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Sample records for katech lithium polymer

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  2. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  3. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  4. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  5. Towards room-temperature performance for lithium-polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, J.B.; Liu, Gao; Curtiss, L.A.; Redfern, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on molecular simulations of the mechanisms of lithium ion conductance has pointed towards two types of limiting process. One has involved the commonly cited segmental motion while the other is related to energy barriers in the solvation shell of polymeric ether oxygens around the lithium ions. Calculations of the barriers to lithium ion migration have provided important indicators as to the best design of the polymer. The theoretical work has coincided with and guided some recent developments on polymer synthesis for lithium batteries. Structural change of the polymer solvation shell has been pursued by the introduction of trimethylene oxide (TMO) units into the polymer. The conductivity measurements on polymers containing TMO unit are encouraging. The architecture of the polymer networks has been varied upon which the solvating groups are attached and significant improvements in sub-ambient performance are observed as a result. However, the above-ambient temperature performance appears controlled by an Arrhenius process that is not completely consistent with the theoretical calculations described here and may indicate the operation of a different mechanism. The new polymers possess significantly lower T g values in the presence of lithium salts, which indicates weaker binding of the lithium ions by the polymers. These properties provide considerable improvement in the transport properties close to the electrode surfaces resulting in decreased impedances at the surfaces both at lithium metal and in composite electrodes. The greater flexibility of the solvation groups combined with appropriate architecture not only has applications in lithium metal-polymer batteries but also in lithium ion liquid and gel systems as well as in fuel cell electrodes

  6. Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposites as solid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S N Suraiya; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Aswal, Vinod K; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2014-08-01

    Lithium micro batteries are emerging field of research. For environmental safety biodegradable films are preferred. Recently biodegradable polymers have gained wide application in the field of solid polymer electrolytes. To make biodegradable polymers films plasticizers are usually used. However, use of plasticizers has disadvantages such as inhomogenities in phases and mechanical instability that will affect the performance of Lithium micro batteries. We have in this research used gold nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, instead of plasticizers. Gold nanoparticles were directly template upon chitosan membranes by reduction process so as to enhance the interactions of Lithium with the polymer. In this article, for the first time the characteristics of Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposite films are investigated. The films were prepared using simple solution casting technique. We have used various characterization tools such as Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, and AFM, Light scattering, Dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements. Our investigations show that incorporation of gold results in enhancement of conductivity in Lithium containing Chitosan films. Also it affects the dielectric characteristics of the films. We conclude through various characterization tools that the enhancement in the conductivity was due to the retardation of crystal growth of lithium salt in the presence of gold nanoparticles. A model is proposed regarding the formation of the new nanocomposite. The conductivity of these biodegradable films is comparable to those of the current inorganic Lithium micro batteries. This new chitosan-Au-Li nanocomposite has potential applications in the field of Lithium micro batteries.

  7. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium...... trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF). The polymer electrode material was polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS). The cells were of the form, Li / PAN : EC : PC : LiCF3SO3 / PPy : DBS. Polymer electrodes of three different thicknesses were studied using cycling at different scan rates. All cells...

  8. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro [NEC Corp., Environment and Material Research Labs., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-11-30

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wound jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronic equipment such as notebook type computers. (Author)

  9. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wounded jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronics equipment such as notebook type computer

  10. Concept of polymer alloy electrolytes: towards room temperature operation of lithium-polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Yasuda, Toshikazu; Nishi, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Polymer alloy technique is very powerful tool to tune the ionic conductivity and mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte. A semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) polymer alloy electrolyte, composed of non-cross-linkable siloxane-based polymer and cross-linked 3D network polymer, was prepared. Such polymer alloy electrolyte has quite high ionic conductivity (more than 10 -4 Scm -1 at 25 o C and 10 -5 Scm -1 at -10 o C) and mechanical strength as a separator film with a wide electrochemical stability window. A lithium metal/semi-IPN polymer alloy solid state electrolyte/LiCoO 2 cell demonstrated promising cycle performance with room temperature operation of the energy density of 300Wh/L and better rate performance than conventional PEO based lithium polymer battery ever reported

  11. Reverse iontophoresis of lithium: electrode formulation using a thermoreversible polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascotte, Valentine; Leboulanger, Benoît; Guy, Richard H; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M

    2005-01-01

    This work investigated the use of a thermoreversible gel as a collector vehicle in reverse iontophoresis applications. A 20% (w/w) aqueous gel of Pluronic F127 was a suitable receptor medium to be used at the cathodal chamber. In vitro iontophoresis experiments investigated the simultaneous extraction of lithium (analyte of interest) and sodium (used as an internal standard) into either a control buffer or a gelled receptor. The gelification process at room temperature provided a suitable consistency and contact with the skin surface during the iontophoresis experiments. Subsequent cooling of the gelled solution to 4 degrees C allows an easy recovery of lithium and sodium for later quantification. Both the lithium extraction fluxes and the lithium to sodium ratio of extraction fluxes were linearly related to the subdermal lithium concentration. On the whole, the results show that thermoreversible polymer solutions offer a simple and convenient way to handle samples in reverse iontophoresis studies.

  12. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  13. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  14. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  15. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  16. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  17. Computational simulation of lithium ion transport through polymer nanocomposite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, P.; Sandi, G.; Kizilel, R.; Stevens, D.

    2003-01-01

    We think of membranes as simple devices to facilitate filtration. In fact, membranes play a role in chemical, biological, and engineering processes such as catalysis, separation, and sensing by control of molecular transport and recognition. Critical factors that influence membrane discrimination properties include composition, pore size (as well as homogeneity), chemical functionalization, and electrical transport properties. There is increasing interest in using nanomaterials for the production of novel membranes due to the unique selectivity that can be achieved. Clay-polymer nanocomposites show particular promise due to their ease of manufacture (large sheets), their rigidity (self supporting), and their excellent mechanical properties. However, the process of lithium ion transport through the clay-polymer nanocomposite and mechanisms of pore size selection are poorly understood at the ionic and molecular level. In addition, manufacturing of clay-polymer nanocomposite membranes with desirable properties has proved challenging. We have built a general membrane-modeling tool (simulation system) to assist in developing improved membranes for selection, electromigration, and other electrochemical applications. Of particular interest are the recently formulated clay-polymer membranes. The transport mechanisms of the lithium ions membranes are not well understood and, therefore, they make an interesting test case for the model. In order to validate the model, we synthesized polymer nanocomposites membranes.

  18. Polymer electrolytes based on aromatic lithium sulfonyl-imide compounds; Electrolytes polymeres a base de sulfonylimidures de lithium aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibel, L.; Bayoudh, S. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron; Baudry, P. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Herlem, G. [UFR de Sciences et Techniques, L.E.S., 25 - Besancon (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents ionic conductivity results obtained with polymer electrolytes and also with propylene carbonate solutions. The domain of electrochemical activity of this salt has been determined using cycle volt-amperometry in propylene carbonate. Preliminary experiments on the stability of the polymer electrolyte with respect to the lithium electrode have been carried out for a possible subsequent use in lithium batteries. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  19. Polymer electrolytes based on aromatic lithium sulfonyl-imide compounds; Electrolytes polymeres a base de sulfonylimidures de lithium aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibel, L; Bayoudh, S [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron; Baudry, P [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Herlem, G [UFR de Sciences et Techniques, L.E.S., 25 - Besancon (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents ionic conductivity results obtained with polymer electrolytes and also with propylene carbonate solutions. The domain of electrochemical activity of this salt has been determined using cycle volt-amperometry in propylene carbonate. Preliminary experiments on the stability of the polymer electrolyte with respect to the lithium electrode have been carried out for a possible subsequent use in lithium batteries. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  20. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  1. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  2. New polymer lithium secondary batteries based on ORMOCER (R) electrolytes-inorganic-organic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popall, M.; Buestrich, R.; Semrau, G.

