommissioning, considering the early closure of the plants. An additional fund was granted to ENEL by the government, in the form of a 'credit' to be paid by the 'electric system' (CCSE). This fund (provisions + credit) was considered sufficient by ENEL for a decommissioning with Safe Store strategy (fund = discounted foreseen costs). The total fund (provisions + credit) was assigned to Sogin at the incorporation date. The amount, money 1999, was about 800 M euros. Considering the new context: new strategy (Prompt Dismantling with site release by 2020), Sogin constitution (societal costs), new economic conditions. The fund was not considered sufficient for all Sogin tasks. This conclusion was agreed upon also by the independent 'Authority for electric energy and gas'. A new regulatory framework was therefore defined. Regulatory aspects: The Legislative Decree 79/99 has stated that costs for the decommissioning of NPP, fuel cycle back end and related activities should be considered as stranded costs for the general electric system. The same

  3. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rasmus Rivinius,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Bastian Schmack,2 Christian Erbel,1 Christian A Gleissner,1 Mohammadreza Akhavanpoor,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Fabrice F Darche,1 Patrick A Schweizer,1 Dierk Thomas,1 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Tom Bruckner,3 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, 3Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF and mortality after HTX.Methods: Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone. Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival.Results: Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0% received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105. Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this

  4. Short vs prolonged dual antiplatelet treatment upon endovascular stenting of peripheral arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronlage M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mariya Kronlage,1 Maximilian Wassmann,1 Britta Vogel,1 Oliver J Müller,1 Erwin Blessing,2 Hugo Katus,1,3 Christian Erbel1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2SRH Klinikum Karlsbad Langensteinbach, Karlsbad, 3DZHK German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany Introduction: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a highly prevalent disorder with a substantial economical burden. Dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT upon endovascular stenting to prevent acute thrombotic reocclusions is an universally accepted practice for postinterventional management of PAD patients. However, the optimal period of time for DAPT upon endovascular stenting is not known.Methods: In the current nonrandomized, retrospective monocentric study, we evaluated the duration of DAPT upon endovascular stenting. A total of 261 endovascular SFA and iliac stenting procedures were performed on 214 patients and these patients were subdivided into a short (4–6 weeks or a prolonged (8–12 weeks DAPT regime group. More than 65% of the patients included were male, approximately 35% were diabetic, and 61% had a history of smoking. Of all the patients, 90% exhibited a Rutherford stage 2–3, and approximately half of the patients had a moderate-to-severe calcified target lesion with a length of >13 cm. Major safety end points were defined as any bleeding, compartment syndrome, and ischemic events. In addition to this, patency, all-cause mortality, as well as amputation were followed up over a period of 12 months upon intervention.Results: Twelve months after endovascular stenting, primary patency in our cohort was comparable between the groups (83.94% short vs 79.8% long DAPT, P>0.05. Major bleeding occurred in 18 cases without any difference between the groups (P>0.05. In addition, during the 12-month follow-up, 6 (3.4% patients in the short and 3 (3.5% in the prolonged DAPT regime

  5. Chronic digitalis therapy in patients before heart transplantation is an independent risk factor for increased posttransplant mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rasmus Rivinius,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Ann-Kathrin Rahm,1,3 Fabrice F Darche,1 Dierk Thomas,1 Tom Bruckner,4 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1,5 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 5Asklepios Klinik Bad Salzungen GmbH, Department of Pneumology and Oncology, Bad Salzungen, Germany Objectives: Digitalis therapy (digoxin or digitoxin in patients with heart failure is subject to an ongoing debate. Recent data suggest an increased mortality in patients receiving digitalis. This study investigated the effects of chronic digitalis therapy prior to heart transplantation (HTX on posttransplant outcomes.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, observational, single-center study. It comprised 530 adult patients who were heart-transplanted at Heidelberg University Hospital between 1989 and 2012. Patients with digitalis prior to HTX (≥3 months were compared to those without (no or <3 months of digitalis. Patients with digitalis were further subdivided into patients receiving digoxin or digitoxin. Primary outcomes were early posttransplant atrial fibrillation and mortality.Results: A total of 347 patients (65.5% had digitalis before HTX. Of these, 180 received digoxin (51.9% and 167 received digitoxin (48.1%. Patients with digitalis before HTX had a significantly lower 30-day (P=0.0148 and 2-year (P=0.0473 survival. There was no significant difference between digoxin and digitoxin in 30-day (P=0.9466 or 2-year (P=0.0723 survival. Multivariate analysis for posttransplant 30-day mortality showed pretransplant digitalis therapy as an independent risk factor (hazard ratio =2.097, CI: 1.036–4.248, P=0.0397. Regarding atrial

  6. Numerical simulations of rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.; Matsuda, A.; Yabana, S.

    2002-01-01

    Test data concerning rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests of base-isolated model conducted by CRIEPI are provided to the participants of Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Intercomparison of Analysis Methods for predicting the behaviour of Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structure', which is organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for the comparison study of numerical simulation of base-isolated structure. In this paper outlines of the test data provided and the numerical simulations of bearing tests and shaking table tests are described. Using computer code ABAQUS, numerical simulations of rubber bearing tests are conducted for NRBs, LRBs (data provided by CRIEPI) and for HDRs (data provided by ENEA/ENEL and KAERI). Several strain energy functions are specified according to the rubber material test corresponding to each rubber bearing. As for lead plug material in LRB, mechanical characteristics are reevaluated and are made use of. Simulation results for these rubber bearings show satisfactory agreement with the test results. Shaking table test conducted by CRIEPI is of a base isolated rigid mass supported by LRB. Acceleration time histories, displacement time histories of the isolators as well as cyclic loading test data of the LRB used for the shaking table test are provided to the participants of the CRP. Simulations of shaking table tests are conducted for this rigid mass, and also for the steel frame model which is conducted by ENEL/ENEA. In the simulation of the rigid mass model test, where LRBs are used, isolators are modeled either by bilinear model or polylinear model. In both cases of modeling of isolators, simulation results show good agreement with the test results. In the case of the steel frame model, where HDRs are used as isolators, bilinear model and polylinear model are also used for modeling isolators. The response of the model is simulated comparatively well in the low frequency range of the floor response, however, in

  7. Atoms for Peace (and War): US Forms of Influence on Italy's Civilian Nuclear Programs (1946-1964)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the ways in which the United States influenced Italian civilian nuclear energy policies between the end of World War II and the mid-1960s. It argues that until the mid-1950s, when the United States developed its Atoms for Peace program, the US administration remained quite suspicious about Italy’s project to develop a civilian nuclear energy program. The State Department and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) kept firmly under control Italy’s efforts to extract uranium in the North of the country. Their greatest concern was that the Italian government might decide to declare its uranium resources property of the state, like it had done with its hydrocarbon resources. Despite a series of requests from Italian scientists and industrial firms, the Marshall Plan did not provide any funds for the purchase of nuclear equipment. In the context of the Atoms for Peace program and of the signing in 1955 of a bilateral agreement, the United States gained increased influence over Italy's atomic energy policies. Based on new archival sources from the United States and Italy, this chapter argues that after John F. Kennedy became President, and in the context of the so-called 'center-left governments', the US administration supported the expansion of Italy's nuclear program and a greater role of the state in promoting civilian nuclear energy programs. Once ENEL was founded, however, the company chose to rely on oil, rather than nuclear power, to fuel most of its electric plants. Following a series of agreements between Standard Oil (N.J.) and ENI, Italy received large quantities of cheap oil from the Middle East. ENEL's strategy was supported by American oil companies operating in Italy, and endorsed by the State Department as more cost-effective than a full-scale nuclear program. However, important sectors of the US administration remained critical of the rapid decline of Italy's civilian nuclear program, which accompanied

  8. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ∼0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ∼0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  9. Contribution of the JRC Ispra to the intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magonette, G.; Renda, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim of the work done at JRC has been essentially to investigate the potentiality of the Pseudo-Dynamic (PsD) method to test structures incorporating anti-seismic protection devices based on materials with a strain-rate dependent behaviour. This is of relevant importance due to the interest to perform tests on large-scale mock-ups to assess the behaviour of realistic structure of civil engineering interest. Two specific typologies of protection have been analysed and tested at the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment (ELSA) of JRC Ispra. The first dealing with base isolation and the second with energy dissipation devices. In both cases the protection devices were based on high damping rubber material which is characterised by a moderate dependence from the strain rate of the application of the displacements. To validate a standard procedure to test base isolated structures by the PsD method, a collaboration was set up with the Italian Working Group on Seismic Isolation which includes the national research centre ENEA, the national electricity board ENEL, the industrial research centre ISMES and a manufacturer of isolators ALGA. In the framework of this collaboration it was decided to test at the ELSA laboratory a scaled 5-storey frame structure (provided by ENEL), isolated by means of high damping rubber bearings (HDRBs), which had been tested on the shaking table of ISMES. This experimental activity aimed to compare the results which can be obtained by means of the PsD testing technique with those which can be obtained by means of a truly-dynamic test on a shaking table. To validate a standard procedure to test structures incorporating energy dissipation devices, an international collaboration has been set up with Industries, Research Centres and Universities in the framework of a project partially funded by the European Commission through the General Directorate for Science and Technology. The obtained results show once more that the PsD method, when

  10. The Larderello-Travale geothermal field (Tuscany, central Italy): seismic imaging as a tool for the analysis and assessment of the reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, M.; Piccinini, D.; Casini, M.; Spinelli, E.; Ciuffi, S.; De Gori, P.; Saccorotti, G.; chiarabba, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Larderello-Travale is a geothermal field with steam-dominated reservoirs (1300 kg/s of steam and running capacity of 700 MWatt), which is exploited by Enel Green Power, the electric company involved in the renewable energy and resources. The area is located in the pre-Apennine belt of southern Tuscany and has been characterized by extensional tectonics and sporadic events of compression. The result of these tectonic phases is a block-faulting structure with NW-SE trending horsts and basins. Small post-orogenic granitic stocks were emplaced along the main axes of the uplifted structures, causing the anomalous heat flow that marks the area. Results from seismic reflection lines crossing the study area show the presence of the top of a discontinuous reflector in the 3-8 km depth range and with thickness up to ~1 km, referred to as the ';K-horizon'. In this framework we present the results obtained by the processing of a high-quality local earthquake dataset, recorded during the 1977-2005 time interval by the seismic network managed by Enel Green Power. The geothermal target volume was parameterized using a 3-D grid for both Vp (P-wave velocities) and Qp (quality factor of P-waves). Grid nodes are spaced by 5 and 2 km along the two horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The tomographic Vp images show an overall velocity increase with depth down to the K-horizon. Conversely, some characteristic features are observed in the distribution of Qp anomalies, with high Qp values in the 300-600 range located just below the K-horizon. The relationship between K-horizon and the seismicity distribution doesn't show a clear and homogeneous coupling: the bulk of re-located earthquakes are placed either above or below the top of the K-horizon in the shallower 8 km depth, with an abrupt cut-off at depth greater than 10 km. We then present the preliminary result from the G.A.P.S.S. (Geothermal Area Passive Seismic Sources) experiment, a project that the Istituto

  11. Representaciones que poseen los profesionales del área de la salud respecto de sus prácticas de enseñanza de las asignaturas disciplinarias en el aula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nome Farbinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las prácticas de enseñanza de los profesionalesde la salud han sido escasamente estudiadas a partir de la transposicióndidáctica de los contenidos disciplinarios tanto enChile, como en América latina. La lógica del objeto de sabery la lógica del acto de enseñanza convergen dialécticamenteen las aulas universitarias.Objetivo. Describir analíticamente las representaciones queposeen los profesionales del área de la salud respecto de susprácticas de enseñanza de las asignaturas disciplinarias enel aula.Materiales y métodos. Se planteó un diseño cualitativo descriptivo,en base a la teoría fundamentada, método comparativoconstante, y los principios de triangulación y convergencia.Las técnicas de recolección de información fueron: entrevistassemiestructuradas, lectura textos y las observaciones etnográficas.Desde la codificación abierta emergieron diez categorías:a Relevancia del conocimiento pedagógico b Finalidad dela enseñanza c Valoración de la evaluación diagnóstica, dUsabilidad de la didáctica, e Resultados de aprendizajes yenseñanza, f Dominio del contenido disciplinario, g Perfeccionamiento,h Estilo de enseñanza, i Criterios de efectividadde una clase, j Conocimiento base para la enseñanza. Parael procesamiento de data verbal se utilizó el software para elanálisis cualitativo de datos Atlas-ti versión 6.0.Resultados. Los docentes requieren de conocimientos pedagógicospara mejorar la calidad de enseñanza. Los conceptos dedidáctica son atribuidos principalmente al aspecto metodológico yal uso de recursos tecnológicos. La estrategia didáctica más utilizadaen el proceso de enseñanza en el aula, es la clase expositivaque se centra en el docente aproximándose al modelo conductista.Conclusión. El modelo pedagógico dominante, está centrado enel docente y se aproxima al modelo conductista, por lo que lasprácticas de los docentes no constituyen una labor pedagógicasistemática ni enmarcada

  12. International assessment of PCA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE

  13. Between 3 June and 3 August, limit your electricity consumption

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN is normally supplied by the French 400 kV RTE/EDF network and has a reduced-power backup supply from the Swiss 130 kV ALPIQ/SIG network. During LS1, from 3 June to 3 August 2013, the EN-EL Electrical Engineering Group will be carrying out maintenance and consolidation work on CERN’s 400 kV and 66 kV substations. On 3 June 2013, CERN’s power supply will be transferred with no interruption to the Swiss 130 kV network. The power available will technically be limited to 50 MW, a threshold which is compatible with the current level of consumption given that the warming up of the LHC’s cryogenic installations is now complete. During this critical two-month period, CERN’s electricity consumption will be closely monitored by operators in the CERN Control Centre (CCC) and must be kept below 50 MW. To avoid any risk of overloading or load-shedding, the Electrical Engineering Group are asking all users to limit their consumption during this period. Thank you for your ...

  14. Between 3 June and 3 August, limit your electricity consumption

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN is normally supplied by the French 400 kV RTE/EDF network and has a reduced-power backup supply from the Swiss 130 kV ALPIQ/SIG network. During LS1, from 3 June to 3 August 2013, the EN-EL Electrical Engineering Group will be carrying out maintenance and consolidation work on CERN’s 400 kV and 66 kV substations. On 3 June 2013, CERN’s power supply will be transferred with no interruption to the Swiss 130 kV network. The power available will technically be limited to 50 MW, a threshold which is compatible with the current level of consumption given that the warming up of the LHC’s cryogenic installations is now complete. During this critical two-month period, CERN’s electricity consumption will be closely monitored by operators in the CERN Control Centre (CCC) and must be kept below 50 MW. To avoid any risk of overloading or load-shedding, the Electrical Engineering Group are asking all users to limit their consumption during this period. Thank you for your c...

  15. New Emergency control center of Slovenske Elektrarne Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecko, E.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency preparedness of nuclear power plant and operation assurance in case of a possible emergency calls to have devices for emergency response with equipment for rapid detection and continuous evaluation of anticipated events. Chief executive body designated to manage a nuclear power plant during major events is the emergency committee (EC). Emergency Committee is a part of the Emergency Response Organization (ERO). The following centers are on alert to ensure the activities of the ERO - Emergency Response office: - control room (CR) and emergency control room (ECR); - emergency management center (EMC); - Monitoring Centre (MC); - emergency backup control center (EBCC); - congregations of civil protection (CP) and CP shelters; - communications with warning and notification system (VARVYR). From a historical and practical point of view in the vicinity of Jaslovske Bohunice has been set up a joint emergency control center. The center was located on the territory of the former already inoperative V1 NPP. V1 NPP is currently integrated into the organizational structure of JAVYS. Operating Bohunice V2 NPP plant is a designated part of the Slovenske Elektrarne, a. s., whose majority owner is an Italian operator ENEL. In terms of various relevant factors, it was decided to build a new emergency management center on the territory of operating V2 NPP, meet the current standards.

  16. Electric landscapes and new economies: values, assets, social responsibility and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Coscia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of impressive industrial restructuring operations - in particular the rethinking of the full economic process of energy production - involving many areas of the West (and not only an emerging issue is that the disposal of the electrical assets and the requalification of the contexts. The process of the valorisation - disciplinedly consolidated - for this sector offers suggestions of research and debate with some elements of innovation: 1 a reinterpretation of the theory of value and its classical components; 2 the synergy between architectural interventions and structural economic interventions; 3 the urgency of census, knowledge building through databases and new information flows; 4 the control management process. The contribution aims to rethink the state of the art on the subject and to reinterpret in the light of the new approaches to valorisation combined with an environmental and circular economy. They support this critical analysis, the reading of Italian national cases (from Enel's operations and international ones, where they are already generating externalities, intangibles and expected benefits as well as economic surplus.

  17. Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in Italy: Actual study and perspective for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, N.; Ciampa, F.; De Cecco, C.

    1992-01-01

    Materials and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and assimilable waste, and their re-use is one of strong points of current regulations and tendencies, both at the national and at community level in Europe. In Italy, the interest in energy recovery from renewable sources has been encouraged by energy-savings law which included financial incentives for thermal plant building if low grade fuels such as MSW were employed. New electric power prices imposed by Italian Electric Power Authority, ENEL, encourage energy recovery from waste burners. This paper aims to point out the present state of energy recovery from wastes in Italy, trends and prospects to satisfy, with new plants, the need for waste thermal destruction and part of the demand for energy in the different Italian regions: only about 10% of MSW are burned and just a small percentage of the estimated amount of recoverable energy (2 MTOE/y) is recuperated. Different technological cycles are discussed: incineration of untreated wastes and energy recovery; incineration (or gasification) of RDF (refuse derived fuels) and heat-electricity co-generation; burning of RDF in industrial plants, in addition to other fuels

  18. Full scale dynamic testing of Paks nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rin, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report refers to the full-scale dynamic structural testing activities that have been performed in December 1994 at the Paks (H) Nuclear Power Plant, within the framework of: the IAEA Coordinated research Programme 'Benchmark Study for the Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-type Nuclear Power Plants, and the nuclear research activities of ENEL-WR/YDN, the Italian National Electricity Board in Rome. The specific objective of the conducted investigation was to obtain valid data on the dynamic behaviour of the plant's major constructions, under normal operating conditions, for enabling an assessment of their actual seismic safety to be made. As described in more detail hereafter, the Paks NPP site has been subjected to low level earthquake like ground shaking, through appropriately devised underground explosions, and the dynamic response of the plant's 1 st reactor unit important structures was appropriately measured and digitally recorded. In-situ free field response was measured concurrently and, moreover, site-specific geophysical and seismological data were simultaneously acquired too. The above-said experimental data is to provide basic information on the geophysical and seismological characteristics of the Paks NPP site, together with useful reference information on the true dynamic characteristics of its main structures and give some indications on the actual dynamic soil-structure interaction effects for the case of low level excitation

  19. Leaching of valuable elements from thermal power plant bottom ash using a thermo-hydrometallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojinova, Darinka; Teodosieva, Ralitsa

    2016-06-01

    The solid industrial wastes generated from thermal power plants (TPPs) can be considered as renewable secondary sources for recovery of valuable metals. This study presents the results from investigations that integrated a thermo-hydro-metallurgical method for treatment of bottom ash obtained from the Enel Maritsa East 3 TPP in Bulgaria. Leaching was performed with 20, 30 and 40 wt% sulphuric acid, respectively, in an autoclave at 100(o)C, 120(o)C and 140(o)C for 120, 240, 360 and 480 min, at a constant value of the liquid/solid ratio. After autoclaving, the samples (suspensions) were diluted with a constant value of water and stirring at 50(o)C for 60 min. On the basis of the experimental data the leaching efficiency (α) of the elements in the liquid phase after filtration was estimated. The leaching of aluminium increases significantly with increasing of the temperature, reaching the maximum value of 70 wt%. The highest leaching efficiency values for the other elements are as follows: Fe (86.4%), Ca (86.6%), Na (86.6%), Ni (83.3%) and Zn (83.3%). The maximum value of leaching for Mg, K, Mn, Cu and Cr is in the interval of 46-70%. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. La práctica del fútbol entre mujeres bolivianas en Sevilla. Redes sociales, trayectorias migratorias y relaciones de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Müller

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrados en España, especialmente de países andinos, han constituido un movimiento asociativoemergente que ha tomado cuerpo en ligas autogestionadas de fútbol y futsal. En dichas ligas la participaciónfemenina es significativa. ¿Cómo entender esta práctica deportiva de las mujeres? Este artículo se centra enel estudio de redes migratorias, sociales y laborales para entender la práctica del fútbol y su influencia en lasrelaciones de género. Su objetivo es analizar las estrategias de los migrantes y explicar cómo las redes migratoriasy sociales de arribo han incidido en la formación y potencialidad de este espacio, así como en el desenvolvimientode los equipos; ejemplificado, en este caso, en el equipo Bolivia de Sevilla donde la autoraparticipó como etnógrafa-jugadora. Con tal fin, se ha utilizado un enfoque empírico, social y procesual queme ha permitido analizar los cambios en el deporte como proceso paralelo al avance de las trayectoriasmigratorias y de las relaciones de pareja.

