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Sample records for kato katz test

  1. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

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    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool speci...

  2. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas. PMID:27376503

  3. Agreement of the Kato-Katz test established by the WHO with samples fixed with sodium acetate analyzed at 6 months to diagnose intestinal geohelminthes.

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    Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Julián; David Ramírez, Juan; Consuelo López, Myriam; Inés Moncada, Ligia; Reyes, Patricia; Darío Heredia, Rubén

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Kato-Katz test (WHO version) with stool samples from a rural area, fixed with sodium acetate (SAF). The Kato-Katz test was used to compare unfixed samples (conventional test) with the same samples containing SAF fixative at time 0 and at 6 months. The study included stools from 154 subjects. A marginally statistically significant decrease in prevalence was estimated only for hookworm, when comparing unfixed samples versus the SAF fixed samples read at 6 months (p=0.06). A significant reduction in parasite load was found for hookworm (p<0.01) and Trichuris trichiura (p<0.01) between the unfixed and the fixed sample read at 6 months, but not for Ascaris lumbricoides (p=0.10). This research suggests that the SAF fixative solution is a good option for transporting samples for diagnosis, especially in rural areas in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection by a modified Kato Katz test using Kinyoun staining (KKK in ME49 strain experimentally infected cats Detecção quantitativa de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii, por um teste modificado de Kato Katz usando coloração de Kinyoun (KKK, em gatos infectados experimentalmente com a cepa ME49

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    Luciana Regina Meireles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We detected Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of experimentally infected cats, using a Kato Katz approach with subsequent Kinyoun staining. Animals serologically negative to T. gondii were infected orally with 5x10² mice brain cysts of ME49 strain. Feces were collected daily from the 3rd to the 30th day after challenge. Oocysts were detected by qualitative sugar flotation and the quantitative modified Kato Katz stained by Kinyoun (KKK. In the experimentally infected cats, oocysts were detected from the 7th to 15th day through sugar flotation technique, but oocysts were found in KKK from the 6th to 16th day, being sensitive for a larger period, with permanent documentation. The peak of oocysts excretion occurred between the 8th to 11th days after challenge, before any serological positive result. KKK could be used in the screening and quantification of oocysts excretion in feces of suspected animals, with reduced handling of infective material, decreasing the possibility of environmental and operator contamination.Detectamos oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em fezes de gatos experimentalmente infectados, usando a abordagem de Kato Katz, com subseqüente coloração pelo método de Kinyoun. Animais sorologicamente negativos ao T. gondii foram infectados por via oral com 5x10² cistos da cepa ME49 de cérebros de camundongos. Fezes foram colhidas diariamente a partir do 3º até o 30º dia pós-infecção. Oocistos foram detectados por centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose qualitativa e pelo método quantitativo de Kato Katz modificado corado pela técnica de Kinyoun (KKK. Em gatos experimentalmente infectados, oocistos foram detectados do 7º ao 15º dia pela técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose, mas oocistos foram detectados do 6º ao 16º dia pelo KKK, sendo sensível por um período maior, com documentação permanente. O pico da excreção de oocistos ocorreu entre 8º a 11º dia pós-infecção, antes de resultado sorológico positivo

  5. Comparing concentration methods: parasitrap® versus Kato-Katz for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing concentration methods: parasitrap® versus Kato-Katz for studying the prevalence of Helminths in Bengo province, Angola. Clara Mirante, Isabel Clemente, Graciette Zambu, Catarina Alexandre, Teresa Ganga, Carlos Mayer, Miguel Brito ...

  6. Comparing concentration methods: parasitrap® versus Kato-Katz for studying the prevalence of Helminths in Bengo province, Angola.

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    Mirante, Clara; Clemente, Isabel; Zambu, Graciette; Alexandre, Catarina; Ganga, Teresa; Mayer, Carlos; Brito, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    Helminth intestinal parasitoses are responsible for high levels of child mortality and morbidity. Hence, the capacity to diagnose these parasitoses and consequently ensure due treatment represents a factor of great importance. The main objective of this study involves comparing two methods of concentration, parasitrap and Kato-Katz, for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitoses in faecal samples. Sample processing made recourse to two different concentration methods: the commercial parasitrap® method and the Kato-Katz method. We correspondingly collected a total of 610 stool samples from pre-school and school age children. The results demonstrate the incidence of helminth parasites in 32.8% or 32.3% of the sample collected depending on whether the concentration method applied was either the parasitrap method or the Kato-Katz method. We detected a relatively high percentage of samples testing positive for two or more species of helminth parasites. We would highlight that in searching for larvae the Kato-Katz method does not prove as appropriate as the parasitrap method. Both techniques prove easily applicable even in field working conditions and returning mutually agreeing results. This study concludes in favour of the need for deworming programs and greater public awareness among the rural populations of Angola.

  7. Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz: helminth eggs watching on the shore of Lake Victoria.

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    Barda, Beatrice; Zepherine, Henry; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-07-31

    One of the challenges for monitoring helminth control programmes based on preventive chemotherapy is the lack of a copro-parasitological gold-standard method that combines good sensitivity with quantitative performance, low cost, and easy-to-learn technique.The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare, the WHO recommended quantitative diagnostic technique (Kato-Katz) and the Mini-FLOTAC. Mini-FLOTAC is an innovative method based on floatation of helminths eggs with two different solutions (FS2 and FS7) using a close system (Fill-FLOTAC) with 5% fixative. Kato-Katz was performed following WHO recommendation. The study was carried out in a rural part of Tanzania, close to Lake Victoria, where the laboratory facilities are fairly scarce, and the basic technique used in the local laboratory (direct smear) was taken as reference standard. 201 children were screened for intestinal helminths and 91% of them were found to be positive. The agreement among the three techniques was calculated with k Cohen coefficient and was fairly good (k = 0.4), although the Mini-FLOTAC results were more sensitive for hookworm (98%) with FS2, and for S.mansoni (90%) with FS7 followed by Kato-Katz (91% and 60% respectively) and direct smear (30% and 10% respectively). A good agreement was found between Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz (k = 0.81) with FS7 (k = 0.76) for hookworm diagnosis and a fairly good one for S.mansoni diagnosis (k = 0.5). For both infections we had a poor agreement between the two quantitative techniques and the direct smear (kMcMaster) and in different settings where other soil-transmitted helminths are also endemic.

  8. Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys

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    Speich Benjamin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in epidemiological surveys and is believed to be an inexpensive method. The FLOTAC technique shows a higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of light-intensity soil-transmitted helminth infections but is reported to be more complex and expensive. We assessed the costs related to the collection, processing and microscopic examination of stool samples using the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in an epidemiological survey carried out in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods We measured the time for the collection of a single stool specimen in the field, transfer to a laboratory, preparation and microscopic examination using standard protocols for the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques. Salaries of health workers, life expectancy and asset costs of materials, and infrastructure costs were determined. The average cost for a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC dual or double technique were calculated. Results The average time needed to collect a stool specimen and perform a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears or the FLOTAC dual or double technique was 20 min and 34 sec (20:34 min, 27:21 min, 28:14 min and 36:44 min, respectively. The total costs for a single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were US$ 1.73 and US$ 2.06, respectively, and for the FLOTAC double and dual technique US$ 2.35 and US$ 2.83, respectively. Salaries impacted most on the total costs of either method. Conclusions The time and cost for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis using either the Kato-Katz or FLOTAC method in epidemiological surveys are considerable. Our results can help to guide healthcare decision makers and scientists in budget planning and funding for epidemiological surveys, anthelminthic drug efficacy trials and monitoring of control interventions.

  9. Estudo comparativo dos métodos coprológicos de Lutz, Kato-Katz e Faust modificado A comparative study of the coprologic methods of Lutz, Kato-Katz and the Faust modified

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    Adelú Chaves

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, comparativamente, em 500 pacientes, os métodos de exames de fezes de Lutz, Faust modificado e Kato-Katz para o diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes. O método de Kato-Katz proporcionou maiores índices de positividade do que as outras duas técnicas no diagnóstico de ancilostomideos, T. trichiurus e S. mansoni. Nenhuma diferença foi observada quanto ao diagnóstico de A. lumbricoides. Para o diagnóstico das protozooses não houve diferença significativa entre os métodos de Faust modificado e de Lutz. Baseado nos dados obtidos, eficiência, simplicidade e rapidez de execução recomenda-se a associação dos métodos de Kato-Katz e Faust modificado na rotina de diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes.A comparative study was of the Lutz, Faust (modified, and Kato-Katz stool examination methods for parasitological diagnosis using 500 patients. The Kato-Katz method provided higher rates of positivity than the other two techniques in the diagnosis of Ancylostomidae, T. trichiurus, and S. mansoni. No differences were observed in the diagnosis of A. lumbicoides. Nor was a statistically significant difference observed in the diagnosis of protozoosis when using the Lutz and modified Faust methods. The data obtained led to a recommendation for an association of Kato-Katz and modified Faust methods for routine parasitological diagnosis due to Us simplicity, rapidity, and efficiency.

  10. Comparing the performance of circulating cathodic antigen and Kato-Katz techniques in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas with low prevalence in selected counties of Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

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    Okoyo, Collins; Simiyu, Elses; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles

    2018-04-11

    Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especially in areas with lower rates of transmission. It's the primary diagnostic tool in monitoring impact of the Kenya national school based deworming program on infection transmission, but there is need to consider a more sensitive technique as the prevalence reduces. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test. We used two cross-sectional surveys conducted pre- and post- mass drug administration (MDA) using praziquantel in a representative random sample of children from 18 schools across 11 counties. A total of 1944 children were randomly sampled for the study. Stool and urine samples were tested for S. mansoni infection using Kato-Katz and POC-CCA methods, respectively. S. mansoni prevalence using each technique was calculated and 95% confidence intervals obtained using binomial regression model. Specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Sn) were determined using 2 × 2 contingency tables and compared using the McNemar's chi-square test. A total of 1899 and 1878 children were surveyed at pre- and post-treatment respectively. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 26.5 and 21.4% during pre- and post-treatment respectively using POC-CCA test, and 4.9 and 1.5% for pre- and post-treatment respectively using Kato-Katz technique. Taking POC-CCA as the gold standard, Kato-Katz was found to have significantly lower sensitivity both at pre- and post-treatment, Sn = 12.5% and Sn = 5.2% respectively, McNemar test χ 2 m  = 782.0, p < 0.001. In overall, the results showed a slight/poor agreement between the two methods, kappa index (k

  11. Estudo sobre o diagnóstico da giardíase por meio do método Kato-Katz

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    Vera Lucia Pagliusi Castilho

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificado que é possível diagnosticar a giardíase através de exame de fezes realizado pelo método de Kato-Katz, hoje bastante utilizado no Brasil. Todavia, para reconhecimento da protozoose em questão, a eficácia do processo da centrífugo-fiutuação em sulfato de zinco mostrou-se maior. As sensibilidades das técnicas de Kato-Katz e da sedimentação espontânea em água foram equiparáveis, afigurando-se mais produtivas, a propósito do emprego da primeira, as análises efetuadas imediatamente ou após 24 horas em relação à ocasião do preparo.

  12. Increased detection of schistosomiasis with Kato-Katz and SWAP-IgG-ELISA in a Northeastern Brazil low-intensity transmission area

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    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis is based mainly on the detection of parasite eggs in stool samples through the Kato-Katz (KK technique, reading one slide by test. However, a widely known limitation of parasitological methods is reduced sensitivity, particularly in low endemic areas. METHODS: To increase sensitivity, we conducted further slide readings from the same stool sample using the parasitological method associated with a serological test. We used the KK method (three slides and the IgG anti-Schistosoma mansoni-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique to diagnose schistosomiasis in low endemic areas in the Brazilian State of Ceará. Fecal samples and sera from 250 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen percent and 47.2% of samples were positive in parasitological tests and serological tests, respectively. Parasitological methods showed that 32 (80% individuals tested positive on the first slide, 6 (15% on the second slide, and 2 (5% on the third. The performance of the ELISA test in the diagnosis, using the KK method as diagnostic reference, showed a negative predictive value of 100%, with specificity and positive predictive values of 62.8% and 33.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the increase from one to three slides analyzed per sample using the KK technique was shown to be a useful procedure for increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of this technique.

  13. Estimating sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in relation to infection intensity.

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    Oliver Bärenbold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Kato-Katz technique is the most widely used diagnostic method in epidemiologic surveys and drug efficacy trials pertaining to intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. However, the sensitivity of the technique is low, particularly for the detection of light-intensity helminth infections. Examination of multiple stool samples reduces the diagnostic error; yet, most studies rely on a single Kato-Katz thick smear, thus underestimating infection prevalence. We present a model which estimates the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique in Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm, as a function of infection intensity for repeated stool sampling and provide estimates of the age-dependent 'true' prevalence. We find that the sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis is dominated by missed light infections, which have a low probability to be diagnosed correctly even through repeated sampling. The overall sensitivity strongly depends on the mean infection intensity. In particular at an intensity of 100 eggs per gram of stool (EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 50% and 80% for one and two samples, respectively. At an infection intensity of 300 EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 62% for one sample and 90% for two samples. The sensitivity for hookworm diagnosis is dominated by day-to-day variation with typical values for one, two, three, and four samples equal to 50%, 75%, 85%, and 95%, respectively, while it is only weakly dependent on the mean infection intensity in the population. We recommend taking at least two samples and estimate the 'true' prevalence of S. mansoni considering the dependence of the sensitivity on the mean infection intensity and the 'true' hookworm prevalence by taking into account the sensitivity given in the current study.

  14. More Poop, More Precision: Improving Epidemiologic Surveillance of Soil-Transmitted Helminths with Multiple Fecal Sampling using the Kato-Katz Technique.

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    Liu, Chengfang; Lu, Louise; Zhang, Linxiu; Bai, Yu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott; Smith, Darvin Scott; Zhou, Changhai; Zang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity. This study, conducted among 4,985 school-age children in an area of rural China with moderate prevalence of helminth infection, examines the effect on diagnostic sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique when two fecal samples collected over consecutive days are examined and compared with a single sample. A secondary aim was to consider cost-effectiveness by calculating an estimate of the marginal costs of obtaining an additional fecal sample. Our findings show that analysis of an additional fecal sample led to increases of 23%, 26%, and 100% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm prevalence, respectively. The cost of collecting a second fecal sample for our study population was approximately USD4.60 per fecal sample. Overall, the findings suggest that investing 31% more capital in fecal sample collection prevents an underestimation of prevalence by about 21%, and hence improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method. Especially in areas with light-intensity infections of soil-transmitted helminths and limited public health resources, more accurate epidemiological surveillance using multiple fecal samples will critically inform decisions regarding infection control and prevention.

  15. Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth infections using the Kato-Katz technique.

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    Kure, Ashenafi; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Dana, Daniel; Bajiro, Mitiku; Ayana, Mio; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-09-24

    Our group has recently provided a proof-of-principle for the examination of pooled stool samples using McMaster technique as a strategy for the rapid assessment of intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). In the present study we evaluated this pooling strategy for the assessment of intensity of both STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections using the Kato-Katz technique. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 360 children aged 5-18 years from six schools in Jimma Zone (southwest Ethiopia). We performed faecal egg counts (FECs) in both individual and pooled samples (pools sizes of 5, 10 and 20) to estimate the number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) using the Kato-Katz technique. We also assessed the time to screen both individual and pooled samples. Except for hookworms, there was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.53-0.95) between the mean of individual FECs and the FECs of pooled samples for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni, regardless of the pool size. Mean FEC were 2,596 EPG, 125 EPG, 47 EPG, and 41 EPG for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, S. mansoni and hookworm, respectively. There was no significant difference in FECs between the examination of individual and pooled stool samples, except for hookworms. For this STH, pools of 10 resulted in a significant underestimation of infection intensity. The total time to obtain individual FECs was 65 h 5 min. For pooled FECs, this was 19 h 12 min for pools of 5, 14 h 39 min for pools of 10 and 12 h 42 min for pools of 20. The results indicate that pooling of stool sample holds also promise as a rapid assessment of infections intensity for STH and S. mansoni using the Kato-Katz technique. In this setting, the time in the laboratory was reduced by 70 % when pools of 5 instead of individual stool samples were screened.

  16. Performance evaluation of direct saline stool microscopy, Formol ether concentration and Kato Katz diagnostic methods for intestinal parasitosis in the absence of gold standard methods.

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    Hailu, Tadesse; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-07-01

    The parasite load within the sample and the amount of sample taken during examination greatly compromise the sensitivity of direct saline stool microscopy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2011 in Bahir Dar city among 778 fresh single stool samples to evaluate the performance of direct saline (DS), Kato Katz (KK) and Formol ether concentration (FEC) methods against the 'Gold' standard. Among 778 stool samples from school age children, the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites was recorded by FEC (55.1%). The sensitivity of DS, FEC and KK were 61.1%, 92.3% and 58.7%, respectively. FEC is more sensitive than DS and KK. Hence, use of the latter is preferred. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga Agar Plate, Ether-Concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosoma mansoni and Soil-Transmitted Helminths

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    Glinz, Dominik; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Knopp, Stefanie; Lohourignon, Laurent K.; Yao, Kouassi P.; Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Background Infections with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths exert a considerable yet underappreciated economic and public health burden on afflicted populations. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for patient management, drug efficacy evaluations, and monitoring of large-scale community-based control programs. Methods/Principal Findings The diagnostic accuracy of four copromicroscopic techniques (i.e., Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate, ether-concentration, and FLOTAC) for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth eggs was compared using stool samples from 112 school children in Côte d'Ivoire. Combined results of all four methods served as a diagnostic ‘gold’ standard and revealed prevalences of S. mansoni, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ascaris lumbricoides of 83.0%, 55.4%, 40.2%, 33.9% and 28.6%, respectively. A single FLOTAC from stool samples preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin for 30 or 83 days showed a higher sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (91.4%) than the ether-concentration method on stool samples preserved for 40 days (85.0%) or triplicate Kato-Katz using fresh stool samples (77.4%). Moreover, a single FLOTAC detected hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections with a higher sensitivity than any of the other methods used, but resulted in lower egg counts. The Koga agar plate method was the most accurate diagnostic assay for S. stercoralis. Conclusion/Significance We have shown that the FLOTAC method holds promise for the diagnosis of S. mansoni. Moreover, our study confirms that FLOTAC is a sensitive technique for detection of common soil-transmitted helminths. For the diagnosis of S. stercoralis, the Koga agar plate method remains the method of choice. PMID:20651931

  18. Emprego da azida sódica, como conservador de fezes, para a pesquisa de ovos de Schistosoma mansoni e de outros helmintos, pelo método de Kato-Katz: estudo em área endêmica

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Em duas alíquotas de 208 amostras de fezes foram feitos exames pelo método de Kato-Katz, sendo uma após o emprego de 0,2mg de azida sódica para 200mg e em outra sem o referido conservador. Os resultados percentuais com e sem conservador foram, respectivamente, para os Ancilostomídeos 12,5 e 25,9, para Ascaris lumbricoides 71,6 e 72,5, para Schistosoma mansoni 7,6 e 17,7 e para Trichuris trichiura 86 e 85. A contagem dos ovos com e sem o conservador foi, respectivamente, 264 e 539 para os Ancilostomídeos, 13816 e 33751 para A. lumbricoides, 55,5 e 63,5 para S. mansoni e 1345 e 2068 para T. trichiura. Os autores não confirmaram a vantagem do uso de azida sódica para estudo em áreas endêmicas. Sugerem que o ressecamento das fezes e a baixa intensidade das infecções possam explicar os resultados desfavoráveis do presente ensaio clínico.In two aliquots of 208 samples of stool, tests have been made by the Kato-Katz method, one being made after the use of 0.2mg of sodic azide for 200mg, and the other without the aforesaid conservant. The resulted percentages with or without the conservant were, respectively, for Ancylostomideos: 12.5 and 25.9; for Ascaris lumbrieoides; 71.6 and 72.5; for Schistosoma mansoni: 7.6 and 17.7, and for Trichuris trichiura: 86 and 85. The count of the eggs with and without the conservant was, respectively, 264 and 539 for Ancylostomideos, 13186 and 33751 for A. lumbricoides, 55.5 and 63.5 for S. mansoni, and 1345 and 2068 for T. trichiura. The authors did not confirm the advantage of using sodic azide for study in endemic areas. They suggest that the exsiccation of the stool and the low intensity of infections can explain the unfavourable results of the present clinical trial.