    2001-01-01

    Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil-batteries...... electrolyte, typical for polymer electrolytes. Cycling tests (more than 900 cycles) proved that the unplasticized electrolyte can act as binder in composite cathodes of lithium secondary batteries [2]. Charge/discharge cycles of complete batteries like (Cu/active carbon/ORMOCER(R)/LiCoO2/Al) with an ORMOCER......(R) as separator electrolyte were measured. The voltage drop of these batteries is very similar to cells with standard liquid electrolytes and the efficiency is close to 100%. Cycling the batteries with a current density of 0.25 mA cm(-2) between the voltage limits of 3.1 and 4.1 V results in a charge...

  3. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  4. Preparation of micro-porous gel polymer for lithium ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Young; Kim, Seok Koo; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Hyang Mok; Ahn, Soonho

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a micro-porous gelling polymer layer which is formed on both the sides of support polyolefin separator with wet or dry processing technique. Morphologies of gel-coated layer are dependent on the compositions and process conditions, such as solvent/non-solvent combination and stretching ratios. The micro-porous gelling layer is used for the assembly of the lithium ion polymer battery of LG Chemical Ltd. The structure of battery is given elsewhere and the battery has excellent discharge performance with 94% of 2C discharge performance at room temperature

  5. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  6. Effect of a novel amphipathic ionic liquid on lithium deposition in gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam-Soon; Koo, Bonjae; Yeon, Jin-Tak; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Dong-Won

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Synthesis of a dimeric ionic liquid. · Gel polymer electrolytes providing uniform lithium deposit pathway. · An amphipathic ionic liquid locates at the interface between an electrolyte-rich phase and a polymer matrix in a gel polymer electrolyte. · The presence of PDMITFSI ionic liquid leads to the suppression of dendritic lithium formation on a lithium metal electrode. - Abstract: A novel dimeric ionic liquid based on imidazolium cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TFSI) anion has been synthesized through a metathesis reaction. Its chemical shift values and thermal properties are identified via 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the synthesized dimeric ionic liquid on the interfacial resistance of gel polymer electrolytes is described. Differences in the SEM images of lithium electrodes after lithium deposition with and without the 1,1'-pentyl-bis(2,3-dimethylimidazolium) bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (PDMITFSI) ionic liquid in gel polymer electrolytes are clearly discernible. This occurs because the PDMITFSI ionic liquid with hydrophobic moieties and polar groups modulates lithium deposit pathways onto the lithium metal anode. Moreover, high anodic stability for a gel polymer electrolyte with the PDMITFSI ionic liquid was clearly observed.

  7. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous polymer electrolytes for lithium ion polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Rae; Choi, Sung Won; Jo, Seong Mu; Lee, Wha Seop; Kim, Byung Chul

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the preparation of microporous fibrous membranes from PVdF solutions with different polymer contents, using the electrospinning technique. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous membranes with average fiber diameters (AFD's) of 0.45-1.38 μm have an apparent porosity and a mean pore size (MPS) of 80-89% and 1.1-4.3 μm, respectively. They exhibited a high uptake of the electrolyte solution (320-350%) and a high ionic conductivity of above 1 x 10 -3 s/cm at room temperature. Their ionic conductivity increased with the decrease in the AFD of the fibrous membrane due to its high electrolyte uptake. The interaction between the electrolyte molecules and the PVdF with a high crystalline content may have had a minor effect on the lithium ion transfer in the fibrous polymer electrolyte, unlike in a nanoporous gel polymer electrolyte. The fibrous polymer electrolyte that contained a 1 M LiPF 6 -EC/DMC/DEC (1/1/1 by weight) solution showed a high electrochemical stability of above 5.0 V, which increased with the decrease in the AFD The interfacial resistance (R i ) between the polymer electrolyte and the lithium electrode slightly increased with the storage time, compared with the higher increase in the interfacial resistance of other gel polymer electrolytes. The prototype cell (MCMB/PVdF-based fibrous electrolyte/LiCoO 2 ) showed a very stable charge-discharge behavior with a slight capacity loss under constant current and voltage conditions at the C/2-rate of 20 and 60 deg. C

  8. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-01-01

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF 3 SO 3- . The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10 -3 Scm -1 . The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn 2 O 4 cells

  9. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  10. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  11. Lithium-polymer batteries for EV applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The project initially held a strong 'battery materials' profile, but has moved in its final year into more 'battery engineering' aspects; the performances of a range of potential materials have been screened, and candidates have emerged. It is noteworthy that these same materials have also now become 'best-choice' materials in commercial Japanese Li-ion batteries for mobile-phone, lap-top and, more recently, even electric-vehicle (EV) applications. It is now clear that the Li-ion (polymer) battery offers a genuinely viable option in electric and electric-hybrid vehicle concepts. Specifically, our work has involved synthetic, structural, morphological and electrochemical studies of lithium insertion mechanisms in TMO-based cathodes (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiFePO{sub 4}, etc) and graphitic carbon anodes. Performance has been optimised from cell capacity, power, shelf-life and safety viewpoints. Cost has also emerged as a critical variable. Novel methods have been developed within the project for elevated-temperature battery studies (up to 80 deg C); they have become widely applied internationally. The electrode materials which have been developed have subsequently been incorporated into laboratory-scale lithium-ion battery prototypes, whose performance has then been evaluated. The final phase of the project has focussed on a new cathode material (LiFePO{sub 4}) not in current commercial use and yet ideally suited to EV application by virtue of its cheapness, high capacity (ca 170 mAh/g), high voltage vs. Li (3.5V), and extremely flat discharge curve. This could well prove to be the 'best compromise' Li-ion battery cathode for EV applications in the future.

  12. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  13. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  14. Development of the lithium polymer battery for the GM Precept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, R.; Richard, M.; Pomerleau, D.; St-Germain, P.; St-Pierre, C. [Argo-Tech Productions Inc., Boucherville, PQ (Canada); Gastonguay, L.; Choquette, Y. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Research Inst

    2000-07-01

    The role that Hydro-Quebec and Argo-Tech played in the development of the GM Precept was discussed. The prototype hybrid electric-powered vehicle is a 5-passenger family sedan developed by General Motors. It is expected to achieve 80 mpg efficiency and emit fewer exhaust gases. The car's energy storage system uses lithium polymer battery (LPB) technology developed jointly by Hydro-Quebec and Argo-Tech. The development team had to meet the objectives of the GM Precept program using a unique electrochemical configuration, module and pack design. This included battery management and thermal management systems. The performance targets and parameters for the prototype were established by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. In 1993, the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) issued a contract to Hydro-Quebec to further develop their ongoing research on the LPB for EV applications. This included improvements in base chemistry as well as in the development processes and manufacturing technologies needed to produce a high-performance, low-cost electric-vehicle battery, under a series of USABC cost-shared contracts. The design and performance data of the LPB in addition to tests at the cell level suggest that the commercialization of the LPB battery is achievable. Focus is now being placed on reproducibility and robustness. Commercialization is planned for 2005. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. In situ concentration cartography in the neighborhood of dendrites growing in lithium/polymer-electrolyte/lithium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissot, C.; Rosso, M.; Chazalviel, J.N.; Lascaud, S.