  1. “Acompañando a la gente en el último momento de su vida”: reflexiones en torno a la construcción paliativista de la Dignidad en el final de la vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la construcción profesionalpaliativista alrededor de la Dignidad. El análisis antropológico de las nociones de ysobre la Dignidad ha tenido un menor desarrollo que las investigaciones que lapiensan en abstracto o en general (sobre todo dentro de la filosofía y bioética. Eneste trabajo el interés está situado en el proceso de creación colectiva de una seriede prácticas, experiencias, emociones y sentidos que intentan dignificar la vida enel proceso social del morir. Mi mirada se centra en el punto de vista de los integrantesde un equipo de cuidados paliativos (CP en un hospital de adultos especializadoen enfermedades oncológicas. De este modo hago hincapié en lasconceptualizaciones y las prácticas profesionales sobre la dignidad, como asítambién, de forma indirecta, en las maneras en que estas concepciones sondecodificadas, negociadas y transformadas por las personas que experimentaronlas enfermedades y sus familias.

  2. Marginal cost and congestion in the Italian electricity market: An indirect estimation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerna, Simona; Andrea Bollino, Carlo; Polinori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct an indirect measure of the supply marginal cost function for the main generators from the observed bid data in the Italian electricity market in the period 2004–2007. We compute the residual demand function for each generator, taking explicitly into account the issue of transmission line congestion. This procedure allows recovering correct zonal Lerner index and the implied measure of the marginal cost function. We find evidence of a stable U-shaped marginal cost function for three main Italian generators, but a flat function for ENEL, the former national monopolist. The policy relevance of our approach lies in the possibility to offer some empirical knowledge of the marginal cost function of each generator to the regulator to design appropriate policy measures geared to the promotion of competitive market conditions. We propose a new market surveillance mechanism, which is based on the principle of sanctioning excessive deviations from the estimated measure of the marginal cost function presented in this work. -- Highlights: •We construct an indirect measure of the supply marginal cost function. •We compute the residual demand function taking into account transmission line congestion. •We find a general evidence of a stable U-shaped marginal cost function for Italian generators. •We find flat marginal cost function for the former national monopolist. •We use excessive deviations from estimated marginal cost function as a new market surveillance mechanism

  3. Ten year report on the operation of the Latina nuclear power station 1964-1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The final report on the operation of the Latina nuclear power station, required under the terms of the contract of participation between ENEL and EURATOM is presented. It covers the first ten years of commercial operation (1 January 1964-31 December 1973) of this power station. Latina uses a British Magnox-type gas-graphite natural uranium reactor with a design thermal capacity of 724 MW. The rated electrical output of the three main turbogenerators was originally 210 MW (3x70), but was reduced to 160 MW in 1971. Construction began in November 1958 and was completed when the reactor first reached criticality in December 1962, the station being connected to the Italian electricity network for the first time in May 1963. The gross rated output of 210 MWe was reached in December 1963 and commercial operation began on 1 January 1964, by which date, however, the power station had already fed 295.5 million kWh into the network

  4. Focal mechanism of seismic events with a dipolar component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Console

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we model the geometry of a seismic source as a dislocation occurring on an elemental flat fault in an arbitrary direction with respect to the fault plane. This implies the use of a fourth parameter in addition to the three usual ones describing a simple double couple mechanism. We applied the radiation pattern obtained from the theory to a computer code written for the inversion of the observation data (amplitudes and polarities of the first onsets recorded by a network of stations. It allows the determination of the fault mechanism gener- alized in the above mentioned way. The computer code was verified on synthetic data and then applied to real data recorded by the seismic network operated by the Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (ENEL, monitoring the geothermal field of Larderello. The experimental data show that for some events the source mechanism exhibits a significant dipolar component. However, due to the high standard deviation of the amplitude data, F-test applied to the results of the analysis shows that only for two events the confidence level for the general- ized model exceeds 90%.

  5. Procedure for cogeneration plant evaluation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollettini, U.; Savelli, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a step-by-step approach to the evaluation of cogeneration plants for on-site power generation. The aim is to allow prospective cogeneration plant owners to build energy/cost efficient plants and to be able to make a proper assessment of eligible financial assistance which may be obtained through the provisions of energy conservation normatives and laws set up by the Italian National Energy Plan. The approach has three principal phases - the verification of the availability of the required human resources able to perform the plant evaluation (engineering, legal and business consultants), an energy/viability audit of any existing energy plant considered for retrofitting and, finally, the identification of the best technical/economic cogeneration alternative. The programmed set of evaluation tasks includes the determination of optimal contracts with ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), especially for the case of excess power to be ceded to the national grid, and the making of comparisons with reference cogeneration systems whose relative design/cost data are stored in existing computerized data bases

  6. Pu utilization in fast-breeder and in light-water reactors in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiagalli, D.; Cicognani, F.; Pistella, F.; Testa, G.; Villani, A.; Ariemma, A.; Castelli, G.F.; Linari, A.; Paoletti Gualandi, M.; Musso, B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper illustrates the most important activities carried out in Italy for the development of fast breeder reactors and its fuel as well as for plutonium recycle in light water reactors. The Italian strategy is based, on one hand, on the short-term commercialization of fast breeder reactors, and on the other, on the adoption of the technology of the Phenix prototype whose further development will be ensured by the joint Italian and French efforts as insured by the important agreements signed by CNEN, NIRA (Nucleare Italiana Reattori Avanzati) and Italian manufacturing industries with CEA and the main French industries. The paper also includes the main results of the ENEL Demonstration Program on Pu prototypes introduced in the Garigliano BWR in 1968 and 1970, and of the destructive and non-destructive analyses on said fuel, as well as of the analyses carried out by CNEN on prototypical fuel fabricated by CNEN and irradiated in various reactors. Furthermore, the paper deals with design and licensing aspects of the 46 Pu-island assembly reload introduced in the Garigliano reactors in 1975 and of a batch of 8 all Pu assemblies loaded in the Trino Vercellese PWR in 1976. Subsequently, the experimental activities planned for the near future both on high burn-up prototypes and on industrial fuel after one cycle of operation are examined [fr

  7. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  8. A review of fast reactor activities in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.; Tavoni, R.

    1990-01-01

    Italy's total primary energy demand increased in 1989 by 2.8% continuing the trend initiated in 1984. Net electricity import increased by 9% reaching the total of 34 TWh, equivalent to the electrical production of 5 power stations in base load operation. As known, after the Chernobyl accident, a moratorium of at least 5 years was imposed on the construction of new nuclear reactors in Italy. The PEN (National Energy Plan), already approved by the government and submitted to parliament for discussion, calls for a programme of research and industrial development of reactors with inherent and passive safety features. In this framework during 1989, a collaboration of ENEL, Ansaldo and ENEA with some designers of innovative reactors, mainly water-cooled, has taken place in many fields. The Italian participation and contribution in international groups has continued with the aim of maintaining and updating the know-how on the most relevant themes of research. Contacts are underway in the area of advanced reactors with several countries such as the USA, the FRG, the UK and France. With France an agreement for cooperation in the area of future nuclear reactors and advanced technologies for the upgrading of industries was signed in April 1990. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cateura, O.

    2007-11-01

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  10. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  11. Policies and means to assess and improve service quality in electricity supply systems; Methods et moyens pour ameliorer la qualite` du service des reseaux publics de distribution d`electricite`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Noferi, P.L.; Sani, G.

    1992-03-01

    Quality of electricity supply to users consists of a series of characteristics of the voltage at the points of delivery. This report shows how service quality, in the past basically related to the tolerance of voltage and frequency with respect to the nominal value, as well as, to the continuity of supply, is nowadays assessed also in relation to other aspects, generally referred to as disturbances. Short interruptions, voltage dips, transient overvoltages, harmonics and flicker are mainly taken into consideration. A description is given of the approach adopted by ENEL (the Italian Electricity Board) in order to evaluate and, if required, improve the quality of service, based upon the acquisition of data related to faults, interruptions and disturbances. These data are processed in order to obtain significant indices on the state of the network and on the effectiveness of the actions which can be implemented. Finally, the measures which may lead to an improvement in the quality of service are identified, and potential advantages, in terms of the reduction of non-supplied energy and number of faults, of adopting appropriate automatic devices and optimizing maintenance work on some distribution networks are illustrated.

  12. Italy: a national energy strategy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaes, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the status and perspectives of the Italian energy policy. It outlines that this policy has known many changes during the past decades. The country has been depending for years on oil imports and on electricity imports from its neighbours even though ENI and ENEL are major world actors. It had chosen nuclear energy to gain independence until the Chernobyl accident which resulted in a moratorium. On the side of renewable energies, Italy has notably developed geothermal energy, and possesses an important hydraulic energy fleet, while solar photovoltaic and wind energy started their development rather late and still at a rather slow pace. Thus, a new energy strategy has been implemented in 2012 with some main objectives: reduction of energy costs, meeting of European objectives regarding energy and climate, improvement of energy supply security and of energy independence, and development of a sustainable economy through the development of the energy sector. This strategy resulted in very good results in terms of energy efficiency, and of growth rate for the photovoltaic sector

  13. VUEZ. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Vyskumny ustav energetickych zariadeni, a.s. (VUEZ) in 2008 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introductory address by the Chairman of the Board of Directors; (2) Company profile; (3) Portfolio of products and service 2007; (4) Quality management system; (5) Organisational Structure; (6) Human resources; (7) Financial statements and auditor's report; (8) Basic and contact data; (9) Contact data. The year 2007 was arduous and, with regard to contracts and projects performed and related profits, also successful for VUEZ, a.s. On the domestic market, our principal customers have bee companies such as Slovenske elektrarne - Enel, Bratislava, in its locations of Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce, Jadrova vyradovacia spolocnost, Jaslovske Bohunice, and Vodohospodarska vystavba, Bratislava. Equally important customers for our company have been operators of foreign nuclear power plants, namely CEZ, a.s. (Czech Republic) and the Paks NPP (Hungary). In the course of 2007, negotiations and offer proceedings were initiated with WWER nuclear power plants in Ukraine and Russia

  14. Estrategias de (reapropiación urbana y disputa territorial en la conformación de los barrios alteños El Porvenir I y 16 de Julio (Bolivia, 1985-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Paula Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalmente la ciudad de El Alto (Bolivia es analizada como un núcleo urbano homogéneo. Eneste artículo se analiza la existencia de ejemplos de desarrollo urbano desigual y combinado. Elobjetivo principal es abordar las estrategias de acceso al hábitat y la (reapropiación del territoriourbano por parte de los migrantes aymaras residentes en el barrio periférico El Porvenir I y enel barrio céntrico 16 de Julio. Se presta atención a la disputa con los diversos actores sociales queparticipan en la dinámica de la construcción barrial: los loteadores informales y el Estado duranteel periodo 1985-2012.Para llevar a cabo este estudio se aplicó una metodología cualitativa que incluyó entrevistas semiestructuradasa la población migrante y a los informantes-clave y observación no participante,incorporando datos de fuentes secundarias.

  15. Modelo de estado para el estudio de las descargas parciales en el aislamiento principal de las máquinas eléctricas rotatorias de gran potencia; Big Rotating Machines State Model for Partial Discharges Studies in Main Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago A Dorrbercker Drake

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo de estado que caracteriza la tensión de ignición de las descargas parciales (DP enel aislamiento principal de las máquinas eléctricas rotatorias de gran potencia (MERGP.  Los objetivos delmodelamiento se dirigieron en dos vertientes:  la primera a conocer el comportamiento del menor nivel detensión que produce DP y la segunda destinada al comportamiento del tamaño de las cavidades, en lasque puede aparecer DP, atendiendo al nivel instantáneo de la tensión de corriente alterna (CA aplicada alas mismas. El presente trabajo se propone, proveer de una herramienta capaz de modelar el comportamientode algunos parámetros característicos de las DP en el aislamiento principal de las MERGP, cuando elaislamiento principal es sometido a diferentes condiciones de trabajo.  This paper describes a state model for PD inception voltage in main insulation of big rotating machines(BRM.  Intends of the present paper were:  to show the behaviour of PD inception voltage under differentfactors; and to know the relationships between the size of cavities and the instantaneous value of ACapplied voltage to the insulation. The objective of this paper is offer a computational tool able to model theperformance of some PD characteristic parameters when main insulation is under operation conditions.

  16. Technique for the residual life assessment of high temperature components based on creep-rupture testing on welded miniature specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzillo, A.; Guardamagna, C.; Moscotti, L.; Ranzani, L. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Following the present trend in the development of advanced methodologies for residual life assessment of high temperature components operating in power plants, particularly in non destructive methods, a testing technique has been set up at ENEL-CRAM based on creep-rupture testa in an argon on welded miniature specimens. Five experimental systems for creep-rupture tests in an argon atmosphere have been set up which include high accuracy systems, vacuum chambers and exrwnsometer devices. With the aim of establishing and validating the suitability of the experimental methodology, creep-rupture and interrupted creep testing programmes have been performed on miniature specimens (2 mm diameter and 10 mm gauge lenght). On the basis of experience gathered by various European research laboratories, a miniature specimen construction procedure has been developed using a laser welding technique for joining threaded heads to sample material. Low alloy ferritic steels, such as virgin 2.25CrlMo, 0.5Cr 0.5Mo 0.25V, and IN 738 superalloy miniature specimens have been investigated and the results, compared with those from standard specimens, show a regular trend in deformation vs time. Additional efforts to provide guidelines for material sampling from each plant component will be required in order to reduce uncertainties in residual life prediction.

  17. SPES-2, an experimental program to support the AP600 development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantini, M. [ENEA, Nuclear Fission Branch, Bolonga (Italy); Medich, C. [SIET S.p.A. Piacenza (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    In support of the development of the AP600 reactor, ENEA, ENEL, ANSALDO and Westinghouse have signed a research agreement. In the framework of this agreement a complex Full Height Full Pressure (FHFP) integral system testing program has been planned on SPES-2 facility. The main purpose of this paper is to point out the status of the test program; describe the hot per-operational test performed and the complete test matrix, giving all the necessary references on the work already published. Two identical Small Break LOCA transients, performed with Pressurizer to Core Make-up Tank (PRZ-CMT) balance line (Test S00203) and without PRZ-CMT balance line (Test S00303) are then compared, to show how the SPES-2 facility can contribute in confirming the new AP600 reactor design choices and can give useful indications to designers. Although the detailed analysis of test data has not been completed, some consideration on the analytical tools utilized and on the SPES-2 capability to simulate the reference plant is then drawn.

  18. ESTUDIO DIELECTROMETRICO DE EMULSIONES Y AGENTES EMULSIFICANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Llovera González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La permitividad de las mezclas de líquidos emulsificantes es un parámetro físico de interes en la determinación delgrado de asociación molecular de dichos líquidos. Las fórmulas semiempíricas conocidas para calcular la permitividadde dichas mezclas no reproducen en algunos casos los valores experimentales obtenidos, en particular esto ocurre enel caso de líquidos de estructura molecular anfifílica. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en elestudio de la permitividad de mezclas de líquidos emulsificantes asi como una fórmula que permite ajustar los resultadosexperimentales con un buen grado de precisión.  The dielectric constant of the mixtures of surfactants liquids of complex molecular structure is a physical parameterof interest in the determination of the degree of molecular association of this liquids. The formulas well-knownsemiempíricas to calculate the dielectric constant of this mixtures don't reproduce in some cases the obtainedexperimental values, in particular this happens in the case of liquids of anphiphylic molecular structure. In thiswork the results are presented obtained in the study of the dielectric constant of mixtures of these liquids as well asone formulates that it allows to adjust the experimental results with a good degree of precision.

  19. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Heat pumps in urban space heating systems: Energy and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, M.; Impero Abenavoli, R.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza

    1991-01-01

    A statistical survey is conducted of air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy) due to conventional building space heating systems burning fossil fuels. The survey identifies the annual consumption of the different fuels and the relative amounts of the various pollutants released into the atmosphere by the heating plants, e.g., sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, etc. Comparisons are then made between the ratios of urban heating plant air pollutants produced per tonne of fuel employed and those for ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) coal, oil and natural gas fired power plants, in order to demonstrate the better environmental performances of the utility operated energy plants. The building space heating system energy consumption and pollution data are then used in a cost benefit analysis favouring the retrofitting of conventional heating systems with heat pump systems to obtain substantial reductions in energy consumption, heating bills and urban air pollution. The use of readily available, competitively priced and low polluting (in comparison with fuel oil and coal) methane as the energy source for space heating purposes is recommended. The paper also notes the versatility of the heat pump systems in that they could also be used for summer air conditioning

  1. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  2. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  3. The role played by stakeholders in the public debate that brought Italy out of the club of nuclear energy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Marie Claire; Sturloni, Giancarlo; Brunelli, Giancarlo

    2007-10-01

    In 1964, Italy was the fourth largest world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactors, second in Europe only to United Kingdom. In subsequent years, various controversial political events contributed towards drastically slowing down the development of the Italian national nuclear program. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, which caused a public outcry all over Europe, had particularly serious repercussions in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted to repeal three laws promoting the installation of nuclear power plants (NPP) on Italian soil and allowing the National Institute for Electrical Energy (ENEL) to participate in the construction of NPP's abroad. This work analyzes the reasons for that decision and the communication strategies of the stakeholders that took part in the public debate on nuclear energy during the weeks following the Chernobyl accident. Drawing from the methodologies used in media studies, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of two leading Italian newspapers was performed. The results reveal that a variety of stakeholders, upholding different values and interests, took part in the debate. There being no tradition of a public dialogue and participation in Italy, the debate was polarized to a "yes/no choice," which eventually caused Italy to abandon the production of nuclear power for civilian use.

  4. Inclusión de todos en la escuela: ilusiones y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanetty Molinero Nano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo discutimos las tensiones y contradicciones del proceso deinclusión de los niños y niñas en la educación primaria peruana, con el fin deplantear que no es suficiente estar en la escuela para ser incluido y de presentaralgunas reflexiones que aporten en la construcción de una escuela que acoja lasdiferencias.Comenzamos abordando el proceso de expansión de la educación primaria enel Perú. Seguidamente llevaremos la discusión de la inclusión al funcionamientoescolar y a las medidas que se vienen planteando a nivel macropolítico para hacerfrente a los problemas de la escuela pública peruana. De esta manera tratamos dellamar la atención sobre la necesidad de intervenir en la dimensión micropolíticapara que la inclusión se constituya, proponiendo la autogestión como práctica quepotencia la inclusión.