  19. Comparison of Kato-Katz thick-smear and McMaster egg counting method for the assessment of drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis in school children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

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    Bekana, Teshome; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Ayana, Mio; Getachew, Mestawet; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of studies that compare efficacy of drugs obtained by different diagnostic methods. We compared the efficacy of a single oral dose albendazole (400 mg), measured as egg reduction rate, against soil-transmitted helminth infections in 210 school children (Jimma Town, Ethiopia) using both Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster egg counting method. Our results indicate that differences in sensitivity and faecal egg counts did not imply a significant difference in egg reduction rate estimates. The choice of a diagnostic method to assess drug efficacy should not be based on sensitivity and faecal egg counts only. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparación de las técnicas Kato-Katz, TSET y TSR en el diagnóstico de infección por Fasciola hepatica en humanos

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    Nelson Uribe Delgado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Fasciolosis es una enfermedad causada por el parásito Fasciola hepatica, que afecta primordialmente a bovinos, ovinos, caprinos y en algunas zonas de forma endémica a los humanos. En la investigación clínica y epidemiológica de fasciolosis humana es importante contar con técnicas coprológicas de diagnóstico de alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo: realizar la comparación de tres técnicas coprológicas para el diagnóstico de infección por Fasciola hepatica en humanos. Metodología: se procesaron 200 gramos de materia fecal de humanos contaminada experimentalmente con huevos de F. hepatica que se obtuvieron de análisis anteriores con muestras de ganado bovino y ovino. La muestra se dividió en 10 partes iguales; a cada una de estas muestras se les realizó la técnicas de Kato-Katz, técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET y técnica de sedimentación rápida (TSR. Finalmente, la lectura de las muestras se basó en el diseño metodológico del doble ciego. Resultados: se encontró que la técnica de sedimentación rápida fue la más sensible de las tres evaluadas, detectándose positividad en 7,5 muestras de 10 analizadas; seguida por la técnica de Kato-Katz con 4,5 muestras y en último lugar la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en Tubo que mostró solo un resultado positivo. Conclusión: en este trabajo se encontró que la técnica de sedimentación rápida constituye la herramienta de elección para el profesional porque es la más sensible de las tres; además de ser sencilla, económica y de fácil aplicación en laboratorios de niveles uno y dos de complejidad para realizar un diagnóstico satisfactorio de fasciolosis humana. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (3: 7-12

  1. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Vo, Tinh Van; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Phan, Trong Van; Hii, Sze Fui; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-07-01

    Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC), has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica) occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR) for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK) thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA) method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study. Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1) gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR) was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province, Central

  2. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Ng-Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC, has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study.Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1 gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1 gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province

  3. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark A.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Vo, Tinh Van; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Phan, Trong Van; Hii, Sze Fui; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC), has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica) occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR) for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK) thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA) method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study. Methodology/Principal findings Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1) gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR) was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342

  4. Claudio Katz Claudio Katz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Katz nació en Argentina, en 1954. Es economista, integrante del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de la República Argentina, profesor en la Universidad de Buenos Aires y director de varios proyectos de investigación. Es autor de numerosos textos de interpretación del capitalismo contemporáneo y de la crisis económica global. Participa activamente en los foros continentales de impugnación del libre-comercio, el endeudamiento externo y la militarización. Como integrante del EDI (Economistas de Izquierda ha publicado varios estudios sobre la coyuntura política y social de la Argentina y de América Latina. Entre sus publicaciones, se destacan sus libros El porvenir del socialismo (2004 y Las disyuntivas de la izquierda en América Latina (primera edición, 2008, que recibieron menciones honoríficas del Premio Libertador al Pensamiento Crítico, además de 'El rediseño de América Latina. Alca, Mercosur y Alba' (2006 y 'La economía marxista, hoy. Seis debates teóricos' (2009. En esta entrevista, concedida a la revista Trabalho, Educação e Saúde en junio de 2010, Katz expone algunas reflexiones sobre la realidad latinoamericana contemporánea, destacando la crítica al llamado 'nuevo desarrollismo', la perspectiva socialista del concepto de democracia y la vigencia del marxismo latinoamericano.Claudio Katz was born in Argentina in 1954. He is an economist, a member of the National Council for Science and Technology of Argentina, a professor at the University of Buenos Aires, and the director of several research projects. Katz is the author of numerous interpretation texts of contemporary capitalism and about the global economic crisis. He participates actively in continental forums on free trade disputes, external debt, and militarization. As a member of the of EDI (Leftist Economists, he has published several studies on the political and social situation of both Argentina and of Latin America. Among his publications

  5. [Evaluation (assessment) of three tests for diagnosis of geohelmints in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Myriam Consuelo; Moncada, Ligia Inés; Ariza-Araújo, Yoseth; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Reyes, Patricia; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are considered a public health problem in developing countries. The diagnostic tests, both for individual parient diagnosis as for population studies should be evaluated in terms of validity and reliability. To compare the direct examination, the modified Ritchie-Frick method, a Kato-Katz designed by a Brazilian group and one designed by the WHO, for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthes. A diagnostic test reliability study was performed. The same stool sample was analyzed by the same observer using four diagnostic tests. 204 samples were obtained, 194 of those fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The observers did not know the participants' identity neither the other tests results. For the analysis the Kato-Katz (WHO) was considered as the gold standard. For the reliability assessment percent agreement, positive percent agreement, Kappa statistic, and intraclass correlation were performed. The Brazilian Kato-Katz showed a good performance with high sensitivity and specificity for T. trichiura and Hookworm with values of 0.97 and 0.96 respectively, and a high specificity with mild sensitivity for A. lumbricoides (0.95 and 0.79) meanwhile the direct examination and the Ritche-Frick method showed a performance between mild and poor. The differences were higher for hookworm and Trichiuris trichiura than for Ascaris lumbricoides. The Brazilian Kato Katz test could be implemented, but further studies are needed to correlate its operative capacity with its feasibility, availability and cost.

  6. A pilot study to evaluate an efficient testing strategy for surveillance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Control strategies for schistosomiasis depend on the understanding of the population specific magnitude of the infection. We present pilot results of a testing strategy suggested by theoretical statistical investigation that lowers cost yet retains similar accuracy profile as the standard Kato-Katz technique.

  7. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  8. Comparing concentration methods: parasitrap® versus Kato-Katz for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haran Africa, afflicting both children and adults with their level of prevalence depending ... host and infected whether by oral or by dermal channels. (in the case of .... Discussion. The pathologies caused by parasites are, in the majority of cases ...

  9. Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase

  10. Field evaluation of a coproantigen detection test for fascioliasis diagnosis and surveillance in human hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adela Valero

    Full Text Available Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison.A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg, nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥ 400 epg, although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg. Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg.The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure

  11. Combination of five diagnostic tests to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection among school-aged children from a rural area of colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rafael E; Narváez, Javier; Sepúlveda, Natalia A; Velásquez, Fabián C; Díaz, Sandra C; López, Myriam Consuelo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia I

    2017-09-01

    Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia. We used both, a frequentist approach, and Bayesian latent class models to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of five tests for hookworm detection, and to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection in absence of a Gold Standard. The Kato-Katz and agar plate methods had an overall agreement of 95% and kappa coefficient of 0.76. Different models estimated a sensitivity between 76% and 92% for the agar plate technique, and 52% to 87% for the Kato-Katz technique. The other tests had lower sensitivity. All tests had specificity between 95% and 98%. The prevalence estimated by the Kato-Katz and Agar plate methods for different subpopulations varied between 10% and 14%, and was consistent with the prevalence estimated from the combination of all tests. The Harada-Mori, Ritchie-Frick and direct examination techniques resulted in lower and disparate prevalence estimates. Bayesian approaches assuming imperfect specificity resulted in lower prevalence estimates than the frequentist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kato's chaos in set-valued discrete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between Kato's chaoticity of a dynamical system (X,f) and Kato's chaoticity of the set-valued discrete system (K(X),f-bar ) associated to (X,f), where X is a compact metric space and f:X->X is a continuous map. We show that Kato's chaoticity of (K(X),f-bar ) implies the Kato's chaoticity of (X,f) in general and (X,f) is chaotic in the sense of Kato if and only if (K(X),f-bar ) is Kato chaotic in w e -topology. We also show that Ruelle-Takens' chaoticity implies Kato's chaoticity for a continuous map with a fixed point from a complete metric space without isolated point into itself

  13. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, Andrey, E-mail: Andrey.Nikolaev@rdtex.ru [Institute of Computing for Physics and Technology, Protvino, Moscow Region, Russia and RDTeX LTD, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson’s ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  14. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson’s ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  15. Genome Sequence of Gordonia Phage BetterKatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Emily N.; Forrest, Kaitlyn M.; McHale, Lilliana; Wertz, Anthony T.; Zhuang, Zenas; Kasturiarachi, Naomi S.; Pressimone, Catherine A.; Schiebel, Johnathon G.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    BetterKatz is a bacteriophage isolated from a soil sample collected in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania using the host Gordonia terrae 3612. BetterKatz’s genome is 50,636 bp long and contains 75 predicted protein-coding genes, 35 of which have been assigned putative functions. BetterKatz is not closely related to other sequenced Gordonia phages. PMID:27516497

  16. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Promising results have been reported for a urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A and an experimental formulation (CCA-B for S. mansoni diagnosis. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings of Côte d'Ivoire: settings A and B are endemic for S. mansoni, whereas S. haematobium co-exists in setting C. Overall, 446 children, aged 8-12 years, submitted multiple stool and urine samples. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined with triplicate Kato-Katz, whereas urine samples were tested with CCA-A. The first stool and urine samples were additionally subjected to an ether-concentration technique and CCA-B, respectively. Urine samples were examined for S. haematobium using a filtration method, and for microhematuria using Hemastix dipsticks. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Considering nine Kato-Katz as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the prevalence of S. mansoni in setting A, B and C was 32.9%, 53.1% and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of triplicate Kato-Katz from the first stool and a single CCA-A test was 47.9% and 56.3% (setting A, 73.9% and 69.6% (setting B, and 94.2% and 89.6% (setting C. The respective sensitivity of a single CCA-B was 10.4%, 29.9% and 75.0%. The ether-concentration technique showed a low sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (8.3-41.0%. The specificity of CCA-A was moderate (76.9-84.2%; CCA-B was high (96.7-100%. The likelihood of a CCA-A color reaction increased with higher S. mansoni fecal egg counts (odds ratio: 1.07, p<0.001. A concurrent S. haematobium infection or the presence of microhematuria did not influence the CCA-A test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CCA-A showed similar sensitivity than triplicate Kato-Katz for S. mansoni diagnosis with no cross-reactivity to S. haematobium and microhematuria. The low sensitivity

  17. Fast Katz and commuters : efficient estimation of social relatedness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    On, Byung-Won; Lakshmanan, Laks V. S.; Esfandiar, Pooya; Bonchi, Francesco; Grief, Chen; Gleich, David F.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by social network data mining problems such as link prediction and collaborative filtering, significant research effort has been devoted to computing topological measures including the Katz score and the commute time. Existing approaches typically approximate all pairwise relationships simultaneously. In this paper, we are interested in computing: the score for a single pair of nodes, and the top-k nodes with the best scores from a given source node. For the pairwise problem, we apply an iterative algorithm that computes upper and lower bounds for the measures we seek. This algorithm exploits a relationship between the Lanczos process and a quadrature rule. For the top-k problem, we propose an algorithm that only accesses a small portion of the graph and is related to techniques used in personalized PageRank computing. To test the scalability and accuracy of our algorithms we experiment with three real-world networks and find that these algorithms run in milliseconds to seconds without any preprocessing.

  18. Goldin and Katz and Education Policy Failings in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Kling; John Merrifield

    2009-01-01

    In The Race Between Education and Technology, Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz employ a powerful theoretical framework to investigate how inequality is affected by the interrelation between changes in technology and changes in job-market skills. The investigation is carried out with great vision and a combination of scholarly methods. In this review essay, we embrace the theoretical core of the book, but find a number of problems in the execution. We see a need to distinguish between attendin...

  19. Libertarianism and Positive Rights: Comments on Katz's Reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Maloberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In “Why Libertarians Should Reject Positive Rights,” Joshua Katz offers a critical response to the argument developed by Nicolás Maloberti in “Libertarianism and the Possibility of the Legitimate State.” In this rejoinder, Maloberti argues that Katz’s response fails on two accounts. First, it fails to grasp the nature of the problem his article was ultimately concerned with. Second, it fails to present a solid case for the rejection of the type of positive right that it was argued libertarians should endorse as a solution to that problem.

  20. Isotope hydrology study of Kato Nevrokopi of Dramas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, I.L.; Payne, B.R.; Letsios, A.; Papagianni, N.; Kakarelis, D.; Chadjiagorakis, D.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic composition of the water was used in order to define the mechanism of recharge of the high plateau of Kato Nevrokopi of Dramas. The results of this study indicate that there are two main sources of recharge to groundwater. One is infiltration of water from the network of irrigation canals which carry water from the Vathitopos stream. The other source of recharge originates in the mountains to the east of the plain. Infiltration from the Nevrokopi stream does occur, but is believed to be minor in this part of the plain. Recharge by infiltration of local precipitation is considered to be minor in comparison with the two main sources of recharge. An underground barrier prevents draining of the groundwater through the sinkhole, resulting in a very big reservoir under the whole central and southern parts of the high plateau. The exploitation of the groundwater of this reservoir very probably offers a low-cost solution to satisfy all needs of the area for irrigation water. (author)

  1. Reflections on Jackson Katz and the MVP Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmerding, Elizabeth; Knuth-Bouracee, Mari; Edleson, Jeffrey L

    2018-03-01

    This article offers reflections on the article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model" by Jackson Katz in this issue of Violence Against Women. The authors rely on their unique perspectives in varying roles at the University of California (UC) Berkeley, as well as on relevant social science and social justice research. The article explores five themes of violence prevention and anti-oppression work: leadership, social justice, gender identity, issues of identity and status, and diffusion of innovation. Through these five themes, the authors acknowledge Mentors for Violence Prevention's (MVP) successes while critically analyzing opportunities for a more comprehensive approach to violence prevention.

  2. Surveillance of intestinal schistosomiasis during control: a comparison of four diagnostic tests across five Ugandan primary schools in the Lake Albert region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Hajri; Koukounari, Artemis; Stanton, Michelle C; Adriko, Moses; Arinaitwe, Moses; Atuhaire, Aaron; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2018-03-21

    Programmatic surveillance of intestinal schistosomiasis during control can typically use four diagnostic tests, either singularly or in combination, but these have yet to be cross-compared directly. Our study assembled a complete diagnostic dataset, inclusive of infection intensities, from 258 children from five Ugandan primary schools. The schools were purposely selected as typical of the endemic landscape near Lake Albert and reflective of high- and low-transmission settings. Overall prevalence was: 44.1% (95% CI 38.0-50.2) by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz smears from two consecutive stools, 56.9% (95% CI 50.8-63.0) by urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick, 67.4% (95% CI 61.6-73.1) by DNA-TaqMan® and 75.1% (95% CI 69.8-80.4) by soluble egg antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SEA-ELISA). A cross-comparison of diagnostic sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values was undertaken, inclusive of a latent class analysis (LCA) with a LCA-model estimate of prevalence by each school. The latter ranged from 9.6% to 100.0%, and prevalence by school for each diagnostic test followed a static ascending order or monotonic series of Kato-Katz, urine-CCA dipstick, DNA-TaqMan® and SEA-ELISA. We confirm that Kato-Katz remains a satisfactory diagnostic standalone in high-transmission settings but in low-transmission settings should be augmented or replaced by urine-CCA dipsticks. DNA-TaqMan® appears suitable in both endemic settings though is only implementable if resources permit. In low-transmission settings, SEA-ELISA remains the method of choice to evidence an absence infection. We discuss the pros and cons of each method concluding that future surveillance of intestinal schistosomiasis would benefit from a flexible, context-specific approach both in choice and application of each diagnostic method, rather than a single one-size fits all approach.

  3. Evaluation and optimization of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detecting Schistosoma mansoni infection by using image analysis in school children in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partal, Miriam Casacuberta; Kinunghi, Safari; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-01-01

    of Lake Victoria in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, and to optimize the reading of the POC-CCA test lines by using a computer software image analysis. Initially, a pilot study in 106 school children indicated that time of urine collection did not have an impact on CCA results as 84.9% (90) had identical scores...... POC-CCAs were compared to six Kato-Katz smears (75.0% vs. 42.6%; p reading of the POC-CCA, a Software...... tool (Image Studio Lite®) was used to read and quantify the colour (expressed as pixels) of the test line on all positive tests, showing a positive correlation between number of pixels and the visually scored intensities and between number of pixels and egg counts. In conclusion, the POC-CCA assay...

  4. Oscillation estimates relative to p-homogeneous forms and Kato measures data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Biroli

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We state pointwise estimate for the positive subsolutions associated to a p-homogeneous form and nonnegative Radon measures data. As a by-product we establish an oscillation’s estimate for the solutions relative to Kato measures data.

  5. A critique of Katz's 'High LET constraint on low LET survival'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, P.R.J.; Chesters, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Katz's interpretation of the connexion between RBE and LET is contrasted with a version published previously by Burch. The implications of Katz's model for dose-response relations apply only at ultra-high absorbed doses in Burch's model. In the latter, the shoulder on type-C survival curves for mammalian cells is explained in terms of Haynes' repair model. Under certain conditions the repair model becomes mathematically equivalent to the α-β model; under some other conditions it becomes equivalent to the 'two-component' model. The formulation of a new repair hypothesis, based on the idea of an inducible repair mechanism, is also set out. It is argued that Katz's supralinearity index' is appropriate to the induction of (rare) mutations but inappropriate to cell survival, for which an alternative index is proposed. Certain plausible hypotheses of radiobiological action conflict with Katz's 'logical constraint' which, it is contended, is neither logical nor valid. In conclusion, although experimental findings for some radiobiological systems conform to Katz's 'constraint', the frequently observed violations should not necessarily be regarded as artefacts. (author)

  6. Fast katz and commuters : efficient estimation of social relatedness in large networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    On, Byung-Won (University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada); Lakshmanan, Laks V. S. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada); Greif, Chen (University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada); Esfandiar, Pooya (University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada); Bonchi, Francesco (Yahoo! Research, Barcelona, Spain); Gleich, David F.

    2010-09-01

    Motivated by social network data mining problems such as link prediction and collaborative filtering, significant research effort has been devoted to computing topological measures including the Katz score and the commute time. Existing approaches typically approximate all pairwise relationships simultaneously. In this paper, we are interested in computing: the score for a single pair of nodes, and the top-k nodes with the best scores from a given source node. For the pairwise problem, we apply an iterative algorithm that computes upper and lower bounds for the measures we seek. This algorithm exploits a relationship between the Lanczos process and a quadrature rule. For the top-k problem, we propose an algorithm that only accesses a small portion of the graph and is related to techniques used in personalized PageRank computing. To test the scalability and accuracy of our algorithms we experiment with three real-world networks and find that these algorithms run in milliseconds to seconds without any preprocessing.

  7. Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity: The Gauss-Bonnet-Katz boundary term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruelle, Nathalie; Merino, Nelson; Olea, Rodrigo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a boundary term to the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet action for gravity, which uses the Chern-Weil theorem plus a dimensional continuation process, such that the extremization of the full action yields the equations of motion when Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed. When translated into tensorial language, this boundary term is the generalization to this theory of the Katz boundary term and vector for general relativity. The boundary term constructed in this paper allows to deal with a general background and is not equivalent to the Gibbons-Hawking-Myers boundary term. However, we show that they coincide if one replaces the background of the Katz procedure by a product manifold. As a first application we show that this Einstein Gauss-Bonnet Katz action yields, without any extra ingredients, the expected mass of the Boulware-Deser black hole.

  8. A Comparative Field Based Study of Katz and Barthel Indices in North Indian City of Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Luthra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly persons are one of the most vulnerable groups of society and have more chances of disease and disabilities (restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. It reflects how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Magnitude of disability has become an important indicator in measuring disease burden along with morbidity and mortality rates. Katz and Barthel Indices have been largely used to assess disability in activities of daily living among elderly people.Aim & objectives: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 60 years and above in urban field practice area of SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun, Uttarakhand with the aim of comparing these two indices in community setting. The specific objectives were to find ADL dependence by both the indices, find the factors which significantly affect ADL dependence and to find the degree of agreement which is not by chance between Katz and Barthel Indices.Material methods: An interview schedule was developed and administered to participants in Hindi, by trained investigators. Information on age, marital status, living status education, occupation and economic dependence was recorded. House-to-house visits were conducted in the selected area to collect the data. All elderly persons residing in the selected area were included in the study.Results: Prevalence of ADL dependence was 8.23% as per Katz Index and 28.45% as per Barthel Index, taking a score of less than 20 for BI and less than 6 for KI as criterion for ADL dependence. That there is a moderate degree of agreement between Katz and Barthel Scores which is not by chance was estimated by Kappa Statistic.Conclusion: Katz Index is better suited for ADL estimation in a community setting.

  9. Comparación de las técnicas Kato-Katz, TSET y TSR en el diagnóstico de infección por Fasciola hepatica en humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Uribe Delgado; Raúl Fernando Sierra Balcárcel; Cindy Tatiana Espinosa González

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La Fasciolosis es una enfermedad causada por el parásito Fasciola hepatica, que afecta primordialmente a bovinos, ovinos, caprinos y en algunas zonas de forma endémica a los humanos. En la investigación clínica y epidemiológica de fasciolosis humana es importante contar con técnicas coprológicas de diagnóstico de alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo: realizar la comparación de tres técnicas coprológicas para el diagnóstico de infección por Fasciola hepatica en humanos. Me...