    1999-12-01

    The authors report on three different in situ and ex situ concentration measurement methods in symmetric lithium/polymer-electrolyte/lithium cells. The results were examined on the basis of a simple calculation of ionic concentration within the electrolyte, in the case where no dendrite is observed, this calculation accounts quantitatively for all experimental results. In the case of dendritic growth, the authors can measure the concentration distribution around the dendrites; this permits correlation of the active parts of the electrodes and of the growing dendrites with local ionic depletion in the vicinity of these active parts.

  16. Composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya

    Composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) films, consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as the membrane, DMF and PC as solvent and plasticizing agent, mixture of charge modified TiO2 and SiO 2 nano particles as ionic conductors, and LiClO4+LiPF 6 as lithium salts were fabricated. Following the work done by Li et al., CGPE was coated on an O2-plasma treated trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene membrane separator using solution casting technique in order to improve the adhesive properties of gel polymer electrolyte to the separator membrane and its respective ionic conductivity due to decreasing the bulk resistance. In acidic CGPE with, the mixture of acid treated TiO2 and neutral SiO2 nano particles played the role of the charge modified nano fillers with enhanced hydroxyl groups. Likely, the mixture of neutral TiO 2 nano particles with basic SiO2 prepared through the hydrolization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) provided a more basic environment due to the residues of NH4OH (Ammonium hydroxide) catalyst. The O2 plasma treated separator was coated with the solution of PVDF-HFP: modified nano fillers: Organic solvents with the mixture ratio of 0.1:0.01:1. After the evaporation of the organic solvents, the dried coated separator was soaked in PC-LiClO4+LiPF6 in EC: DMC:DEC (4:2:4 in volume) solution (300% wt. of PVDF-HFP) to form the final CGPE. Lim et al. has reported the enhanced ionic conductivity of 9.78*10-5 Scm-1 in an acidic composite polystyrene-Al2O3 solid electrolyte system with compared to that of basic and neutral in which the ionic conductivity undergoes an ion hopping process in solid interface rather than a segmental movement of ions through the plasticized polymer chain . Half-cells with graphite anode and Li metal as reference electrode were then assembled and the electrochemical measurements and morphology examinations were successfully carried out. Half cells demonstrated a considerable change in their

  17. Cycling performance of lithium polymer cells assembled by in situ polymerization of a non-flammable ionic liquid monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by in situ polymerization of ionic liquid in the lithium polymer cells. • Flammability of the electrolyte was significantly reduced by polymerizing electrolyte containing a non-flammable ionic liquid monomer. • The cells assembled with polymeric ionic liquid-based electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. -- Abstract: Lithium polymer cells composed of a lithium negative electrode and a LiCoO 2 positive electrode were assembled with a gel polymer electrolyte obtained by in situ polymerization of an electrolyte solution containing an ionic liquid monomer with vinyl groups. The polymerization of the electrolyte solution containing the non-flammable ionic liquid monomer resulted in a significant reduction of the flammability of the gel polymer electrolytes. The lithium polymer cell assembled with the stable gel polymer electrolyte delivered a discharge capacity of 134.3 mAh g −1 at ambient temperature and exhibited good capacity retention

  18. Electrospun polymer membrane activated with room temperature ionic liquid: Novel polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvally, Gouri; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Shin, Yong-Jo; Manuel, James; Raghavan, Prasanth; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Choi, Doo Seong; Song, Choong Eui

    A new class of polymer electrolytes (PEs) based on an electrospun polymer membrane incorporating a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been prepared and evaluated for suitability in lithium cells. The electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene) P(VdF-HFP) membrane is activated with a 0.5 M solution of LiTFSI in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) or a 0.5 M solution of LiBF 4 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF 4). The resulting PEs have an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 °C and anodic stability at >4.5 V versus Li +/Li, making them suitable for practical applications in lithium cells. A Li/LiFePO 4 cell with a PE based on BMITFSI delivers high discharge capacities when evaluated at 25 °C at the 0.1 C rate (149 mAh g -1) and the 0.5 C rate (132 mAh g -1). A very stable cycle performance is also exhibited at these low current densities. The properties decrease at the higher, 1 C rate, when operated at 25 °C. Nevertheless, improved properties are obtained at a moderately elevated temperature of operation, i.e. 40 °C. This is attributed to enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte and faster reaction kinetics at higher temperatures. At 40 °C, a reversible capacity of 140 mAh g -1 is obtained at the 1 C rate.

  19. Polymer electrolytes: an investigation of some poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K R; Golder, A J; Knight, J

    1984-04-01

    Poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions were synthesized and their electrical conductivities were measured to assess their suitability as electrolytes in safe, leakproof, high energy-density lithium batteries operating at ambient temperature. The effects on conductivity of temperature, and the nature and concentration of the salt were studied. The salts markedly improve conductivity of the compositions over that of the undoped polymer but they are insufficiently conducting to be considered as battery electrolytes, due possibly to ion pairing. Their creep resistance is also low. Less fluid compositions containing higher molecular weight polymers better able to promote ion separation are more suitable. (ESA)

  20. Heat transfer and thermal management studies of lithium polymer batteries for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li

    The thermal conductivities of the polymer electrolyte and composite cathode are important parameters characterizing heat transport in lithium polymer batteries. The thermal conductivities of lithium polymer electrolytes, including poly-ethylene oxide (PEO), PEO-LiClO4, PEO-LiCF3SO 3, PEO-LiN(CF3SO2)2, PEO-LiC(CF 3SO2)3, and the thermal conductivities of TiS 2 and V6O13 composite cathodes, were measured over the temperature range from 25°C to 150°C by a guarded heat flow meter. The thermal conductivities of the electrolytes were found to be relatively constant for the temperature and for electrolytes with various concentrations of the lithium salt. The thermal conductivities of the composite cathodes were found to increase with the temperature below the melting temperature of the polymer electrolyte and only slightly increase above the melting temperature. Three different lithium polymer cells, including Li/PEO-LiCF3 S O3/TiS2, Li/PEO-LiC(CF3 S O2)3/V6 O13, and Li/PEO-LiN(CF3 S O2)2/ Li1+x Mn2 O4 were prepared and their discharge curves, along with heat generation rates, were measured at various galvanostatic discharge current densities, and at different temperature (70°C, 80°C and 90°C), by a potentiostat/galvanostat and an isothermal microcalorimeter. The thermal stability of a lithium polymer battery was examined by a linear perturbation analysis. In contrast to the thermal conductivity, the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer cell increases greatly with increasing temperature, an instability could arise from this temperature dependence. The numerical calculations, using a two dimensional thermal model, were carried out for constant potential drop across the electrolyte, for constant mean current density and for constant mean cell output power. The numerical calculations were approximately in agreement with the linear perturbation analysis. A coupled mathematical model, including electrochemical and thermal components, was

  1. In-situ study of the dendritic growth in lithium/polymer electrolyte-salt/lithium cells; Etude in-situ de la croissance dendritique dans des cellules lithium/POE-sel/lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissot, C.; Rosso, M.; Chazalviel, J.N. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Baudry, P.; Lascaud, S. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-12-31

    The in-situ observation of dendritic growth in lithium/polymer electrolyte-LiTFSI/lithium battery cells shows that dendrites grow up with about the same rate as anion migration. Memory effects have been evidenced in cycling experiments and limit the dendrites length. An overall movement of the electrolyte due to variations of electrolyte concentration in the vicinity of the electrodes has been observed too. (J.S.) 13 refs.