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

      During the Year-End Technical Stop all the systems have been carefully inspected in order to assure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. Regarding the electrical distribution, the annual General Emergency Stop test (AUG, in CERN language) has shown a discrepancy in the action matrix, as some racks were not cut off by the AUG action as they should have been. The subsequent investigation quickly indicated that a missing connection at the main UPS switchboard was the source of the problem. The problem has been addressed to the EN/EL group responsible for the equipment and a new test is planned in the beginning of March. Some consolidation work has been carried out as well, namely the doubling of the line powering the rack that houses the DCS servers in USC55. During the last months of the technical stop, the cooling systems of CMS have undergone the usual preventive maintenance, a few corrective interventions and a huge programme of performance tests. The preventive maintenance programm...

  6. La grafía manzaniana: el lenguaje escrito mediante la metáfora y la prosopopeya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cosme Puntiel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la narrativa de la Autobiografía de un esclavo, escrita por Juan FranciscoManzano (1797-1853 en 1835. Se pretende mostrar a este autor como un intelectualcubano decimonónico cuya escritura supone una herencia ancestral para los Afrolatinosy la diáspora africana. Para tal fin, se examinan las estrategias literarias empleadas porManzano para escribir su testimonio, se estudia la intertextualidad del género de lapicaresca como base estética literaria, y se examina cómo el narrador se desfigura enla narración para engañar y confundir al lector privilegiado. Adicionalmente, se estudiael lenguaje metafórico manzaniano mediante el escrutinio de temas recurrentes en suautobiografía. Este análisis utiliza como base teórica las ideas de James Olney y Paul deMan, con el fin de dar cuenta de las multiplicidades del “yo” o las voces enmascaradas enel lenguaje metafórico manzaniano.

  7. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  8. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  9. SPES-2, the full-height, full-pressure, test facility simulating the AP600 plant: Main results from the experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M.; Martinelli, R.; Tarantini, M.; Conway, L.

    1995-01-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL, ENEA, SIET and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behavior of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with both passive and active non-safety systems, and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behavior

  10. Policies and means to assess and improve service quality in electricity supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Noferi, P.L.; Sani, G.

    1992-03-01

    Quality of electricity supply to users consists of a series of characteristics of the voltage at the points of delivery. This report shows how service quality, in the past basically related to the tolerance of voltage and frequency with respect to the nominal value, as well as, to the continuity of supply, is nowadays assessed also in relation to other aspects, generally referred to as disturbances. Short interruptions, voltage dips, transient overvoltages, harmonics and flicker are mainly taken into consideration. A description is given of the approach adopted by ENEL (the Italian Electricity Board) in order to evaluate and, if required, improve the quality of service, based upon the acquisition of data related to faults, interruptions and disturbances. These data are processed in order to obtain significant indices on the state of the network and on the effectiveness of the actions which can be implemented. Finally, the measures which may lead to an improvement in the quality of service are identified, and potential advantages, in terms of the reduction of non-supplied energy and number of faults, of adopting appropriate automatic devices and optimizing maintenance work on some distribution networks are illustrated

  11. Verification and improvement of analytical modeling of seismic isolation bearings and isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forni, M.; La Grotteria, M.; Martelli, A.; Bertola, S.; Bettinali, F.; Dusi, A.; Bergamo, G.; Bonacina, G.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the complexity of dynamic behaviour of seismic isolation (SI) devices, high cost of their tests and non-negligible number of devices having excellent potential for nuclear applications, several countries judged of great interest to extend validation of their numerical models of such devices to the analysis of experimental data obtained by others. Thus, a four-years Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Intercomparison of Analysis Methods for Isolated Nuclear Structures, proposed by ENEA (1995), was endorsed by the IAEA in 1995. There, Italy was jointly represented by ENEA, ENEL and ISMES, and supplied test results concerning both High Damping Rubber Bearings (HDRBs) and the MISS (Model of Isolated Steel Structure) mock-up, which had been isolated using such bearings. Test data provided by Italy to the other countries were also re-analysed to improve mathematical models. Aim of this final report is to summarise, after a brief description of the devices and structures considered, the most important results and conclusions of the numerical analyses carried out by Italy. For more detailed information, especially as far as the execution of the tests and the implementation of the numerical models are concerned, please refer to the technical reports presented by Italy to the Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs). (author)

  12. Prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Hooker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La revista Ciencia e Interculturalidad es uno de los medios de divulgación que launiversidad pone a disposición de la población para compartir los conocimientos de lasinvestigaciones realizadas por la comunidad estudiantil y los docentes-investigadores einvestigadoras, en la construcción de la ciudadanía intercultural, con lo cual se fortalecela identidad y la pertinencia.El enfoque de estas investigaciones responden a la visión y misión de la URACCAN enel compromiso de la construcción de la Autonomía de la Costa Caribe, según lo confi erela Ley No. 28 y que en su Considerando número uno, enuncia: “Que en América Latina yotras regiones del mundo, las poblaciones indígenas sometidas a un proceso de empobrecimiento,segregación, marginalidad, asimilación, opresión, explotación y exterminioexigen una transformación profunda del orden político, económico y cultural, para ellogro efectivo de sus demandas y aspiraciones.”

  13. La promoción de la lectura y el trasvase cultural literario: una investigación en Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria basada en el tópico del amor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Montaner Bueno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo constituye una investigación realizada en el marco de la didáctica de la lengua y la literatura con el objetivo de llevar a cabo la promoción de la lectura a través del tópico literariodel amor. Para ello, nos hemos servido de tres textos de referencia de distintas épocas: El mito de Píramo y Tisbe (Antigüedad Clásica, Romeo y Julieta (Siglo XVI y A tres metros sobre el cielo (Siglo XXI. A través de la comparación de los mismos y, mediante el empleo de una serie de instrumentos de medida, hemos tratado de potenciar enel alumnado de cuarto de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria del IES Amparo Sanz de Albacete, la capacidad crítica y reflexiva a la hora de acometer el acto de lectura. Para llevar a cabo este objetivo, nos hemos servido de las múltiples posibilidades y sugerencias que nos ofrece el intertexto lector.

  14. Application of coal-water fuel technology in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G. [International Centre for Scientific Culture (World Laboratory), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Under the auspices of the ICSC - World Laboratory of Losanna presided by Prof. A. Zichichi, an important Project was launched on 1988 dealing with the feasibility study of coal-water fuel technology in China. The study, that is starting now with the last phase, will be completed in the 1993. The paper will report on the general line of the study and the status of the project. This is related to a complete program including: the slurry production near the coal open air mine in the region of Shemnu (new Mongolia), the transportation by pipeline for about 800 km. of 7 millions of tons/year of dry coal in form of CWF, and some possible direct utilization during the route until the final destination in one of the ports of Yellow sea. This is for the time been the biggest commercial project in the world on this area and was developed using the experiences of more than 50 italian and chinese scientists, technologists and experts coming from important and specialized italian companies under the drive of Snamprogetti (including the experiences of ENEL, Ansaldo, Laviosa, etc.) and chinese organization from the Graduate School, CUMT; Institute of Mechanics CAS; Institute of Photochemistry, CAS; in R.P.C.

  15. A model of Altio Lazio boiling water reactor using the LEGO code nuclear steam supply system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbossa, G.B.; Spelta, S.; Cori, R.; Mosca, R.; Cento, P.

    1989-01-01

    An extensive effort has been made at the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) to construct and validate a LEGO model capable of simulating the operational transients of the Alto Lazio Nuclear Station, a two-twin units site with BWR/6 class reactors, rated at 2894 MWt and with Mark III containment. The desired end-product of this effort is an overall plant model consisting of the Nuclear Steam Supply System model, described in this paper, and the Balance of Plant model, capable of simulating the transient response of Alto Lazio Station. The models utilize the in-house developed LEGO code, which is a modular package oriented to power plant modeling and suitable to perform transient analyses to assist during power plant design, control system design and operating procedure verification. The ability of the NSSS model to predict correctly the plant response is demonstrated through comparison with results calculated by the vendor, using REDY code, and by an in-house RETRAN-02 model

  16. An efficient and not polluting bottom ash extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrea, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that boiler waste water effluent must meet more and more tighter requirements to comply with environmental regulations; sluice water resulting from bottom ash handling is one of the main problems in this context, and many utilities are under effort to maximize the reuse of the sluice water, and, if possible, to meet the aim of zero water discharge from bottom ash handling system. At the same time ash reuse efforts gain strength in order to minimize waste production. One solution to these problems can be found in an innovative Bottom Ash Extraction System (MAC System), marked by the peculiarity to be a continuous dry ash removal; the system has been developed in the last four years by MAGALDI INDUSTRIE SRL in collaboration with ANSALDO Ricerche, the R and D department of ANSALDO, the main Italian Boiler Manufacturer, and is now installed in six ENEL Boilers. The elimination of the water as separation element between the bottom part of the furnace and the outside atmosphere gives advantages mainly from the environmental view point, but a certain improvement in the boiler efficiency has also been demonstrated by the application of the system

  17. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  18. N2O from a SNCR process for NOx reduction at Piombino power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarli, R.; Bertacchi, S.; Bianchi, G.

    1995-01-01

    ENEL (the main electricity company in Italy) and NALCO FUEL TECH performed a SNCR process demonstration at Piombino unit 4 (320 MWe oil fired boiler) during 1991. The process, called NO x OUT, was based on injection of aqueous solution of urea in the upper furnace region and in the superheater cavity. The main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of NO x OUT Process for reducing NO x emissions under 200 mg/Nm 3 at full load. The unit was operating in the BOOS configuration, with baseline NO x ranging from 380 to 600 mg/Nm 3 emissions, depending on burners arrangement and GR fan flow rate. N 2 O measure was performed during the test, N 2 O was found to be about 90 mg/Nm 3 at full load (320 MWe), in the best configuration for NO x abatement final result NO x 234 mg/Nm 3 ); N 2 O emission was increasing with the effectiveness of the process. The previously mentioned results, in addition to more detailed information about NO x OUT process, boiler configuration and test program are reported in the presentation. (orig.)

  19. Southern Adriatic sea as a potential area for CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, V.; Forlin, F.; Donda, F.; Civile, D.; Facchin, L.; Sauli, L.; Merson, B.; Sinza-Mendieta, K.; Shams, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO 2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO 2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO 2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO 2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO 2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO 2 emissions. (authors)

  20. del análisis de costo de servir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mejía-Argueta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es generar esquemas logísticos y comerciales rentables, para lo cual seconstruye una metodología que mide el costo de servir y se determina la rentabilidad a partir de losestados financieros, que va de lo general a lo específico, permitiendo cerrar las brechas identificadas enel análisis de costo de servir para mercados emergentes. La metodología consta de 3 fases y 12 pasos quealinean la estrategia, alcance, procesos y costeo de actividades con la segmentación de cuentas rentables,marginales y no rentables, para generar mayor rentabilidad. Como resultado se construyen herramientasque permiten priorizar a los clientes, así como definir la estrategia logística y comercial ideal para losobjetos de estudio (cliente, producto, etc..© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  1. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torazza, A. [Ansaldo Ricerche S.r.l., Genova (Italy); Rocchini, G. [ENEL, Milano (Italy); Scagliotti, M. [CISE, Milano (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  2. Review of Past Reactor Activities in Italy, April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, P.

    1975-01-01

    Since the last meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors the natural vocation of the italian program to a cooperation, illustrated on many occasions, has found factual confirmation. As well-known, a broad partnership with France has been entered into. Four agreements have been concluded, towards May-June 1974 - between C.E.A. and C.N.E.N. for the ulterior development of the French filière and the construction and use of PEC; - between C.E.A. and NIRA for the license on the system; - between C.E.A. and AGIP-NUCLEARE for the fabrication of fuel for fast reactors; - between TECHNICATOME and NIRA for the preparation of the offer and the later construction of Super-Phenix. Those agreements are in the full logic of the previous one passed between the producers E.d.F., ENEL and R.W.E. for the construction of the first two commercial-size plants, extrapolated from Phenix and S.N.R. 300. In particular the NERSA society, acting as client for Super-Phenix, has been founded by those same producers and will receive the offer now prepared by a joint team. The new orientation of the programme and the validity of the previous agreements for its implementation have been confirmed at governmental level by the Interministerial Economic Planning Committee (CIPE), which has also approved the third CNEN's five years Plan

  3. Etnografía con jóvenes indígenas en una residencia universitaria en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Verónica Di Caudo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo me propongo mostrar algunos resultados de investigaciónsobre el área de estudios de educación intercultural enel nivel superior aportando al conocimiento de experiencias juvenilesuniversitarias de sectores históricamente relegados. Muestro cómo seimplementa el acceso educativo y reconstruyo ciertas lógicas que enla práctica asume la “inclusión” y cómo es experimentada por los actoresinvolucrados. Para eso presento un proyecto de la congregaciónsalesiana con un grupo de jóvenes pertenecientes a distintas etniasy comunidades a quienes becan para seguir sus estudios universitarios.Adentrándome en la vida cotidiana de estos estudiantes, indagosobre sentires, perspectivas, sentidos y significados que proyectansobre su propia experiencia de paso por distintas fases de educaciónsuperior: salir de sus comunidades, vivir en la ciudad, adaptarse a laconvivencia de una residencia estudiantil y a nuevas interacciones yaprendizajes en al ámbito universitario. El trabajo de campo se realizódurante el 2013 y 2014 en la Residencia Intercultural Don Bosco yen la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana (desde ahora UPS en Quito,a partir de un enfoque teórico metodológico etnográfico mediante observaciónparticipante, entrevistas e intercambios informales grupalese individuales, con sujetos jóvenes -especialmente- y otros adultos.

  4. Dinámica erosión/sedimentación: diseño y aplicación del Modelo de Erosión/Sedimentación para la Cuenca del Río Nosara (MES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Hernández Ulate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Modelo de Erosión/Sedimentaciónpara la Cuenca del Río Nosara (MESse ha diseñado para estimar las áreasque son susceptibles a la erosión o a lasedimentación. Este modelo combina capascon información de la textura del suelo, laprofundidad, la geomorfología, la pendiente,la precipitación y el uso de la tierra en unSistema de Información Geográfico (SIG.Los resultados obtenidos para la cuenca deestudio con la interpolación de las capas enel SIG mostraron cómo en 1979, las áreasafectadas por la sedimentación o sin erosiónevidente fueron superiores a las registradasen 1992 e iguales a las del periodo 2004-2006. Esto se puede explicar por la falta decobertura de la tierra en 1992, lo que elevólas áreas que sufrían procesos de erosiónintensos o moderados.

  5. Solar radiation for sea-water desalination and electric power generation via vacuum solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottinelli, L.; Reali, M.; El-Nashar, A.M.; Giusiano, F.; Vigotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present report concerns the energetic potential of vacuum solar which are rather versatile and efficient devices for converting solar energy into thermal energy. Two main energetic applications have been analysed: the first one for a solar sea water desalination plant which has been operated in Abu Dhabi for the past ten years, the other for a conceptual solar thermoelectric-power plant having a fair thermodynamic efficiency (15-20%). A simple technology for the manufacture of vacuum solar collectors in a standard mechanical shop is being developed in collaboration between ENEL Sp A (DSR-CRIS, Milano) and WED (Abu Dhabi). Such technology should have an important economy-saving potential per se and would also make repair and substitution operations simple enough for the actual operators of the vacuum solar collector system without any need of external assistance. The technic-operative-economical features of the Abu Dhabi solar desalination plant suggest that the use novel simplified vacuum solar collectors could have a considerable technic economical potential. The analysis of the conceptual solar thermo-electric-power plant focuses on its general layout and singles out key technological issues which ought to be addressed in an overall feasibility study. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. La oposición por pluspetición a la ejecución del contrato bancario de descuento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Bermúdez Requena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinados usos bancarios, generalmente aceptados en la práctica por venir amparadosen contratos redactados unilateralmente por lapropia entidad bancaria, vulneran tanto los derechosdel usuario como la propia normativa reguladoradel ámbito financiero. Dentro de la ampliavariedad de contratos bancarios, nos centramos enel estudio del contrato de descuento, donde tieneespecial relevancia el cobro de comisiones pordevolución de efectos impagados y la aplicaciónde un alto interés porcentual en la operación muysuperior al interés legal del dinero. En el presentetrabajo intentaremos ofrecer algunas solucionespara la defensa del cliente-consumidor frente a lasdemandas en procesos de ejecución basadas en laspólizas de descuento como título ejecutivo. Certain banking practice generallyaccepted to come covered in contracts drawnup unilaterally by the bank itself, violate bothuser rights as the very rules governing thefinancial field. Among the wide variety ofbanking contracts, we focus on the study ofcontract discount is especially relevant wherethe charging of fees for repayment of unpaidbills and implementation of a high percentageinterest in the operation well above the legalinterest of money. In this paper we providesome solutions for the defense customer/consumer cope with the demands ofimplementation processes based on discountpolicies and enforcement.

  7. Pedagogía y créditos académicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA SOLEDAD MONTERO G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La reforma educativa, de los años noventa, diseña, monta, pone en marcha y ejecuta tres políticaspara la educación superior, con el objetivo de ampliar la cobertura educativa, a partir de estrategias,que tienen que ver con el acceso, el uso de nuevas metodologías y tecnologías, las MesasRegionales de Cobertura y el apoyo a la gestión de las instituciones de Educación Superior. De ahí,que, para señalar, los efectos que surgen de la implementación de los créditos académicos en launiversidad, este artículo: (i describe de manera esquemática la política de ampliación de lacobertura, con el propósito de situar la concepción de crédito académico en la política deeducación superior en Colombia (ii mostrar la función que cumplen los créditos académicos enel currículo (iii y por último, señalar la relación que, al parecer existe entre noción de créditoacadémico y sus implicaciones en las practicas pedagógicas dentro de la reforma educativa parala Educación Superior.