  10. The physical and radiobiological basis of the Local Effect Model (LEM) A response to the commentary by R. Katz

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, M; The Physics of Quantum Electronics

    2004-01-01

    The physical and biological basis of our model to calculate the biological effects of charged particles, termed local effect model (LEM), has been recently questioned in a commentary by R. Katz. Major objections were related to the definition of the target size and the use of the term cross section. Here we show that the objections raised against our approach are unjustified and largely based on serious misunderstandings of the conceptual basis of the local effect model. Furthermore, we show that the approach developed by Katz and coworkers itself suffers from exactly those deficiencies, for which Katz criticises our model. The essential conceptual differences between the two models are discussed by means of some illustrative examples, based on a comparison with experimental data. For these examples, the predictions of the LEM model are fully consistent with the experimental data. Contrarily, e.g. for very heavy ions there are significant discrepancies observed for the Katz approach. These discrepancies can b...

  11. Trotter-Kato product formula and fractional powers of self-adjoint generators

    CERN Document Server

    Ichinose, I; Zagrebnov, Z

    2002-01-01

    Let $A$ and $B$ be non-negative self-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space such that their densely defined form sum $H = A \\stackrel{\\cdot}{+} B$ obeys $\\dom(H^\\ga) \\subseteq \\dom(A^\\ga) \\cap \\dom(B^\\ga)$ for some $\\ga \\in (1/2,1)$. It is proved that if, in addition, $A$ and $B$ satisfy $\\dom(A^{1/2}) \\subseteq \\dom(B^{1/2})$, then the symmetric and non-symmetric Trotter-Kato product formula converges in the operator norm: % % \\bed \\ba{c} \\left\\|\\left(e^{-tB/2n}e^{-tA/n}e^{-tB/2n}\\right)^n - e^{-tH}\\right\\| = O(n^{-(2\\ga-1)}), \\\\[2mm] \\left\\|\\left(e^{-tA/n}e^{-tB/n}\\right)^n - e^{-tH}\\right\\| = O(n^{-(2\\ga-1)}) \\ea \\eed % % uniformly in $t \\in [0,T]$, $0 < T < \\infty$, as $n \\to \\infty$, both with the same optimal error bound. The same is valid if one replaces the exponential function in the product by functions of the Kato class, that is, by real-valued Borel measurable functions $f(\\cdot)$ defined on the non-negative real axis obeying $0 \\le f(x) \\le 1$, $f(0) = 1$ and $f'(+0) = -1$, with some addition...

  12. Investigation of the spatial generalization of Kato's theorem by a variational density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csavinszky, P.

    1990-01-01

    In a recent work, March has considered the quantum-mechanical system of an arbitrary number of closed electronic shells around an atomic nucleus of charge Z a e. March has assumed that the shells are filled by noninteracting electrons, moving in the bare Coulomb potential energy of V(r) = -Z a e 2 /r. In this framework, the basic quantity is the total electron (number) density ρ(r), built by summing the (number) density ρ n (r) of the nth closed electronic shell over the principal quantum number n. March has shown that Kato's theorem, (∂ρ(r)/∂r) r=0 = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ (r = 0), with a 0 = ℎ 2 /me 2 , is amenable to a spatially dependent generalization that can be expressed by ∂ρ(r)/∂r = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ s (r), where ρ s (r) is the s-state contribution from the n closed electronic shells to ρ(r). The present work investigates the spatially dependent generalization of Kato's theorem for the Ne atom by making use of a variational density-functional approach and adopting several expressions for the kinetic-energy functional of the electrons. The intriguing question of identifying the best kinetic-energy functional is raised and discussed

  13. The hierarchy of the activities of daily living in the Katz index in residents of skilled nursing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nursing facility patients are a population that has not been well studied with regard to functional status and independence previously. As such, the manner in which activities of daily living (ADL) relate to one another is not well understood in this population. An understanding of ADL difficulty ordering has helped to devise systems of functional independence grading in other populations, which have value in understanding patients' global levels of independence and providing expectations regarding changes in function. This study seeks to examine the hierarchy of ADL in the nursing facility population. Data were analyzed from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, a cross-sectional data set of 13 507 skilled nursing facility subjects with functional independence items. The ADL difficulty hierarchy was determined using Rasch analysis. Item fit values for the Rasch model using Mean-Square infit statistics were also determined. The robustness of the hierarchy was tested for each ADL. Two grading systems were devised from the results of the item difficulty ordering. One was based on the most difficult item that he or she could perform, and the other assigned a grade based on the least difficult item that a subject could not perform. A total of 13 113 patients were included in this analysis, the majority of whom were female and white. They had an average age of 81 years. An ordered hierarchy of ADL was found with eating being the easiest and bathing the most difficult. All items in the Katz index fit the Rasch model adequately well. The majority of patients able to perform any particular ADL were also able to perform all easier ADL. Cohen's κ for the 2 grading systems was 0.73. This study is the first to show the expected hierarchy of difficulty of the 6 activities of daily proposed in the Katz index in the nursing facility population. The hierarchy found in this population matches the original hierarchy found in older adults in the community and acute care settings

  14. diag ostic efficacy of i direct hemaggluti atio test i relatio to kato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... of Veterinary Medicine,. Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia ... certified technicians using disposable syringes. The blood was allowed to ... school teachers and the study participants/school children. Then, about 2 ml ...

  15. The Internal Consistency Reliability of the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism among Australian Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lumbroso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism was developed initially to extend among the Hebrew-speaking Jewish community in Israel a growing body of international research concerned to map the correlates, antecedents and consequences of individual differences in attitude toward religion as assessed by the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The present paper explored the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the English translation of the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism among 101 Australian Jews. On the basis of these data, this instrument is commended for application in further research.

  16. Einstein-Katz action, variational principle, Noether charges and the thermodynamics of AdS-black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Deruelle, Nathalie; Julié, Félix-Louis [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, CEA, Observatoire de Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet,F-75205 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)

    2016-08-08

    In this paper we describe 4-dimensional gravity coupled to scalar and Maxwell fields by the Einstein-Katz action, that is, the covariant version of the “Gamma-Gamma − Gamma-Gamma' part of the Hilbert action supplemented by the divergence of a generalized “Katz vector'. We consider static solutions of Einstein’s equations, parametrized by some integration constants, which describe an ensemble of asymptotically AdS black holes. Instead of the usual Dirichlet boundary conditions, which aim at singling out a specific solution within the ensemble, we impose that the variation of the action vanishes on shell for the broadest possible class of solutions. We will see that, when a long-range scalar “hair' is present, only sub-families of the solutions can obey that criterion. The Katz-Bicak-Lynden-Bell (“KBL') superpotential built on this (generalized) vector will then give straightforwardly the Noether charges associated with the spacetime symmetries (that is, in the static case, the mass). Computing the action on shell, we will see next that the solutions which obey the imposed variational principle, and with Noether charges given by the KBL superpotential, satisfy the Gibbs relation, the Katz vectors playing the role of “counterterms'. Finally, we show on the specific example of dyonic black holes that the sub-class selected by our variational principle satisfies the first law of thermodynamics when their mass is defined by the KBL superpotential.

  17. Einsatzmöglichkeiten eines Verriegelungsnagelsystems für die Katze inklusive der Bestimmung der Durchleuchtungszeiten bei der Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Angelika Marion

    2016-01-01

    Im prospektiven Studienteil wurden Anwendbarkeit, Operationszeiten, Durchleuchtungseinsatz, Heilungsverlauf und Komplikationen bei der Versorgung von 25 Humerus-, Femur- und Tibiafrakturen der Katze mit dem MarMed Verriegelungsnagel(VN)-System untersucht. Die Röntgenbeurteilung fand durch 2 Beurteiler unabhängig voneinander statt. Zwischen den Beurteilern und den Wiederholungen der Knochenmessungen bestand eine sehr gute Übereinstimmung. Für Achsenabweichungen, Implantatsitz und Heilungsphase...

  18. Erstellung eines multimedialen Lernprogramms über die Grundlagen der EKG-Aufzeichnung und Auswertung bei Hund und Katze

    OpenAIRE

    Weigel-Ossiander, Fiona Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Mit EKG Basics wurde ein detailliertes multimediales Lernprogramm über die Grundlagen der Elektrokardiographie bei Hund und Katze erstellt unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von didaktischen und ergonomischen Gesichtspunkten. Da vielen Veterinärmedizinerinnen/Veterinärmedizinern das Erlernen, Verstehen und Interpretieren der Elektrokardiographie schwer fällt, war das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit, sowohl Studierenden der Tiermedizin als auch interessierten Tierärztinnen/Tierärzten die Thema...

  19. Entrevista com Michael R. KatzDOI: 10.5007/2175-7968.2011v1n27p329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Barbosa de Vasconcellos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael R. Katz graduated from Horace Mann School (New York and attended Williams College (Massachusetts, where he was the very first Russian major. Following graduation in 1966, he studied at Oxford University and the University of Leningrad, where he received his D.Phil. (or Ph.D. in Literature from Oxford. He first taught Russian at Williams and in 1984 became Chair of the Department of Slavic Language and Director of the Title VI Center for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Texas at Austin,. In 1998, he accepted a position as Dean of Language Schools and Schools Abroad at Middlebury College (Vermont. Since his term as Dean ended in 2004, he has been a full-time professor at the Russian Department. Prof. Katz has published several articles on literary translation and written two books. Additionally, he is a published translator of more than a dozen works into English, including novels by Herzen, Chernyshevsky, Dostoevsky, Turgenev, Tolstoy. In this interview, Katz explains how he became a translator, and addresses some important issues concerning the market for translation, his relationship with editors and publishing houses, translation and its critics, and some of the challenges he encountered translating from Russian into English.

  20. Relationships of radiation track structure to biological effect: a re-interpretation of the parameters of the Katz model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Katz track-model of cell inactivation has been more successful than any other biophysical model in fitting and predicting inactivation of mammalian cells exposed to a wide variety of ionising radiations. Although the model was developed as a parameterised phenomenological description, without necessarily implying any particular mechanistic processes, the present analysis attempts to interpret it and thereby benefit further from its success to date. A literal interpretation of the parameters leads to contradictions with other experimental and theoretical information, especially since the fitted parameters imply very large (> ∼ 4 μm) subcellular sensitive sites which each require very large amounts (> ∼ 100 keV) of energy deposition in order to be inactivated. Comparisons of these fits with those for cell mutation suggest a re-interpretation in terms of (1) very much smaller sites and (2) a clearer distinction between the ion-kill and γ-kill modes of inactivation. It is suggested that this re-interpretation may be able to guide future development of the phenomenological Katz model and also parameterisation of mechanistic biophysical models. (author)

  1. A técnica de Kato para o diagnóstico coprológico de infecções parasitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Gonçalves Molina

    1971-02-01

    Full Text Available Empregando-se 76 espécimenis de fezes examinados velo método de Kato modificiado por Martin e Beaver (4, fêz-se a comparação com a técnica da sedimentação pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. Excetuando o diagnóstico das infecções pelo T. trichurus, nas quais houve evidentes vantagens do método de Kato, não se pode confirmar a superioridade do método de Kato, pelo menos nas condições do laboratório clínico normal. O autor frisa porém, que por falta de espécimens adequados não foi possível testar o método nas infecções pelo S. mansoni, campo que se ressente da falta de técnicas adequadas para o diagnóstico de infecções discretas e no qual se antecipam maiores virtudes do método de Kato.

  2. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  3. Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion: Psychometric Properties of the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim-Larson, Julie; Parker, Alison; Lee, Catharine; Goodwin, Jacqueline; Voelker, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Parental meta-emotion, assessed through interviews, involves parents' philosophy about emotions and has been found to be related to parenting behaviors and children's emotional and social competence (e.g., Gottman, Katz, & Hooven, 1996; Katz & Windecker-Nelson, 2004). The Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test is a true-false…

  4. Coastline changes in relation to longshore sediment transport and human impact, along the shoreline of Kato Achaia (NW Peloponnese, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. POULOS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal configuration depends upon the equilibrium between available sediment budget and prevailing nearshore wave and current conditions. Human activities often disturb this natural equilibrium by altering the sources of beach material and littoral drift pattern. In the coastal zone of NW Peloponnese, an essentially tideless environment, the oblique approach of wind-induced waves implies an overall longshore drift from east to west. On an annual basis, the potential longshore sediment transport rates at the different sections of the study area (Kato Achaia is estimated to vary between 0.02 10-3 m3/s and 5 103 m3/s and to fluctuate seasonally. The construction of a port and the extraction of aggregates from the R. Peiros have changed significantly the pattern of sediment transport inducing dramatic changes on coastline configuration; thus, the part of the coastline west to the port had retreated as much as 70 m eliminating a touristic beach, while the entrance of the port was silted inhibiting navigation. Coastal engineering measures, such as modification of port-breakwaters and construction of groins have had only minimal contribution in beach recovery. Hence, coastal management plans should consider this dynamic equilibrium and protect the natural coastal system from the arbitrary human activities.

  5. What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology". NBER Working Paper No. 17820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron; Autor, David

    2012-01-01

    Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology" is a monumental achievement that supplies a unified framework for interpreting how the demand and supply of human capital have shaped the distribution of earnings in the U.S. labor market over the 20th century. This essay reviews the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of this work…

  6. Kryptorchismus bei Hund und Katze - Definition, Prävalenz, Diagnose und Therapie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is defined as maldescensus testis. This means that one or both testicles are not located in the scrotum at six months of age, but abdominal, inguinal or ectopic. Ectopic testes can be localised suprafascially, perineally or crurally. Physiologically, descensus testis is finished...... about 35-40 days after birth in the dog and at the time of birth in the torn. Delayed descent is diagnosed when testis are located in the scrotum at a later point of time. Whereas cryptorchidism in the dog is undoubtedly multifactorial with breed-specific involvement of one or more genes (mono......-/polygenic), epigenetic and environment-associated factors, heredity in the cat is still unclear although an increased incidence is reported in Persians, Ragdolls and European Shorthair. The diagnosis can be confirmed by palpation (in case of inguinal testes) or by ultrasound. GnRH and hCG stimulation tests can be used...

  7. Determining k channel activation curves from k channel currents often requires the goldman-hodgkin-katz equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, John R

    2009-01-01

    Potassium ion current in nerve membrane, I(K), has traditionally been described by I(K) = g(K)(V - E(K)), where g(K) is the K ion conductance, V is membrane potential and E(K) is the K(+) Nernst potential. This description has been unchallenged by most investigators in neuroscience since its introduction almost 60 years ago. The problem with the I(K) approximately (V - E(K)) proportionality is that it is inconsistent with the unequal distribution of K ions in the intra- and extracellular bathing media. Under physiological conditions the intracellular K(+) concentration is significantly higher than the extracellular concentration. Consequently, the slope conductance at potentials positive to E(K) cannot be the same as that for potentials negative to E(K), as the linear proportionality between I(K) and (V - E(K)) requires. Instead I(K) has a non-linear dependence on (V - E(K)) which is well described by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. The implications of this result for K(+) channel gating and membrane excitability are reviewed in this report.

  8. Determining K+ channel activation curves from K+ channel currents often requires the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    john r Clay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Potassium ion current in nerve membrane, IK, has traditionally been described by IK = gK(V-EK, where gK is the K ion conductance, V is membrane potential, and EK is the K+ Nernst potential. This description has been unchallenged by most investigators in neuroscience since its introduction almost sixty years ago. The problem with the IK ~ (V-EK proportionality is that it is inconsistent with the unequal distribution of K ions in the intra- and extracellular bathing media. Under physiological conditions the intracellular K+ concentraion is significantly higher than the extracellular concentration. Consequently, the slope conductance at potentials positive to EK cannot be the same as that for potentials negative to EK, as the linear proportionality requires. Instead IK has a non-linear dependence on (V-EK which is well described by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. The implications of this result for K+ channel gating and membrane excitability are reviewed in this report.

  9. Generation of membrane potential beyond the conceptual range of Donnan theory and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Kota

    2017-09-01

    Donnan theory and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK eq.) state that the nonzero membrane potential is generated by the asymmetric ion distribution between two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane and/or by the continuous ion transport across the semipermeable membrane. However, there have been a number of reports of the membrane potential generation behaviors in conflict with those theories. The authors of this paper performed the experimental and theoretical investigation of membrane potential and found that (1) Donnan theory is valid only when the macroscopic electroneutrality is sufficed and (2) Potential behavior across a certain type of membrane appears to be inexplicable on the concept of GHK eq. Consequently, the authors derived a conclusion that the existing theories have some limitations for predicting the membrane potential behavior and we need to find a theory to overcome those limitations. The authors suggest that the ion adsorption theory named Ling's adsorption theory, which attributes the membrane potential generation to the mobile ion adsorption onto the adsorption sites, could overcome those problems.

  10. Ranking candidate disease genes from gene expression and protein interaction: a Katz-centrality based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available Many diseases have complex genetic causes, where a set of alleles can affect the propensity of getting the disease. The identification of such disease genes is important to understand the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of pathogenesis, improve diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and aid in drug discovery. Current genetic studies typically identify chromosomal regions associated specific diseases. But picking out an unknown disease gene from hundreds of candidates located on the same genomic interval is still challenging. In this study, we propose an approach to prioritize candidate genes by integrating data of gene expression level, protein-protein interaction strength and known disease genes. Our method is based only on two, simple, biologically motivated assumptions--that a gene is a good disease-gene candidate if it is differentially expressed in cases and controls, or that it is close to other disease-gene candidates in its protein interaction network. We tested our method on 40 diseases in 58 gene expression datasets of the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database. On these datasets our method is able to predict unknown disease genes as well as identifying pleiotropic genes involved in the physiological cellular processes of many diseases. Our study not only provides an effective algorithm for prioritizing candidate disease genes but is also a way to discover phenotypic interdependency, cooccurrence and shared pathophysiology between different disorders.

  11. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, L.; Brienen, E.; Mbow, M.; Ochola, E.A,; Mboup, S.; Karanja, D.M.; Secor, W.E.; Polman, K.; Lieshout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current reference test for the detection of S. mansoni in endemic areas is stool microscopy based on one or more Kato-Katz stool smears. However, stool microscopy has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current schistosomiasis control programs. A highly specific

  12. Human gastric signet ring carcinoma (KATO-III) cell apoptosis induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract through intracellular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kunio; Akaike, Takenori; Imai, Masahiko; Toyoda, Hiroo; Hirobe, Chieko; Bessho, Toshio

    2005-07-01

    We have previously reported that an ethanol extract of the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) displays cytotoxic activity against certain kinds of human cancer cell line resulting in the induction of apoptosis. In this paper, we investigate the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by Vitex using a human gastric signet ring carcinoma cell line, KATO-III. DNA fragmentation was observed in Vitex-treated KATO-III cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was accompanied by the following phenomena: elevation in the level of hemeoxygenase-1 protein and thioredoxin reductase mRNA; repression of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase mRNAs; release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol; activation of caspases-8, -9 and -3; decrease in the level of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bid protein; increase in the level of Bad protein. The intracellular oxidized state, measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, increased after Vitex treatment. While the amount of intracellular GSH decreased significantly after treatment with Vitex, the level of GSSG was unaffected. Furthermore, no significant perturbation in the amount of proteins/mRNAs related to glutathione metabolism could be detected. These apoptotic alterations induced by exposure to Vitex were blocked by the presence of an anti-oxidative reagent, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, or the addition of exogenous GSH. Our results demonstrate that intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage is responsible for Vitex-induced apoptosis, which may be mediated by a diminution of reduced type glutathione within the cell.

  13. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    different sets of data obtained for the same cell line and different ions, measured at different laboratories, we have fitted model parameters to a set of carbon-irradiated V79 cells, published by Furusawa et al. (2), and to a set of proton-irradiated V79 cells, published by Wouters et al. (3), separately....... We found that values of model parameters best fitted to the carbon data of Furusawa et al. yielded predictions of V79 survival after proton irradiation which did not match the V79 proton data of Wouters et al. Fitting parameters to both sets combined did not improve the accuracy of model predictions...... carbon irradiation. 1. Katz, R., Track structure in radiobiology and in radiation detection. Nuclear Track Detection 2: 1-28 (1978). 2. Furusawa Y. et al. Inactivation of aerobic and hypoxic cells from three different cell lines by accelerated 3He-, 12C- and 20Ne beams. Radiat Res. 2012 Jan; 177...

  14. How the nerves reached the muscle: Bernard Katz, Stephen W. Kuffler, and John C. Eccles-Certain implications of exile for the development of twentieth-century neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twentieth-century solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system. The reflex model of neuromuscular action had already been advanced by neuroanatomists such as Georg Prochaska (1749-1820) in Bohemia since the eighteenth century. It became a major component of neurophysiological theories during the nineteenth century, based on the law associated with the names of François Magendie (1783-1855) in France and Charles Bell (1774-1842) in Britain regarding the functional differences of the sensory and motor spinal nerves. Yet, it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that both the histological and the neurophysiological understanding of the nerve-muscle connection became entirely understood and the chemical versus electrical transmission further elicited as the mechanisms of inhibition. John C. Eccles, Bernard Katz, and Stephen W. Kuffler helped to provide some of the missing links for modern neurophysiology. The current article explores several of their scientific contributions and investigates how the context of forced migration contributed to these interactions in contingently new ways.