  2. In-situ study of the dendritic growth in lithium/polymer electrolyte-salt/lithium cells; Etude in-situ de la croissance dendritique dans des cellules lithium/POE-sel/lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissot, C; Rosso, M; Chazalviel, J N [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Baudry, P; Lascaud, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    The in-situ observation of dendritic growth in lithium/polymer electrolyte-LiTFSI/lithium battery cells shows that dendrites grow up with about the same rate as anion migration. Memory effects have been evidenced in cycling experiments and limit the dendrites length. An overall movement of the electrolyte due to variations of electrolyte concentration in the vicinity of the electrodes has been observed too. (J.S.) 13 refs.

  3. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2013-09-16

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode, the material displays unprecedented cycling stability and excellent ability to prevent premature cell failure by dendrite-induced short circuits © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Plasma-modified polyethylene membrane as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Lee, Yongbeom; Lim, Dae Young

    2009-01-01

    The surface of polyethylene (PE) membranes as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery was modified with acrylonitrile (AN) using the plasma technology. The plasma-induced acrylonitrile coated PE (PiAN-PE) membrane was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion polymer cell fabricated with the PE and the PiAN-PE membranes were also analyzed. The surface characterization demonstrates that the enhanced adhesion of the PiAN-PE membrane resulted from the increased polar component of surface energy for the PiAN-PE membrane. The presence of the PiAN induced onto the surface of the membrane via the plasma modification plays a critical role in improving the wettability and electrolyte retention, the interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the separator, the cycle performance of the resulting lithium-ion polymer cell assembly. The PiAN-PE membrane modified by the plasma treatment holds a great potential to be used as a high-performance and cost-effective separator for lithium-ion polymer battery.

  5. Development of Gel Polymer Electrolytes Using Radiation for Lithium Secondary Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Ki; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Dong Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Recently, demands of high performance lithium battery are increased. Development of battery materials for high power, high capacity, high safety are also needed. This project deals with the new gel polymer electrolyte based on the microporous matrix with specific functions using radiation techniques.

  6. Ion-conducting lithium bis(oxalato)borate-based polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiter, Jakub; Dominko, R.; Nádherná, Martina; Jakubec, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 1 (2009), s. 133-138 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA AV ČR KJB400320701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : polymer electrolyte * 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate * lithium -ion battery Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  7. Performance of titanium dioxide-based cathodes in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, W.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Neat, R.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    Performance data on two polymorphs of titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) operating in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell at 120 C are presented. On the first discharge lithium ions can be electrochemically inserted into both forms to an approximate composition LiTiO[sub 2]. However, only the rutile material cycles with a significant capacity ([proportional to] 0.5 Li/TiO[sub 2]) with an average cell voltage of 1.73 V corresponding to a theoretical energy density of [proportional to] 290 W h kg[sup -1]. Our results are in contrast to earlier work reported on the intercalation of lithium into these phases at room temperature, where only the anatase form was found to intercalate lithium. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the rutile form undergoes a structural change during the first discharge resulting in the formation of a hexagonal form of LiTiO[sub 2].

  8. Geometric optimization of a neutron detector based on a lithium glass–polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M., E-mail: mike.f.mayer@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nattress, J. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Trivelpiece, C. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We report on the simulation and optimization of a neutron detector based on a glass–polymer composite that achieves high gamma rejection. Lithium glass is embedded in polyvinyltoluene in three geometric forms: disks, rods, and spheres. Optimal shape, geometric configuration, and size of the lithium glass fragments are determined using Geant4 simulations. All geometrical configurations maintain an approximate 7% glass to polymer mass ratio. Results indicate a 125-mm diameter as the optimal detector size for initial prototype design achieving a 10% efficiency for the thermalization of incident fission neutrons from {sup 252}Cf. The geometrical features of a composite detector are shown to have little effect on the intrinsic neutron efficiency, but a significant effect on the gamma rejection is observed. The sphere geometry showed the best overall performance with an intrinsic neutron efficiency of approximately 6% with a gamma rejection better than 10{sup −7} for 280-μm diameter spheres. These promising results provide a motivation for prototype composite detector development based on the simulated designs. - Highlights: • Composite polymer–lithium glass scintillation detector is simulated. • Polymer is considered to be non-scintillating in the simulation. • Three forms of lithium glass are considered: disks, rods, and spheres. • Glass shape has a small effect on neutron efficiency. • Glass shape has a significant effect on gamma rejection.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte on the basis of polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanin, G.P.; Dumler, S.A.; Sablin, A.N.; Novakov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction in the system polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate was investigated by IR spectroscopy, differential thermal and X-ray structural analyses. Specific electric conductivity of the prepared composition has been measured. Solid polymer electrolytes on the basis of polyethylene carbonate have conducting properties as electrolytes on the basis of unmodified polyethylene oxide. Compositions of polyethylene carbonate : LiClO 4 =10 : 1Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 possess maximum value of electrical conductivity. Activation energies of the process is calculated for all investigated compositions, and dependence of these values from concentration of lithium perchlorate is established

  10. PVDF-HFP-based porous polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Ruiying; Liu, Bowen; Zhu, Zhongzheng

    2008-01-01

    As a potential electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries, a porous polymer electrolyte membrane based on poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a phase inversion method. The casting solution, effects of the solvent and non-solvent and addition of micron scale TiO2...... particles were investigated. The membranes were characterized by SEM, XRD, AC impedance, and charge/discharge tests. By using acetone as the solvent and water as the non-solvent, the prepared membranes showed good ability to absorb and retain the lithium ion containing electrolyte. Addition of micron TiO2...

  11. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl 2 O 4 )] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF 6 in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl 2 O 4 exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10 −3 S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO 2 coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl 2 O 4 ] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator

  12. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Enables High-Efficiency Recognition and Trapping Lithium Polysulfides for Stable Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Qian, Tao; Wang, Mengfan; Liu, Xuejun; Xu, Na; You, Yizhou; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-08-09

    Using molecularly imprinted polymer to recognize various target molecules emerges as a fascinating research field. Herein, we applied this strategy for the first time to efficiently recognize and trap long-chain polysulfides (Li 2 S x , x = 6-8) in lithium sulfur battery to minimize the polysulfide shuttling between anode and cathode, which enables us to achieve remarkable electrochemical performance including a high specific capacity of 1262 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C and superior capacity retention of over 82.5% after 400 cycles at 1 C. The outstanding performance is attributed to the significantly reduced concentration of long-chain polysulfides in electrolyte as evidenced by in situ UV/vis spectroscopy and Li 2 S nucleation tests, which were further confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The molecular imprinting is demonstrated as a promising approach to effectively prevent the free diffusion of long-chain polysulfides, providing a new avenue to efficiently recognize and trap lithium polysulfides for high-performance lithium sulfur battery with greatly suppressed shuttle effect.

  13. Lithium secondary batteries: Role of polymer cathode morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Katsuhiko; Osaka, Tetsuya; Owens, Boone B.