  8. Effects of vildagliptin (Galvus® therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueler I

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Gueler,1 Susanne Mueller,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Christian U Oeing,1 Christian Erbel,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Christian Gleißner,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Thomas J Dengler,3 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 3Department of Cardiology, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn, Bad Friedrichshall, Germany Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a common comorbidity in patients after heart transplantation (HTx and is associated with adverse long-term outcomes. Methods: The retrospective study reported here analyzed the effects of vildagliptin therapy in stable patients post-HTx with T2DM and compared these with control patients for matched-pairs analysis. A total of 30 stable patients post-HTx with T2DM were included in the study. Fifteen patients (mean age 58.6 ± 6.0 years, mean time post-HTx 4.9 ± 5.3 years, twelve male and three female were included in the vildagliptin group (VG and 15 patients were included in the control group (CG (mean age 61.2 ± 8.3 years, mean time post-HTx 7.2 ± 6.6 years, all male. Results: Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c in the VG was 7.4% ± 0.7% before versus 6.8% ± 0.8% after 8 months of vildagliptin therapy (P = 0.002 vs baseline. In the CG, HbA1c was 7.0% ± 0.7% versus 7.3% ± 1.2% at follow-up (P = 0.21. Additionally, there was a significant reduction in mean blood glucose in the VG, from 165.0 ± 18.8 mg/dL to 147.9 ± 22.7 mg/dL (P = 0.002 vs baseline, whereas mean blood glucose increased slightly in the CG from 154.7 ± 19.7 mg/dL to 162.6 ± 35.0 mg/dL (P = 0.21. No statistically significant changes in body weight (from 83.3 ± 10.8 kg to 82.0 ± 10.9 kg, P = 0.20, total cholesterol (1.5%, P = 0.68, or triglyceride levels (8.0%, P = 0.65 were seen in the VG. No significant changes in immunosuppressive drug levels or dosages were observed in either group

  9. Análisis tridimensional del proceso de granallado utilizando un modelo de múltiples impactos. // 3d shot peening process analysis using multiple impacts model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Calle Gonzales

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El granallado es uno de los tratamientos superficiales más empleados para, entre otras aplicaciones, proporcionar unaumento considerable de la vida a fatiga de elementos de máquinas y estructuras sometidos a la acción de cargas variablesen el tiempo. El granallado provoca el surgimiento de una capa de tensiones residuales de compresión que se superponencon las tensiones de tracción que aparecen producto de las cargas externas aplicadas durante el tiempo de servicio de lapieza. Esto trae como consecuencia positiva la reducción de los valores de las tensiones de tracción, principalesresponsables por la propagación de eventuales fisuras presentes en el material del elemento de máquina o estructura. Elcontrol de parámetros tales como, la profundidad de la zona plástica, los valores de tensiones residuales, entre otros, es devital importancia para garantizar resultados adecuados después de la aplicación del tratamiento. Para simular el proceso degranallado empleando el Método de los Elementos Finitos (MEF, es creado un modelo tridimensional de una célularepresentativa de la superficie de la pieza tratada, la cual es sometida a múltiples impactos de granallas. En la etapa deanálisis de los resultados, son evaluados los perfiles de distribución de las tensiones residuales de compresión, generados enel modelo por el impacto de las granallas, para diferentes regiones de la superficie de la célula expuesta al chorro, con lafinalidad de encontrar aquel que represente mejor la distribución de tensiones creada en toda la célula. La evaluación delperfil representativo es importante, pues el es el responsable directo por la mejoría de las propiedades mecánicas de lapieza. Los resultados revelan adicionalmente y de manera implícita, el efecto de la cobertura en el proceso de granalladosobre el comportamiento del perfil de distribución de las tensiones residuales, aspecto este que también será comentado enel trabajo. Los resultados

  10. On the questions that we can ask visual archives: for public history, communication and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bruce Silva

    2017-04-01

    Experiencias previas com los archivos y colecciones fotográficas que datan de mediados del S. XX, me llevaran a pensar em las imágenes que los sujetos, lasinstituciones y la sepocascompartenen sus discursos cotidianos. Estas imágenes pueden accederse no sola menteen acervos, sino también em la internet, enexposiciones, enel cine, enclases y otrosespacios de la vida cotidiana, vistos a partir de una plataforma como la Historia publica. A través de las preguntas que leshacemos es posible distinguir como están presentes ennuestra vida diaria. Es posible reconstruir caminos y tomar, enel presente, ecos de los valores que ahíaparecen de forma visual. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este ensayo es el de mostrar fragmentos que tomen parte enla cultura visual de laciudad de Recife. Como plataforma de reflexión, los argumentos identifican y muestra nalgunos fragmentos de esta historia.   PALABRAS CLAVES: Archivos y colecciones fotográficas,la historia pública, lacomunicación, laenseñanza.

  11. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Belgium, and covers the following companies, all active on the Belgian market: EdF, GDF Suez/Electrabel, RWE, SPE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  12. Turbulent methane combustion in a laboratory-scale furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, A.; Maeki-Mantila, E. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Methane combustion in the 400 rotational symmetric test chamber by ENEL was investigated. The prediction of the reaction rates of methane and carbon monoxide was based on the models which are taking into consideration the effect of turbulence on the oxidation phenomena namely the eddy dissipation concept model (EDC) and the eddy dissipation model (EDM). The experimental results of the distributions of the different species concentrations, temperature, velocities, turbulence quantities etc. were measured in the chamber cross-sections. The formation of nitric oxide was modelled using the thermal- and prompt-NO formation mechanisms and the formulation was based on the chemical kinetics and the probability density function (pdf) with the {beta}- and {delta}-distributions. If more than one variable is taken into consideration in the use of pdf it is very difficult to find distribution for different variables and especially to solve them with the moderate amount of the computing time. Therefore, in this presentation the amount of the pdf variables was limited as small as possible i.e. only one variable namely the mixture fraction was used the variance of which was solved from the transport equation. The computational domain which was divided into about seven thousand cells includes areas where the mean values of the variables can be supposed to be known and where the distribution of the probability is very narrow. Because in every computational cell the probability distribution as accurate as possible is wanted the linearization of the integration was made. The effect of the local extinction on the reaction rates was also included in the paper

  13. Las éticas de la convergencia y la filosofía de lo cotidiano: Los actos comunicativos como condiciones de humanización del mundo globalizado mediante la responsabilidad, la reflexión, la compasión y el reconocimiento del otro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Villar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presentará el cruce y coincidencias de dos propuestasfilosófico-morales latinoamericanas para el mundo actual: la que surge apartir de la edición de un libro homenaje al filósofo argentino Ricardo Maliandi(Salas, 2010 y la del filósofo chileno Humberto Giannini, reflejadatambién en un libro homenaje (Sánchez y Aguirre, 2011. En el artículoambas propuestas son presentadas como un aporte propio de la filosofíalatinoamericana al mundo de la filosofía desde las éticas del diálogo, rescatandosus coincidencias y similitudes. El artículo aprovechará sus enfoquespara leer la realidad latinoamericana con sus problemas y necesidades sociales,éticas y políticas proponiendo con sus autores aquellos principalesrasgos de una ética comunicativa que posibilitarán condiciones de vida personaly colectivas más humanizadoras y habitables para todas las personas:la responsabilidad, la reflexión, la compasión y el reconocimiento del otro.Siendo la educación, en estas propuestas filosóficas, uno de los vehículosesenciales de construcción social del mundo actual, a partir de ellas propondrá a su vez caminos de educabilidad y de logros de dichas condiciones enel ámbito de la educación superior latinoamericana. Por último, el artículoplantea la responsabilidad social universitaria como un concepto, enriquecidopor el aporte de estas éticas convergentes y cotidianas, a consolidarse enlas universidades para que éstas, en cuanto organizaciones sociales, logrendicha construcción social

  14. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    2013-04-06

    The objective of this 3-year project is to use various geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization. The targeted field is the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field in Utah operated by ENEL North America (ENA). Our effort has been focused on 1) understanding the regional and local geological settings around the geothermal field; 2) collecting and assembling various geophysical data sets including heat flow, gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic surface and body wave data; 3) installing the local temporary seismic network around the geothermal site; 4) imaging the regional and local seismic velocity structure around the geothermal field using seismic travel time tomography; and (5) determining the fracture direction using the shear-wave splitting analysis and focal mechanism analysis. Various geophysical data sets indicate that beneath the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, there is a strong anomaly of low seismic velocity, low gravity, high heat flow and high electrical conductivity. These suggest that there is a heat source in the crust beneath the geothermal field. The high-temperature body is on average 150 °C – 200 °C hotter than the surrounding rock. The local seismic velocity and attenuation tomography gives a detailed velocity and attenuation model around the geothermal site, which shows that the major geothermal development target is a high velocity body near surface, composed mainly of monzonite. The major fracture direction points to NNE. The detailed velocity model along with the fracture direction will be helpful for guiding the geothermal development in the Cove Fort area.

  15. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Mazzotti, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a

  16. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  17. Ações de terapia ocupacional com adolescentes gestantes na rotina diária / Actions of Occupational Therapy with adolescent pregnancy in daily routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Raquel Ferreira Nascimento

    2017-11-01

    approach focusing on the occupational performance of this population, which faces a new role and on the modification of their occupations. Objective: To describe the actions of occupational therapy with pregnant adolescents, on the performance in occupations in the daily routine. Methods: A research-action study with a qualitative approach. It was developed at the Women's Health outpatient clinic of a University Hospital of the city of Recife - PE, between March and July 2016, with 10 pregnant adolescents. The data were obtained through a semi-structured interview, consultation of medical records and participant observation of the groups, which generated records in field diaries and recordings. The ethical principles of Resolution 466/12 have been respected. Results: The actions were initiated with the survey, along with pregnant adolescents, of difficulties in occupational performance, problematization that favored the later discussions, towards the shared construction of strategies. The occupations indicated as problematic were: wear shoes, depilation, sexual activity, rest and sleep, and functional mobility. From there, the group developed strategies to improve their performance in these activities, as well as quality of life, backed by occupational therapist guidelines. Conclusions: In the study, it was possible to identify the difficulties in occupational performance in the daily routine of pregnant women, as well as to favor their reflection on coping strategies, to contribute to the reduction of health problems, promotion of autonomy and functional independence.Key words: occupational therapy, pregnancy in adolescence, role playing, activities of daily living.  Resumen Este artículo tiene como proposito analizar y debater lasposibilidades de laactuación de la terapia ocupacional enel âmbito de la Cultura, desde las reflexiones docentes generado por losestudiantes graduados enla Terapia Ocupacional enel centro de enseñanza superior (IES publica. Hoy

  18. Turbulent methane combustion in a laboratory-scale furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, A; Maeki-Mantila, E [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Methane combustion in the 400 rotational symmetric test chamber by ENEL was investigated. The prediction of the reaction rates of methane and carbon monoxide was based on the models which are taking into consideration the effect of turbulence on the oxidation phenomena namely the eddy dissipation concept model (EDC) and the eddy dissipation model (EDM). The experimental results of the distributions of the different species concentrations, temperature, velocities, turbulence quantities etc. were measured in the chamber cross-sections. The formation of nitric oxide was modelled using the thermal- and prompt-NO formation mechanisms and the formulation was based on the chemical kinetics and the probability density function (pdf) with the {beta}- and {delta}-distributions. If more than one variable is taken into consideration in the use of pdf it is very difficult to find distribution for different variables and especially to solve them with the moderate amount of the computing time. Therefore, in this presentation the amount of the pdf variables was limited as small as possible i.e. only one variable namely the mixture fraction was used the variance of which was solved from the transport equation. The computational domain which was divided into about seven thousand cells includes areas where the mean values of the variables can be supposed to be known and where the distribution of the probability is very narrow. Because in every computational cell the probability distribution as accurate as possible is wanted the linearization of the integration was made. The effect of the local extinction on the reaction rates was also included in the paper

  19. The e7 guide to implementing projects under the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The e7 was formed in 1992 to play an active role in global electricity issues and to promote sustainable development. It consists of nine leading electricity companies: American Electric Power (United States), Electricite de France (France), ENEL (Italy), Hydro-Quebec (Canada), The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. (Japan), Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (Canada), RWE (Germany), ScottishPower (United Kingdom), and Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan). This report provides a guide to help develop projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is an instrument that allows public or private entities to invest in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigating activities in developing countries and earn credits in an emission trading system. The dual objectives of the CDM, one of three mechanisms set out in the Kyoto Protocol, are the reduction of global GHG emissions and a contribution to sustainable development in the host country. The guidelines and procedures detailed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and the related Protocols and Accords, were followed in the preparation of this document. Recommendations based on e7 experience were also included. The criteria for success were stated, and additionality was discussed. Additionality refers to the reductions of emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the certified project activity. The baseline methodology was described. Project Design Document (PDD) is the format that must be used for presenting the information pertaining to a project and its evaluation. PDD contents include: general description of the project activity, baseline methodology, identification of crediting period, monitoring methodology and plan, calculation of GHG emissions by sources, environmental impacts, and stakeholder comments. Third party verification, and project risk and transaction costs were also addressed. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarossa, G.

    1990-01-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  1. Políticas públicas y marco jurídico para prevenir y sancionar la delincuencia juvenil en BarranquillaPolíticas públicas y marco jurídico para prevenir y sancionar la delincuencia juvenil en Barranquilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Valdés Rivera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente proyecto de investigación muestra los resultadosde un corto trabajo realizado en Barranquilla.Teniendo en cuenta que la inseguridad afecta de maneragrave el desarrollo social y económico de la ciudad,aleja la inversión extranjera, impacta el bienestar de lascomunidades y hace aumentar la desconfianza entrelos ciudadanos y sus autoridades, y atendiendo que enBarranquilla cada día se sufre el incremento de delitoscometidos por jóvenes, en este artículo estudiaremos elmarco constitucional, los lineamentos consignados en laLey 1098 de 2006 (Ley de Infancia y Adolescencia, la Ley375 de 1997 (Ley de Juventud, para así, poder describir yanalizar las políticas públicas desarrolladas por la Secretaríade Gestión Social Distrital para prevenir y sancionarla delincuencia juvenil, las cuales fueron incorporadas enel documento de Política Integral de Convivencia y SeguridadCiudadana de Barranquilla 2012-2020.Palabras clave: Delincuencia, Jóvenes, Prevención yPolíticas Públicas. AbstractThis research project shows the results of a short workin Barranquilla. Given that insecurity severely affects thesocial and economic development of the city, away foreigninvestment impacts the welfare of communities andincreases distrust between citizens and authorities, andconsidering that every day in Barranquilla suffers increasingyouth crime, in this article we will study the constitutionalframework, the lineaments forth in Law 1098of 2006 (Law on Children and Adolescents, Act 375 of1997 (Ley de Juventud, so, to describe and analyze publicpolicies developed by the Ministry of Social ManagementDistrict to prevent and punish juvenile delinquency,which were incorporated in the policy document IntegralCitizen Security Barranquilla 2012-2020.Keywords: Crime, Youth, Prevention and Public Policy.

  2. Financial groups charmed by energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.; Marcan, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Slovak power industry is no longer the domain of big state-controlled and international companies. Local financial groups that grew up on equity deals, revitalisation of industry, real estate and receivables business have developed an interest in the field as well. They are contemplating the possibility of investing a part of their gains into energy sources. They can see the gap that the closure of the V1 power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice will create in Slovakian's power capacity. Although the new owner of Slovenske elektrarne, Italian Enel, will attend to filling the gap, local market players also sense an opportunity. Apart from the closure of V1 there is also rising energy demand driven by growing industry and growing energy prices. What is more, the state supports renewable energy sources like wind and biomass though subsidies, tax allowances or higher purchase prices. According to standard economic formulas at least, increased competition should exert pressure on prices. However, renewable energy sources are more expensive then traditional ones and new gas or coal driven power plants will certainly not push prices down. The electricity produced by power plants in Jaslovske Bohunice, which is to be closed, is the cheapest we have. So nobody dares to predict with 100-percent certainty what energy prices will look like in two years. Investment director of private equity group Penta, Vladimir Brodnan, says that new investors are not entering the energy business because of guaranteed profit. Utility regulator URSO only sets fixed prices for distribution companies but, on the other hand, the draft amendment to the regulation act indicates that the government would like to change this status. In future the powers of the regulator should also cover the prices of electricity as a commodity. In addition, the possibility of the regulator being able to interfere with the liberalised market concerns investors. (authors)

  3. Study and mathematical model of ultra-low gas burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguieva, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this project is prediction and reduction of NOx and CO 2 emissions under levels recommended from European standards for gas combustion processes. A mathematical model of burner and combustion chamber is developed based on interacting fluid dynamics processes: turbulent flow, gas phase chemical reactions, heat and radiation transfer The NOx prediction model for prompt and thermal NOx is developed. The validation of CFD (Computer fluid-dynamics) simulations corresponds to 5 MWI burner type - TEA, installed on CASPER boiler. This burner is three-stream air distribution burner with swirl effect, designed by ENEL to meet future NOx emission standards. For performing combustion computer modelling, FLUENT CFD code is preferred, because of its capabilities to provide accurately description of large number of rapid interacting processes: turbulent flow, phase chemical reactions and heat transfer and for its possibilities to present wide range of calculation and graphical output reporting data The computational tool used in this study is FLUENT version 5.4.1, installed on fs 8200 UNIX systems The work includes: study the effectiveness of low-NOx concepts and understand the impact of combustion and swirl air distribution and flue gas recirculation on peak flame temperatures, flame structure and fuel/air mixing. A finite rate combustion model: Eddy-Dissipation (Magnussen-Hjertager) Chemical Model for 1, 2 step Chemical reactions of bi-dimensional (2D) grid is developed along with NOx and CO 2 predictions. The experimental part of the project consists of participation at combustion tests on experimental facilities located in Livorno. The results of the experiments are used, to obtain better vision for combustion process on small-scaled design and to collect the necessary input data for further Fluent simulations

  4. The last season of cheap electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Mucka, F.

    2007-01-01

    The former 'Mr. SuperCEZ', as the Czech media often used to call Jaroslav Mil, claims he is not a nuclear fundamentalist. But in his opinion without the use of nuclear energy, Europe must expect an increase in the electricity price. The experience of the former director of CEZ caught the attention of the Italian directors of Enel and so he is now a member of the Board of Directors of Slovenske elektrarne. He criticises EU measures that do not offer a solution for either the energy sector or environment protection but make investments in the replacement of decommissioned European power stations uncertain. He says he is not an uncritical advocate of nuclear power, but in his opinion we do not have much choice. Energy consumption is growing fast and resources are being depleted. And if Europe does not want to become dependent on Russia there is no other option. Unless we want Putin's vision to come true: coal and nuclear resources will be kept by Russia for internal use and gas is for export. In the opinion of J. Mil, politicians are often populists and are only doing their jobs. They think in terms of 4-year election periods and then only in the better cases. He recalls that in 2000 politicians seriously considered the possibility of closing down the Temelin nuclear power station in the Czech Republic. As long as there is electricity in the sockets and the bulbs are glowing there is no crisis. The crisis will come when there is no electricity. He stresses that there will always be electricity but for a different price. He mentioned emission permits as an example of the attitude politicians have. This is a useless measure that only supports big business available to a narrow circle which does not help the environment at all. The Kyoto protocol without China, Brazil, India and the USA is a nightmare and does not solve anything in his opinion. (authors)

  5. Living near a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Slovak, K.

    2007-01-01

    The need to expand nuclear power and its advantages are discussed publicly nearly each week. According to politicians and the nuclear lobby investing tens of billions Sk at Mochovce will bring Slovakia the often cited 'independence and energy self-sufficiency'. It will also mean profit for Slovenske elektrarne and the company's shareholders - the state and Italian company, Enel. In addition to the lively discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, TREND was also interested in the living conditions around the concrete and strictly guarded, potentially dangerous plants and in the opinion of the people most affected by Mochovce and Jaslovske Bohunice on expansion of the existing and the building of new nuclear power plants. The construction of nuclear powers stations in these regions was not only about new jobs. The state 'prescribed' iodine pills and did not allow any construction in the region and, in the case of Mochovce, ordered the complete demolition of a village. The only thing that remained from Mochovce village was the church. 'And when it was found that the power plant would not reach it, it was even given a new roof. Former inhabitants, especially the older ones that had problems accepting the evacuation, used to visit it often,' explained Jan Foldy, the head of the local municipality in Kalna nad Hronom. After many years, life in the neighbouring villages is not bad. Their budgets are overflowing and so they can afford to spoil their inhabitants with free cable TV and high standard sport facilities, which should partly compensate for the fact that the people are living so close to a nuclear facility. (authors)

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Against the Hazards of Ionising Radiation; Technical Commission for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment - ENEA; National Institute of Nuclear Physics - INFN; National Health Service; Electricity Company - ENEL, s.p.a.; Company for the Management of Nuclear Installations (Societa per la Gestione degli Impianti Nucleari - SOGIN); National Environmental Protection and Technical services Agency - APAT)

  7. Off-site intervention plan of the public health authorities for emergencies at the Caorso nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Boeri, G.; Cencetti, S.; Melandri, G.; Paterlini, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Caorso nuclear power plant, which is near Piacenza and has an 875 MW boiling water reactor, has been generating electricity on a regular basis since 1978. The off-site intervention plan of the public health authorities, based on an analysis of hypothetical accidents, was approved in 1977 and subsequently revised. A study of the radiological consequences of these accidents for man and the environment indicates that the highest doses likely to be received by inhalation of 131 I would be no more than a few rem, whereas the levels of soil contamination, even at a distance of 40 km, could exceed 1 μCi/m 2 . The main problems caused by such accidents are therefore related to environmental contamination. Under the intervention plan, the provincial prefect is responsible for co-ordinating the work of all the civil, military and medical authorities. Teams from ENEL, the fire service and the local health services (USL) monitor the concentration of 131 I in the air and the exposure level, and take samples within a radius of 10 km around the site. The police and army control road traffic and are responsible, if necessary, for the evacuation of the population. A radiometry co-ordination centre (CCRI) is set up to process the readings made by the teams and provides the prefect with the technical information he requires to take decisions The local medical services (USL) run the centre where the population is assembled and monitor superficial contamination, apply initial decontamination measures, and provide medical assistance in general. The Piacenza USL also takes action by sending out its mobile radiometry laboratory, using its measurement equipment and providing logistic support to the CCRI. It is also to play a major role in informing the population in the event of an alarm. (author)

  8. Interdisciplinary Research on Autism: Behavioral Measures in the Development of a Mouse Model of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Muñoz Blanco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de investigación biomédica ha reportado evidencia empírica respectoa la función de neuropéptidos específicos en el desarrollo de la sintomatologíadel autismo. Se sugiere que con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión delautismo es necesario establecer un campo de investigación interdisciplinario enel cual es integren contribuciones tanto del Análisis Comportamental como de laBiología. En este estudio interdisciplinario preliminar, ratonas gestantes fueroninyectadas con lipopolisacárido – LPS (grupo experimental en el 17avo día degestación. Las camadas de estas ratonas fueron comparadas con camadas controlque no fueron inyectadas. Las mediciones de interacción social se realizaronen dos periodos, juvenil y adulto joven, utilizando un diseño ABAB que consistióen la presencia o ausencia de la madre en la cámara experimental. La interacciónsocial de cada cría se evaluó observando el número de acercamientos haciala madre. El promedio de velocidad, entendida como distancia recorrida sobretiempo, de cada ratón también fue calculado para cada sesión. Se concluye quees necesario un mayor refinamiento de la medida de interacción social utilizada,y que la introducción de una medida de desarrollo comportamental sería útil enla construcción de un modelo animal de autismo.