  15. Radioiodine therapy in veterinary medicine: treatment of hyperthyroidism in a cat; Die Radioiodtherapie in der Veterinaermedizin: Behandlung der Schilddruesenueberfunktion bei einer Katze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, P.; Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kinzel, S.; Kuepper, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Versuchstierkunde; Bachmann, T. [Tierarztpraxis Dr. med. vet. Thomas Bachmann, Glashhuetten (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    A nine-year-old cat with symptoms of a distinct hyperthyroidism was presented at the University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen. The clinical symptoms as well as the diagnostic procedures performed at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis. After five weeks of thyreostatic medication a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland was established, followed by a radioiodine therapy with 70.3 MBq 131-iodine. Subsequently, the cat was hospitalized for two days before it could be released in good condition. Six weeks after treatment the former drastically reduced weight of the cat recovered to near normal. Even though the chemical analysis detected a discrete hyperthyroidism, clinical symptoms were no longer prominent. Three months after treatment, the final examination showed a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland without a specific thyroidal medication. The presented case illustrates that radioiodine therapy is a safe and efficient treatment of thyroidal dysfunctions in veterinary medicine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine neun Jahre alte, europaeische Langhaarkatze wurde mit Symptomen einer ausgepraegten Schilddruesenueberfunktion im Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen vorgestellt. Sowohl die klinische Symptomatik als auch die Labordiagnostik und die apparativ erhobenen Befunde belegten das Vorliegen einer Hyperthyreose. Im Anschluss an eine fuenfwoechige thyreostatische Therapie, mit der eine euthyreote Stoffwechsellage erreicht werden konnte, wurde eine Radioiodtherapie mit 70,3 MBq 131-Iod durchgefuehrt. Nach einer nur zweitaegigen komplikationslosen Hospitalisierung konnte die Katze in gutem Allgemeinzustand entlassen werden. Sechs Wochen nach der Therapie hatte sich das zuvor deutlich reduzierte Koerpergewicht auf nahezu normgerechte Werte erhoeht; klinische Symptome der Schilddruesenueberfunktion liessen sich trotz einer laborchemisch diagnostizierten diskreten Gesamtthyroxiderhoehung nicht mehr nachweisen. Bei einer abschliessenden Kontrolle drei Monate nach Entlassung wies

  16. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  17. Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mugambi, Robert Muriuki; Agola, Eric L.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Kinyua, Johnson; Shiraho, Esther Andia; Mkoji, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in ...

  18. Analysis of DCI cask drop test onto reinforced concrete pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, C.; Kato, Y.; Hattori, S.; Shirai, K.; Misumi, M.; Ozaki, S.

    1993-01-01

    In a cask-storage facility, a cask may be subjected to an impact load as a result of a free drop onto the floor because of cask mishandling. We performed drop tests of casks onto a reinforced concrete (RC) slab representing the floor of a facility as well as simulation analysis [Kato et al]. This paper describes the details of the FEM analysis and calculated results and compares them with the drop test results. (J.P.N.)

  19. The accuracy of formol-ether concentration in diagnosing soiltransmitted helminths in elementary school 27 Peusangan in Bireuen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, C. L.; Panggabean, M.; Pasaribu, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) or a group of parasitic nematode worms causing human infection through contact with moist soil may contribute to anemia, nutritional disorders, physical and intellectual growth retardation. School-age children are at high risk of STH infection due to frequent contact with soil. Reliable, sensitive, and practical diagnostic are the test series for detecting STH. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the formol-ether concentration (FEC) in the diagnosis of STH when compared to the Kato-Katz technique. The study was designed at state elementary school 27 Peusangan, Bireuen. The FEC study on a total of 80 (100%) elementary students showed that 12 (15%) sample had the STH infection, while Kato-Katz technique (Gold standard) showed that 31 (38.75%) sample had the STH infection. The FEC technique has the sensitivity of (38.71%), specificity of (100%) and accuracy of (76.25%). The Kato-Katz technique is better than the FEC technique for assessing STH in Bireuen due to mild infection.

  20. Initiating NTD programs targeting schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in two provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Establishment of baseline prevalence for mass drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Achille; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Tougoue, Jean Jacques; Mupoyi, Sylvain; Ndombe, Martin; Shannon, Scott; Ottesen, Eric A; Mukunda, Faustin; Awaca, Naomi

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB). Parasitological surveys were conducted from April to May 2015 in twenty-six selected sampling units (schools) for baseline mapping in six HZs: Fifty school children (25 females and 25 males) aged 9-15 years were randomly selected per sampling unit. A total of 1300 samples (urine and stool) were examined using haematuria dipsticks, parasite-egg filtration and the point-of-care Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) assay for urine samples and the Kato-Katz technique for stool specimens. Three species of schistosomes (S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum) and three groups of STH (hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris) were detected at variable prevalence and intensity among the schools, the HZs and the provinces. In Bandundu, no SCH was detected by either Kato-Katz or the POC-CCA technique, despite a high prevalence of STH with 68% and 80% at Kiri and Pendjua HZs, respectively. In Maniema, intestinal schistosomiasis was detected by both Kato-Katz and POC-CCA with an average prevalence by Kato-Katz of 32.8% and by POC-CCA of 42.1%. Comparative studies confirmed the greater sensitivity (and operational feasibility) of the POC-CCA test on urine compared to Kato-Katz examination of stool for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis even in areas of comparatively light infections. STH was widely distributed and present in all HZs with a mean prevalence (95% CI) of 59.62% (46.00-65.00%). The

  1. Schistosomiasis in the Amazon region: is the current diagnostic strategy still appropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Sergei Rodrigo Magalhães de; Carvalho, Alessandra de Queiroz; Cardoso, Joyce Favacho Nogueira; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Enk, Martin Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV) of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7%) infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6%) according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of t...

  2. COMPARATIVO DE LOS ALGORITMOS DE DIMENSIÓN FRACTAL HIGUCHI, KATZ Y MULTIRESOLUCIÓN DE CONTEO DE CAJAS EN SEÑALES EEG BASADAS EN POTENCIALES RELACIONADOS POR EVENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fernández Fraga

    Full Text Available La obtención de información por medio de la medición de señales registradas durante diferentes procesos o condiciones fisiológicas del cerebro es importante para poder desarrollar interfaces computacionales que traduzcan las señales eléctricas cerebrales a comandos computacionales de control. Un electroencefalograma (EEG registra la actividad eléctrica del cerebro en respuesta al recibir diferentes estímulos externos (potenciales por eventos. El análisis de estas señales permite identificar y distinguir estados específicos de la función fisiológica del cerebro. La Dimensión Fractal se ha utilizado como una herramienta para el análisis de formas de ondas biomédicas, en particular se ha utilizado para determinar la medida de la complejidad en series de tiempo generadas por EEG. El presente documento pretende analizar la base de datos HeadIT de series de tiempo biomédicas obtenidas por EEG a las cuales se obtendrán la FD por medio de los métodos Higuchi, Katz y Multi-resolución de Conteo de Cajas, que muestre la relación entre el método para la obtención de la Dimensión Fractal y la condición fisiológica de la señal basada en Potenciales Cerebrales Relacionados por Eventos.

  3. The Periodic Round Table (by Gary Katz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Reviewed By Glen E.

    2000-02-01

    Unwrapping and lifting the Periodic Round Table out of its colorful box is an exciting experience for a professional chemist or a chemistry student. Touted as a "new way of looking at the elements", it is certainly thatat least at first blush. The "table" consists of four sets of two finely finished hardwood discs each with the following elemental symbols and their corresponding atomic numbers pleasingly and symmetrically wood-burned into their faces. The four sets of two discs are 1 1/2, 3, 4 1/2, and 6 in. in diameter, each disc is 3/4 in. thick, and therefore the entire "round table" stands 6 in. high and is 6 in. in diameter at its base. The eight beautifully polished discs (represented below) are held together by center dowels that allow each to be rotated separately.

  4. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  5. Evaluation of different parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of canine helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Temporim Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Novaes M.T. & Martins I.V.F. [Evaluation of different parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of canine helminthiasis.] Avaliação de diferentes técnicas parasitológicas no diagnóstico de helmintoses caninas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:71-76, 2015. Laboratório de Parasitologia, Hospital Veterinário, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rua Alto Universitário, s/n, Guararema, Alegre, ES 29500-000, Brasil. E-mail: marcelle_temporim@hotmail.com Were collected 100 fecal samples from dogs from August 2014 to April 2015 from the Zoonosis Control Center (CCZ of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES. These were sent to the laboratory of Parasitology of the Veterinary Hospital of UFES, and analyzed in duplicate by the techniques of Kato-Katz, Hoffman, TF-Test Modified/Dog and Willis in order to evaluate the technique that present higher sensitivity, convenience and lower expenses with materials for parasitological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test and kappa the 5% significance level. Together they showed up 68 positive samples, 31, 34, 26 and 62 for technical Kato-Katz, Hoffman, TF-Test and Willis respectively. The results showed that the use of Willis technique should be adopted as the standard for egg Ancylostoma spp., since the techniques Kato-Katz, Hoffman and TF-Test showed a low sensitivity for diagnosis of this parasite, and technic of Hoffman should be used as standard for Toxocara spp. In relation to convenience and lower expenses, Willis technique, should be preferred, because the runtime and the microscope slide reading is fast, requiring only the use of a supersaturated solution.

  6. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  8. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  9. Schistosomiasis in the Amazon region: is the current diagnostic strategy still appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rodrigo Magalhães de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7% infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6% according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of the infection rate gives reason to discuss if the current classification of prevalence levels reflects the real situation, principally in low transmission areas, like the Amazon region.

  10. Amphibians and Reptiles from Paramakatoi and Kato, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCulloch, Ross D.; Reynolds, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the herpetofauna of two neighboring upland locations in west-central Guyana. Twenty amphibian and 24 reptile species were collected. Only 40% of amphibians and 12.5% of reptiles were collected in both locations. This is one of the few collections made at upland (750–800 m) locations in the Guiana Shield.

  11. Polarized neutron diffraction - a tool for testing extinction models: application to yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, M.; Delapalme, A.; Becker, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper shows that polarized neutron experiments, which do not depend on any scale factor, are very dependent on extinction and provide original tests for extinction models. Moon, Koehler, Cable and Child (1972) have formulated the problem and proposed a first-order solution applicable only when the extinction is small. In the first part, some analytical derivations of secondary extinction corrections are discussed, using the formalism of Becker and Coppens (1974). In the second part, the main principles governing polarized neutron diffraction are briefly reviewed, with a special discussion of extinction problems. The method is then applied to the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG). This experiment shows the technique of polarized neutrons to be very powerful for testing extinction models and for deciding whether the crystal behaves dynamically or kinematically (following Kato's criterion). (Auth.)

  12. Taiwo et al (8)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Ife Journal of Science. (2016) vol. 18, no. 4. SPATIAL ... Ogun State. On the contrary, published work in some parts of Nigeria had ..... Prevalence among. Age Group (%). Cause of Infection. (%). Adeoye et al.,. 2007. Lagos. Kato-Katz. A. lumbricoides =29.7. Hookworm = 0.7. T. Trichiura = 18.4. S. stercoralis =0.3. Total =49.1.

  13. A Latent Markov Modelling approach to the evaluation of Circulating Cathodic Antigen strips for Schistosomiasis diagnosis pre- and post-praziquantel treatment in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukounari, Artemis; Donnelly, Christl A.; Moustaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Markov Models (LMMs). The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) and of double Kato-Katz (KK) faecal slides over three consecutive days for Schistosoma mansoni infection simultaneously by age group at baseline and at two follow-up times post treatment...

  14. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to evaluate parasitic infections in small ruminants was conducted in an abattoir in a suburb of Accra from January to March 2015. Samples from various sections of the gut of 35 goats, either reared in Ghana or imported from Burkina Faso, were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique. The overall ...

  15. Schistosoma mansoni and HIV infection in a Ugandan population with high HIV and helminth prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanya, Richard E; Muhangi, Lawrence; Nampijja, Margaret; Nannozi, Victoria; Nakawungu, Prossy Kabuubi; Abayo, Elson; Webb, Emily L; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports suggest that Schistosoma infection may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We used data from a large cross-sectional study to investigate whether Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with increased HIV prevalence. We conducted a household survey of residents in island fishing communities in Mukono district, Uganda, between October 2012 and July 2013. HIV status was assessed using rapid test kits. Kato-Katz (KK) stool tests and urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) were used to test for Schistosoma infection. Multivariable logistic regression, allowing for the survey design, was used to investigate the association between S. mansoni infection and HIV infection. Data from 1412 participants aged 13 years and older were analysed (mean age 30.3 years, 45% female). The prevalence of HIV was 17.3%. Using the stool Kato-Katz technique on a single sample, S. mansoni infection was detected in 57.2% (719/1257) of participants; urine CCA was positive in 73.8% (478/650) of those tested. S. mansoni infection was not associated with HIV infection. [KK (aOR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.74-1.47, P = 0.81), CCA (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 0.78-3.00, P = 0.19)]. The median S. mansoni egg count per gram was lower in the HIV-positive participants (P = 0.005). These results add to the evidence that S. mansoni has little effect on HIV transmission, but may influence egg excretion. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A cross-sectional study on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Mbita district, western Kenya using different copromicroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'etich, Annette I; Rawago, Fredrick O; Jura, Walter G Z O; Mwinzi, Pauline N; Won, Kimberly Y; Odiere, Maurice R

    2016-02-16

    Identification of populations to be targeted for individual treatment and broad-spectrum therapy in schistosomiasis-endemic areas, assessment of therapy efficacy, morbidity, and evaluation of control strategies need to be based on reliable diagnostic tools. Kato-Katz is routinely used and remains the standard diagnostic technique for schistosomiasis, despite its many challenges. This study was conducted in Nyamanga village, Mbita, western Kenya, and evaluated the diagnostic performance of Kato-Katz, Mini-Parasep and modified Mini-FLOTAC techniques in detection of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm) ova. Stool samples from 132 individuals were screened for eggs of S. mansoni by the 3 techniques. Mini-Parasep faecal parasite concentrator (Apacor Ltd, England), a single-use diagnostic device with a built-in filter for faecal concentration of helminth eggs by sedimentation was employed on stool samples fixed in 10% formalin. A modified Mini-FLOTAC (University of Naples, Italy) was based on floatation of helminths eggs with two different solutions (FS2 and FS7) using a closed system (Fill-FLOTAC) with 5% formalin. Kato-Katz was performed following WHO recommendation. Prevalence of S. mansoni and STH, sensitivity and degree of agreement among the 3 techniques were determined. Prevalence of S. mansoni was 47.0%, 34.1% and 20.5% by Mini-Parasep, Kato-Katz and modified Mini-FLOTAC FS7 techniques, respectively. Prevalence of any STH infection was 6.1%, 3.0%, 6.1% and 6.8% by Mini-Parasep, Kato-Katz, modified Mini-FLOTAC FS2 and modified Mini-FLOTAC FS7 techniques, respectively. Considering the pooled results of the three methods (Mini-Parasep, Kato-Katz and modified Mini-FLOTAC FS7) as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of Mini-Parasep, Kato-Katz and modified Mini-FLOTAC FS7 for S. mansoni was 77.5%, 56.1%, and 33.8%, respectively. Mini-Parasep and modified Mini-FLOTAC FS7 techniques had

  17. Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Treatment Failure after Multiple Courses of Triclabendazole among Patients with Fascioliasis in Cusco, Peru: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Lopez, Martha; Cruz, Maria; Delgado, Jennifer R.; Hill, Virginia; White, A. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Triclabendazole is reported to be highly effective in treatment of human fascioliasis. We present 7 of 19 selected cases of human fascioliasis referred to our center in the Cusco region of Peru that failed to respond to triclabendazole. These were mostly symptomatic adults of both sexes that continued passing Fasciola eggs in the stool despite multiple treatments with 2 doses of triclabendazole at 10 mg/kg per dose. We documented the presence of eggs by rapid sedimentation and Kato Katz tests after each treatment course. We found that repeated triclabendazole courses were not effective against fascioliasis in this group of people. These findings suggest that resistance to triclabendazole may be an emerging problem in the Andes. PMID:26808543

  19. Treatment Failure after Multiple Courses of Triclabendazole among Patients with Fascioliasis in Cusco, Peru: A Case Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M Cabada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclabendazole is reported to be highly effective in treatment of human fascioliasis. We present 7 of 19 selected cases of human fascioliasis referred to our center in the Cusco region of Peru that failed to respond to triclabendazole. These were mostly symptomatic adults of both sexes that continued passing Fasciola eggs in the stool despite multiple treatments with 2 doses of triclabendazole at 10 mg/kg per dose. We documented the presence of eggs by rapid sedimentation and Kato Katz tests after each treatment course. We found that repeated triclabendazole courses were not effective against fascioliasis in this group of people. These findings suggest that resistance to triclabendazole may be an emerging problem in the Andes.

  20. [Epidemiological investigation of fascioliasis and analysis of a chronic human fascioliasis case in Binchuan County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yu-hua; Duan, Yu-chun; Yang, Jing; Cui, Yu-hua; Yang, Li-qun; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Jian-guo; Luo, Jia-jun

    2014-12-01

    From February to March 2014, six natural villages in Zhoucheng Town, Binchuan County of Yunan Province, were randomly selected by cluster sampling. Serum anti-fascioliasis IgG was detected by ELISA. The sero-positive individuals were further tested for Fasciola infection using sediment detection with nylon bag (260 meshes) and Kato-Katz method. Among 1207 sampled persons, the sero-positive rate was 3.0% (36/1207). The rate in males and females was 2.3% (12/530) and 3.6% (24/677) (u=1.46, P>0.05). The sero-positive rate in Zhoucheng Village and Baizhuang Village was 4.0% (24/616) and 2.0% (12/591), respectively (u=2.07, Pfascioliasis.

  1. Treatment Failure after Multiple Courses of Triclabendazole among Patients with Fascioliasis in Cusco, Peru: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Lopez, Martha; Cruz, Maria; Delgado, Jennifer R; Hill, Virginia; White, A Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Triclabendazole is reported to be highly effective in treatment of human fascioliasis. We present 7 of 19 selected cases of human fascioliasis referred to our center in the Cusco region of Peru that failed to respond to triclabendazole. These were mostly symptomatic adults of both sexes that continued passing Fasciola eggs in the stool despite multiple treatments with 2 doses of triclabendazole at 10 mg/kg per dose. We documented the presence of eggs by rapid sedimentation and Kato Katz tests after each treatment course. We found that repeated triclabendazole courses were not effective against fascioliasis in this group of people. These findings suggest that resistance to triclabendazole may be an emerging problem in the Andes.

  2. [Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren of Nikki and Pèrèrè, two northeastern towns of Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikounlé, M; Gbédjissi, L G; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Batcho, W; Kindé-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-08-01

    Infection with schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the burden of disease associated with parasites is enormous. A study was performed to determine the transmission and prevalence of human schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school children of Nikki and Perere, two north eastern towns of Benin, bordering Republic of Nigeria. Parasitological investigations by urine filtration and Kato-Katz conducted on 1,344 school children indicated a mean prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni 48.44% and 0%, respectively, in the children of Nikki area and 45.24% and 4.11% in Perere area. Only schoolchildren of Sonon locality were infected by S. mansoni with a mean prevalence rate of 36.24%. KatoKatz tests releaved five species of soil-transmitted helminths: Ankylostoma duodenale (8.16% and 6.73%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.26% and 2.30%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.09% and 1.97%), Trichuris trichiura (1.97% and 1.90%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.04% and 0.99%), respectively, in the schoolchildren of Nikki and Perere areas. The malacological investigations carried out in the freshwater points of each visited locality highlighted the presence of four species of freshwater snails known as intermediate host of schistosome: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus and B. truncatus.Two B. globosus and B. pfeifferi collected in Sonon locality were naturally infected by schistosome, indicated the importance of their two species of snail in schistosome transmission cycle.

  3. Application and evaluation of a molecular approach for detection of the schistosomicidal effect of Mirazid® (myrrh in the murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Lotfy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional PCR technique was used for studying the schistosomicidal effect of Mirazid® in the murine model. Results of the molecular study were compared with the parasitological results (ova and worm count. The used PCR technique was more sensitive than the Kato-Katz thick smears. Mirazid® showed some schistosomicidal effects against murine Schistosoma mansoni. However, it was not efficient enough to cure any of the studied mice.

  4. Short Communication: A Simple Method for Performing Worm-Egg Counts on Sodium Acetate Formaldehyde-Preserved Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kato Katz method is the most common way of performing worm-egg counts on human faecal samples, but it must be done in the field using freshly collected samples. This makes it difficult to use in remote, poorly accessible situations. This paper describes a simple method for egg counts on preserved samples collected in the field and sent to a central location for further processing.