    1988-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers have been utilized both as the cathode and as the electrolyte element of Li secondary cells. Polymer cathodes were limited in their suitability for batteries because of the low energy content associated with low levels of doping and the inclusion of complex ionic species in the cathode. Recent studies have indicated that doping levels up to 100 percent can be achieved in polyanilene. High doping levels in combination with controlled morphologies have been found to improve the energy and rate capabilities of polymer cathodes. A morphology-modifying technique was utilized to enhance the charge/discharge characteristics of Li/liquid electrolyte polypyrrole cells. The polymer is electropolymerized in a preferred orientation morphology when the substrate is first precoated with an insulating film of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). Modification of the kinetic behavior of the electrode results from variations in the chemical composition of the NBR.

  14. Poly(vinylpyridine-co-styrene) based in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sijin; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Changjin; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Kang, Yongku

    2011-01-01

    A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was successfully prepared by means of an in situ cross-linking reaction of poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene) and oligo(ethylene oxide) with epoxide functional groups at 65 °C without using a polymerization initiator. A stable gel polymer electrolyte could be obtained by adding only 1% of a polymer gelator. The ionic conductivity of the GPE containing 99 wt% of liquid electrolyte was measured to be ca. 10 −2 S/cm at the ambient temperature. The ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE was comparable to that of a pure liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical stability window of the prepared gel polymer electrolytes was measured to be 5.2 V. The test cell carried a discharge capacity of 133.2 mAh/g at 0.1 C and showed good cycling performance with negligible capacity fading after the 200th cycle, maintaining 99.5% coulombic efficiency throughout 200 cycles. The resulting gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal cross-linking without a polymerization initiator holds promise for application to on the high power lithium-ion polymer batteries.

  15. Investigations on PVdF- HFP - PEMA polymer blend electrolytes doped with different lithium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojkumar Ubarhande, Radha; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Usha Rani, M.; Shanker Babu, Ravi; Krishnaveni, S.

    2017-11-01

    Plasticized polymer blend electrolytes were prepared by incorporating poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)(PVdF-HFP) and poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) complexed with plasticizer (PC) and different lithium salts such as LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3 and LiN (CF3SO2)2) using solution-casting technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red techniques confirms the structural characters and complex formation of the polymer electrolytes respectively. AC impedance analysis was carried out for all the samples in the range303-373K. The results suggest that among the various lithium salts, LiN (CF3SO2)2) based electrolytes exhibited the highest ionic conductivity (3.17 × 10-3 Scm-1).

  16. Polymer electrolytes: an investigation of some poly (n-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K R; Golder, A J; Knight, J

    1984-04-01

    Some poly(N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions have been synthesized and their electrical conductivities have been measured in order to assess their suitability as electrolytes in safe, leakproof, high energy-density lithium batteries operating at ambient temperature. The effects on conductivity of temperature, and the nature and concentration of the salt have also been studied. The presence of the salts markedly improved the conductivity of the compositions over that of the undoped polymer but they were insufficiently conducting to be considered as battery electrolytes, due possibly to ion-pairing. Their creep resistance was also low. It was concluded that less fluid compositions containing higher molecular weight polymers better able to promote ion separation would be more suitable.

  17. Lithium polymer batteries and proton exchange membrane fuel cells as energy sources in hydrogen electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    This paper deals with the application of lithium ion polymer batteries as electric energy storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell power trains. The experimental study was firstly effected in steady state conditions, to evidence the basic features of these systems in view of their application in the automotive field, in particular charge-discharge experiments were carried at different rates (varying the current between 8 and 100 A). A comparison with conventional lead acid batteries evidenced the superior features of lithium systems in terms of both higher discharge rate capability and minor resistance in charge mode. Dynamic experiments were carried out on the overall power train equipped with PEM fuel cell stack (2 kW) and lithium batteries (47.5 V, 40 Ah) on the European R47 driving cycle. The usage of lithium ion polymer batteries permitted to follow the high dynamic requirement of this cycle in hard hybrid configuration, with a hydrogen consumption reduction of about 6% with respect to the same power train equipped with lead acid batteries.

  18. Comparative study of polymer matrices for gelled electrolytes of lithium batteries; Etude comparative de matrices polymeres pour electrolytes gelifies de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pasquier, A.; Sarrazin, C.; Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Andrieu, X. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    A solid electrolyte for lithium batteries requires several properties: a good ionic conductivity of about 10{sup -3} S/cm at 298 deg. K, a high cationic transport number (greater than 0.5), a redox stability window higher than 4.5 V, a good stability of the interface with the lithium electrode, and a sufficient mechanical stability. The family of gelled or hybrid electrolytes seems to meet all these requirements. Thus, a systematic study of the gelling of an ethylene carbonate and lithium bistrifluorosulfonimide (LiTFSI) based electrolyte has been carried out. The polymers used for gel or pseudo-gel synthesis are POE, PMMA and PAN which represent 3 different cases of interaction with the electrolyte. All the properties mentioned above have been studied according to the nature of the polymer and to the concentration of lithium salt, showing the advantages and drawbacks of each polymer. The possibility of using some of these gels in lithium-ion batteries has been tested by lithium intercalation tests in UF2 graphite at the C/10 regime and by the cycling of LiCoO{sub 2}/UF{sub 2} batteries at the C/5 regime. Interesting performances have been obtained on Li/PPy batteries which can operate at the 7.5 C regime. (J.S.)

  19. Comparative study of polymer matrices for gelled electrolytes of lithium batteries; Etude comparative de matrices polymeres pour electrolytes gelifies de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pasquier, A; Sarrazin, C; Fauvarque, J F [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Andrieu, X [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    A solid electrolyte for lithium batteries requires several properties: a good ionic conductivity of about 10{sup -3} S/cm at 298 deg. K, a high cationic transport number (greater than 0.5), a redox stability window higher than 4.5 V, a good stability of the interface with the lithium electrode, and a sufficient mechanical stability. The family of gelled or hybrid electrolytes seems to meet all these requirements. Thus, a systematic study of the gelling of an ethylene carbonate and lithium bistrifluorosulfonimide (LiTFSI) based electrolyte has been carried out. The polymers used for gel or pseudo-gel synthesis are POE, PMMA and PAN which represent 3 different cases of interaction with the electrolyte. All the properties mentioned above have been studied according to the nature of the polymer and to the concentration of lithium salt, showing the advantages and drawbacks of each polymer. The possibility of using some of these gels in lithium-ion batteries has been tested by lithium intercalation tests in UF2 graphite at the C/10 regime and by the cycling of LiCoO{sub 2}/UF{sub 2} batteries at the C/5 regime. Interesting performances have been obtained on Li/PPy batteries which can operate at the 7.5 C regime. (J.S.)