  9. The CARIPANDA project: Climate change and water resources in the Adamello Natural Park of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchiola, D.

    2009-04-01

    The three years (2007-2009) CARIPANDA project funded by the Cariplo Foundation of Italy is aimed to evaluate scenarios for water resources in the Adamello natural Park of Italy in a window of 50 years or so (until 2050). The project is led by Ente Parco Adamello and involves Politecnico di Milano, Università Statale di Milano, Università di Brescia, and ARPA Lombardia as scientific partners, while ENEL hydropower Company of Italy joins the project as stake holder. The Adamello Natural Park is a noteworthy resource in the Italian Alps. The Adamello Group is made of several glacierized areas (c. 24 km2), of both debris covered and free ice types, including the widest Italian Glacier, named Adamello, spreading on an area of about c. 18 km2. Also the Adamello Natural Reserve, covering 217 km2 inside the Adamello Park and including the Adamello glaciers, hosts a number of high altitude safeguarded vegetal and animal species, the safety of which is a primary task of the Reserve. Project's activity involves analysis of local climate trend, field campaigns on glaciers, hydrological modelling and remote sensing of snow and ice covered areas, aimed to build a consistent model of the present hydrological conditions and of the areas. Then, properly tailored climate change projections for the area, obtained using local data driven downscaling of climate change projections from GCMs model, are used to infer the likely response to expected climate change conditions. With two years in the project now some preliminary findings can be highlighted and some preliminary trend analysis carried out. The proposed poster provides a resume of the main results of the project insofar, of interest as a benchmark for similar ongoing and foregoing projects about climate change impact on European mountainous natural areas.

  10. Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarossa, G [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1990-07-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals.

  11. SGN multipurpose dry storage technology applied to the Italian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.; Lanza, R.

    1999-01-01

    SGN has gained considerable experience in the design and construction of interim storage facilities for spent fuel and various nuclear waste, and can therefore propose single product and multipurpose facilities capable of accommodating all types of waste in a single structure. The pooling of certain functions (transport cask reception, radiation protection) and the choice of optimized technologies to answer the specific needs of clients (transfer of nuclear packages by shielded handling cask or nuclearized crane), the use of the same type of storage pit to cool the heat releasing packages (vitrified nuclear waste, fuel elements) makes it possible to propose industrially proven and cost-effective solutions. Studies carried out for the Dutch company COVRA (HABOG facility currently under implementation phase) provide an example of a multipurpose dry storage facility designed to store spent fuel, vitrified reprocessing waste, cemented hulls and end-pieces, cemented technological waste and bituminized waste from fuel reprocessing, i e. high level waste and intermediate level wastes. The study conducted by SGN and GENESI (an Italian consortium formed by Ansaldo's Nuclear Division and Fiat Avio), on behalf of the Italian utility ENEL, offers another example of the multipurpose dry storage facility designed to store in a centralised site all the remaining irradiated fuel elements plus the vitrified waste. This paper presents SGN's experience through a short description of reference storage facilities for various types of products (HLW and spent fuel). It continues with the typical application to the Italian situation to show how these proven technologies are combined to obtain multipurpose facilities tailored to the client's specific requirements. (author)

  12. Perspectivas del Mercado de Derivados en Colombia Retraso derivado del desconocimiento Perspectivas del Mercado de Derivados en Colombia Retraso derivado del desconocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cañas Arboleda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado de derivados representa la evolución de los mercados financieros enel mundo, debido a la capacidad que tiene el primero de ofrecer cobertura a losparticipantes del mercado, función importante en el actual contexto de globalización.Por lo anterior, en el país se desarrollan, aunque un poco tarde, diversos proyectospara la incorporación de futuros y opciones, como nuevas alternativas de inversióny financiación que redunden en menor incertidumbre para los inversionistas dediferentes sectores de la economía. A partir de allí, se muestra la situación actualdel mercado de derivados en Colombia y los esfuerzos realizados por diferentesinstituciones, encaminados al desarrollo del mismo.The derivative market represents the evolution of financial markets in the world, given the capacity that the former has for offering coverage to market participants, which is an important feature in the present context of globalization. For this reason, some projects are being developed in our country, though  a bit late, for the incorporation of futures and options, as new investment and financing alternatives, which may result in a reduced uncertainty for the investors in different sectors of the economy. This article shows the current situation of the derivative market in Colombia and the efforts made by different institutions, aimed at the development of such a market.

  13. Rasgos morfoestructurales de la llanura amazónica del Perú: efecto de la Neotectónica sobre los cambios fluviales y la delimitación de las provincias morfológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    l’Ucayali respectivement vers le nord (50km et vers le sud-est (100km durant une période récente, probablement limitée à l’Holocène. L’environnement géodynamique de la dépression Ucamara suggère une relation étroite entre les sauts successifs et de direction constante des lits fluviaux et l’activité néotectonique. Les trois grandes zones de lacs et marécages de la dépression Ucamara, Concordia, Puinahua et Punga, sont présentées et leurs caractéristiques discutées en relation avec les structures du fond du bassin (failles et plis. Les données néotectoniques et sismotectoniques des régions environnantes sont comparées aux données morphostructurales, et discutées en terme d’évolution tectonique quaternaire. Se presentan las regiones de la Amazonia peruana en relación con la tectónica reciente andina y con la respuesta del drenaje fluvial. Las principales provincias morfoestructurales son: el piedemonte o Zona Subandina (antepaís que está bordeado hacia el este por grandes depresiones (antefosa en el noreste (Cuenca del Marañón y el sureste (Madre de Dios del Perú, y el Cratón Brasileño (Geoanticlinal de Iquitos más al este. Estructuralmente, la Zona Subandina comprende 2 subzonas: la faja escurrida y plegada subandina (Subandean thrust and fold belt, STFB, que aflora principalmente en el piedemonte superior y la Zona subandina de bloques basculados (Subandean tilted block zone, STBZ. Los principales ríos que atraviesan la STFB son antecedentes o sobreimpuestos, pero el drenaje secundario es conforme a las estructuras (subsecuente. En la STBZ las cuencas fluviales están canalizadas paralelamente al grano estructural. La Cuenca del Marañón comprende, al norte, una depresión a lo largo del río Pastaza, y al sur, la gran depresión de Ucamara con extensas llanuras de inundación y lagos controlados tectónicamente. Hacia el este, el Geoanticlinal de Iquitos representa una estructura epirogénica positiva en el borde occidental

  14. Development of guidelines for seismic isolation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, M.; Martelli, A.; Bettinali, F.; Bonacina, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first activities on seismic isolation that were performed in Italy concerned the preparation of a proposal for design guidelines for nuclear power plants using the high damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings (HDLRBs). They were jointly initiated by ENEA-RIN and GE Nuclear Energy in 1988, with the co-operation of ISMES and the support of experts of ENEA-DISP and Bechtel National Inc. The features of the guidelines proposal were outlined at the First Post-SMiRT Conference Seminar on Seismic Base Isolation of Nuclear Power Facilities (San Francisco, 1989). The full text of the document was published in the Journal 'Energia Nucleare' in 1990, in a tentative form, to allow for a broad review. A summary of the main items - together with some first results of R and D studies performed in support to guidelines development - was also reported in a paper which was recently published by the Journal 'Nuclear Technology' (February 1992). A first revision of the document is being prepared and will be soon published: it accounts for both comments received - for instance, by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), ENEA-DISP and the Malaysian Rubber Producers' Association (MRPRA) - and the first results of R and D studies in progress in Italy and the USA. These activities have recently been extended - as part of a cooperation with the Italian Standard Authority (UNI) - to other antiseismic devices, for application to civil buildings and non-nuclear plants. A co-operation of ENEA, ENEL and ISMES has also been started with the National Seismic Service to help it in the assessment of national regulations. Furthermore, extension of the aforesaid guidelines document to nuclear reactors using bearings different from the HDLRB has been planned, under the sponsorship of the Commission of the European communities: this work will be performed by ENEA, with the cooperation of ALGA, ISMES, ANSALDO and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (LIN) of the Bologna University, and the

  15. The Liberalisation of the Electricity Market in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessenibus, A.; Viskovic, A.; Carollo, T.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity sector is under reform in all EU countries on both of the aspects of market organisation and Utilities' restructuring, the latter being a consequence of the former. Until very recently, most governments have considered the whole power sector to be a natural monopoly and therefore it should be closely regulated. Market liberalisation shifts decision-making from the State to the market and, for the first time in the history of electricity Utility, gives consumer a choice. The new framework is featured by the introduction of competition in electricity generation and end-users' supply, non-discriminatory access to the electricity network and a redefinition of the regulatory function of governments. This study briefly resumes the market reforms and the new market organisation in Italy. Italy has implemented the EU directive on internal electricity market since 1999. So far, the process of market liberalisation has not come to an end yet. Currently ENEL, the former vertically integrated monopolist, is dismissing 25 percent of its power generation capacity, by selling in the market three power generation companies (GENCOs). An independent Transmission System Operator is fully operative since July 1999 and a transparent and non-discriminatory access to the network is guaranteed to all of the electricity power generation companies. The Market Pool Operator is defining the code of the Market Pool that will be applied to the price settlement into the Pool. The opening of the market on the demand side is growing year by year, according to the enlargement of the consumers who are allowed to sign freely contracts of supply with distributors (eligible consumers). Three months after the selling of the third Genco, the eligibility threshold will be lowered at 0.1 GWh. At that time, the open market is expected to represent 70 percent of the overall electricity consumption in Italy. Available evidence on liberalisation process in United Kingdom and in Scandinavian

  16. European Fast Reactor IWGFR/FRCC-report. A review of the collaborative programme on the European Fast Reactor (EFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The design work for the 1500 MWe European Fast Reactor EFR was started in 1988. Two years during phase 1 were devoted to the concept design; the subsequent concept validation phase 2 will last until March 1993. In autumn 1991 the 'concept design '91, CD91, was put forward; its major design features and the R and D support are described briefly together with the organisational structures. The European Fast Reactor Utilities Group 'EFRUG' presently comprises EdF (France), ENEL (Italy), Nuclear Electric (UK) and Bayernwerk, PreulsenElektra and RWE (Germany). For design and construction of EFR the group 'EFR Associates' is responsible, combining the companies Siemens (formerly Interatom, Germany), NNC Ltd. (UK) and Framatome/Div. Novatome (France). The necessary R and D support is given by CEA (France), UKAEA (UK) and KfK/Siemens (Germany). The R and D work is executed in the various national research centres ranging from Dounreay via Bensberg and Karlsruhe to Cadarache. The design work is done at Bensberg, Lyon and Risley. The present programme of design work extends to early 1993 and is aimed at producing a detailed consistent design for the nuclear part of the plant and a non site specific safety report. By that date the basic feasibility of the main design features will have been underwritten by the joint R and D programme and there will be an informal assessment of the general licensibility of the concept by the Ad Hoc Safety Club. In follow-up the utilities will then be in the position to decide whether to proceed with the next steps. The key issues of this phase will include the specification of the plant, the siting, the detailed engineering, licensing with possibly a public enquiry and the question of ownership and financing. In the international arena the collaboration with USSR is proceeding well on the basis of an USSR-Europe Agreement from January 8, 1991; it foresees review and specialists meetings in the field of fast breeder research. On the occasion of

  17. Power plants in competition 2011. Perspectives of future generation portfolio. Technology-system, stability-market, conditions, with technical exhibition; Kraftwerke im Wettbewerb 2011. Perspektiven des kuenftigen Erzeugungs-Portfolios. Technologie, Systemstabilitaet, Marktbedingungen, mit Fachausstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The proceedings on the VGB conference ''power plants in competition 2011'' includes the following contributions: status of European energy policy; market and climate protection; setting up new conventional capacity in Europe and EU regulation; perspectives of power generation in Germany and Europe; market for power generation - challenges and chances for suppliers; development of a European ''network code'' for integration of power plants; impact of ''EU network code'' for design and operation of power plants; outcome of investigation of grid/generation; impact of intermitting generation on power system stability; consequences of low-load operation for coal fired power plants; pro quality - an approach for project management; Sumitomos R and D activities for advanced USC boilers; V and M innovative contribution to the challenges of present and future conventional power plants; steam side oxidation at austenitic boiler tubes; OL3 project - a multicultural challenge; knowledge management - preservation and maintenance of implicit knowledge within a company; competition about green investments - the European targets for renewables; retrofitting of CEZ power plants (coal and gas); power sector skill - addressing the challenges; requirements on structural maintenance in power plants; usage of corrugated tubes in heat exchangers; technical plant documentation; technologies for off-shore wind turbines; solar thermal plants; renewable energy from biomass and integration into the grid; environmentally friendly future power generation with fossil fuels; storage technologies; large-scale underground energy storage; assessment of risk - an insurance company view; human resources as multiplier for a company's value; post-combustion capture pilot plant experiences; CCS strategy of Vattenfall; optimizing plant process management; Enel activities on carbon capture and sequestration; bachelor studies on power plant

  18. Factores asociados a la disponibilidad y uso de medios electrónicos en niños desde preescolar hasta 4° grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marina Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El incremento en la disponibilidad de medios electrónicos ha modificado los comportamientos de niños y jóvenes, fomentando los de tipo sedentario, con efectos sobre la saluddesde muy corta edad. Objetivo. Caracterizar la disponibilidad y uso de medios electrónicos, y sus factores asociados, en niños desde preescolar hasta 4° grado. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio de corte transversal con muestreo por conglomerados. Los padres diligenciaron la encuesta sociodemográfica, disponibilidad y uso de medios electrónicos enel hogar y en la habitación del niño. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión log-binomial para estimar lasrazones de prevalencia, ajustando por el tipo de muestreo. Resultados. Respondieron 710 padres. El promedio de edad de los niños fue de 6,7 años y 49,7 % eran hombres. El trabajo fuera de la casa de la mamá y los ingresos familiares se asociaron positivamente con la disponibilidad de medios electrónicos en el hogar y en la habitación del hijo. La disponibilidad detelevisor, computador y consolas en la habitación del hijo, favorece un mayor tiempo de uso de estos medios electrónicos. Tanto el sexo masculino del hijo como la edad, se asociaron positivamente con la disponibilidad y uso de los medios electrónicos. Conclusión. Este es el primer estudio en Colombia en que se documentan la disponibilidad y el uso de medios electrónicos en niños. Los hallazgos reflejan que la vida moderna fomenta comportamientos sedentarios desde los primeros años de vida, asociados con problemas de salud desde la primera infancia. Se requieren estudios de intervención dirigidos a disminuir estos comportamientos en nuestro contexto.   http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.779

  19. LA VEGETACIÓN TERRESTRE DEL BOSQUE MONTANO DE LANCHURÁN (PIURA, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasal Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de febrero y marzo de 2008 se realizaron inventarios que permitieronconocer el estado actual de la composición florística y la estructura de la vegetacióndel bosque montano neotropical de Lanchurán (4o38'S, 79o42'W, provinciade Ayabaca, región Piura, Perú. Se siguió el método propuesto por Gentry paramuestreo de plantas leñosas en dos sitios, Los Molinos y La Antena, para un totalde 0.5 ha; éstos fueron escogidos por sus características fisiográficas y florísticas.En ambos sitios el análisis de suelo reveló niveles bajos de materia orgánica,nitrógeno y potasio y niveles medios de fósforo asimilable. Se registraron, en elsitio Los Molinos, 399 individuos/0.25 ha con diámetro a la altura del pecho ≥ 2.5cm, correspondientes a 41 especies, 33 géneros y 25 familias, a lo que se suma unavegetación herbácea conformada por 82 especies, 75 géneros y 48 familias; y enel sitio La Antena, 86 especies, 67 géneros y 41 familias. Las familias presentescon mayor valor ecológico son comunes a la mayoría de los bosques montanos delnorte y noroeste del Perú, entre ellas Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae,Rubiaceae y Solanaceae. Para el sitio Los Molinos el Área Basal fue 89.23 m2,destacando la Lauraceae con la mayores valores de cobertura relativa, Índice deValor de Importancia y Valor de Importancia para la Familia con 38.9, 73.1 y 70.8,respectivamente. Se destaca la acción antrópica sobre la diversidad florística enambos sitios de estudio.

  20. REGULACIÓN ESPACIO-TEMPORAL DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L. DURANTE SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL PATÓGENO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Ardila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la regulación espacio-temporalde la actividad enzimática y de los nivelestranscripcionales de la enzima fenilalaninaamonio liasa (PAL por sus siglas en inglésen clavel (Dianthus caryophyllusL. inoculado con el patógeno causal delmarchitamiento vascular. Se inocularoncon Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiesquejes de dos variedades con diferenciasen los niveles de tolerancia a la enfermedad–Kiss (tolerante y Uconn (susceptible–y se realizaron muestreos posinoculacióna diferentes horas, tanto en eltallo como en la raíz, con el fin de evaluarlos parámetros en estudio. Se determinóque durante la infección con el patógeno,la variedad tolerante presentó inducciónde la actividad PAL en la raíz a las 48 horasde la inoculación. Esto indica que eneste órgano de la planta se estimula la rutafenilpropanoide, responsable de la generaciónde metabolitos fenólicos presentesen una alta diversidad de fenómenos asociadosa resistencia vegetal. Considerandoque durante la evaluación de los nivelesde transcripción en este órgano de laplanta mediante la técnica semicuantitativade transcripción reversa y la posteriorreacción en cadena de la polimerasa(RT-PCR por su nombre en inglés no sepresentó aumento importante en los niveles de mRNApara esta enzima, se evidenciala participación de mecanismos de regulaciónpostranscripcional que determinanla generación de la enzima activa. Enel tallo no se presentaron cambios en laactividad enzimática ni en los nivelestranscripcionales, lo cual indica que la regulaciónde la respuesta de defensa de laplanta está determinada por el órgano involucradoen el proceso de infección.