  5. A cross-sectional study on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Mbita district, western Kenya using different copromicroscopic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ng?etich, Annette I.; Rawago, Fredrick O.; Jura, Walter G. Z. O.; Mwinzi, Pauline N.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Odiere, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of populations to be targeted for individual treatment and broad-spectrum therapy in schistosomiasis-endemic areas, assessment of therapy efficacy, morbidity, and evaluation of control strategies need to be based on reliable diagnostic tools. Kato-Katz is routinely used and remains the standard diagnostic technique for schistosomiasis, despite its many challenges. This study was conducted in Nyamanga village, Mbita, western Kenya, and evaluated the diagnostic perform...

  6. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  7. Development and evaluation of a new lateral flow immunoassay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fasciolosis is a re-emerging disease worldwide and is caused by species of the genus Fasciola (F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Human fasciolosis can be diagnosed by classical coprological techniques, such as the Kato-Katz test, to reveal parasite eggs in faeces. However, although 100% specific, these methods are generally not adequate for detection of acute infections, ectopic infections, or infections with low number of parasites. In such cases immunological methods may be a good alternative and are recommended for use in major hospitals where trained personnel are available, although they are not usually implemented for individual testing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a new lateral flow test (SeroFluke for the serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis. The new test was constructed with a recombinant cathepsin L1 from F. hepatica, and uses protein A and mAb MM3 as detector reagents in the test and control lines, respectively. In comparison with an ELISA test (MM3-SERO the SeroFluke test showed maximal specificity and sensitivity and can be used with serum or whole blood samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new test can be used in major hospitals in hypoendemic countries as well as in endemic/hyperendemic regions where point-of-care testing is required.

  8. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  9. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  10. Schirmer test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear test; Tearing test; Dry eye test; Basal secretion test; Sjögren - Schirmer; Schirmer's test ... used when the eye doctor suspects you have dry eye. Symptoms include dryness of the eyes or excessive ...

  11. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  12. Comparison of novel and standard diagnostic tools for the detection of Schistosoma mekongi infection in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Khieu, Virak; Bergquist, Robert; van Dam, Govert J; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Nickel, Beatrice; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-08-10

    Given the restricted distribution of Schistosoma mekongi in one province in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and two provinces in Cambodia, together with progress of the national control programmes aimed at reducing morbidity and infection prevalence, the elimination of schistosomiasis mekongi seems feasible. However, sensitive diagnostic tools will be required to determine whether elimination has been achieved. We compared several standard and novel diagnostic tools in S. mekongi-endemic areas. The prevalence and infection intensity of S. mekongi were evaluated in 377 study participants from four villages in the endemic areas in Lao PDR and Cambodia using Kato-Katz stool examination, antibody detection based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and schistosome circulating antigen detection by lateral-flow tests. Two highly sensitive test systems for the detection of cathodic and anodic circulating antigens (CCA, CAA) in urine and serum were utilized. Stool microscopy revealed an overall prevalence of S. mekongi of 6.4% (one case in Cambodia and 23 cases in Lao PDR), while that of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia spp. were 50.4%, 28.1%, 3.5%, 0.3% and 1.9%, respectively. In the urine samples, the tests for CCA and CAA detected S. mekongi infections in 21.0% and 38.7% of the study participants, respectively. In the serum samples, the CAA assay revealed a prevalence of 32.4%, while a combination of the CAA assay in serum and in urine revealed a prevalence of 43.2%. There was a difference between the two study locations with a higher prevalence reached in the samples from Lao PDR. The CCA, CAA and ELISA results showed substantially higher prevalence estimates for S. mekongi compared to Kato-Katz thick smears. Active schistosomiasis mekongi in Lao PDR and Cambodia might thus have been considerably underestimated previously. Hence, sustained control efforts are still needed to break transmission

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G/hiwot, Yirgalem; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2%) and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5%) infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1%) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6%) does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana infections are

  15. Evaluación de tres pruebas para el diagnóstico de geohelmintos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Consuelo López

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las geohelmintiasis son un problema de salud pública en países en vía de desarrollo. Los estudios de diagnóstico a nivel individual, así como los estudios de población, deben incorporar evaluaciones de su validez y fiabilidad. Objetivo. Comparar el examen directo, el método de Ritchie-Frick modificado, el de Kato-Katz brasilero y el de Kato-Katz de la OMS, para el diagnóstico de geohelmintos. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de fiabilidad de pruebas diagnósticas. La misma muestra de materia fecal fue analizada por el mismo observador, empleando cuatro pruebas. Se recolectaron 204 muestras, de las cuales se analizaron 194 que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. Los observadores no conocían la identidad de los participantes, ni el resultado en las otras pruebas. Para el análisis se tomó como método de referencia, la prueba de Kato-Katz de la OMS. Para evaluar la fiabilidad se emplearon el porcentaje de concordancia, el porcentaje de concordancia positiva, la prueba estadística kappa y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase. Resultados. Se encontró un buen desempeño de la prueba brasilera de Kato-Katz, con alta sensibilidad y especificidad para Trichuris trichiura y Uncinaria sp., 0,97 y 0,96 respectivamente, en ambos valores, y alta especificidad y moderada sensibilidad para Ascaris lumbricoides (0,95 y 0,79, y un desempeño entre moderado y pobre para la prueba de Ritchie-Frick y el examen directo. Las diferencias fueron mayores para Uncinaria sp. y T. trichiura, que para A. lumbricoides. Conclusión. La prueba brasilera de Kato-Katz podría ser implementada, pero se necesitan más estudios para considerar la relación de su capacidad operativa con su factibilidad, disponibilidad y costo.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i1.633

  16. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  17. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  18. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  19. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  20. The radiochromic dye film dose meter as a possible test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Jensen, M.; Katz, R.

    1980-09-01

    The response characteristic of the thin-film radiometric dye cyanide plastic dose meter to ionizing radiation of electrons and heavy charged particles is investigated as a possible test of the particle track theory worked out by Robert Katz and coworkers. Dose response curves for low-LET radiation have been investigated and are used for a quality estimation of the response for protons and oxygen ions at 16 and 4 MeV/amu, respectively. A bleaching effect on the colouration at high doses intimates that the target cannot be interpreted lieerally, but it might still be possinle to transfer the function of the macroscopic dose response to a theoretical dose response curve in a microscopic scale for a single ion. From this relation the macroscopic dose response curve can be determined qhen the film is irradiated with heavy ions. It will be shown theoretically that for protons there is no saturation in the track core, whereas calculations for oxygen ions show a heavy saturation in the track core, which means that a part of the ions loose their energy ineffectively. We can conclude that itis possible qualitatively to predict the dose response curve for high-LET particles by means of the dose response curve for low-LET radiation. (author)

  1. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  2. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  3. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  4. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  5. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  6. Enteroparasitoses em gestantes e puérperas no Rio de Janeiro Enteroparasitosis in pregnant and post-partem women in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Maria da Costa Macedo

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais foi determinada em 795 mulheres distribuídas em grupos de 490 gestantes, 201 não-gestantes (controle e 104 puérperas, no período de novembro de 1989 a maio de 1991, no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados pelos métodos de Sedimentação por Centrifugação, Faust, Kato-Katz e Baermann-Moraes. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses entre os grupos de gestantes (37,6% e o grupo-controle (38,3% pelo método de sedimentação por centrifugação foi praticamente igual, apesar de estar o primeiro grupo regularmente assistido por serviços especializados de saúde. Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura foram os parasitos mais freqüentes (em torno de 30,0%. Quando métodos mais específicos foram aplicados em 168 amostras de gestantes, o percentual foi elevado para 53,6%. Houve diferença estatística significativa entre a taxa de gestantes e puérperas (69,2%. Estes achados mostram a pouca atenção dispensada a estas infecções durante a gestação, não obstante relatos anteriores das possíveis repercussões para o feto e o recém-nascido.From November 1989 to May 1991, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was investigated in 795 women coming from the Public Health Services, who were divided into three groups: 490 pregnant women in pre-natal care period, 104 after-delivery women and 201 non-pregnant women (control. Coproparasitologic tests were run using the Sedimentation through Centrifugation, Faust, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes methods. Positivities were found ranging from 37.6% to 53.6% for pregnant women, 38.3% for non-pregnant women and 69.2% for after-delivery women, with statistically significant differences between the rates of pregnant women and after-delivery women, and with no statistic difference between the groups of pregnant and non-pregnant women. The most frequent parasites found were A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura

  7. Neuropathy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase ... tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging ... suspected, additional testing may be performed to evaluate heart rate, blood ...

  8. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  9. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  10. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... treated for another sexually transmitted disease , such as gonorrhea Is pregnant, during the first prenatal visit and ...

  11. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  12. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  13. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  14. Efficacy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a diagnostic tool for schistosomiasis mansoni in individuals with low worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward José de Oliveira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available IgM-ELISA is an immunoenzymatic method useful for detection of IgM antibodies against a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA that is soluble in trichloroacetic acid (AWA-TCA. This method was applied to three groups of individuals with different clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and the results compared with those obtained by other diagnostic methods: immunofluorescence test for detection of IgM antibodies (IgM-IFT or IgG antibodies (IgG-IFT, ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies (IgG-ELISA, and two parasitological methods, Kato-Katz and miracidium hatching. The IgM-ELISA presented a sensitivity of 98%, when the parasitologic fecal examination was defined as reference diagnostic method, and a specificity of 98 and 97.3%, respectively for the group of clinically healthy individuals and other helminth carriers. A comparative analysis between the results of IgM-ELISA and those obtained by other serologic tests showed a good degree of agreement, with Kappa indices ranging from 0.95 to 0.98. The diagnostic efficacy of 97.8%, as determined with schistosomiasis patients with low parasitic burden, suggests the excellent performance of the IgM-ELISA and its usefulness for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis when applied in low endemic areas.

  15. [Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection and effect of albendazole treatment among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-Yan, Zheng; Ting-Jun, Xie; Man, Wang; Yue-Yi, Fang; Le, Luo

    2018-02-22

    To understand the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City, and evaluate the effect of albendazole treatment, so as to offer the evidence for formulating the strategy of clonorchiasis prevention and control. The stool specimens were collected from the residents of two comprehensive demonstration areas, and the eggs of C. sinensis were detected by Kato-Katz technique. Those who were tested positive were treated with albendazole (0.4, twice a day for 4 days in adults, and half dosage for children aged 16 years or below). Three weeks after the treatment, the stool specimens were recollected and retested to evaluate the effect. A total of 532 people were investigated and 96 were tested positive, with an infection rate of 18.05%. The infection rate was 28.63% (69/241) in the males and 9.28% (27/291) in the females, and there was a significant difference between them ( χ 2 = 334.99, P sinensis among residents in the two communities of Zhongshan City is high, especially among the males and aged people. The effect of albendazole is good in the treatment of C. sinensis infection. In the future, the general survey and treatment should be strengthened in order to lower the infection rate.

  16. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  17. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section 11 of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves, respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  18. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  19. Randomization tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgington, Eugene S

    1980-01-01

    .... This book provides all the necessary theory and practical guidelines, such as instructions for writing computer programs, to permit experimenters to transform any statistical test into a distribution-free test...

  20. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  1. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Triglycerides; 491–2 p. Lab Tests ...

  2. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... ency/article/000391.htm . (2002 January, Updated). Lactate (Liquid) Reagent Set. Pointe Scientific, Inc. [On-line Reagent ...

  3. Electrolytes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of potassium is found in the plasma , the liquid portion of the blood. Monitoring potassium is important ...

  4. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... along with other iron tests , when a routine complete blood count (CBC) shows that a person's hemoglobin and hematocrit ...

  5. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  6. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gonorrhea Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As GC Test Gonorrhea NAAT or NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification ...

  7. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  8. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  9. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  10. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confirmed with another blood test to make the diagnosis of syphilis. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ... broken) Alternative Names Venereal disease research ... laboratory test (VDRL) – serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  11. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  12. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  13. Nondestructive Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Harold [Argonne National Laboratory

    1969-01-01

    A nondestructive test is an examination of an object in any manner which will not impair the future usefulness of the object. This booklet discusses a few basic methods of nondestructive testing, and some of their characteristics. In addition, it discusses possible future methods for nondestructive testing by taking a quick look at some of the methods now under study.

  14. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Addis, Zelalem; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Teklu, Takele; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet; Gebretsadik, Simon; Gelaw, Baye

    2011-07-09

    In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  15. IgM antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens for the study of schistosomiasis transmission in Ribeirão Pires, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera LF Camargo-Neves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of an immunofluorescence test for detection of IgM antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens (IgM-IFT was evaluated as a tool for studying aspects related to the schistosomiasis transmission in Ribeirão Pires, in the metropolitan area of the capital of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Children from a school with about 400 students, 6 to 18 years, were followed-up for two years. In the five surveys, carried out at 6-month intervals, from October 92 to October 94, serological (IgM-IFT prevalence indices of 5.3%, 5.8%, 6.2%, 2.9% and 3.3% were obtained. These indices were 7 to 10 times higher than the parasitological prevalence indices of 0.5%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.4% and 0% determined by the Kato-Katz method. Seroconversion from IFT negative to positive was indicating possible newly acquired S. mansoni infection in three children. But confirmation of infection by fecal examination was possible in only one child. The IgM-IFT can constitute a valuable tool for the improvement of the vigilance program in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis, better characterizing the S. mansoni transmission in such areas.

  16. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Carvalho Espírito-Santo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs. This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK; Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA- IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM; and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4% showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%. All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%, differed significantly from COPT in positivity P<0.05, and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377 and IFA (Kappa = 0.347. Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs.

  17. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  18. School-based control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in western Visayas, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, V Y; Totañes, F I G; de Leon, W U; Matias, K M H

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of a local government unit-led, school-based, teacher-assisted mass drug administration (MDA) treatment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) on the morbidity of school children in selected provinces of western Visayas, the Philippines. Parasitological assessment was done on stool samples using the Kato-Katz technique. Nutritional status and school performance were also evaluated using secondary data from the Department of Education. The overall prevalence of STH decreased from 71.1% to 44.3% (p < 0.0001) and the prevalence of heavy infection with STH decreased from 40.5% to 14.5% (p < 0.0001), after two years of biannual MDA. The prevalence of underweight children decreased from 26.2% to 17.8% (p < 0.0001) and the prevalence of stunted children decreased from 20.9% to 16.6% (p < 0.0001) after two years of biannual MDA. School performance improved on standardized testing from a mean percentage of 53.8% to 64.6%. Advocacy, social mobilization, strong local government support and intersectoral collaboration with other agencies probably contributed to the success of the program.

  19. Strongyloides Stercoralis: The Most Prevalent Parasitic Cause of Eosinophilia in Gilan Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rahmati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia occurs in a wide variety of situations such as parasitic infections, aller­gic disorders, and malignancies. Most cases of eosinophilia of parasitic origin, especially those with a tissue migration life cycles consists of human infections by helminth parasites. The aim of present study was to determine the parasitic causes of eosinophilia in patients in a major endemic area of human fascioliasis in Gilan Province, northern part of Iran.Methods: One hundred and fifty patients presenting with an elevated eosinophilia attending infec­tious disease clinics with or without clinical symptoms, were examined. After clinical his­tory evaluation and physical examination, coprological examinations were performed using the formalin-ether and the Kato-Katz techniques for detection of Fasciola sp. and intestinal parasites.Results: Forty two percent of patients were infected with S. stercoralis, nine (6% were found to be infected with Fasciola sp. while only a single patient (0.7% were infected by Ttrichostrongy­lus sp.Conclusion: Local clinicians in Gilan may consider eosinophilia as a suggestive indication for diagnosis of human fascioliasis, especially when microscopic stool and/or serological tests are negative. Based on the results, local physicians should consider S. stercoralis as the potential causes of eosinophilia in patients with elevated eosinophilia.

  20. Design of ITER divertor VUV spectrometer and prototype test at KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Changrae; Hong, Joohwan; Song, Inwoo; Jang, Juhyeok; Lee, Hyeonyong; An, Younghwa; Kim, Bosung; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jaesun; Choe, Wonho; Lee, Hyeongon; Pak, Sunil; Cheon, MunSeong; Choi, Jihyeon; Kim, Hyeonseok; Biel, Wolfgang; Bernascolle, Philippe; Barnsley, Robin; O'Mullane, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Design and development of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer have been performed from the year 1998, and it is planned to be installed in the year 2027. Currently, the design of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer is in the phase of detail design. It is optimized for monitoring of chord-integrated VUV signals from divertor plasmas, chosen to contain representative lines emission from the tungsten as the divertor material, and other impurities. Impurity emission from overall divertor plasmas is collimated through the relay optics onto the entrance slit of a VUV spectrometer with working wavelength range of 14.6-32 nm. To validate the design of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer, two sets of VUV spectrometers have been developed and tested at KSTAR tokamak. One set of spectrometer without the field mirror employs a survey spectrometer with the wavelength ranging from 14.6 nm to 32 nm, and it provides the same optical specification as the spectrometer part of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer system. The other spectrometer with the wavelength range of 5-25 nm consists of a commercial spectrometer with a concave grating, and the relay mirrors with the same geometry as the relay mirrors of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer. From test of these prototypes, alignment method using backward laser illumination could be verified. To validate the feasibility of tungsten emission measurement, furthermore, the tungsten powder was injected in KSTAR plasmas, and the preliminary result could be obtained successfully with regard to the evaluation of photon throughput. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  1. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  2. Troponins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return ... C, Banfi G, Guidi GC. Influence of a half-marathon run on NT-proBNP and troponin ... MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online ...

  3. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours before blood is collected, but occasionally a health practitioner may do testing when fasting is not possible, such as when a glucose tolerance test (see Glucose ) is done. In some cases, the health practitioner may request that a person fast longer ...

  4. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often the only way to determine if symptoms could possibly be related to celiac disease. For a person who faces this situation, a negative gene test would indicate that symptoms are not the result of celiac disease. A positive gene test, however, does not diagnose ...

  5. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis ... released. This may cause a falsely high result. Alternative Names Hypokalemia test; K+ Images Blood test References Mount DB. Disorders of potassium balance. ...

  6. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  7. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from...

  8. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parietal Cell Antibody Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT, aPTT) Parvovirus B19 Pericardial Fluid Analysis Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Pertussis Tests ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . How is the sample collected for testing? A ...

  9. Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Loke Mun Sei

    2015-01-01

    Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, ...

  10. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results ... vary in size, so it may be harder to get a blood sample from one person than another. Other risks associated with having ...

  11. Just testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the 1950s, most of the men who witnessed Britain's nuclear tests at Christmas Island in the Pacific were national servicemen, aged 19 or 20. Some revelled in sun and swimming, some were bored, some were too busy to be bored. How many of the twenty thousand servicemen involved in the tests suspected that they might be exposed to radiation that would reveal itself a generation later in blood and bone cancers, sterility, cataracts, or deformities in their children. The Ministry of Defence insists nobody was in danger. This book tells a different story, in the words of the servicemen, and of their medical reports, about secrets which are no longer Official. It is important not only to the victims of a government's extraordinary reluctance to face up to the tragic consequences of a programme of nuclear tests on Christmas Island and in Australia, but to anyone concerned with the damage that nuclear testing is still doing in the world today. (author)

  12. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  13. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  14. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1569, 1570, 1532, 1616. Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, Missouri. ...

  15. PTH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gregory C. Sephel PhD FACB MT(ASCP). Lab Tests Online adjunct board member. Director Clinical Pathology, VA TN Valley Healthcare System; Associate Professor Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Sources Used ...

  16. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be seen with increased intake of the mineral, hypocalcemia , and with kidney dysfunction. Someone with a mild ... usually detected because of the relationship with and effect on calcium levels . Calcium is routinely tested as ...

  17. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis . When is ...

  18. RSV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... University Medical Center, LAB Letter [On-line newsletter]. PDF available for download at http://www.stanfordhospital.com/ ...

  19. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine (pee) levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine ...

  20. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding When To Get Tested? At specific times during ... receiving progesterone replacement therapy; when a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  1. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine Culture ... 2010) 2536–259. Centers for Disease Control Hormone Standardization website(HoST). Available online at http://www.cdc. ...

  2. Pertussis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Conditions Not Listed? Not Listed? Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer ... tested? Pertussis, commonly called whooping cough, is a respiratory infection caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis . These ...

  3. Tests computarizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernando Prialé Z.

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.

  4. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... a pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma? People with a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2), a genetic condition ...