  20. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  1. How a gel polymer electrolyte affects performance of lithium/sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Tran, Dat T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Conventional separator is coated with a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite layer. •Composite coating increases tensile strength and electrolyte wettability. •Coated separator offers an alternative approach for making gel polymer Li/S battery. •Li/S battery takes benefits of gel polymer electrolyte at the expense of capacity. -- Abstract: Gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) and composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) have been widely employed to improve the safety and cycling performance of rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. In order to determine whether this approach is applicable to lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery, we examine the effect of CGPE on the cycling and storage performances of Li/S cells by comparing a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite coated separator (C-separator) with a pristine separator (P-separator). Results show that the composite coating significantly enhances the wettability of liquid electrolyte on the separator and that resulting CGPE can tightly glue the separator and electrode together. In comparison with the P-separator, the C-separator offers Li/S cells similar capacity retention and rate capability; however it greatly affects the specific capacity of sulfur. The analysis on the impedance spectrum of a lithium polysulfide (PS) solution reveal that the reduction of sulfur specific capacity is due to the high viscosity of the CGPE and the strong adsorption of SiO 2 filler to the PS species, which trap PS species in the separator and hence reduce the utilization of sulfur active material. Therefore, the benefits of the GPE and CGPE to the Li/S batteries can be taken only at the expense of sulfur specific capacity

  2. Structural, thermal and ion transport properties of radiation grafted lithium conductive polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud [Business and Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: mahmoudeithar@mailcity.com; Saidi, Hamdani [Business and Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-10

    Structural, thermal and ion transport properties of lithium conductive polymer electrolytes prepared by radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films and subsequent activation with LiPH{sub 6}/EC/DEC liquid electrolyte were investigated in correlation with the content of the grafted polystyrene (Y%). The changes in the structure were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the thermal stability. The ionic conductivity was measured by means of ac impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures. The polymer electrolytes were found to undergo considerable structural and morphological changes that resulted in a noticeable increase in their ionic conductivity with the increase in Y% at various temperatures (25-65 deg. C). The ionic conductivity achieved a value of 1.61 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} when Y of the polymer electrolyte reached 50% and at 25 deg. C. The polymer electrolytes also showed a multi-step degradation behaviour and thermal stability up to 120 deg. C, which suits normal lithium battery operation temperature range. The overall results of this work suggest that the structural changes took place in PVDF matrix during the preparation of these polymer electrolytes have a strong impact on their various properties.

  3. Effects of Capacity Ratios between Anode and Cathode on Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon-Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min; Kim, Keon; Yi, Cheol-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The areal capacity ratio of negative to positive electrodes (N/P ratio) is the most important factor to design the lithium ion batteries with high performance in the consideration of balanced electrochemical reactions. In this study, the effect of N/P ratio (1.10, 1.20, and 1.30) on electrochemical properties has been investigated with a lithium polymer battery with PVdF-coated separator and 1.40 Ah of capacity. The N/P ratio is controlled by adjusting the anode thickness with a fixed anode density. The cell with an N/P ratio higher than 1.10 effectively suppresses the lithium plating at the 0.85C-rate charging at 25 °C and the cell with 1.20 of N/P ratio shows the enhanced cycle performance in comparison with other cells. Among the cells with differently designed N/P ratios, significant difference was not observed in the aging test with fully charged batteries at 25 and 45 °C. The effect of N/P ratio on electrochemical properties of lithium batteries can help to design the safe full cell without lithium plating

  4. New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

  5. Single-ion conducting polymer-silicate nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, Mary; Galvin, Mary E.; Trapa, Patrick E.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Mayes, Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-state polymer-silicate nanocomposite electrolytes based on an amorphous polymer poly[(oxyethylene) 8 methacrylate], POEM, and lithium montmorillonite clay were fabricated and characterized to investigate the feasibility of their use as 'salt-free' electrolytes in lithium polymer batteries. X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies indicate the formation of an intercalated morphology in the nanocomposites due to favorable interactions between the polymer matrix and the clay. The morphology of the nanocomposite is intricately linked to the amount of silicate in the system. At low clay contents, dynamic rheological testing verifies that silicate incorporation enhances the mechanical properties of POEM, while impedance spectroscopy shows an improvement in electrical properties. With clay content ≥15 wt.%, mechanical properties are further improved but the formation of an apparent superlattice structure correlates with a loss in the electrical properties of the nanocomposite. The use of suitably modified clays in nanocomposites with high clay contents eliminates this superstructure formation, yielding materials with enhanced performance

  6. Ion Transport and Structure in Polymer Electrolytes with Applications in Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati

    When mixed with lithium salts, polymers that contain more than one chemical group, such as block copolymers and endgroup-functionalized polymers, are promising electrolyte materials for next-generation lithium batteries. One chemical group can provide good ion solvation and transport properties, while the other chemical group can provide secondary properties that improve the performance characteristics of the battery. Secondary properties of interest include non-flammability for safer lithium ion batteries and high mechanical modulus for dendrite resistance in high energy density lithium metal batteries. Block copolymers and other materials with multiple chemical groups tend to exhibit nanoscale heterogeneity and can undergo microphase separation, which impacts the ion transport properties. In block copolymers that microphase separate, ordered self-assembled structures occur on longer length scales. Understanding the interplay between structure at different length scales, salt concentration, and ion transport is important for improving the performance of multifunctional polymer electrolytes. In this dissertation, two electrolyte materials are characterized: mixtures of endgroup-functionalized, short chain perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt, and mixtures of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS- b-PEO; SEO) and LiTFSI. The PFPE/LiTFSI electrolytes are liquids in which the PFPE backbone provides non-flammability, and the endgroups resemble small molecules that solvate ions. In these electrolytes, the ion transport properties and nanoscale heterogeneity (length scale 1 nm) are characterized as a function of endgroup using electrochemical techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and wide angle X-ray scattering. Endgroups, especially those containing PEO segments, have a large impact on ionic conductivity, in part because the salt distribution is not homogenous; we find that salt partitions

  7. Polycarbonate-based polyurethane as a polymer electrolyte matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junjie; Shi, Gaojian; Tao, Can; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Chen; Cheng, Liang; Qian, Gang; Chen, Chunhua

    2018-06-01

    Four kinds of polycarbonate-based polyurethane with 8-14 wt% hard segments content are synthesized via reactions of polycarbonatediol, hexamethylene diisocyanate and diethylene glycol. The mechanical strength of the polyurethanes increase with the increase of hard segments content. Solid polymer electrolytes composed of the polycarbonate-based polyurethanes and LiTFSI exhibits fascinating characteristics for all-solid-state lithium batteries with a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C, an electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V (vs. Li+/Li), excellent mechanical strength and superior interfacial stability against lithium metal. The all-solid-state batteries using LiFePO4 cathode can deliver high discharge capacities (161, 158, 134 and 93 mAh g-1 at varied rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 C) at 80 °C and excellent cycling performance (with 91% capacity retention after 600 cycles at 1 C). All the results indicate that such a polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte can be a promising candidate for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  8. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  9. Study on property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries; Lithium niji denchi no tame no keisha tokusei kobunshi denkaishitsu no sosei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokumi, Z; Kanemura, S; Inaba, M; Takehara, Z; Yao, K; Uchimoto, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the fundamental experiments for creating property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries. The rechargeable lithium battery is composed of an anodic composite agent section with high ion conductivity, a separator equivalent section with high mechanical strength (high bridging degree), and a section surpressing the precipitation of metal lithium by contacting with it. The continuous property-gradient polymer electrolyte was tried to be synthesized by means of the plasma polymerization method. As a result, plasma polymerization electrolyte with high ion conductivity could be prepared from the liquid phase by using a monomer with low vapor pressure. Porous material simulating the anodic composite agent was impregnated by the monomer, which was plasma-polymerized. As a result, it was found that the bridging degree decreased from the surface towards the inside of the plasma-polymerized porous material. In addition, polymer was prepared using fluorine-base monomer. Thus, LiF thin film could be prepared through the reaction between the polymer and metal lithium. 3 figs.

  10. Extensive EIS characterization of commercially available lithium polymer battery cell for performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    or degradation of an electrochemical system. Used for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, this method allows for a fast and accurate assessment of the battery's impedance at any working point, without modifying the state of the battery. The influence of the operating conditions, state of charge (SOC) and temperature...... on the performance of a commercially available 53 Ah Lithium polymer battery cell, manufactured by Kokam Co. Ltd., is investigated in laboratory experiments, at its beginning of life, by means of EIS. A data fitting algorithm was used to obtain the parameter values for the proposed equivalent electrical circuit......, which was further selected for the development of an accurate EIS based performance model for the chosen Li-ion battery cell....