  1. Status and programme of development of the fast breeder reactor systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    in 1971 by the RWE (Germany), ENEL (Italy) and EdF (France) power supply companies on the joint construction of the SUPERPHENIX and SNR 2 FBR demonstration nuclear power stations, and the German-French Memoranda agreed in 1976 with regard to industrial cooperation on the fast breeder development opened the door to European cooperation planned on an even broader scale and supported by world-wide interlacement in the sector of research and development

  2. Energy efficiency of new school buildings and office buildings in Luxembourg based on consumption data and simulations; Energieeffizienz neuer Schul- und Buerogebaeude in Luxemburg basierend auf Verbrauchsdaten und Simulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewes, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    In Luxemburg, energy consumption in the building and housing sector has been significantly increasing over the last years. From 1990 to 2005, the fraction of the tertiary sector (including private and public households), compared to the entire national energy consumption, increased from only 20% to 31% [ENEL, 2008]. An assessment of the energy saving potential of buildings requires a comprehensive data basis with real consumption figures that are not yet available. Assessments on energy saving measures conducted so far are only based on rough estimates. One focus of this study was to create a priori a detailed energy consumption database for new ''School and Administrative Buildings'' for Luxembourg. These are both groups pursuant to the EU Directive [EU, 2010] and cover a major part of the building and housing sector in Luxembourg besides residential buildings. Based on the samples collected, it was able to expand the figures to the entire country using mathematical methods and the medium heat and electricity consumption of these two types of buildings. After collecting some details about each object, it was able to analyze the influence of different parameters, such as building age, size, type, glass fraction etc., on energy consumption using multivariate statistical methods. A posteriori, the results from the database were verified using parameter studies to existing objects and one object still under construction. Based on this, important key parameters relevant for both energy savings and thermal comfort could be found. This knowledge are necessary to understand energy flows within buildings better and, based on this, to be able meeting the nearly zero energy buildings requirements as set out by the EU Directive in the years to come. In particular, this study focused on the negative effects of growing window areas on the energy consumptions and discussed them thoroughly. Also, we tested and/or provided calculational evidence of further

  3. El abastecimiento de agua a Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Borja Bernabé Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua en la región del sureste peninsular, en la que se ubica Cartagena y su comarca,ha obligado a buscar y traer recursos foráneos de agua para atender sus necesidades de abastecimiento.Inicialmente, al no existir cursos permanentes de agua, se recurre a pozos y aljibes, apequeños acueductos desde fuentes y manantiales de aforo escaso, y a alumbramientos de subálveasmediante galerías con lumbreras. Las demandas aumentan y se plantea la traída de aguas dela parte alta de la Cuenca del Segura. Mediante las infraestructuras de la Mancomunidad de losCanales del Taibilla (MCT, creada por Decreto Ley de 4 de octubre de 1927 llega el agua hastaCartagena en 1945. En los últimos treinta y cinco años, a estas aguas se han unido caudales delTrasvase Tajo-Segura y finalmente aguas procedentes de desaladoras. La gestión del abastecimientode agua, a lo largo de la historia de Cartagena (desde la fundación de Carthago Nova enel 229 a.C. hasta los primeros años del siglo XXI ha generado un rico patrimonio de infraestructurashidráulicas y una experimentada cultura de usos del agua.Se expone la situación del abastecimiento de Cartagena (ciudad y barrios como demandante derecursos propios y foráneos de agua. La inversión en las redes de distribución y la concienciaciónde la mayor parte de los usuarios en un uso sostenible, que permiten un continuado abastecimientode «agua de boca», así como la regeneración de las aguas residuales para otros usos. Eneste trabajo geográfico (espacial e histórico (diacrónico, las fuentes utilizadas han sido las entrevistasa los gestores de las empresas encargadas de la distribución del agua en alta (conduccionesde gran diámetro como las de la MCT y en baja (conducciones de pequeño diámetro como las deHIDROGEA, y el acceso a la documentación del Archivo Municipal de Cartagena, del Regionalde Murcia, de la Mancomunidad de Canales del Taibilla, y el de la Confederación Hidrográficadel Segura

  4. New Phase in the System Uranium-Molybdenum-Silicon; Nouvelle phase dans le systeme uranium-molybdene-silicium; Novaya faza v sisteme uran-molibden'-kremnij; Una fase nueva en el sistema uranio-molibdeno-silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikirica, M.; Ban, Z. [Rudjer Bokovic Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1963-11-15

    During the investigation of the ternary system uranium-molybdenum-silicon, a new phase with the composition U{sub 4}Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3} was formed. Structure determination exclusively based on the powder data showed that the particular phase belongs to the hexagonal system. Space group P6/mmc or one of the sub-groups is indicated. Unit cell dimensions were found to be a = 5.37{sub 0}A, c = 8 . 58{sub 2}A. A comparison of calculated and observed intensities shows close resemblance to the structure of the Laves phases of the C14-type. (author) [French] Au cours de recherches sur le systeme ternaire uranium-molybdene-silicium, on a constate la formation d'une nouvelle phase, de composition U{sub 4}Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. Une determination de la structure, exclusivement fondee sur des donnees relatives a la poudre, a revele que cette phase particuliere appartenait au systeme hexagonal. Les auteurs indiquent un groupe spatial P6/mmc ou un des sous-groupes. Les dimensions d'une maille individuelle sont donnees par a = 5,37{sub 0}A, c = 8,58{sub 2}A. La comparaison entre l'intensite calculee et Tintensite observee montre une ressemblance etroite avec la structure des phases de Laves du type C-14. (author) [Spanish] En-el curso del estudio del sistema temario uranio-molibdeno-silicio, los autores observaron la formacion de una fase cuya composicion responde a la formula U{sub 4}Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. La determinacion de la estructura, basada exclusivamente en los datos referentes al material en polvo, demuestra que esa fase pertenece al sistema hexagonal. Se senalo la existencia de un grupo especial P6/mmc y se comprobo que las dimensiones de la celda elemental son a = 5,37{sub 0}A, c = 8,58{sub 2}A. La comparacion de las intensidades calculadas con las observadas indica que existe una analogia estrecha con la estructura de la fase de Laves del tipo C 14. (author) [Russian] Pri izuchenii trojnoj sistemy uran - molibden - kremnij obrazovalas' novaya faza sostava U{sub 4}Mo{sub 5

  5. Movimenti della faglia del Iago di Cavazzo, in relazione con la locale caduta di pioggia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MIGANI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available RIASSUNTO. — Si portano chiare testimonianze sull'esistenza di micromovimenti
    della faglia del Lago di Cavazzo (Tolmezzo, associati alla locale
    caduta di pioggia. Essi vengono registrati, sotto forma di rotazioni della
    verticale, dalle stazioni clinografiche sistemate nella centrale « Enel » di
    Somplago, ricavata in roccia. L a centrale si t r o v a sul bordo occidentale della
    grande faglia del lago. A sua volta la faglia del lago — che probabilmente si
    prolunga fino alla confluenza del torrente Melò nel Tagliamento, ca 10 km
    a Sud della Centrale — si t r o v a nel quadrante NW della vasta zona di alluvioni
    del Tagliamento, che si stende f r a Venzone, Gemona e Osoppo. La rotazione
    della verticale verso SSE può essere a t t r i b u i t a all'appesantimento della
    zona alluvionale, dovuto alla pioggia: la deviazione r i s u l t a i n f a t t i t a n t o maggiore
    quanto più cospicua è la caduta di pioggia. È da ritenere che sotto
    l'esteso letto del fiume Tagliamento, esista una fiumana, alimentata dalla
    pioggia d'infiltrazione. A questo riguardo, è da rilevare che, durante i mesi
    estivi, quando l'apporto della pioggia diminuisce, la verticale subisce a
    Somplago un lento movimento in senso contrario, come per un corrispondente
    lento alleggerimento della zona a SSE.
    I micromovimenti relativi dei due bordi della faglia possono avere un
    effetto « decongestionante » della zona da essa interessata, nel senso di impedire
    notevoli accumuli di tensioni elastiche nel mezzo circostante. Sta di f a t to
    che, malgrado l'elevata sismicità della Carnia, nei tempi storici la zona di
    Somplago non si è mai t r o v a t a all'epicentro di terremoti distruttivi.

  6. PREFACE: 32nd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid-dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The annual Conference of the ''Unione Italiana di Termofluidodinamica'' (UIT) aims to promote cooperation in the field of heat transfer and thermal sciences by bringing together scientists and engineers working in related areas. The 32nd UIT Conference was held in Pisa, from the 23rd to the 25th of June, 2014 in the buildings of the School of Engineering, just a few months after the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the first Institution of the School of Engineering at the University of Pisa. The response was very good, with more than 100 participants and 80 high-quality contributions from 208 authors on seven different heat transfer related topics: Heat transfer and efficiency in energy systems, environmental technologies, and buildings (25 papers); Micro and nano scale thermo-fluid dynamics (9 papers); Multi-phase fluid dynamics, heat transfer and interface phenomena (14 papers); Computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer (10 papers); Heat transfer in nuclear plants (8 papers); Natural, forced and mixed convection (10 papers) and Conduction and radiation (4 papers). To encourage the debate, the Conference Program scheduled 16 oral sessions (44 papers), three ample poster sessions (36 papers) and four invited lectures given by experts in the various fields both from Industry and from University. Keynote Lectures were given by Dr. Roberto Parri (ENEL, Italy), Prof. Peter Stephan (TU Darmstadt, Germany), Prof. Bruno Panella (Politecnico di Torino), and Prof. Sara Rainieri (Universit;aacute; di Parma). This special volume collects a selection of the scientific contributions discussed during this conference. A total of 46 contributions, two keynote lectures and 44 papers both from oral and poster sessions, have been selected for publication in this special issue, after a second accurate revision process. These works give a good overview of the state of the art of Italian research in the field of Heat Transfer related topics at the date. The editors of the

  7. Acercamiento al estado actual de la promoción de la lectura en la biblioteca pública en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Álvarez Zapata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el resultado de la investigación sobre las actividades de promoción de la lectura que realizala biblioteca pública en Colombia. Indaga acerca de la presencia de la biblioteca en la cultura escrita yel rol desempeñado por las iniciativas de promoción de la lectura. Plantea la hipótesis de que labiblioteca pública en Colombia transita de un modelo tradicional, como templo del saber, a otromodelo más dinámico y de intervención social. La investigación parte de las categorías propuestas enel cuestionario diseñado por Brioney Train, de la Universidad de Sheffield, que tuvo como propósitoconocer el alcance de los servicios y actividades que, en la comunidad británica, pretenden desarrollaral lector y promover la lectura dentro y fuera de la biblioteca. La investigación se llevo a cabo en cuatroetapas, en la primera se adecuó el cuestionario propuesto para la Encuesta Internacional aceptado porla Sección de Lectura de IFLA; en la segunda se definieron los criterios y procedimientos quepermitieran la aplicación del cuestionario en las bibliotecas públicas de Colombia y el listado defuentes de autoridad; en la tercera etapa se envió el cuestionario y en la cuarta se llevaron a cabo losprocesos de preparación, análisis e interpretación de la información. Entre los resultados de lainvestigación se destacan el análisis de la situación de la biblioteca pública en Colombia, la promociónde la lectura y su incidencia en la transformación de la biblioteca pública, el personal de las bibliotecasy su formación, las actividades y la planeación de la promoción de la lectura.

  8. An operator self-training system based upon the emulation of instructor skill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuenkov, M.; Marsiletti, M.

    1999-01-01

    package developed at the Research and Development Department of the Italian National Electricity Board (CRA-ENEL) to facilitate modelling of the dynamics of fossil-fuelled and nuclear power plants. The LEGO code consists of a library of pre-programmed, pre-tested and pre-validated modules, that represent power plant components and a master program which allows the user to build-up a model by automatically interconnecting the modules in the arrangement determined by the modeler. (author)

  9. COMPARACIÓN DE DOS TIPOS DE SACRIFICIO Y DIFERENTES TIEMPOS DE MADURACIÓN SOBRE VARIABLES FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS Y MICROBIOLÓGICAS DE LA CARNE DE CUY (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Jurado-Gámez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento de las variables fisicoquímicas y microbiológicasdurante la maduración de la carne de cuy (Cavia porcellus, utilizandodos métodos de insensibilización (desnucamiento y electronarcosis. La investigaciónse realizó en los laboratorios de la Universidad de Nariño y se utilizaron 24 animales:12 para cada método. Los animales ayunaron 12 h antes del sacrificio y las canalesse maduraron en refrigeración (2 a 4°C durante 24 h. Se determinaron las variablespH, acidez, temperatura, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA, conductibilidadeléctrica (CE y pérdida de agua en refrigeración cada 4 h. Se evaluaron los parámetrosmicrobiológicos coliformes totales y fecales a las 0, 16 y 24 h, además de Listeria sp. yla presencia de antibióticos (sulfamidas al inicio de la maduración. Para detectar diferenciaentre métodos de insensibilización para las variables fisicoquímicas se utilizó undiseño de medidas repetidas en el tiempo; para las demás variables se utilizó estadísticadescriptiva. Los resultados mostraron que el mejor tiempo de maduración fue a las 16horas, con un pH promedio de 5,42, acidez de 0,272 % y CRA de 12,73. Además, lasvariables microbiológicas estuvieron por debajo de la norma vigente garantizando lainocuidad de la carne evaluada. No se observó diferencia estadísticas entre métodos deinsensibilización y los resultados de antibióticos fueron negativos. Se concluye que eltiempo adecuado de maduración para la carne de cuy fue de 16 horas sin diferencias enel método de insensibilización.

  10. Prevalencia de micobacteriosis y de tuberculosis en pacientes de un hospital de referencia de la provincia de Córdoba Prevalence of mycobacteriosis and tuberculosis in a reference hospital, Cordoba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Barnes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las micobacterias ambientales (MA constituyen un importante grupo de especies bacterianas que se encuentran en el medio ambiente, pueden colonizar y ocasionalmente producir enfermedad enel hombre. En este trabajo se investigó la frecuencia de casos de micobacteriosis en relación con los de tuberculosis durante un período de diez años (1.991-2.000. Se estudiaron 16.700 muestras de 9.300 pacientes adultos de ambos sexos asistidos en el Hospital Regional de Tuberculosis de la Provincia de Córdoba, por consulta espontánea. Los aislamientos se realizaron por cultivo en los medios de Lowenstein Jensen y Stonebrink. Las colonias de bacilos ácidoalcohol resistentes (BAAR se identificaron por pruebas bioquímicas y moleculares. El total de casos diagnosticados fue de 716, de los cuales 684 (95,5% correspondieron a al complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis y a micobacterias ambientales 32 (4,5%. Los casos de micobacteriosis se definieron por reiterados aislamientos con desarrollo representativo de una micobacteria ambiental, sospecha clínica y radiológica. De los 32 casos de micobacteriosis, el 75% del total correspondió aMycobacterium avium-intracellulare,15,6% a Mycobacterium fortuitum, 3,1% a Mycobacterium kansasii y 6,3% a Mycobacterium chelonae.Los casos de tuberculosis fueron 94,5% de localización pulmonar y 5,5% extrapulmonar.Environmental mycobacteria (EM constitute an important group of bacteria species found in the environment. They can colonize and occasionally produce disease in man. Sixteen thousand three hundred samples from 9300 adult symptomatic patients from the Hospital Regional of Tuberculosis in Cordoba were bacteriolocally investigated. The isolations were performed by culture on Lowenstein Jensen and Stonebrink culture media. The colonies of acid fast bacilli (AFB were identified by biochemical and molecular tests. Among 716 culture positive cases, 684 (95.5% were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and 32 to

  11. Diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de paratuberculosis bovina en un hato lechero en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ramírez V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar retrospectiva y sistemáticamente los hallazgos clínicos e histopatológicos de paratuberculosis bovina Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP. Los datos fueron obtenidos en diferentes momentos durante un periodo de 8 años (2000-2008 en unhato lechero en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la información documental en 5 casos compatibles con paratuberculisis bovina, así como la información procedente de otros estudios efectuados en el hato sobre la enfermedad realizados paralelamente enel periodo 2000-2008. Resultados. Los 5 animales afectados, presentaron diarrea crónica intermitente, disminución en la producción de leche, enflaquecimiento progresivo, apetito normal, consumo aumentado de agua y constantes fisiológicas normales. A la necropsia se observó engrosamiento de la mucosa intestinal del íleon y de la porción proximal del intestino grueso con múltiples levantamientos y depresiones, que no desaparecían al estirarel tejido. Los vasos sanguíneos mesentéricos se encontraron dilatados y congestivos. Los ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos se encontraron aumentados hasta tres veces, sin clara delimitación de la corteza y de la médula. Las alteraciones histológicas fueron enteritis ylinfadenitis granulomatosa. En tres de los animales se evidenciaron abundantes bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR intracelulares en macrófagos, células gigantes y en el intersticio a la coloración de Ziehl-Neelsen. En otros tejidos evaluados no se encontró inflamación de tipo granulomatoso. Conclusiones. Los criterios diagnósticos empleados, así como el análisis de la información diagnóstica generada en otros estudios, permiten confirmar la presencia, circulación y mantenimiento del Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis en el hato con un aparente número elevado de animales infectados.

  12. LA LOGÍSTICA COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA PROVEER DE INTELIGENCIA A LAS ORGANIZACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Javier Bolaños Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento se expone una estrategia para disminuir el fracaso que existe en el proceso de apropiación del conocimiento para soportar la toma de decisiones en organizaciones de producción de bienes y servicios.Se evidencia la falta de hacer efectivo el conocimiento para obrar y tomar decisiones, es decir no se potencia el uso del conocimiento por deficiencia en el sistema logístico requerido para suapropiación.Se busca mostrar un camino para hacer que las organizaciones se provean de inteligencia por lo que se propone la utilización de un sistema de aprendizaje organizacional, basado en el diseño de un operador de integración logística de conocimiento con struido a partir de la unión sinérgica de sistemas de gestión de conocimiento y de sistemas de soporte a la decisión.La estrategia para construir el estado del arte parte del concepto propio de inteligencia individual, y por interacción como afecta a las estructuras organizacionales, para luego abordar los conceptos de inteligencia de negocios, inteligencia organizacional y gestión de conocimiento y su papel enel proceso de aprendizaje organizacional. Por lo que la hipótesis de la propuesta es:“Con la Integración Logística de Conocimiento, que se configura como la unión sinérgica de un sistema de soporte a la decisión (DSS y la gestión del flujo de conocimiento; se dota de inteligencia a las organizaciones de producción de bienes y servicios, con capacidad para actuar exitosamente frente a procesos de toma de decisiones que no son abordados con las teorías y enfoques tradicionales.” Para lo cual en primer lugar se propone determinar el estado del arte a partir de la caracterización de la estructura y el ambiente organizacional, determinando los diferentes factores y elementos, en donde se presentan problemas de decisión en la gestión de organizaciones productivas de bienes y servicios en ambientes estratégicos, tácticos y operativos y que proporcione

  13. Status report on activities on seismic isolation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, A.; Bettinali, F.