  5. Neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Federico, Angela; Martini, Alice; Tinazzi, Michele; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Tamburin, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Testing theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R F

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some simple issues that arise in testing models, with a focus on models for low energy nuclear structure. By way of simplified examples, we illustrate some dangers in blind statistical assessments, pointing out especially the need to include theoretical uncertainties, the danger of over-weighting precise or physically redundant experimental results, the need to assess competing theories with independent and physically sensitive observables, and the value of statistical tests properly evaluated. (paper)

  7. Justification of disintegration testing beyond current FDA criteria using in vitro and in silico models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Uebbing,1,2,* Lukas Klumpp,1,3,* Gregory K Webster,4 Raimar Löbenberg1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 4Global Research and Development, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drug product performance testing is an important part of quality-by-design approaches, but this process often lacks the underlying mechanistic understanding of the complex interactions between the disintegration and dissolution processes involved. Whereas a recent draft guideline by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has allowed the replacement of dissolution testing with disintegration testing, the mentioned criteria are not globally accepted. This study provides scientific justification for using disintegration testing rather than dissolution testing as a quality control method for certain immediate release (IR formulations. A mechanistic approach, which is beyond the current FDA criteria, is presented. Dissolution testing via United States Pharmacopeial Convention Apparatus II at various paddle speeds was performed for immediate and extended release formulations of metronidazole. Dissolution profile fitting via DDSolver and dissolution profile predictions via DDDPlus™ were performed. The results showed that Fickian diffusion and drug particle properties (DPP were responsible for the dissolution of the IR tablets, and that formulation factors (eg, coning impacted dissolution only at lower rotation speeds. Dissolution was completely formulation controlled if extended release tablets were tested and DPP were not important. To demonstrate that disintegration is the most important dosage form attribute when dissolution is

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  9. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  10. Tests computarizados

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé Z., R. Fernando

    1983-01-01

    En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The im...

  11. Testing Hubbert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.

    2007-01-01

    The Hubbert theory of oil depletion, which states that oil production in large regions follows a bell-shaped curve over time, has been cited as a method to predict the future of global oil production. However, the assumptions of the Hubbert method have never been rigorously tested with a large, publicly available data set. In this paper, three assumptions of the modern Hubbert theory are tested using data from 139 oil producing regions. These regions are sub-national (United States state-level, United States regional-level), national, and multi-national (subcontinental and continental) in scale. We test the assumption that oil production follows a bell-shaped curve by generating best-fitting curves for each region using six models and comparing the quality of fit across models. We also test the assumptions that production over time in a region tends to be symmetric, and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions than in smaller regions

  12. Prealbumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 755-756. Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 197. Banh, L. ( ...

  13. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  14. Fibrinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thrombotic episode ) As a follow-up to an abnormal bleeding disorder test ( prothrombin time, PT or partial thromboplastin time, ... to help diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or abnormal ... status of a progressive disease (such as liver disease ) over time or, rarely, ...

  15. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  16. Trypsinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  17. Chymotrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  18. Relación entre geohelmintiasis intestinales y variables químicas, hematológicas e IgE, en una comunidad yukpa del estado Zulia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Churio, Osmaly; Bracho Mora, Angela; Calchi La Corte, Marinella; Acurero, Ellen; Villalobos, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Para relacionar helmintiasis intestinales y parámetros hematológicos, bioquímicos y serológicos, se estudiaron 37 individuos yukpas del municipio Perijá, estado Zulia, durante el año 2009. Las muestras de heces se evaluaron mediante el concentrado con formol-éter, Kato-Katz y cultivo de Harada-Mori. Los parámetros hematológicos, las proteínas totales, albúminas, globulinas y relación A/G, fueron determinados por autoanalizadores hematológicos y bioquímicos. La IgE fue determinada por ELISA. 7...

  19. Prevalencia de helmintos intestinales en gatos domésticos del departamento del Quindío, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Echeverry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las enfermedades producidas por helmintos están ampliamente distribuidas en elmundo y muchas de ellas se consideran zoonosis. Los animales de compañía cumplen un papeltrascendental en la transmisión a los humanos. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de helmintos intestinales en gatos del departamento del Quindío. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 121 gatos domésticos del departamento del Quindío, delos cuales se registraron los datos de sexo, edad y condición corporal. Se recolectaron heces y seprocesaron mediante las técnicas de Ritchie modificada y de Kato-Katz. Resultados. De los 121 gatos, 42,14 % (IC95%: 33,35-50,94 y 45,45 % (IC95%: 36,58-54,32 resultaronparasitados con alguna especie de helminto adulto según la presencia de huevos en sus heces,mediante las técnicas de Ritchie y de Kato-Katz, respectivamente. Toxocara cati fue el parásito másprevalente (Ritchie: 37,2 %; Kato-Katz: 43 %, seguido por Ancylostoma spp. (Ritchie: 7,43 %; Kato-Katz: 5,78 % y Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Ritchie: 0,82 %.Sesenta y cinco (53,71 % gatos eran hembras y 56 (46,28 % eran machos; la prevalencia de infecciónfue similar en ambos sexos. Los felinos mayores de 4 años de edad presentaron mayor prevalenciade parásitos (81,8 %, seguidos por los de 1 a 4 años (48,8 % y, por último, por los menores de unaño (28,6 %. Se encontró una buena condición corporal en 77,68 % y este grupo presentó menorfrecuencia de helmintos intestinales. Conclusión. La prevalencia de helmintos intestinales en gatos domésticos del departamento delQuindío fue de 43,8 %, lo que hace necesario establecer programas de vigilancia y prevención en lapoblación humana y felina.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i3.439

  20. Molecular and serological survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Saguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Sato, Megumi; Sato, Marcello O; Sako, Yasuhito; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

    2010-09-01

    A community-based field survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis was performed in two villages in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, central Thailand, where 3 Taenia species, T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, are sympatrically occurring. Four (0.6%) out of 667 stool samples were egg-positive for Taenia sp. by Kato-Katz technique. Three out of those four persons and other three persons who were Taenia egg-negative but having a recent (1 year) history of expelling proglottids in the stool.

  1. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  3. Credibility test; Vertrauens-Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhs, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Solar wafer producers must prove their quality standards. Q-Cells has started a marketing office and opened their test center to journalists. They are aware that adherence to standards is going only half the way of quality assurance. The other half consists in gaining the customers' trust. (orig.)

  4. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  5. Testing SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, S; Ross, G G

    2010-01-01

    If SUSY provides a solution to the hierarchy problem then supersymmetric states should not be too heavy. This requirement is quantified by the Barbieri-Giudice fine tuning measure that provides a quantitative test of SUSY as a solution to the hierarchy problem. The measure is useful in correlating the impact of the various experimental measurements relevant to the search for supersymmetry and also in identifying the most sensitive measurements for testing SUSY. In this paper we apply the measure to the CMSSM, computing it to two-loop order and taking account of current experimental limits and the constraint on dark matter abundance. Using this we determine the present limits on the CMSSM parameter space and identify the measurements at the LHC that are most significant in covering the remaining parameter space. Without imposing the LEP Higgs mass bound we show that the smallest fine tuning (1:14.5) consistent with a saturation of the relic density within the 1$\\sigma$ WMAP bounds corresponds to a Higgs mass o...

  6. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato's Exceptional Points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2016), s. 52 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : parity-time symmetry * Schrodinger equation * physical Hilbert space * inner-product metric operator * real exceptional points * solvable models * quantum Big Bang * quantum Inflation period Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2016

  7. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  8. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  9. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pselective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (pattention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of Schistosomiasis in areas of low transmission: a review of a line of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Noya

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available After 57 years of successful control of schistosomiasis in Venezuela, the prevalence and intensity of infection have declined. Approximately 80% of the individuals eliminate less than 100 eggs/g of stools, therefore morbidity is mild and the majority are asymptomatic. The sensitivity of Kato-Katz decreases to approximately 60%. Available serological methods for the detection of circulating antigens only reach a 70% of sensitivity. Tests based on the detection of antibodies by immunoenzymatic assays have been improved. The circumoval precipitine test has shown a high sensitivity (97%, specificity (100%, and correlation with oviposition, being considered the best confirmatory diagnostic test. Additionally to the classical immunoenzymatic assays, the development of the alkaline phosphatase immunoassay, allowed to reach a 100% specificity with an 89% sensitivity. Recently, we have developed a modified ELISA in which the soluble egg antigen is treated with sodium metaperiodate (SMP-ELISA in order to eliminate the glycosilated epitopes responsible for the false positive reactions. The specificity and sensitivity reaches 97% and 99%, respectively. Synthetic peptides from the excretory-secretory enzymes, cathepsin B (Sm31 legumain (Sm32 and cathepsin D (Sm45, have been synthesized. The combination of two peptides derived from the Sm31 have been evaluated, reaching a sensitivity of 96% when analyzed independently and with a 100% specificity. Antibodies raised in rabbits against peptides derived from the Sm31 and Sm32 are currently evaluated in two different antigen-capture-based assays. The development of a simple, cheap and reliable test that correlates with parasite activity is a major goal.

  11. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  12. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  13. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test; Coccidioides blood test; Valley fever blood test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with coccidioides, which ...

  14. Justification of disintegration testing beyond current FDA criteria using in vitro and in silico models

    OpenAIRE

    Uebbing L; Klumpp L; Webster GK; Löbenberg R

    2017-01-01

    Lukas Uebbing,1,2,* Lukas Klumpp,1,3,* Gregory K Webster,4 Raimar Löbenberg1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 4Global Research and Development, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contr...

  15. Conceptual basis for the radiometric dye film dose meter as a test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report is a summary of a lecture held at the Danish-Polish Symposium on Radiation Chemistry in Warsaw, October 1979, describing an initiated work connected to the particle track theory worked out by R. Katz and coworkers. A short description is given of the theory and the applicability of the theory in the use of the radiometric dye cyanide film dose meter as a detector in radiation of different qualities. A few experimental results are given. (author)

  16. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  17. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for early detection of Schistosoma mansoni in stool samples: a diagnostic approach in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries.A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection.We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  18. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  19. Long-term effect of mass chemotherapy, transmission and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in very low endemic communities of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Stefanie N; Tami, Adriana; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Ballén, Diana; Incani, Renzo N

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Venezuela has changed from high to low due mostly to successful control activities, including mass chemotherapy and molluscicide applications. This study examined the impact of mass chemotherapy on S. mansoni transmission and risk factors for infection 12 years after administration of praziquantel in Venezuela. Two relatively isolated rural communities were studied, one with snail control (Manuare) and the second without (Los Naranjos). A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households included 226 (Manuare) and 192 (Los Naranjos) consenting participants. S. mansoni prevalence was determined using a combination of coprological (Kato-Katz) and serological (circumoval precipitin test, alkaline phosphatase immunoassay and Western blot) tests. Data on epidemiological and socioeconomic risk factors were obtained through individual structured interviews. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models identified independent risk factors for infection. Water sites were examined for the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Only one participant was positive by coprology. The overall prevalences according to the combined tests were 32.7% in Manuare and 26.6% in Los Naranjos. Lower prevalences (12.7% in Manuare and 13.2% in Los Naranjos) were found in children 25 years), contact with specific water sites, and being a farmer/non-specialised worker. Mass treatment with praziquantel applied once to endemic communities led to an important and long-lasting sustained reduction of S. mansoni infections independent of the application of snail control. A degree of low active transmission of S. mansoni persisted in the treated areas which was associated with similar factors in both communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of oltipraz in schistosomiasis mansoni clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy three children (6-15 years and 75 adults (18-47 years with active schistosomiasis mansoni were treated with oltipraz. All cases had at least 100 eggs per gram of feces as determined by the Kato-Katz technique. Children and adults were divided in two groups receiving respectively 25 or 30 mg/kg, as a single oral dose. Clinical examination, laboratories tests (haemogram, urinalysis, hepatic and kidney functions tests, glycemia, cholesterol, triglicerides, lipoprotein — HLD and LDL and ECG were performed before, 3 or 7 days and 1 month after treatment. Parasitological control with 3 daily coprological examinations, was done on the 1st, 3rd j 6th month after drug administration. Giddiness, somnolence, headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal distress were the most frequent side effects. Pain in the finger tips that need further investigations also occurred. No significant alteration in complementary tests were observed, whereas eosinophilia 1 month after treatment was detected, probably indicating worm death. The cure rate in children was 81.8% and 74.2% with 25 and 30 mg/kg respectively, and in adults 75.0% and 81.2% of the patients. No statistical significant difference was observed between cure rate and side effects at different dosages employed, neither between adults nor children. In all groups the percentage of egg reduction in feces in the non cured patients was higher than 96.0%. Further investigation with this new compound is necessary to accomplish the real value of oltipraz in the schistosomiasis chemotherapy.

  1. Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U; Missamou, François; Boussinesq, Michel

    2017-07-01

    The standard treatment strategy of mass drug administration with ivermectin plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis cannot be applied in central Africa, because of the risk of serious adverse events in people with high Loa loa microfilaraemia. Thus, alternative strategies are needed. We investigated one such alternative strategy for mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in Republic of the Congo. In 2012, we started a 3 year community trial of biannual mass administration of albendazole in a village in Republic of the Congo. All volunteering inhabitants aged 2 years or older were offered albendazole (400 mg) every 6 months. Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti was diagnosed with a rapid card immunochromatographic test for antigenaemia. People with antigenaemia were tested for microfilaraemia by night blood smears. Individuals were also tested for soil-transmitted helminth infections (ie, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) with the Kato-Katz method. Assessment surveys were done at 12, 24, and 36 months. The main outcome measure was change in infection rates from baseline to year 3. Therapeutic coverage was more than 80% in all six rounds of mass administration of albendazole. Between 2012 and 2015, W bancrofti antigenaemia and microfilaraemia rates in the community fell significantly, from 17·3% (95% CI 14·7-20·0) to 4·7% (3·3-6·6; palbendazole to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in areas where loiasis is co-endemic and ivermectin cannot be safely mass administered. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of oltipraz in schistosomiasis mansoni clinical trial Avaliação do oltipraz na esquistossomose mansônica. Ensaio clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy three children (6-15 years and 75 adults (18-47 years with active schistosomiasis mansoni were treated with oltipraz. All cases had at least 100 eggs per gram of feces as determined by the Kato-Katz technique. Children and adults were divided in two groups receiving respectively 25 or 30 mg/kg, as a single oral dose. Clinical examination, laboratories tests (haemogram, urinalysis, hepatic and kidney functions tests, glycemia, cholesterol, triglicerides, lipoprotein — HLD and LDL and ECG were performed before, 3 or 7 days and 1 month after treatment. Parasitological control with 3 daily coprological examinations, was done on the 1st, 3rd j 6th month after drug administration. Giddiness, somnolence, headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal distress were the most frequent side effects. Pain in the finger tips that need further investigations also occurred. No significant alteration in complementary tests were observed, whereas eosinophilia 1 month after treatment was detected, probably indicating worm death. The cure rate in children was 81.8% and 74.2% with 25 and 30 mg/kg respectively, and in adults 75.0% and 81.2% of the patients. No statistical significant difference was observed between cure rate and side effects at different dosages employed, neither between adults nor children. In all groups the percentage of egg reduction in feces in the non cured patients was higher than 96.0%. Further investigation with this new compound is necessary to accomplish the real value of oltipraz in the schistosomiasis chemotherapy.Setenta e três crianças (6 a 15 anos e 75 adultos (18-47 anos com esquistossomose mansoni foram tratados com oltipraz. O diagnóstico foi feito através do exame parasitológico quantitativo de Kato-Katz e só os pacientes com 100 ou mais ovos por grama de fezes foram admitidos no ensaio. Crianças e adultos foram divididos em dois grupos cada, os quais eram tratados com 25 ou 30 mg/kg em dose única oral. Exame cl

  3. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  4. [Effect of Parasep® feces centrifuge tube method on detecting schistosome eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nian; Zhang, Hua-ming; Liu, Xiong; Xiao, Chuan-yun; Wen, Xiao-hong; Li, Xia; Dong, Li-chun; Cui, Cai-xia; Tu, Zu-wu

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of the Parasep® feces centrifuge tube method on detecting schistosome eggs. A total of 803 residents aged from 6-65 years were selected in 2 schistosomiasis endemic villages, Jiangling County, Hubei Province, and their stool samples were collected and detected parallelly by the Kato-Katz technique, nylon silk egg hatching method, and Parasep® feces centrifuge tube method at the same time. Among the 803 people, 15 cases were found of schistosome egg positive, and the positive rate was 1.87%. The positive rates of the Kato-Katz technique, nylon silk egg hatching method, and Parasep® feces centrifuge tube method were 0.75%, 1.49% and 1.12%, respectively. The schistosome eggs got with the Parasep® feces centrifuge tube method were clear and easy to identify. In low endemic areas of schistosomiasis, the Parasep® feces centrifuge tube method can be used as schistosomiasis japonica etiology diagnosis method.

  5. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico de geohelmintos intestinales en la provincia Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Margarita Laird Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico de los geohelmintos intestinales, se realizó un control de la calidad externo activo en la provincia de Las Tunas, de abril a junio de 2012. Se evaluaron las habilidades de 22 profesionales de la Atención Primaria de Salud, para realizar el procedimiento de Kato Katz, la identificación parasitaria e informe de resultados y se les midió el nivel de conocimientos sobre aspectos de interés del diagnóstico de estos gusanos. Se realizaron evaluaciones cualitativas de cada parámetro y se estableció un esquema general de calificación. Las principales deficiencias se presentaron en el informe de resultados, específicamente en la identificación de las especies antropozoonóticas (72,7% evaluados de regular, mientras que la mayoría tuvo resultados favorables en la realización de Kato Katz (54,5% excelente y 27,2% bien y en el nivel de conocimientos (13,6% excelente y 54,5% bien.

  6. Effect of sampling and diagnostic effort on the assessment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis and drug efficacy: a meta-analysis of six drug efficacy trials and one epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, Bruno; Brooker, Simon J; Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose Carlos; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    It is generally recommended to perform multiple stool examinations in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy when assessing the impact of mass drug administration programmes to control human intestinal worm infections and determining efficacy of the drugs administered. However, the collection and diagnostic work-up of multiple stool samples increases costs and workload. It has been hypothesized that these increased efforts provide more accurate results when infection and drug efficacy are summarized by prevalence (proportion of subjects infected) and cure rate (CR, proportion of infected subjects that become egg-negative after drug administration), respectively, but not when these indicators are expressed in terms of infection intensity and egg reduction rate (ERR). We performed a meta-analysis of six drug efficacy trials and one epidemiological survey. We compared prevalence and intensity of infection, CR and ERR based on collection of one or two stool samples that were processed with single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. We found that the accuracy of prevalence estimates and CR was lowest with the minimal sampling effort, but that this was not the case for estimating infection intensity and ERR. Hence, a single Kato-Katz thick smear is sufficient for reporting infection intensity and ERR following drug treatment.

  7. Diagnostic potential of Fasciola gigantica-derived 14.5 kDa fatty acid binding protein in the immunodiagnosis of bubaline fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, G; Bauomy, I R; Hemyeda, Z M; Diab, T M; Sakran, T F

    2013-06-01

    The 14.5 kDa fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was isolated from the crude extract of adult Fasciola gigantica worms. Polyclonal anti-FABP IgG was generated in rabbits immunized with prepared FABP antigen. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect coproantigen in stools and circulating Fasciola antigen (CA) in sera of 126 water buffaloes by using purified and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-FABP IgG. Sandwich ELISA sensitivity was 96.97% and 94.95%; while specificity was 94.12% and 82.35% for coproantigen and CA detection, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique was 73.74% and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of sandwich ELISA was 96.55% and 93.1% for coproantigen and CA detection, respectively. In contrast, the diagnostic efficacy of the Kato-Katz technique was 77.59%. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the purified 14.5 kDa FABP provides a more suitable antigen for immunodiagnosis of early and current bubaline fascioliasis by using sandwich ELISA.

  8. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  9. Test Review: TestDaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John; Drackert, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    The Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF) plays a critical role as a standardized test of German language proficiency. Developed and administered by the Society for Academic Study Preparation and Test Development (g.a.s.t.), TestDaF was launched in 2001 and has experienced persistent annual growth, with more than 44,000 test takers in…

  10. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  11. Current status of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infection among children in two primary schools in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewos, Biniam; Alemu, Abebe; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Alemu, Agersew; Addis, Zelalem; Tiruneh, Moges; Aimero, Mulugeta; Kassu, Afework

    2014-02-10

    School age children are one of the groups at high risk for intestinal parasitic infections especially in developing countries like Ethiopia as the supply of good quality drinking water and latrine coverage are poor. Though there are previous data on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni infection among these high risk groups current status in the study area is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs and S. mansoni infections among school children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gorgora and Chuahit towns, North Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia from January 20 to February 25, 2012 involving 261 school children. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using Kato Katz method. Chi-square test was used to see if there is association between sociodemographic factors and other risk factors for STH and S. mansoni infection and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed as measures of association. P intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolates (39.8%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.1%) and Hookworms (4.9%). Schistosoma mansoni was detected in 33.7% of the children. Among infected individuals, 9.5% were coinfected by S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides and 1.5% with S. mansoni and T. trichiura. Swimming habit (OR: 2.536, 95% CI: 1.122, 5.737, P = 0.022) was significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni was high among school children. This should call for implementation of an integrated strategy to reduce morbidity and control of transmission of STH and S. mansoni.