  11. Electrochemical study of lithium insertion into carbon-rich polymer-derived silicon carbonitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, Jan; Mera, Gabriela; Nowak, Andrzej P.; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Riedel, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the lithium insertion into carbon-rich polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic synthesized by the thermal treatment of poly(diphenylsilylcarbodiimide) at three temperatures, namely 1100, 1300, and 1700 o C under 0.1 MPa Ar atmosphere. At lower synthesis temperatures, the material is X-ray amorphous, while at 1700 o C, the SiCN ceramic partially crystallizes. Anode materials prepared from these carbon-rich SiCN ceramics without any fillers and conducting additives were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometric charging/discharging. We found that the studied silicon carbonitride ceramics demonstrate a promising electrochemical behavior during lithium insertion/extraction in terms of capacity and cycling stability. The sample synthesized at 1300 o C exhibits a reversible capacity of 392 mAh g -1 . Our study confirms that carbon-rich SiCN phases are electrochemically active materials in terms of Li inter- and deintercalation.

  12. Truly quasi-solid-state lithium cells utilizing carbonate free polymer electrolytes on engineered LiFePO_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Cíntora-Juárez, Daniel; Pérez-Vicente, Carlos; Tirado, José L.; Ahmad, Shahzada; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonate free truly quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. • Simple and easy up scalable preparation by solvent free thermal curing. • LiFePO_4 cathode engineered by PEDOT:PSS interphase at the current collector. • Direct polymerization over the engineered electrode surface in one pot. • Stable lithium polymer cells operating in a wide temperature range. - Abstract: Stable and safe functioning of a Li-ion battery is the demand of modern generation. Herein, we are demonstrating the application of an in-situ free radical polymerisation process (thermal curing) to fabricate a polymer electrolyte that possesses mechanical robustness, high thermal stability, improved interfacial and ion transport characteristics along with stable cycling at ambient conditions. The polymer electrolyte is obtained by direct polymerization over the electrode surface in one pot starting from a reactive mixture comprising an ethylene oxide-based dimethacrylic oligomer (BDM), dimethyl polyethylene glycol (DPG) and lithium salt. Furthermore, an engineered cathode is used, comprising a LiFePO_4/PEDOT:PSS interface at the current collector that improves the material utilization at high rates and mitigates the corrosive effects of LiTFSI on aluminium current collector. The lithium cell resulting from the newly elaborated multiphase assembly of the composite cathode with the DPG-based carbonate-free polymer electrolyte film exhibits excellent reversibility upon prolonged cycling at ambient as well as elevated temperatures, which is found to be superior compared to previous reports on uncoated electrodes with polymer electrolytes.

  13. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  14. Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) embedded polymer electret for mechanical sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S.; Praveen, E.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) particles were synthesized by precipitation assisted high temperature solid state reaction. The particles were embedded in chitosan polymer and used as an electret. This electret was characterized for the suitability as a sensing element in vibration accelerometer. It is observed that LiB3O5 embedded electret exhibiting piezoelectric property. The electret is also giving an isolation of > 999 MΩ at 100 Vdc, 250 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1kVdc confirms compatible for intrinsically safe sensing alternative in vibration accelerometer.

  15. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF 3 SO 3 salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10 -10 Scm -1 is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 1.36x10 -5 Scm -1 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  16. Preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium batteries by radiation-induced graft copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud [Business and Advanced Technology Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Suppiah, Raja Rajeswary [Chemical Engineering Program, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 37150 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Mohd [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2004-07-30

    Polymer electrolyte membranes with different degrees of grafting were prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene monomer onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films and subsequent chemical activation with liquid electrolyte consisting of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate/diethylene carbonate (EC/DEC). The chemical changes in the PVDF films after styrene grafting and subsequent chemical activation were monitored by FTIR spectroscopic analysis and the crystallinity was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. The swelling in electrolyte solution (electrolyte uptake) and the ionic conductivity of the membranes were determined at various degrees of grafting. The conductivity of the membranes was found to increase with the increase in the degree of grafting and reached a magnitude of 10{sup -3} S/cm at a degree of grafting of 50%. The results of this work suggest that radiation-induced graft polymerization provides an alternative method to substitute blending in preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes for application in lithium batteries.

  17. Electrospun polyimide-based fiber membranes as polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiujun; Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Luning; Song, Yu; Shi, Qiao; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on electrospun polyimide (PI) membranes are incorporated with electrolyte solution containing 1 mol L −1 LiPF 6 /ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate to examine their potential application for lithium ion batteries. The as-electrospun non-woven membranes demonstrate a uniformly interconnected structure with an average fiber diameter of 800 nm. The membranes, showing superior thermal stability and flame retardant property compared to the commercial Celgard® membranes, exhibit high porosity and high uptake when activated with the liquid electrolyte. The resulting PI electrolytes (PIs) have a high ionic conductivity up to 2.0 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and exhibit a high electrochemical stability potential more than 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). They also possess excellent charge/discharge performance and capacity retention. The initial discharge capacities of the Li/PIs/Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells are 178.4, 167.4, 160.3, 148.3 and 135.9 mAh g −1 at the charge/discharge rates of 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, respectively. After 200 cycles at 5 C, a capacity around ∼146.8 mAh g −1 can be still achieved. The PI-based polymer electrolytes with strong mechanical properties and good electrochemical performance are proved to be promising electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

  18. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengwa, R. J., E-mail: rjsengwa@rediffmail.com; Dhatarwal, Priyanka, E-mail: dhatarwalpriyanka@gmail.com; Choudhary, Shobhna, E-mail: shobhnachoudhary@rediffmail.com [Dielectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur – 342 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  19. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  20. Conjugated polymer energy level shifts in lithium-ion battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Charles Kiseok; Eckstein, Brian J; Tam, Teck Lip Dexter; Trahey, Lynn; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-11-12

    The ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of widely used conjugated polymers are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in conventional electrochemical and lithium-ion battery media, and also by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in vacuo. By comparing the data obtained in the different systems, it is found that the IPs of the conjugated polymer films determined by conventional CV (IPC) can be correlated with UPS-measured HOMO energy levels (EH,UPS) by the relationship EH,UPS = (1.14 ± 0.23) × qIPC + (4.62 ± 0.10) eV, where q is the electron charge. It is also found that the EAs of the conjugated polymer films measured via CV in conventional (EAC) and Li(+) battery (EAB) media can be linearly correlated by the relationship EAB = (1.07 ± 0.13) × EAC + (2.84 ± 0.22) V. The slopes and intercepts of these equations can be correlated with the dielectric constants of the polymer film environments and the redox potentials of the reference electrodes, as modified by the surrounding electrolyte, respectively.