    1992-01-01

    The development of seismic isolation and its application to structures other than bridges were started in Italy in 1988. Considerable efforts are being devoted to this technique, both because it can already be widely used in civil buildings (where it is particularly attractive for constructions that are critical for emergency and disaster planning), and due to the very promising perspectives for application to the industrial plants. In particular, ENEA is also quite interested in verifying the applicability of seismic isolation to the high risk plants, including the innovative nuclear reactors. The correct development of seismic isolation, for a future wide use in all the domains of interest - including high risk and other industrial plants - requires that a sufficient number of applications to civil buildings is -undertaken, so as to improve the knowledge on the design and behaviour of isolated structures. It also requires seismic monitoring of isolated constructions. This is the reason why all the ongoing studies in Italy - including those of ENEA and ENEL - are based at present on applications to civil buildings. To the aforesaid aims, R and D work is also needed: such a work, together with the experience acquired on actual isolated buildings, is essential to set up adequate design rules. On the other hand, development of design rules must be carried out in parallel, in order to determine the features of the necessary research activities. Until now, our development work has been focussed on the high damping steel-laminated rubber bearings, which have been adopted for most isolated buildings in Italy. It consists of: [a] the set-up of proposals for design rules and guidelines; [b] experiments on bearing materials, individual bearings, isolated structure mock-ups, and actual isolated buildings; [c] development and validation of simplified and detailed numerical models of bearings and structures. Furthermore, support is being provided to the designers of isolated

  14. Study of environmental impact assessment for Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4. Executive summary. September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-09-01

    SE/ENEL, on a voluntary basis, has prepared new EIA Study for the completion of Units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (MO34 NPP) according to International current practices and European Directives. The results of the analysis, according to SE/ENEL Environment and Corporate Social Responsibility policies, will be provided to local Communities and Public Authorities. The Environmental Impact Assessment is performed: - in compliance with appendix 11 of Slovak Act. No. 24/2006 'On the assessment of the effects on the environment and on the modification and enlargement of some laws'; - meeting the requirements of the Exhibit II 'Illustrative list of potential social and environmental issues to be addressed in the Social and Environmental Assessment documentation' as reported in the document 'Equator Principles' of 2006 July developed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The area of Mochovce NPP is situated in Central Europe in the south-western region of the Slovak Republic (SR) at the western border of the Levice district. The area lies in the south-western part of the Kozmalovske hills mainly in the Hron highlands. From the point of view of the terrestrial and administrative organization of the SR, Mochovce NPP is situated in the eastern part of the Nitra region, in the north-western part of the Levice district, close to the border with the Nitra and Zlate Moravce districts. Mochovce NPP is approx. 12 km from the district capital Levice, which is the largest town within a 20 km distance from the power plant. Initial site preparation began in August 1983. In April 1998 the first fuel was loaded into Unit 1 of Mochovce NPP. The operation started in August 1998. Unit 2 started operation in January 2000. The original Construction Permit No. Vyst. 2010/86 for MO 34 was issued by the District National Committee in Levice on the basis of the Land Planning Decisions on 12 November 1986. This Permit has been renewed firstly on 5 May 1997 by letter of the

  15. Sobre a Formação Profissional dos Professores de Educação Física e as Teorias do Saber Docente On the professional education of physical education teachers and the teacher knowledge theories Sobre la formación profesional de los profesores de educación física y las teorías del saber docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    sobre los saberes de los profesores, buscando comprender sus posibles contribuciones y limitaciones. A partir de la discusión con la literatura, el texto aborda las tradiciones teóricas presentes em el campo de estudios sobre los saberes docentes y analiza el modo como la formación del profesor de Educación Física es concebida enel contexto de diferentes momentos del pensamiento pedagógico brasileño. Al finalizar, el texto señala las potencialidades y los riesgos de las investigaciones que se inclinan sobre los saberes docentes. PALABRAS-CLAVE: educación física – formación de profesores – saber docente

  16. Predisposição ao uso e abuso de álcool entre estudantes de graduação em enfermagem da UFRN La predisposición al uso y abuso de alcohol entre estudiantes de graduación en enfermería de la UFRN Predisposition to the use and abuse of alcohol among students of graduation in nursing of UFRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de natureza exploratória descritiva com abordagem quantitativa, avaliou a predisposição para o uso e abuso do álcool na Graduação em Enfermagem/UFRN. A amostra foi composta por 42 alunos regularmente matriculados, sendo 76% do gênero feminino. Utilizou-se o questionário CAGE acrescido de itens sobre a síndrome da abstinência alcoólica. Metade (50% faz uso de álcool, com idade entre 21 e 22 anos (41%. O maior consumo está no quinto período (38%, seguido do terceiro (19%. Dentre os pesquisados, 34% sentem-se fisicamente mal após beberem, 33% tropeçam, cambaleiam e trançam as pernas, e 33% sentem calor e suam. No que se refere aos sintomas mentais e emocionais, 50% referiram lentidão do raciocínio, 25% sensações estranhas e assustadoras quando bebem, e 25%, perda da memória. Conclui-se que há predisposição para o uso e abuso do álcool, e uma tendência ao alcoolismo feminino.El estudio de naturaleza exploratoria descriptiva con el acercamiento cuantitativo, evalu�� la predisposición para el uso y abuso del alcoholen la Graduación en enfermería /UFRN. La muestra estaba regularmente compuesta por 42 estudiantes se enrollados, mientras siendo 76% del género femenino. La CAGE investigación se usó agregada de artículos enel síndrome de la abstinencia alcohólica. Medio (50% hace uso de alcohol, con la edad entre 21 a 22 años (41%. El consumo más grande está en el quinto período (38%, siguiendo por la tercera período (19% entre los investigó, 34% se sentían males físicamente después de haber bebido, 33% viaje, oscilación y trenza las piernas, y 33% se sentían calientes y sudor. En lo que se refiere a los síntomas mentales y emocionales, 50% se refirieron lentitud del razonamiento, 25% sensaciones extrañas y aterradoras cuando ellos beben, y 25% pérdida de la memoria. Se acabó que hay predisposición para el uso y abuso del alcohol, y una tendencia al alcoholismo femenino.Study of descriptive

  17. EP 1000 -The European Passive Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, Ed; Oyarzabal, Mariano; Saiu, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    A group of European utilities, along with Westinghouse and its industrial partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT) initiated a program to evaluate Westinghouse passive nuclear plant technology for application in Europe. The European utility group consisted of: Agrupacion electrica para al Desarrollo Technologico Nuclear (DTN), Spain; Electricite de France; ENEL, SpA., Italy; IVO Power Engineering, Ltd., Finland; Scottish Nuclear Limited (acting for itself on behalf of Nuclear Electric plc, U.K.; Tractebel Energy Engineering, Belgium; UAK (represented by NOK-Beznau), Switzerland; and Vattenfall AB, Ringhals, Sweden. The European Passive Plant (EPP) program, which began in 1994, is an evaluation of the Westinghouse 600 MWe AP 600 and 1000 MWe Simplified Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR) designs in meeting the European Utility Requirements (EUR), and where necessary, modifying the design to achieve compliance. Phase 1 or the EPP program was completed and included the two major tasks of evaluating the effect of the EUR on the Westinghouse nuclear island and developing the EP 1000, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design that conforms to the EUR and would be licensable in Europe. The EP 1000 closely follows the Westinghouse SPWR design for safety systems and containment and the AP 600 design for auxiliary systems. It also includes features that where required to meet the EUR and key European licensing requirements. The primary circuit of the EP 1000 retains most of the general features of the current-day designs, but some evolutionary features to enhance reliability, simplicity of operation, ease of maintenance, and plant safety have been incorporated into the design. The core, reactor vessel, and reactor internals of the EP 1000 are similar to those of currently operating Westinghouse PWR plants, but several new features are included to enhance the performance characteristics. The basic EP 1000 safety philosophy is based on use of inherent

  18. El peso de la Contabilidad en el Grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cavero-Rubio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de convergencia al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior de las universidades españolas supusoen el curso académico 2010/2011 la modificación de la estructura de los estudios oficiales universitarios, ofertándosetitulaciones adaptadas a la estructura de grado y máster.El trabajo realizado tiene como objetivo analizar el peso que la materia de Contabilidad tiene en la formaciónuniversitaria del egresado en el Grado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas, y las posibles causasque pueden explicar la situación actual de la disciplina. Para ello, se ha tomado como referencia los planes deestudio de cada una de las universidades públicas españolas que están impartiéndolo. Posteriormente, enel estudio se contempla un diagnóstico de la evolución experimentada por la materia de Contabilidad en elgrado con respecto a la Licenciatura en Administración y Dirección de Empresas, y a la Licenciatura en CienciasEmpresariales.Los resultados obtenidos determinan cómo se ha visto modificada la formación general y en Contabilidadde los estudiantes, tanto en el ámbito nacional como individual por universidades, consecuencia de las diferentesreformas de los planes de estudio. En el diagnóstico de las causas o factores que pueden haber influidoen el peso de la Contabilidad en el nuevo grado, se ha procedido a efectuar un análisis empírico a través de unmodelo ANCOVA. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que las variables Departamento de Contabilidady Licenciatura en Empresariales tienen una influencia estadística significativa en el peso de la Contabilidaden el Grado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas.The adaptation process of Spanish Universities to the EHEA has led to modifications in the structure of officialuniversity courses for the 2010‑2011 academic year as we know them today, offering courses adapted to theDegree and Master structure.This study aims to analyse the importance of Accounting in the

  19. Renovación de las poblaciones mediante la radicación de allegados. Una alternativa a la expansión de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Couve, María José

    2004-06-01

    en la disminución deldéficit habitacional. Pero, ¿a qué costo? Se ha hechovivienda pero no se ha hecho ciudad, la calidad del diseño yde la construcción es deficiente, y la localización esperiférica y segregada.Considerando estos y otros defectos, el Gobierno hareestructurado la política habitacional para impulsarproyectos innovadores de renovación y densificación enáreas urbanas. Haciéndose eco de estos nuevos aires, laFacultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad Católica hadesarrollado proyectos que intentan dar respuesta a lassiguientes interrogantes: ¿Qué ciudad queremos? ¿Quévivienda necesitamos? ¿Cómo se incorpora al beneficiario enel proceso?El proyecto piloto “Renovación de las Poblaciones mediantela Radicación de Allegados” es la validación práctica deaños de experiencia académica en el tema. La estrategiaconsiste en la construcción de una nueva vivienda para losallegados en los lotes donde habitan precariamente, sinnecesidad de adquirir terreno nuevo. Esto permite destinar elmonto total del subsidio a la vivienda aprovechando lasinfraestructuras existentes, y mantener a la población en suscomunas de origen fortaleciendo las redes sociales.Este proyecto generó además un cambio importante en lanormativa que flexibiliza las exigencias de diseño parasegundas viviendas en lotes existentes, lo que supone un granavance del que se podrán beneficiar todos los proyectos dedensificación en poblaciones en el futuro.

  20. An intelligent diagnostic aid (ida) based upon the simulated and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuenkov, M.; Poletykin, A.; Marsiletti, M.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic system has been developed addressed to timely trouble shooting in process plants during all operational modes. The theory of this diagnostic system is related with the usage of learning methods for automatic generation of knowledge bases. This approach enables the conversion of 'cause to effect' relations into 'effect to possible causes' ones. As applied to technical diagnosis, this allows one to generate troubleshooting rules of the kind 'symptoms to possible diagnosis' through 'failure to symptoms' relations. The problem of diagnostic rule generation is, thus, reduced to obtaining samples of the symptoms, that is the well known problem of failure modelling. The diagnostic rules are derived from the operation of a simulator according to the following procedure: (a) identification of all initiating events and of the corresponding operational modes; (b) simulation of all the selected transients for a time sufficient to identify the uniqueness of the plant response under each of the initiating event; (c) automatic generation of the set of diagnostic rules that, through the use of temporal logic and a filtering Expert System, associate the evolution of the process parameters and their derivatives to the initial perturbation. The plant model running under the simulator is built-up by means of the LEGO code. The LEGO code is a modular package developed at the Research and Development Department of the Italian National Electricity Board (CRA-ENEL) to facilitate modelling of the dynamics of fossil-fuelled and nuclear power plants. The LEGO code consists of a library of pre-programmed, pre-tested and pre-validated modules, that represent power plant components and a master program which allows the user to build-up a model by automatically interconnecting the modules in the arrangement determined by the modeler. The reference plant is Sampierdarena power station, that is a combined cycle plant dedicated to produce both electrical and heat power. The following

  1. Future market solar thermal power generation. Case study on behalf of the Federal Office for Environment Protection in the context of the research project Innovative Environmental Policy in important fields of action; Zukunftsmarkt solarthermische Stromerzeugung. Fallstudie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Innovative Umweltpolitik in wichtigen Handlungsfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragwitz, Mario [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    The idea of CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) is to separate CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes and to store it safely outside the atmosphere e.g. in geologic formations. This concept constitutes a potentially very effective technology for the mitigation of climate change. The worldwide emissions from large power plants - where CCS would be applied primarily - add up to more than 10 billion tons of CO{sub 2} per year. In view of a market volume of several billion Euros per year for large power plants, the economic relevance of these technologies can be considered equally high. Carbon capture and storage is an architectural innovation that is made up from the combination and further development of existing technologies. Within the field of power plants, three main process lines are under development: pre-combustion capture, post combustion capture and oxy fuel. All three process lines are still in an early stage of the innovation cycle, as there are no commercial plants in operation yet. Instead, the first pilot plants are presently under construction and demonstration plants are being planned. The main technical challenges lie in the efficient integration of the separation processes into the power plant process with the aim to minimize the additional energy demand for the capture of CO{sub 2}. There are several groups of central actors in the technology field of CCS. The four large suppliers of electricity generation technologies with an own distinct development of (gas-)turbine technologies, General Electric, Siemens, Mitsubishi and Alstom represent the technology manufacturers. The large utilities such as Vattenfall, RWE, Enel or Endesa make up the potential demand for the CCS technologies and they are partly also involved in their development. The oil and gas majors (e.g. Shell, BP, Statoil) on the one hand are interested in having large volumes of CO{sub 2} for improving the oil production (enhanced oil recovery) and on the other hand, they assess the

  2. Efeitos do estabelecimento de metas para a aquisição de uma habilidade motora Efectos de la fijación de metas para la adquisición de habilidades motoras Effects of goal setting for the acquisition of motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva de Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou os efeitos do estabelecimento de metas de curto e de longo prazo na aprendizagem do arremesso de dardo de salão. O experimento foi conduzido em três etapas: pré-teste (10 tentativas; aquisição (60 tentativas, com manipulação da temporalidade da meta; e pós-teste (10 tentativas. Os 33 universitários destros foram divididos em três grupos: meta específica de curto prazo (GEC, meta específica de longo prazo (GEL e o não meta (GNM. Na análise da precisão e da consistência, a ANOVA two way identificou diferença entre pré-teste e pós-teste e entre os blocos da aquisição. Apesar de todos os grupos terem aprendido a tarefa, não houve diferença entre eles. Sugere-se a realização de novos estudos sobre o tema.El presente estudio investigó los efectos de la meta a corto y largo plazo de puesta enel aprendizaje del salón de lanzar dardos. El experimento se llevó a cabo en tres etapas: pre-test (10 ensayos, la adquisición (60 ensayos, con la manipulación de la temporalidad de la meta, y después de la prueba (10 ensayos. Los 33 estudiantes universitarios de la mano derecha se dividieron en tres grupos: objetivo concreto a corto plazo (GEC, el objetivo específico a largo plazo (GEL y no se meta (GNM. En el análisis de la exactitud y la consistencia de dos vías ANOVA identificó un efecto significativo entre la pre y post-test y entre bloques de adquisición así. A pesar de todos los grupos han aprendido la tarea, no hubo diferencias entre ellos.The present study investigated the effects of short and long-term goal setting in the learning of saloon dart throwing. The experiment was conducted in three stages: pretest (10 trials, acquisition (60 trials, with manipulation of the temporality of the goal, and post-test (10 trials. The 33 right-handed university students were divided into three groups: specific short-term goal (GEC, specific long-term goal (GEL and no-goal (GNM. In the analysis of

  3. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.

    2009-01-01

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO 2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO 2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO 2 : A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  4. El proyecto de curso en la formación de competencias profesionales en estudiantes de ingeniería mecánica // The project of course in the formation of professional competences in students of mechanical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las competencias profesionales específicas constituyen una gama de competencias que tienen quever fundamentalmente con la aprehensión de la realidad y la actuación sobre ella. Por tal motivo, enel caso de las competencias profesionales específicas se hace necesaria una inicial organizaciónformacional caracterizada por la acumulación de aprendizajes de habilidades concretas en tareasespecíficas y muy vinculadas con la profesión. En el presente artículo, se brindan experiencias dedos proyectos de cursos con resultados en la formación y desarrollo de competencias profesionalesespecíficas en alumnos de la carrera de ingeniería mecánica. Estas experiencias permiten afirmarque las competencias profesionales pueden ser potenciadas durante la formación profesional con laintroducción en el proceso educativo de determinadas actividades prácticas-profesionales. En estesentido, la actividad práctica en un ámbito académico en que se incluya una reproducción de losfrecuentes problemas de la profesión y la inserción de los alumnos por determinados periodos detiempo en los procesos productivos reales de fábricas, talleres y empresas afín a la ingenieríamecánica es, sin lugar a dudas, un marco propicio para potenciar la formación y desarrollo de lashabilidades profesionales específicas que demanda el actual contexto de acción del joven graduadode carreras de Ingeniería.Palabras claves: competencias profesionales, proyecto de curso, enseñanza._________________________________________________________________AbstractThe professional specific competences constitute a range of competences associated fundamentallywith the action and apprehension of the reality. These competences are very influence by theprofessional formation and experience in the profession. For that reason, in the case of professionalspecific competences is very important and necessary an organized formation professionalcharacterized by the accumulation of learning and

  5. Environmental report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzini, P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the tenth Environmental Report we have been regularly issuing annually since 1996 in order to give you information about our efforts and activities taken in the environmental protection area and, at the same time, to keep the mutual dialogue on a standard high level. The year 2005 was not easy for Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. Our company was subject to complicated internal changes to implement as effective company management model as possible. We strove, above all, to enhance the process management system that had already been developed previously. It is true that we also had to resolve personnel matters when looking for an effective power engineering company management model and we had to part from many of our colleagues during that stage. The second priority task we faced was to make preparations for the takeover of our company by the Italian company ENEL, S.p.A., and to complete the privatization process covering 66 % of Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., stock. It was especially the second half of 2005 that brought very intensive mutual discussions and working negotiations held on all management levels. The third, but not less significant, task consisted in detaching the assets which would not be covered by the privatization, namely to detach the Set of Gabcikovo Hydro Power Plants, to detach the VYZ - Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Radioactive Treatment and Spent Fuel Management Plant and the EBO V-1 Plant. Despite relatively complicated conditions and the opened and liberalized market in the Slovak Republic, our company produced 26,470,901 MWh of electricity whereby the target was met to 115.00 %. Our company kept the stability of the electric power supply system of the Slovak Republic, despite a complicated situation in the area of electric power supplies in Europe. We can really state that we produced in a safe, reliable, ecological and economical manner. The reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce where 17

  6. Puertollano IGCC Power Plant; Central de Gasificacion Integrada en Ciclo Combinado de Puertollano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Puertollano IGCC Power Plant, rated 335 MW and located in Puertollano, Ciudad Real, in the central area of Spain, is a project led by ELCOGAS, a company incorporated by the European utilities ENDESA, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE, IBERDROLA HIDROCANTABRICO ELECTRICIDADE DE PURTUGAL, ENEL and NATIONAL POWER and the technology and equipment suppliers SIEMENS, KRUPP UHDE and BABCOCK WILCOX ESPANOLA. IGCC technology is based in a process of coal gasification to obtain a clean combustion synthetic gas, integrated with a combined cycle, agas and steam, electricity-generating unit. The energy efficiency which is aimed to achieve at the Plant is 46% in ISO conditions. The Gasification unit uses the process of pressurised entrained flow for coal gasification. The gas is produced by the reaction of coal with oxygen at high temperatures, of up to 1600 degree centigree. This process is capable of gasifying a wide variety of types and qualities of coal for the production of a synthetic fuel gas. In the case of Puertollano, the raw fuel is a 50% mixture by weight of local coal and petroleum coke. The oxygen needed in the process and the nitrogen used for covering the fuel is generated in the Air Separation. The Gas Cleaning and Sulphur Recovery Unit clean the gases from contaminants and solid particles before to send them to the Gas Turbine. The clean gas is burnt in gas turbine of the Combined Cycle Plant, producing electricity. The exhaust gases feed a heat recovery steam generator, which produces steam used to generate additional electricity in a conventional steam turbine. The gas turbine is capable of operating both with synthetic gas and with natural gas, allowing operation flexibility. The net output of the plant up to December 1999 was 3.061 GWh, from them 344 GWh were produced with synthetic gas. This project has an important technological value, being the first power plant which uses coal gasification to feed a combined cycle in Spain and being also the biggest power plant