  12. Adult population as potential reservoir of NTD infections in rural villages of Kwale district, Coastal Kenya: implications for preventive chemotherapy interventions policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Muniu, Erastus; Mwanje, Mariam T; Haji, Fatma M; Bockarie, Moses J

    2011-09-14

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are major public health problems in developing countries where they contribute to suffering of populations living in poor settings. As part of a research project started in September 2009 in Kwale district, Coast Region, Kenya, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 rural villages to provide information on the status of NTDs, including urinary schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), and lymphatic filariasis. This paper presents the results of a parasitological investigation among adults in the study villages. A total of 599 adults in the 5 study villages were tested for NTD infections in urine, stool and blood. The presence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was determined by the urine filtration method. The presence of STH in stool was determined by Kato-Katz method while filarial antigenaemia was determined using immunochromatographic (ICT) test. The study revealed high prevalence of hookworm (41.7%) and schistosomiasis (18.2%) infections among adults in the study villages. Of the 599 individuals examined, 50.1% had one or more helminthic infections. There was low level of polyparasitism with helminthic NTDs in the study population with 9.5% and 1.7% of the participants having two and three infections, respectively. In the current study, hookworm and schistosomiasis infections were identified as important infections among adults living in areas of high endemicity for these infections. Thus, if this section of the population is left untreated it may remain an important potential reservoir and a source of re-infection for school-age children treated in school deworming programmes. Therefore, there is a need to design novel strategies for preventive chemotherapy interventions that could allow inclusion of adults in an effort to reduce force of infection in high endemic communities.

  13. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  14. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  15. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  16. Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E)-piplartine by the Ames test. AA Morandim-Giannetti, F Cotinguiba, LO Regasini, MC Frigieri, EA Varanda, A Coqueiro, MJ Kato, VS Bolzani, M Furlan ...

  17. Thyroid Function Tests

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    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  18. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

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    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... Glance Why Get Tested? Primarily to monitor cancer treatment, including response to therapy and recurrence; as an ...

  19. Blood Test: Bilirubin

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    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Bilirubin Test? A bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin ...

  20. Catecholamine blood test

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  1. Anthrax blood test

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    Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B. anthracis ... This test may be performed when the health care provider suspects you have anthrax infection. The bacteria that cause ...

  2. Myoglobin blood test

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    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  3. Blood sugar test

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    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  4. Ketones urine test

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    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  5. Lactose tolerance tests

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    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  6. Epidemiology of Intestinal Polyparasitism among Orang Asli School Children in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Nashiry, Mohammed; Anuar, Tengku S.; Moktar, Norhayati; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods/Principal findings Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls), and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI), not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children. Conclusions/Significance Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population. PMID:25144662

  7. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  8. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  9. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age, using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members, not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help

  10. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings.We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1-2 cassettes showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives. After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05. Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives, equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA.Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a lyophilizer and the electricity to run it.

  11. Intestinal helminth infestation is associated with increased bronchial responsiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Peter D; de Pereira, Marilyn U; Pinto, Leonardo A; Jones, Marcus H; Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T

    2008-07-01

    Non-atopic asthma is the predominant phenotype in non-affluent parts of Latin America. We recently reported that infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides increased the risk of non-atopic asthma in less affluent areas of Brazil but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether helminth infestation is associated with heightened bronchial responsiveness (BHR), a common finding in asthma. A random sample of 50 asthmatic and 50 non-asthmatic controls (mean age 10.1 years) were selected from a larger cohort (n = 1,011) without knowledge of their helminth infestation status. Three stool samples were collected from each child on different days and each sample was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for quantitative determination of helminth eggs. Bronchial provocation tests were performed with inhaled 4.5% hypertonic saline using the ISAAC Phase II standardized protocol. There was no difference between the prevalence of positive BHR in the asthmatics (20.4%) compared with the controls (14.6%) (P = 1.0). Helminth infestation was detected in 24.0% of children, with A. lumbricoides being the most common. Children with high load infestation (>or=100 eggs/g) were five times more likely to have BHR than children with low load or no infestation. Despite the small sample size the results of the present study suggest that the link between high load helminth infestation and non-atopic asthma may be mediated via heightened bronchial responsiveness, possibly due to an inflammatory response to the pulmonary phase of the helminth life cycle.

  12. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  13. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  14. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  16. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  17. Impact of Helminth Infection during Pregnancy on Cognitive and Motor Functions of One-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireku, Michael O.; Boivin, Michael J.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Koura, Ghislain K.; Alao, Maroufou J.; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of helminth infection during pregnancy on the cognitive and motor functions of one-year-old children. Methods Six hundred and thirty five singletons born to pregnant women enrolled before 29 weeks of gestation in a trial comparing two intermittent preventive treatments for malaria were assessed for cognitive and motor functions using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, in the TOVI study, at twelve months of age in the district of Allada in Benin. Stool samples of pregnant women were collected at recruitment, second antenatal care (ANC) visit (at least one month after recruitment) and just before delivery, and were tested for helminths using the Kato-Katz technique. All pregnant women were administered a total of 600 mg of mebendazole (100 mg two times daily for 3 days) to be taken after the first ANC visit. The intake was not directly observed. Results Prevalence of helminth infection was 11.5%, 7.5% and 3.0% at first ANC visit, second ANC visit and at delivery, respectively. Children of mothers who were infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit had 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3–8.6) lower mean gross motor scores compared to those whose mothers were not infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit, in the adjusted model. Helminth infection at least once during pregnancy was associated with infant cognitive and gross motor functions after adjusting for maternal education, gravidity, child sex, family possessions, and quality of the home stimulation. Conclusion Helminth infection during pregnancy is associated with poor cognitive and gross motor outcomes in infants. Measures to prevent helminth infection during pregnancy should be reinforced. PMID:25756357

  18. Test techniques for fracture mechanics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    Test methods for fracture mechanics tests are described. Two groups of techniques are distinguished: Those for measurement of stable crack growth and those for determination of the loading parameters. (orig.) [de

  19. To test or not to test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...

  20. Materials testing 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with at the meeting: Testing with vibration loads; Hardness testing; Calibration of test devices and equipment; Test technique for compound materials; Vibration strength testing and expense of experiments; Solving problems in introducing forces into samples and components and process of ambulant materials testing. There are 17 separate abstracts from among 43 lectures. (orig./PW) [de

  1. 5-HIAA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  2. Uric Acid Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  3. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  4. CK-MB Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  5. Understanding Your Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  6. Myasthenia Gravis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  7. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  8. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  9. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Testing of the coping flexibility hypothesis based on the dual-process theory: Relationships between coping flexibility and depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-15

    According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility (Kato, 2012), coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping process) and implement an alternative strategy (i.e., adaptive coping process). The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) proposes that the ability to engage in flexible coping is related to better psychological functioning and physical health, including less depression. I the present study, participants were 393 American Whites, 429 Australian Whites, and 496 Chinese, selected from the data pool of the 2013 Coping and Health Survey (see Kato, 2014b). They completed both the Coping Flexibility Scale (Kato, 2012), which is based on the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). For all nationalities and genders, evaluation coping and adaptive coping were significantly correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation coping was associated with lower depressive symptoms for all nationalities and genders, whereas no significant relationships between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms were found for any nationalities. Our results partially supported that the CFH fits with the dual-process theory of coping flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  12. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  13. The Stimulus test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip

  14. CSF-VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test - CSF; Neurosyphilis - VDRL Images CSF test for syphilis References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), test, cerebrospinal fluid – specimen. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  15. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  16. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  17. Rail Impact Testing. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-15

    impact test. The rail impact test is used to verify structural integrity of the test item and the adequacy of the tie-down system and tie-down...strength of provisions, connection and supporting structural frame, paragraph 5.2.3 ** Superscript...parts, to include outriggers and booms) without advanced approval by SDDCTEA. Torque nuts on wire rope clips to their correct value. Torque cable

  18. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  19. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  20. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  2. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  3. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  4. Celiac Disease Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting celiac disease, such as chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, anemia , and ... Celiac tests are usually ordered for people with symptoms suggesting celiac disease, including anemia and abdominal pain. Sometimes celiac testing ...

  5. Aviation Flight Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...

  6. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  7. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  8. Lactose Tolerance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of these, the person tested is given a liquid to drink that contains a standard amount of ...

  9. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... newborn blood screening programs since early detection and treatment can minimize long-term damage. Hashimoto thyroiditis : the ...

  10. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  11. Tests for H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers and many cases of stomach inflammation (chronic gastritis). How the Test is Performed There are several ... treating bleeding, or making sure there is no cancer. Why the Test is Performed Testing is most ...

  12. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  13. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  14. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  15. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  16. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  17. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  18. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  19. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  20. Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  1. Tips on Blood Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home About ...

  2. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  3. Structural Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...

  4. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 10 6 lb/hr-ft 2 . Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 10 5 and 7.5 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 . The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  6. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  7. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  8. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  9. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  10. Thyroxine (T4) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thryoxine, Serum 485 p. Lab Tests ...

  11. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  12. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  13. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  14. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  15. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  16. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available outcomes of HVS tests where the moisture condition of the pavement or specific layers in the pavement is under investigation for a specific test. Practical guidance is then provided on the potential systems (how to manage the moisture – hardware) as well...

  17. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  18. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  19. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements

  20. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.; Yackle, T.R.; Allison, C.M.; Ploger, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m 2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m 2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  1. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, L.C.; Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  2. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  3. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  4. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  5. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  6. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  7. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  8. Nationale test i naturfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....

  9. Numeracy Tests For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k

  10. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  11. ITER test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Casini, G.

    1991-01-01

    ITER has been designed to operate in two phases. The first phase which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  12. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  13. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  14. Functional Testing Airborne Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment, instrumentation, and support accommo- dations...adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for correctness and completeness? Yes No ... Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No . Comment : 5. Were the test results compromised in any

  15. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-11

    1. Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment...instrumentation, and support accommodations adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for...correctness and completeness? Yes No Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No Comment : 5. Were the

  16. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  17. Testing experience with fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordhoff, B.H.; McGough, C.B.; Nolan, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Early FFTF project planning emphasized partial and full-scale testing of major reactor and plant prototype components under expected environmental conditions, excluding radiation fields. Confirmation of component performance during FFTF service was considered essential before actual FFTF startup, to provide increased assurance against FFTF startup delays or operational difficulties and downtime. Several new sodium facilities were constructed, and confirmation tests on the prototype components are now in progress. Test conditions and results to date are reported for the primary pump, intermediate heat exchanger, sodium-to-air dump heat exchanger, large and small sodium valves, purification cold trap, in-vessel handling machine, instrument tree, core restraint, control rod system, low-level flux monitor, closed loop ex-vessel machine, refueling equipment, and selected maintenance equipment. The significance and contribution of these tests to the FFTF and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program are summarized. (U.S.)

  18. Antimicrobials Products Tested or Pending Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agency has completed testing of the majority of registered hospital disinfectants and tuberculocide products. The list of products can assist users in making informed choices regarding infection control in their facilities.

  19. The hardness test: a real mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.

    1993-02-01

    During the service life, the mechanical properties of the PWR components change. It is necessary to determine precisely this evolution, but it is not always possible to draw a sample with the adequate size for the characterization. For this latter case we intend to calculate the stress-strain curve of a material from a hardness test results, because it is appropriate for testing on site and do not need any particular sample shape. This paper is the first bibliographical part of a larger study on the relation between the values measured during a hardness test (applied load, indentation diameter) and the mechanical properties of a solid obtained by a traction test. We have treated the problem within the general setting of two solids in contact. Thus, we expose general elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic models describing the indentation of a solid by a rigid indenter

  20. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  1. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  2. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  3. Pragmatics of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat ALTAY

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of a language is a very complicated issue and testing is anindispensable part of this matter. Thanks to testing teachers can assess efficiency ofteaching and learning atmosphere, and can get feedback about their learners. In order torealize this, a test should have some qualifications. One of these qualifications is aboutpragmatics. This paper aims at explaining what makes a test pragmatic and howpragmatic tests can be formed. So, examples of pragmatic tests of different types arepresented with explanations. Their pragmatic components and nature are focused on bygiving example test items on the problematic area of test questions prepared. Finally,the writer states his last words by making further comments and explanations onpragmatics of testing in the conclusion part.

  4. Relay test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing

  5. Nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM has transferred know-how from reactor technology to materials testing. The high and to a large extent new quality standards in the nuclear industry necessitate reliable measuring and testing equipment of the highest precision. Many of the tasks presented to us could not be solved with the equipment available on the market, for which reason we have developed our own measuring, testing and control systems. We have therefore acquired considerable experience in dealing with specific measuring, testing and control tasks and can handle even out-of-the-way problems that are submitted to us from a wide variety of fields. Our mechanical systems for the checking of close-tolerance gaps, the automatic determination of pellet dimensions and the measurement of absolute lengths and absolute velocities are in use in many different industrial fields. We have succeeded in solving unusual testing and sorting problems with the aid of automated surface testing equipment working on optical principles. Our main activities in the field of non-destructive testing have been concentrated on ultrasonic and eddy current testing and, of late, acoustic emission analysis. NUKEM ultrasonic systems are notable for their high defect detection rate and testing accuracy, combined with high testing speed. The equipment we supply includes ultrasonic rotary systems for the production testing of quality tubes, ultrasonic immersion systems for the final testing of reactor cladding tubes, weld testing equipment, and test equipment for the bonds in multi-layer plates. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3

  7. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  8. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  9. Theory of nonparametric tests

    CERN Document Server

    Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides a self-contained presentation of the main concepts and methods of nonparametric statistical testing, with a particular focus on the theoretical foundations of goodness-of-fit tests, rank tests, resampling tests, and projection tests. The substitution principle is employed as a unified approach to the nonparametric test problems discussed. In addition to mathematical theory, it also includes numerous examples and computer implementations. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate, graduate, and postdoc students as well as young researchers. Readers should be familiar with the basic concepts of mathematical statistics typically covered in introductory statistics courses.

  10. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  11. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  12. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abbas; Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  13. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-2. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-08-01

    The report describes the results of a test using four 0.97-m long PWR-type fuel rods with differences in diametral gap and cladding irradiation. The objective of this test was to provide information about the effects of these differences on fuel rod behavior during quasi-equilibrium and film boiling operation. The fuel rods were subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles of less than 30 kW/m. Rod powers were then increased to 68 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4900 kg/s-m 2 . After one hour at 68 kW/m, a power-cooling-mismatch sequence was initiated by a flow reduction at constant power. At a flow of 2550 kg/s-m 2 , the onset of film boiling occurred on one rod, Rod IE-011. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s-m 2 caused the onset of film boiling on the remaining three rods. Data are presented on the behavior of fuel rods during quasiequilibrium and during film boiling operation. The effects of initial gap size, cladding irradiation, rod power cycling, a rapid power increase, and sustained film boiling are discussed. These discussions are based on measured test data, preliminary postirradiation examination results, and comparisons of results with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations

  14. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  15. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  16. EMI Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) testing of flight hardware. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to...

  17. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  18. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  19. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  20. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  1. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  2. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  3. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  4. Lab and Imaging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to help detect (diagnose) a blood cancer (leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative disease). You may need to undergo additional tests to confirm your diagnosis. Once your diagnosis is confirmed, your doctor may ...

  5. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  6. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic counselor can help you work through the pros and cons of genetic testing based on your ... showing symptoms or what their progression will be. Technology is changing rapidly and costs of testing are ...

  7. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  8. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from wor...... characteristics as well as pupils' 9th grade examination marks. We document a stable test score gap across grade levels and socio economic background and discuss the prospects of the national test data for future research....... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  9. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  10. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  11. hs-CRP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sample? No test preparation is needed; however, fasting for 9-12 hours before the blood sample ... such as colon cancer , complications of diabetes , and obesity. I have had cholesterol tests but never an ...

  12. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  13. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  14. Rocketball Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test facility offers the capability to emulate and measure guided missile radar cross-section without requiring flight tests of tactical missiles. This facility...

  15. PT and INR Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... and vitamin K (either in a multivitamin or liquid nutrition supplement) may decrease PT. Certain foods, such ...

  16. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... collected and then the person is given a liquid to drink. Another breath sample is collected at ...

  17. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  18. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  19. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  20. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  1. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  2. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  3. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  4. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  5. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  6. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  7. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  8. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  9. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  10. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  11. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  12. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  13. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  14. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  15. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  16. Tularemia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 44. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Tularemia agglutinins - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  17. RBC urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measurement for a result of this test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  18. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  19. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  20. Test Preparation: Your Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating cooked meat may be required since some studies have shown that eating cooked meat prior to testing can temporarily increase the level of creatinine. Fecal occult blood test : certain food and/or medication restrictions may be required. Urine ...

  1. Testing for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  3. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  4. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  5. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  6. The first PANDA tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.

    1996-01-01

    The PANDA test facility at PSI in Switzerland is used to study the long-term Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) performance. The PANDA tests demonstrate performance on a larger scale than previous tests and examine the effects of any non-uniform spatial distributions of steam and non-condensables in the system. The PANDA facility has a 1:1 vertical scale, and 1:25 ''system'' scale (volume, power, etc.). Steady-state PCCS condenser performance tests and extensive facility characterization tests have been completed. Transient system behavior tests were conducted late in 1995; results from the first three transient tests (M3 series) are reviewed. The first PANDA tests showed that the overall global behavior of the SBWR containment was globally repeatable and very favorable; the system exhibited great ''robustness.''

  7. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  8. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  9. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  10. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  11. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  12. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  13. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  14. [Memory Checking Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  15. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS: What is HIV/AIDS? Women and HIV/AIDS Next section ... Tested? Why do I need to get tested for HIV? The only way to know if you have HIV is to get tested. Many people with HIV don’t have any symptoms. In the United States, about 1 in 7 ...

  16. Testing Backbone.js

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with the step by step tutorial and instructions in recipe format helping you setup test infrastructure and gradually advance your skills to plan, develop, and test your backbone applications.If you are a JavaScript developer looking for recipes to create and implement test support for your backbone application, then this book is ideal for you.

  17. Automation of radiometric testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekalin, A.S.; Temnik, A.K.; Butakova, G.E.; Goncharov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The main prerequisites for creation of automatic systems of radiometric testing as the means to increase the testing objectivity and quality have been considered, principles of their design being developed. The operating system is described for testing complex configuration products using RD-10R gamma flow detector as a sensor of initial information

  18. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003711.htm Estradiol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... of estrogens. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How to Prepare for the Test Your health care provider may tell you to ...

  19. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  20. 2017 Census Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Programs Latest Information Are you in a Survey? 2020 Census 2018 Census Test 2010 Census American Information Surveys/Programs Main Are you in a Survey? 2020 Census 2018 Census Test If you have received a Census. Latest Information The 2018 Census Test will take place in Pierce County, Wash.; Providence

  1. Usability testing for dummies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Usability testing seems complicated and time-consuming. Is it though? In fact, it is the best way to understand how real users experience your product. In this interactive session, we will do a live usability test and you will get advice on how to conduct your own usability tests.

  2. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  3. Toroid magnet test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.

  4. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles

    The simple and partial Mantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two or more matrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...

  5. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Rousset, François

    2012-01-01

    1. The simple and partialMantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two ormorematrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...

  6. A test management approach for structured testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Pol, M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; McMullan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Despite encouraging results with various quality improvement approaches, the IT industry is still far from achieving zero defect software. Testing will remain an important activity within software development and maintenance, often taking more than 30 - 40% of the total budget. Both the increasing

  7. Grimsel Test Site: heat test, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneefuss, J.; Glaess, F.; Gommlich, G.; Schmidt, M.

    1989-05-01

    The Swiss concept for the storage of radioactive waste consists in placing it in compact, dense rock formations. An experiment 'Heat Test' carried out by the 'Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung' in Nagra's Grimsel rock laboratory simulated the heat production of stored radioactive waste. The aim was to evaluate processes for the demonstration of the suitability of a final repository for heat-producing radioactive waste in cristalline rock, to investigate the thermic, mechanic and hydraulic reactions to an artificial heat source, and to develop corresponding calculating models. The duration of the tests was about 3 years. In this report the measured thermic, mechanic and hydraulic reactions are documented and discussed in detail. A simple, rotation symmetrical FEM-model was used for the preparatory and experiment-accompanying modelling of the thermomechanical conditions in the heat test. The test showed that suitable measuring methods for the surveillance of the geomechanics of a final repository are available and that the reactions of the crystalline host rock to the heat source remain locally limited and can be modelled with relatively small effort. 29 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Toroidal simulation magnet tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Domm, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of different schemes for testing superconducting coils in a simulated tokamak environment are analyzed for their merits relative to a set of test criteria. Two of the concepts are examined in more detail: the so-called cluster test scheme, which employs two large background field coils, one on either side of the test coil, and the compact torus, a low-aspect ratio toroidal array of a small number of coils in which all of the coils are essentially test coils. Simulation of the pulsed fields of the tokamak is discussed briefly

  9. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  10. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummert, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.) [de

  11. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a

  12. Teacher Test Accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Ludlow

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the high stakes of teacher testing, there is no doubt that every teacher test should meet the industry guidelines set forth in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Unfortunately, however, there is no public or private business or governmental agency that serves to certify or in any other formal way declare that any teacher test does, in fact, meet the psychometric recommendations stipulated in the Standards. Consequently, there are no legislated penalties for faulty products (tests nor are there opportunities for test takers simply to raise questions about a test and to have their questions taken seriously by an impartial panel. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the psychometric results reported by National Evaluation Systems (NES in their 1999 Massachusetts Educator Certification Test (MECT Technical Report, and more specifically, to identify those technical characteristics of the MECT that are inconsistent with the Standards. A second purpose of this article is to call for the establishment of a standing test auditing organization with investigation and sanctioning power. The significance of the present analysis is twofold: a psychometric results for the MECT are similar in nature to psychometric results presented as evidence of test development flaws in an Alabama class-action lawsuit dealing with teacher certification (an NES-designed testing system; and b there was no impartial enforcement agency to whom complaints about the Alabama tests could be brought, other than the court, nor is there any such agency to whom complaints about the Massachusetts tests can be brought. I begin by reviewing NES's role in Allen v. Alabama State Board of Education, 81-697-N. Next I explain the purpose and interpretation of standard item analysis procedures and statistics. Finally, I present results taken directly from the 1999 MECT Technical Report and compare them to procedures, results, and consequences of

  13. Fracture evaluation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this report period, efforts have concentrated on defining the requirements for shallow-flaw beam testing. Analyses have been made to envelope the significant parameters for both deep- and shallow-flaw beams for three-point loading; that is, load to initiation of a frangible flaw, load to plastic collapse, LLD, and CMOD. An assessment was made of facilities capable of performing the tests identified by the parametric analyses discussed above. Two testing machines were identified for performing the scoped test series, the first a 550-kip Instron machine assigned to the Pressure Vessel Technology Section located in Building 9204-1 at the Y-12 Plant and the second a 220-kip MTS machine assigned to a mechanical testing group located at the K-25 Site. An existing bend test fixture previously used in the HSST clad plate test series is being modified for use in testing beams under other sponsorship but will be available for shared usage with the HSST shallow-flaw beam testing activities. To prevent the shared usage from having an adverse impact on the logistics of the HSST Program, the decision was made to procure a bend test fixture tailored specifically to serve the shallow flaw beam test series. A specification was prepared and procurement initiated. A survey is in progress for determining sources and costs of displacement-measuring instrumentation from both foreign and domestic sources. It appears that existing direct current displacement transducers available to the HSST Program may be adequate for the LLD measurements. These devices will be employed in the shakedown tests that are planned. A safety and environmental survey assessment for the beam testing conforming to the revised DOE rules has been prepared and approved

  14. Test Results for CSTR Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    One of the 3 technologies currently being developed for the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate and remove radioactive Cs from the waste and monosodium titanate to sorb and remove radioactive Sr and actinides. ORNL is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-liter continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The primary goal of Test 4 was to verify that the STTP process could achieve and maintain the necessary Cs decontamination while TPB was actively decomposing. Even with TPB being decomposed by the off-normal conditions of this test, the decontaimination factor for 137 Cs obtained for the filtrate from the Slurry Concentrating Tank ranged from 47,000 to 646,000, exceeding the WAC standard

  15. Hot ductility testing and weld simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Schick, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the project was to enhance the insight into the causes of intergranular cracks detected in austenitic circumferential welds at BWR pipes. The susceptibility of a variety of austenitic pipe materials to hot cracking during welding and in-service intergranular crack corrosion was examined. The assumption was cracking in the root area of the HAZ of a multiple-layer weld. Hot-ductility tests and weld simulation tests specifically designed for the project were performed with the austenitic LWR pipe materials 1.4553 (X6 CrNiNb 18 10 S), 1.4550 (X10 CrNiNb 18 9), 1.4533 (X6 CrNiTi 18 9, two weld pools), and a non-stabilized TP 304 (X5 CrNi 18 10). (orig./CB) [de

  16. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  17. Testing of the structural evaluation test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    In the evaluation of the safety of radioactive material transportation it is important to consider the response of Type B packages to environments more severe than that prescribed by the hypothetical accident sequence in Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (NRC 1995). The impact event in this sequence is a 9-meter drop onto an essentially unyielding target, resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s. The behavior of 9 packages when subjected to impacts more severe than this is not well known. It is the purpose of this program to evaluate the structural response of a test package to these environments. Several types of structural response are considered. Of primary importance is the behavior of the package containment boundary, including the bolted closure and 0-rings. Other areas of concern are loss of shielding capability due to lead slump and the deceleration loading of package contents, that may cause damage to them. This type of information is essential for conducting accurate risk assessments on the transportation of radioactive materials. Currently very conservative estimates of the loss of package protection are used in these assessments. This paper will summarize the results of a regulatory impact test and three extra-regulatory impact tests on a sample package

  18. Test, dannelse og faglighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lotte Rahbek

    2013-01-01

    Erfaringer fra blandt andet USA viser, at indførelse af obligatoriske nationale test får stor betydning for, hvilke former for faglighed der bliver dominerende i skolens undervisning. Hensigten har været at styrke de former for viden, som faktisk kan testes – ikke på bekostning af andre vidensfor...... vidensformer og indsigter - men simpelthen for blot at blive bedre til de dele af fagligheden, som kan testes. Forskning peger dog på, at obligatoriske test ikke blot styrker dele af fagligheden, men snarere bliver fuldstændig determinerende for hele fagligheden.......Erfaringer fra blandt andet USA viser, at indførelse af obligatoriske nationale test får stor betydning for, hvilke former for faglighed der bliver dominerende i skolens undervisning. Hensigten har været at styrke de former for viden, som faktisk kan testes – ikke på bekostning af andre...

  19. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...

  20. Test plans for availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.L.; Bjoerklund, O.

    1978-12-01

    In this work is developed principles for statistical test plans for availability compliance tests. Failure terminated and time terminated fixed size plans are considered as well as sequential test plans without and with failure and time truncation. The suggested methods are evaluated with respect to some important characteristics, namely the average number of failures to termination, the duration of the test and the operating characteristic function. The methods used are based on the assumption that up- and down-times can be considered gamma distributed. Simulation studies indicate that the methods are robust against reasonable deviations in distribution assumptions for the down-times. In the work is also outlined technical conditions and prerequisites applicable to availability compliance tests in general. The approach choosen seems very promising and is worth further development. It is based on the same fundamental principles as present is used in International standardization of equipment reliability testing. (author)

  1. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  2. The engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Becraft, W.R.; Sager, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF. (orig.)

  3. Engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Becraft, W.R.; Sager, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper described the design status of the ETF

  4. Test planning and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    Testing plan should include Safety guide Q4 - Inspection and testing - A testing plan should be prepared including following information: General information (facility name, item or system reference, procurement document reference, document reference number and status, associated procedures and drawings); A sequential listing of all testing activities; Procedure, work instruction, specification or standard to be followed in respect of each operation and test; Acceptance criteria; Identification of who is performing tests; Identification of hold points; Type of records to be prepared for each test; Persons and organizations having authority for final acceptance. Proposed activities sequence is: visual, electrical and mechanical checks; environmental tests (thermal aging, vibrations aging, radioactive aging); performance evaluation in extreme conditions; dynamic tests with functional checks; final electrical and mechanical checks The planning of the tests should always be performed taking into account an interpretative model: a very tight cooperation is advisable between experimental people and numerical people dealing with the analysis of more or less complex models for the seismic assessment of structures and components. Preparatory phase should include the choice of the following items should be agreed upon with the final user of the tests: Excitation points, Excitation types, Excitation amplitude with respect to frequency, Measuring points. Data acquisition, recording and storage, should take into account the characteristics of the successive data processing: to much data can be cumbersome to be processed, but to few data can make unusable the experimental results. The parameters for time history acquisition should be chosen taking into account data processing: for Shock Response Spectrum calculation some special requirements should be met: frequency bounded signal, high frequency sampling, shock noise. For stationary random-like excitation, the sample length

  5. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  6. Biodiesel Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Biodiesel Test Plan Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited. July 2014 Report No. CG-D-07-14...Appendix C) Biodiesel Test Plan ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | G. W. Johnson, et al. Public | July 2014 N O T I C E This...Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Biodiesel Test Plan iii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | G. W. Johnson, et al

  7. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  8. GRE physics test

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhrudin, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Designed for students and professionals looking to advance their careers, our test prep gives you everything you need to succeed. Focused chapter reviews cover all the information tested on the GRE Physics exam. Each review chapter contains examples to reinforce key concepts. The book includes four full-length practice tests based on the most recent GRE Physics exam. Each test contains every type of question that can be expected on the GRE so you can “practice for real” and boost your confidence before taking the exam.

  9. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  10. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  11. Main Test Floor (MTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The MTF is employed to validate advanced structural concepts and verify new analytical methodologies. Test articles range in size from subcomponent to full...

  12. Cable aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results from aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of class 1E electrical cables, per NUREG/CR-5772. This test was designed to test the performance of cables which had been aged with simultaneous radiation and thermal exposure. The tested cables included crosslinked polyolefin cables, ethylene propylene rubber cables, and miscellaneous cable types. Cables were exposed to 20, 40, and 60 years equivalent aging, and then exposed to LOCA tests at the end of their qualified life to determine the minimum insulation thickness needed for survival of the test. Failures were found in a large number of the tested cables. As a result the NRC has sent information notices to the industry regarding potential insulation problems. The results have raised the question of whether the artificial aging methods provide adequate testing methods. As a result of this testing the NRC is reviewing the artificial aging procedures, the adequacy of environmental qualification requirements for cable safety, and reexamining data from condition monitoring of installed cables

  13. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  14. Fire test database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a project recently completed for EPRI by Impell. The purpose of the project was to develop a reference database of fire tests performed on non-typical fire rated assemblies. The database is designed for use by utility fire protection engineers to locate test reports for power plant fire rated assemblies. As utilities prepare to respond to Information Notice 88-04, the database will identify utilities, vendors or manufacturers who have specific fire test data. The database contains fire test report summaries for 729 tested configurations. For each summary, a contact is identified from whom a copy of the complete fire test report can be obtained. Five types of configurations are included: doors, dampers, seals, wraps and walls. The database is computerized. One version for IBM; one for Mac. Each database is accessed through user-friendly software which allows adding, deleting, browsing, etc. through the database. There are five major database files. One each for the five types of tested configurations. The contents of each provides significant information regarding the test method and the physical attributes of the tested configuration. 3 figs

  15. Large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Final design of the facility is nearing completion, and 20% of the construction has been accomplished. A large vacuum chamber, houses the test assembly which is coupled to appropriate cryogenic, electrical, instrumentation, diagnostc systems. Adequate assembly/disassembly areas, shop space, test control center, offices, and test support laboratories are located in the same building. Assembly and installation operations are accomplished with an overhead crane. The major subsystems are the vacuum system, the test stand assembly, the cryogenic system, the experimental electric power system, the instrumentation and control system, and the data aquisition system

  16. Repetitive Rockfall Trajectory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Volkwein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of rockfall trajectories are a standard procedure for evaluating rockfall hazards. For these simulations, corresponding software codes must be calibrated and evaluated based on field data. This study addresses methods of repeatable rockfall tests, and investigates whether it is possible to produce traceable and statistically analysable data. A testing series is described extensively covering how to conduct rockfall experiments and how certain elements of rockfall trajectories can be measured. The tests use acceleration and rotation sensors inside test blocks, a system to determine block positions over time, surveying measurements, and video recordings. All systems are evaluated regarding their usability in the field and for analyses. The highly detailed description of testing methods is the basis for sound understanding and reproducibility of the tests. This article serves as a reference for future publications and other rockfall field tests, both as a guide and as a basis for comparisons. First analyses deliver information on runout with a shadow angle ranging between 21 and 45 degrees for a slope consisting of homogeneous soft soil. A digital elevation model of the test site as well as point clouds of the used test blocks are part of this publication.

  17. Sodium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines that may affect the test. These include: Antibiotics Antidepressants Some high blood pressure medicines Lithium Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Water pills (diuretics) DO NOT stop ...

  18. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  19. Forensic DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  20. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  1. Ultrasonic weld testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-12-01

    The study was broken down into two phases. Phase I consisted of a laboratory investigation of test specimens to determine the reliability of the ultrasonic equipment and testing procedure. Phase II was a field study where the knowledge, skills and ab...

  2. Coaxial test fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1986-01-01

    An assembly is provided for testing one or more contact material samples in a vacuum environment. The samples are positioned as an inner conductive cylinder assembly which is mounted for reciprocal vertical motion as well as deflection from a vertical axis. An outer conductive cylinder is coaxially positioned around the inner cylinder and test specimen to provide a vacuum enclosure therefor. A power source needed to drive test currents through the test specimens is connected to the bottom of each conductive cylinder, through two specially formed conductive plates. The plates are similar in form, having a plurality of equal resistance current paths connecting the power source to a central connecting ring. The connecting rings are secured to the bottom of the inner conductive assembly and the outer cylinder, respectively. A hydraulic actuator is also connected to the bottom of the inner conductor assembly to adjust the pressure applied to the test specimens during testing. The test assembly controls magnetic forces such that the current distribution through the test samples is symmetrical and that contact pressure is not reduced or otherwise disturbed.

  3. Poppering the Newell Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.

    2003-01-01

    The Newell Test as it is proposed by Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) has the disadvantage of being too positivistic, stressing areas a theory should cover, instead of attempting to exclude false predictions. Nevertheless, Newell's list can be used as the basis for a more stringent test with a stress on the

  4. Gastrin: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return ... underlying condition. Although gastrinomas are rare, more than half of them are cancerous and can spread to other parts of your ... Helicobacter pylori , Gastric Acid Conditions: Endocrine Syndromes Elsewhere ...

  5. Testing as social practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author challenges the implicit assumptions of tests as a neutral tool for measuring the individual’s learning achievement. Instead, testing is explored as a social practice which becomes part of children’s conduct of everyday life. The theoretical foundation for the analysis...

  6. Loglinear Rasch model tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Hendrikus

    1984-01-01

    Existing statistical tests for the fit of the Rasch model have been criticized, because they are only sensitive to specific violations of its assumptions. Contingency table methods using loglinear models have been used to test various psychometric models. In this paper, the assumptions of the Rasch

  7. Vocational Aptitude Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiasa I Made

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Test for measuring vocational aptitude has been formulated and validated. There are three main constructs involved in vocational aptitude test, which are individual characteristics, activities that are likely to be selected, and professions that tend to be idolized. Individual characteristics indicate the individuals talents, whereas the activity that tends to be chosen leads to student interest in the activity, and the intended profession gives clues about the capability of themselves to pursue the profession. Content validity test with Lawse technique yields content validity ratio (CVR for all items are in the range 0.82-0.94 and content validity index (CVI = 0.88. The construct validity test yields comparative fit index (CFI = 0.918 and chi square coefficient (χ2 = 5.85 with significance (p = 0.002. These findings indicate that the test is valid either by content or construct. Furthermore, the reliability test with Alpha Cronbach found the alpha coefficient (α = 0.82. Finally, it can be concluded that vocational aptitude test can be utilized for early identification of student vocational aptitude. The hope, the test can help students to choose the appropriate vocational school, in order to obtain the better learning outcomes.

  8. Planter unit test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  9. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  10. Inspection- and test arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.; Gallwas, J.

    1980-01-01

    The ultrasonic testing equipment is located on a wagon that can be moved on a circular rail fixed below the bottom of the cylindrical pressure vessel. To compensate thermal expansions between ground and rail, this rail is provided on its outside with radial sticks that are embedded in braces. The braces themselves are connected with the bottom that has to be tested. (DG) [de

  11. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Bile Duct Diseases Read more Bone Diseases Read more Liver Function Tests Read more A.D.A.M., ...

  12. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second should occur after 1 year on the gluten-free diet. After that, a celiac should receive follow-up ... test result is straightforward—a celiac on the gluten-free diet should have a negative test. The numerical value ...

  13. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  14. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  15. Proficiency tests, Evaluating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofino, W.P.; Molenaar, J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Marine monitoring programs provide data that are essential for marine management. The reliability of such data is underpinned by proficiency tests. In the context of Quasimeme, a proficiency testing program for the marine environment, a statistical model has been developed in 2000 to evaluate data

  16. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was last reviewed on October 21, 2015. This article was last modified on June 29, 2018. At a Glance Why Get Tested? To detect vitamin A deficiency or toxicity When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting a vitamin A deficiency or excess, or are at risk for a deficiency Sample ...

  17. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  18. Testing confectionary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Smith, I.H.

    1983-01-01

    Cream-filled cakes are tested by passing a #betta#-ray from a #betta#-particle source to a detector and checking the #betta#-particle count to indicate if the cakes have been correctly filled with cream. The presence of a cake to be tested is sensed by an optical detector and incorrectly filled cakes are removed by a plunger. (author)

  19. Testing and Inclusive Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Anne; Hamre, Bjørn; Ydesen, Christian

    Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, Thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating...

  20. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  1. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.

  2. Test dig selv!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Nielsen, Gregers; Langstrup, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11.......Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11....

  3. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  4. The scapular dyskinesis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Møller, Anders Damgaard; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom

    2017-01-01

    tests with which to identify scapular dyskinesis. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To evaluate intrarater and interrater reliability and predictive value of the Scapular Dyskinesis Test (SDT) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. METHODS: Forty-five patients with subacromial impingement syndrome were...

  5. Testing of Mortar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    IEP /TDP) or Independent Assessment Plan (IAP), and the test item and the procedures as outlined in this TOP. The following must also be considered...Command DTIC = Defense Technical Information Center DTP = Detailed Test Plan IAP = Independent Assessment Plan IEP = Independent Evaluation Plan IPT

  6. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  7. Solenoid Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current Configuration: Accommodate a device under test up to 2.8 m diameter, 0.7 m height and 15,000 lbs. weight. Up to 10 g/s, 4.5 K helium flow. Up to 250 A test...

  8. Robust test limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  9. What Is Stress Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... would during exercise. You can then have the stress test. The medicine may make you flushed and anxious, but the effects go away as soon as the test is over. The medicine also may give you a headache. While you're exercising or getting medicine to ...

  10. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  11. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  12. Parent's Guide to Understanding Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTB / McGraw-Hill, Monterey, CA.

    This brief introduction to testing is geared to parents. Types of tests are defined, such as standardized tests, achievement tests, norm referenced tests, criterion referenced tests, and aptitude tests. Various types of scores (grade equivalent, percentile rank, and stanine are also defined, and the uses made of tests by administrators, teachers,…

  13. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  14. Testing for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, M

    Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis. Investigations to achieve a diagnosis for chronic diarrhea range from screening blood and stool tests to more directed testing such as diagnostic imaging, and endoscopic and histological evaluation. The pathophysiology-based framework proposed in this chapter will allow the clinician to select screening tests followed by targeted tests to minimize cost and complications to the patient, while providing a highly effective method to achieve an accurate diagnosis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LHC synchronization test successful

    CERN Multimedia

    The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:http://lhc-injection-test.web.cern.ch/lhc-injection-test/

  16. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  17. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... of male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  18. Mechanical Testing of MLCCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Cracking of multilayer ceramic capacitors, MLCCs, remains a serious problem for space systems. This problem increases substantially for large size capacitors and in cases when manual soldering is involved or the system experiences mechanical shock or vibration. In any case, a fracture occurs when the sum of external and internal mechanical stresses exceeds the strength of the part. To reduce the probability of cracking, the level of stress should be reduced, e.g. by optimizing the assembly workmanship and rules for board design, and the strength of the parts increased by selecting the most mechanically robust capacitors. The latter might possibly be achieved by selecting MLCCs based on the in-situ measurements of mechanical characteristics using four types of tests: flexural strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and flex bend testing. Note that military specifications MIL-PRF-123 and MIL-PRF-55681 do not have requirements for mechanical testing of the parts. However, specifications for automotive industry components employ two types of mechanical tests: beam load (break strength) test per AEC-Q200-003 and board flex test per AEC-Q200-005. A recent military specification for thin dielectric capacitors, MIL-PRF-32535, has one mechanical test, board flex testing, that is similar to AEC-Q200-005. The purpose of this report was assessment of the efficiency of different mechanical tests for selection robust capacitors and comparison of mechanical characteristics of Base Metal Electrode (BME) and Precious Metal Electrode (PME) capacitors. The report has three parts related to the first three mechanical tests mentioned above.

  19. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  20. [Epidemiological study of intestinal helminthiasis in the island of Tortuga (Haiti). II. Evaluation of the parasite count by means of the Kato method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C; Vial, P; Pierre-Louis, J M

    1977-01-01

    Results of the numbering of T. trichiura, A. lumbricoides et N. americanus eggs found in the stool, taken from a representative sample of the population of Tortuga island, shows the importance of parasital load borne by people attacked by the parasites. Those who produce the greatest number of eggs for a gram of faeces are young children. For adults, the evolution of the parasital load follow that of the prevalence, for each Nematodes, with an increase of the average number of eggs of A. lumbricoides per gram of faeces for adults aged 30 to 44, and of the average number of N. amercanus per gram of faeces for adults aged 45 to 59. Moreover women adults show a higher number of parasites than men. Farmers from villages within the interior of the island who are more often attacked than those from the coast, also bear a parasital load which is twice as high. Victims less than 5 years old and more than 30, particularly women, whose faeces are richest in eggs, seem to present the greatest danger for the transmission of ascaridiosis and necatorosis in Toruga Island.