  7. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation

  8. Expansión hidroeléctrica, Estado y economías campesinas: el caso de la represa del Quimbo, Huila-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Salcedo Montero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo buscamos contextualizar la situación del sector hidroeléctrico en América Latina, los principales argumentos que se presentan por parte de diferentes actores para la implementación de estos proyectos y la realidad que esto ofrece para las economías locales impactadas.En primer lugar, se presenta la configuración en América Latina de las principales iniciativas de expansión del sector eléctrico, reflejada en la acción de empresas y gobiernos en esta región. Posteriormente, se delimita el artículo a partir del estudio de caso de la hidroeléctrica El Quimbo en Colombia, que muestra la forma de acción del Estado colombiano al impulsar estos proyectos de expansión. Dentro de los procedimientos legales para la implementación de estos proyectos, guarda especial importancia el análisis de la Licencia Ambiental, que refleja en su proceso de concesión diferentes disputas entre los actores relacionados: la empresa Endesa-Enel, los afectados que constituyen diferentes grupos, las diferentes instituciones del Estado y el movimiento social.Metodológicamente, el estudio se basa en una serie de autores que buscan rescatar las contradicciones y los intereses de los afectados por la implementación de este tipo de proyectos (Sigaud 1992, 1995, Vianna 2009, Borralho, 1988 a partir de una muestra de argumentación cualitativa. De este modo, el estudio se sustentó en una revisión bibliográfica y de prensa sobre el funcionamiento de la expansión eléctrica en América Latina y posteriormente sobre el contexto colombiano a partir de sus proyectos de expansión hidroeléctrica y la legislación acerca del funcionamiento de la Licencia Ambiental en este país. Finalmente, se sitúa en el caso concreto de El Quimbo, donde se realizaron diversos trabajos de campo con campesinos localizados en  el área de afectación y se recolectó material de prensa y material emitido tanto por Emgesa como por la Asociación de Afectados

  9. The Italian debate on nuclear energy in the post Chernobyl age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.; Sturloni, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Italy entered with enthusiasm into the production of nuclear energy for civil use at the end of 50. By 1966 - with an overall output of 3.9 billions kWh - Italy had become the fourth world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactions, the second one in Europe after Great Britain. Chernobyl's 1986 disaster, which so much shook public opinion all over Europe, had particularly important economic and political consequences in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted for the repeal of three laws which promoted the installation of nuclear power plants on the Italian soil and the participation of ENEL (National Institution for the Electrical Energy) to plant constructions abroad. The 1987 referendum was interpreted by the Italian government as an opposition to nuclear power generation - the following year, the four Italian plants (Garigliano, Latina, Trino Vercellese, Caorso) ceased their activity and plans to build new plants were abandoned. This decision marked the ruin of Italian research on nuclear energy, that in the 30 had known a glorious era thanks to Enrico Fermi works. As the 20. Anniversary of Chernobyl's accident is drawing near, the University of Milan and ICS-research group (Innovations in Communication of Science) at SISSA, Trieste, have decided to analyse jointly the reasons which brought Italy to give up its nuclear energy production. In the present scenario of controversies concerning the development of science and technology, in which European countries exchange experiences of best practice to involve the public in decision making processes, Italy reaction to Chernobyl accident can indeed be considered paradigmatic in that it anticipated crucial risks governance issues in today relationship between science and society. The research project draws on methodologies used in media studies and on socio linguistic analysis, as developed by risk perception and risk

  10. Health protection in the decommissioning phase in Italy and its acceptability to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frullani, S.; Rogani, A.; Tabet, E.

    2005-01-01

    all institutional bodies in 1997. In that year ENEL application for decommissioning license of its plants with a SAFSTOR approach, deferring the dismantling within 50 years, was rejected by the Ministry of Industry, responsible of the authorization procedure, following similar comments and opinions expressed, in the foreseen licensing procedure by the Ministry of Health, APAT and other administrations. The Ministry of Industry published at the end of 1999 a document addressing 'Strategic Directions for the management of the outcome of the nuclear commercial phase'. Three general objectives with relative time lines were defined. The first two regarded the conditioning of all radioactive wastes present in the national territory and the siting, construction and commissioning of the national repository. These objectives should have been reached within 10 years. The third objective concerns the unrestricted release of the sites where the four nuclear power plants are localized. This last objective should be pursued through an accelerated dismantling (DECON) strategy within 20 years. In the framework of the agreement Stato-Regioni concerning the definition of some initiatives to promote the safe management of radioactive wastes and to select a site for the national repository, an Expert Group composed by 7 members, designed by the Ministries of Industry, Environment and Health as well as by Piedmont, Venetia, Emily-Romagna and Tuscany Regions, prepared a report on 'Conditions for a safe management of radioactive wastes'. Technical problems connected with the setting of clearance levels for all radionuclides of interest must be solved through a specific legislative document taking into account the debate that is developing at European Community and other International institutions and regulatory bodies. The major point to be solved for the decommissioning activities in which Italy is deeply committed is the siting of a national repository for radioactive wastes that should

  11. The Effect of the Ammonium Group on the Different Annealing Processes; Role du Groupe Ammonium dans les Differents Processus de Recuit; 042d 0424 0424 0415 041a 0422 0410 041c 041c 041e 041d 0418 0415 0412 041e 0419 0413 0420 0423 041f 041f 042b 041d 0410 0420 0410 0417 041b 0418 0427 041d 042b 0415 041f 0420 041e 0426 0415 0421 0421 042b 041e 0422 0416 0418 0413 0410 ; Efecto del Grupo Amonio en Diferentes Procesos de Recocido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, N. [Institute Of Chemistry, Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    1965-04-15

    certains fragments de recul metastables qui peuvent susciter la formation de substances reductrices, par exemple l'hydrazine. Le rendement en hydrazine augmente quand les echantillons solides exposes aux neutrons sont ulterieurement traites par les rayons gamma, les ultrasons, etc. Une forte variation de la retention se produit en meme temps que croit le rendement en hydrazine. (author) [Spanish] El grupo amonio puede desempenar un papel fundamental en los diferentes procesos de recocido de compuestos amonicos sometidos a irradiacion neutronica. Se han investigado algunas particularidades de este efecto. Con el proposito de dar una vision mas amplia de este tema, se examinan brevemente en primer lugar algunos resultados tipicos, ya publicados, referentes al recocido termico, por irradiacion, fotoquimico y ultrasonico de sulfatos de amonio y de potasio, asi como de dicromatos de amonio y de potasio. Seguidamente se dan a conocer nuevos datos experimentales que muestran la influencia del grupo amonio en el recocido termico, por irradiacion ye ultrasonico de fosfatos mono, di y triamonico. Se ha demostrado que en las condiciones de irradiacion neutronica reinantes en-el reactor, el grupo amonio de un compuesto puede transformarse en ciertos fragmentos de retroceso metaestables capaces de dar origen a sustancias reductoras como, por ejemplo, lahidracina. El rendimiento dehidracina aumenta sometiendo las muestras irradiadas con neutrones a un tratamiento ulterior con rayos gamma, ultrasonidos, etc. Paralelamente al aumento del rendimiento de hidracina, se modifica considerablemente la retencion. (author) [Russian] Ammonievaja gruppa mozhet igrat' vazhnuju rol' v razlichnyh processah otzhiga soedinenij ammonija, obluchennyh nejtronami. Issledovalis' nekotorye detali jetogo jeffekta. Dlja togo, chtoby dat' bolee polnuju kartinu jetogo voprosa, vnachale kratko obsuzhdajutsja nekotorye tipichnye,uzhe opublikovannye rezul'taty, kasajushhiesja teplovogo, radiacionnogo

  12. Frequency Spectrum of Liquids and Cold Neutron Scattering; Spectre de frequences des liquides et diffusion de neutrons froids; Chastotnyj spektr zhidkostej i rasseyanie kholodnykh nejtronov; Espectro de frecuencias de los liquidos y dispersion de neutrones frios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singwi, K S; Sjolander, A; Rahman, A [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1963-01-15

    neutrons lents par les liquides comme l'ont souligne Egelstaff et ses colllaborateurs. Les auteurs calculent, a l'aide d'un modele stochastique, le spectre des frequences f({omega}) de la fonction d'auto-correlation des vitesses dans l'eau a 300{sup o}K et dans le plomb liquide a 620{sup o}K. Dans le cas de l'eau ils prevoient un maximum de la fonction f({omega}) correspondant a {Dirac_h} {omega}75{sup o}K. Dans le plomb, le maximum se manifeste a une valeur a peu pres analogue. II existe aussi un minimum de la fonction f({omega}) dans les deux cas. Larsson et Dahlborg ont observe un maximum de la fonction f({omega}) a la valeur d'{omega} prevue ci-dessus. Des observations faites recemment dans du plomb liquide par Cotter et al. confirment vraisemblablement les previsions des auteurs. (author) [Spanish] Una cuestion importante que se plantea respecto de la dispersion de neeutrones lentos por los liquidos es la siguiente: Existe un espectro de frecuencia de los liquidos analogo al de los solidos? para contestar a esta pregunta, basta demostrar que la funcion de amplitud {gamma}(t) de la funcion gaussiana de autocorrelacion espacio G{sup s}(r,t) puede expresarse, utilizando el espectro de frecuencias de la funcion de autocorreclation de velocidad, en form identica a la correspondiente a un solido armonico. Es decir, si se conoce el especro de frecuencias de la funcion de autocorrelacion de velocidad, se debe poder calcular la dispersion de neutrones lentos por los liquidos, como han senalado Egelstaff y colaboradores. Los autores calculan, utilizando un modelo estocastico de liquido, el espectro de frecuencia f({omega}) de la funcion de autocorrelacion de velocidad, en el caso del agua a 300{sup o}K y del plomo liquido a 620{sup o}K. Predicen para la primera un maximo de f({omega}) correspondiente a {Dirac_h}{omega} 75{sup o}K. Enel caso del plomo, el maximo se presenta tambien para el mismo valor de oj, aproximadamente. Ademas, en ambos casos f({omega})pasa por un minimo

  13. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    Workshop under the Stanford Geothermal Program was supported by a grant from DOE through a subcontract with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. A second significant event was the first conference under the ERDA (DOE)-ENEL cooperative program where many of the results of well testing in both nations were discussed. The Proceedings of that conference should be an important contribution to the literature. These Proceedings of the Third Workshop should also make an important contribution to the literature on geothermal reservoir engineering. Much of the data presented at the Workshop were given for the first time, and full technical papers on these subjects will appear in the professional journals. The results of these studies will assist markedly in developing the research programs to be supported by the Federal agencies, and in reducing the costs of research for individual developers and utilities. It is expected that future workshops of the Stanford Geothermal Program will be as successful as this third one. Planning and execution of the Workshop... [see file; ljd, 10/3/2005] The Program Committee recommended two novel sessions for the Third Workshop, both of which were included in the program. The first was the three overviews given at the Workshop by George Pinder (Princeton) on the Academic aspect, James Bresee (DOE-DGE) on the Government aspect, and Charles Morris (Phillips Petroleum) on the Industry aspect. These constituted the invited slate of presentations from the several sectors of the geothermal community. The Program Committee acknowledges their contributions with gratitude. Recognition of the importance of reservoir assurance in opting for geothermal resources as an alternate energy source for electric energy generation resulted in a Panel Session on Various Definitions of Geothermal Reservoirs. Special acknowledgments are offered to Jack Howard and Werner Schwarz (LBL) and to Jack Howard as moderator; to the panelists: James Leigh

  14. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING ORIENTATION IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF ENTERPRISES IN RS EL EFECTO DE LA ORIENTACIÓN PARA EL APRENDIZAJE EN EL DESEMPEÑO ORGANIZATIVO DE LAS EMPRESAS DE LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE RS O EFEITO DA ORIENTAÇÃO PARA A APRENDIZAGEM NO DESEMPENHO ORGANIZACIONAL DAS EMPRESAS DA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Botti Abbade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the influence of learning orientation on organizational performance ofenterprises in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. The method employed was a survey of 123 of these enterprises which were mostly classified as small and medium. The data collection instrument was developed using the scale of Learning Orientation developed by Sinkula, Baker and Noordewier (1997, adapted byBaker and Sinkula (1999 and items of organizational performance evaluation proposed by Narver and Slater (1990 and Baker and Sinkula (1999. Correlation Analysis, multiple regression and factor analysis aswell as elaboration of a structural equation model were made. It was found that these enterprises present amoderately high level of learning orientation and organizational performance. It was also noted thatLearning Orientation, in general, presents a positive and significant influence on organizationalperformance. However, more specifically, only the dimension Open Mind of the scale presented astatistically positive significance. The other two dimensions (Commitment to Learning and Shared Visionhad a positive, however not significant, impact.El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar la influencia de la orientación para el aprendizaje enel desempeño organizativo de las empresas de la región central de Rio Grande do Sul. El método empleadofue una investigación  de levantamiento con 123 empresas de la región central de RS. El instrumento decolecta de datos fue elaborado utilizándose la escala de Orientación para el Aprendizaje de Sinkula, Baker yNoordewier (1997, adaptada por Baker y Sinkula (1999, e ítems de evaluación del desempeño organizativopropuestos por Narver y Slater (1990 y Baker y Sinkula (1999. Fueron realizados análisis de correlación,regresión linear múltipla y análisis factorial, además de la ecuación estructural del modelo de estudio. Lasempresas investigadas fueron, en su mayoría, clasificadas

  15. MANAGEMENT 0F THE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND OF PEOPLE: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY GESTIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS ORGANIZACIONES Y GESTIÓN DE PERSONAS: UN ESTUDIO DE OBSERVACIÓN GESTÃO DO COMPORTAMENTO ORGANIZACIONAL E GESTÃO DE PESSOAS: UM ESTUDO OBSERVACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Pitombo Leite

    2013-01-01

    sistematizarse como un grupo gestor delcomportamiento, con la finalidad de facilitar mudanzas de conducta y de actitud en esa entidad. Se buscóresponder a la cuestión de cómo la gestión del comportamiento de las organizaciones puede contribuir paramejorar las prácticas de gestión de personas en esa institución, en consonancia con el objetivo general deanalizar la gestión del comportamiento de esa organización. La fundamentación teórica, con sus marcosprincipales − Dutra, 2002; Casado, 2007; Lacombe & Chu, 2008; Mascarenha, 2008; Lengnick-Hall, M. L.;Lengnick-Hall, C. A.; Andrad & Drake, 2009; Albuquerque y Leite, 2009−, contextualizó, de modo sucinto,los elementos de la gestión del comportamiento de las organizaciones, identificando, basándose en el grupo,las actitudes y los valores que los nortean. El estudio se caracteriza como cualitativo de seguimiento,basado en observación participante, directa y de comportamiento, en el ambiente natural de discusiones ensiete reuniones de negocio. La discusión del grupo en foco, en cuatro sesiones secuenciales, sirvió de auxilioal análisis de los datos obtenidos con las observaciones. Se utilizó el método de exploración del contenido,tomándose como base trechos de las discusiones observadas y registradas en las reuniones de negocios y enel grupo en foco, en sus aspectos de comportamiento emergentes durante esas discusiones. Los resultadosindican que, en esa organización, la base de la gestión del comportamiento para la mejoría de las prácticasde gestión de personas es la confianza, aliada a la claridad de que el deseo de sus miembros es el de serproductivos, y, su necesidad, la de ser reconocidos.Este trabalho retrata uma análise da gestão do comportamento organizacional por meio da observação deum grupo do nível estratégico de uma organização multinacional do setor industrial petroquímico, localizadaem Candeias – BA, voltado para o propósito de sistematizar-se como um grupo gestor do

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of a local and afterwards generalized plutonium contamination; Diagnostic et traitement d'un cas d'intoxication par le plutonium local d'abord et generalise ensuite; Diagnoz i lechenie mestnogo i posledukshego generalizirovannogo porazheniya plutoniem; Diagnostico y tratamiento de una contaminacion local y luego general por plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1963-02-15

    a intervenir reduciendo la contaminacion interna de la mano hasta 2 {mu}c. Si bien esta actividad no se pudo localizar, se somete a vigilancia periodica. Simultaneamente con la descontaminacion quirurgica, se procedio a una descontaminacion interna con DTPA. Inmediatamente despues del accidente, se tomaron muestras de sangre, orina y heces y se midieron sus actividades. Despues se recogieron diariamente muestras de orina; durante cada periodo de tratamiento, se tomaron asimismo muestras de sangre y de heces. Todas las mediciones indican que el DTPA es sumamente eficaz en-el caso de contaminacion interna por {sup 239}Pu. Tambien parece que el porcentaje de plutonio de la sangre que se elimina por el riflon varia con el tiempo. Este porcentaje aumenta, lo que indica que el plutonio es transportado por la sangre en diversas formas ionicas o coloidales que los rinones filtran en grado variable. Existen, pues, razones para suponer que la actividad de la orina no refleje fielmente el grado de contaminacion interna. (author) [Russian] Vo vremya avarii obe ruki tekhnika okazalis' porazheny shestivalentn'sh azotnokislym plutoniem-239. Zagryaznenie odnoj tol'ko levoj ruki, izmerennoe s pomoshch'yu rentgenometra, sostavilo okolo 60 mkkyuri. Pervoe provedennoe pod mestnoj anesteziej obbezzarakhivanie pozvolilo svesti zagryaznenie do 15 mkkyuri. Skanirovanie privelo v lokalizatsii neskol'kikh zon aktivnosti. Khirurgicheskoe vmeshatel'stvo, proizvedennoe pod povyazkoj EHsmakha i pod kontrolem rentgenometra i alfa-schetchika, svelo zagryaznenie c 15 do 5 mkkyuri pri sokhranenii polnoty funktsii ruk. Povtornoe skanirovanie pozvolilo lokalizovat' novuyu zonu aktivnosti, a povtornoe vmeshatel'stvo umen'shilo vnutrennee zarazhenie ruki do 2 mkkyuri. Lokalizovat' dannuyu aktivnost', za razvitiem kotoroj osushchestvlyalsya regulyarnyj kontrol', ne predstavilos' vozmozhnym. Parallel'no s ehtim khirurgicheskim obezzarazhivaniem bylo predprinyato vnutrennee obezzarazhivanie s pomoshch

  17. Turistas em São Raimundo Nonato – PI: perfil e grau de satisfação quanto aos serviços de alimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Porto Sales Aguiar

    2012-12-01

    ="hps">The results showedasatisfactory levelofqualityservicesand products offered.As a result, food serviceswere acceptable, reliable andmeet the needs ofcustomers.Recommendationswereaimedatthe touristand food, to contribute tothe developmentof tourism in thecity and can berecognized asapole ofreference.Keywords: profile of tourists; food services; satisfaction. ResumenSabiendo que San Raimundo Nonato, es unode los destinos turísticos en el estadode Piauí, surgióla necesidad de conocerlo que el turistaespera encontrar enlos servicios de alimentacióndel municipio.Por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de este estudioes caracterizarel perfil delos turistas que visitanla ciudady sacarsu grado desatisfacción con los serviciosde alimentos parael municipio. Por lo tanto,se utilizó una muestrade 97turistas queestaban en la ciudad, condiferentes propósitosde los viajesde cuatro manerasdiferentesde alojamiento. Las preguntasse llevaron a caboinicialmente enel perfilde los turistas,seguido de laencuesta sobre la percepciónde la ofertalocal de alimentos, centrándose principalmente en los atributos deuna selección deservicios de alimentos, así como una evaluación de: el gusto,