  1. Cross-Linked Solid Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben youcef, Hicham; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lago, Nerea; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Armand, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrated network Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) were fabricated by UV-induced cross-linking of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) matrix (M v = 5 × 10 6 g mol −1 ), comprising lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt (LiTFSI), at a molar ratio of EO:Li ∼ 30:1. The influence of the DVB content on the final SPE properties was investigated in detail. An increase of DVB concentration resulted in self-standing polymer electrolytes. The DVB cross-linker incorporation was found to decrease the crystallinity of the PEO matrix from 34% to 23%, with a decrease in the melting temperature (T m ) of the membrane from 50 °C to 34 °C. Moreover, the influence of the DVB concentration on the ionic conductivity was determined for polymer electrolytes with 0, 10, 20 and 45% DVB from room temperature (RT) to 80 °C. The resulting SPEs showed a high electrochemical stability of 4.3 V as well as practical conductivity values exceeding 10 −4 S cm −1 at 70 °C. Cycling performance of these semi-interpenetrated SPE’s have been shown with a Li metal polymer battery and all solid -state Li sulphur battery.

  2. Lithium/polymer batteries. Safety approach of the BT-EDF-CEA project; Accumulateurs lithium/polymere. Demarche securite du projet BT-EDF-CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascaud, S.; Baudry, P. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Bloch, D. [CEAGrenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1996-12-31

    The BT-EdF-CEA consortium for the development and the performance improvement of lithium/polymer batteries has carried out a safety analysis of the industrial risk and the risk for users linked with this new technology. The process chosen for the manufacturing of lithium/polymer batteries does not generate any particular risk of personnel or environmental contamination. Security tests have permitted to observe and analyze the behaviour of 4 Ah elements during thermal shocks, perforation and crushing, and during external short-circuit on 20 Ah elements. These tests demonstrate the great thermal stability and the excellent behaviour of batteries in the case of partial destruction. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  3. Lithium/polymer batteries. Safety approach of the BT-EDF-CEA project; Accumulateurs lithium/polymere. Demarche securite du projet BT-EDF-CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascaud, S; Baudry, P [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Bloch, D [CEAGrenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1997-12-31

    The BT-EdF-CEA consortium for the development and the performance improvement of lithium/polymer batteries has carried out a safety analysis of the industrial risk and the risk for users linked with this new technology. The process chosen for the manufacturing of lithium/polymer batteries does not generate any particular risk of personnel or environmental contamination. Security tests have permitted to observe and analyze the behaviour of 4 Ah elements during thermal shocks, perforation and crushing, and during external short-circuit on 20 Ah elements. These tests demonstrate the great thermal stability and the excellent behaviour of batteries in the case of partial destruction. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  4. To immobilize polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol for synthesizing new polymer electrolyte membrane of lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs are potentially applicable in lithium-ion batteries with high safety, low cost and good performance. Here, to take advantages of ionic conductivity and selectivity of borate ester-functionalized small molecules as well as structural properties of polymer nanocomposite, a strategy of immobilizing as-synthesized polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride (B-PEG/LiF in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol (GO/PVA to prepare a PEM is put forward. Chemical structure of the PEM is firstly characterized by 1H-, 11B- and 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, respectively, and then is further investigated under consideration of the interactions among PVA, B-PEG and LiF components. The immobilization of B-PEG/LiF in PVA-based structure is confirmed. As the interactions within electrolyte components can be further tuned by GO, ionic conductivity (~10–3 S·cm–1, lithium-ion transfer number (~0.49, and thermal (~273 °C/electrochemical (>4 V stabilities of the PEM can be obtained, and the feasibility of PEMs applied in a lithium-ion battery is also confirmed. It is believed that such PEM is a promising candidate as a new battery separator.

  5. One-pot in situ redox synthesis of hexacyanoferrate/conductive polymer hybrids as lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Zhang, Zixuan; Yang, Xianfeng; Chen, Xiaojun; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-09-14

    An efficient and adaptable method is demonstrated for the synthesis of lithium hexacyanoferrate/conductive polymer hybrids for Li-ion battery cathodes. The hybrids were synthesized via a one-pot method, involving a redox-coupled reaction between pyrrole monomers and the Li3Fe(CN)6 precursor. The hybrids showed much better cyclability relative to reported Prussian Blue (PB) analogs.

  6. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2012-01-01

    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  7. A New All-Solid-State Hyperbranched Star Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ailian; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Xu; Li, Zhengyao; Gao, Rui; Wu, Na; Guo, Yuguo; Li, Huayi; Zhang, Liaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer was successfully synthesized. • The star polymer electrolyte has good thermal stability and forming-film property. • The ion conductivity electrolyte can reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at room temperature. • The star polymer electrolyte has wide electrochemical windows of 4.7 V. - Abstract: A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer with hyperbranched polystyrene (HBPS) as core and polymethyl methacrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) as arms was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The obtained hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer (HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x) exhibited good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 372 °C. The transparent, free-standing, flexible polymer electrolyte film of the blending of HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) was successfully fabricated by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte with a molar ratio of [EO]/[Li] of 30 could reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at 30 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 83.7%), and 2.0 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"1 at 80 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 51.6%). The effect of the concentration of lithium salts on ionic conductivity was also investigated. The obtained all-solid-state polymer electrolyte possessed a wide electrochemical stability window of 4.7 V (vs. Li"+/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number (t_L_i"+) up to 0.31. The interfacial impedance of the fabricated LiÔöépolymer electrolyteÔöéLi symmetric cell based on hyperbranched star multi-arm polymer electrolyte exhibited good interfacial compatibility between all-solid-state polymer electrolyte and electrodes. The excellent properties of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte made it attractive as solid-state polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. PE-g-MMA polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium polymer battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Kun [Departments of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: gaokun@hit.edu.cn; Hu Xinguo [Departments of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yi Tingfeng [Departments of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Changsong [Departments of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-10-25

    PE-g-MMA membranes with different degrees of grafting (DG) were prepared by electron beam radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer onto polyethylene (PE) separator. The grafted membranes (GMs) were characterized using SEM, FTIR. The new polymer electrolytes based on GMs were prepared through immersion in a solution of LiPF{sub 6}-EC/DMC (1:1 by volume). It was found that the GMs with different DG exhibited the different uptake and retention ability of liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the ion conductivities of activated polymer electrolytes (APEs) were also found to vary with the different DG and reached a magnitude of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at the DG of 42%. Compared with those containing PE separators, the LiCoO{sub 2}-MCMB coin cells containing GMs demonstrated better cycle life and excellent rate performance.

  9. PE-g-MMA polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kun; Hu Xinguo; Yi Tingfeng; Dai Changsong

    2006-01-01

    PE-g-MMA membranes with different degrees of grafting (DG) were prepared by electron beam radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer onto polyethylene (PE) separator. The grafted membranes (GMs) were characterized using SEM, FTIR. The new polymer electrolytes based on GMs were prepared through immersion in a solution of LiPF 6 -EC/DMC (1:1 by volume). It was found that the GMs with different DG exhibited the different uptake and retention ability of liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the ion conductivities of activated polymer electrolytes (APEs) were also found to vary with the different DG and reached a magnitude of 10 -3 S cm -1 at the DG of 42%. Compared with those containing PE separators, the LiCoO 2 -MCMB coin cells containing GMs demonstrated better cycle life and excellent rate performance

  10. PE-g-MMA polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium polymer battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Kun; Hu, Xinguo; Yi, Tingfeng; Dai, Changsong [Departments of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-10-25

    PE-g-MMA membranes with different degrees of grafting (DG) were prepared by electron beam radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer onto polyethylene (PE) separator. The grafted membranes (GMs) were characterized using SEM, FTIR. The new polymer electrolytes based on GMs were prepared through immersion in a solution of LiPF{sub 6}-EC/DMC (1:1 by volume). It was found that the GMs with different DG exhibited the different uptake and retention ability of liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the ion conductivities of activated polymer electrolytes (APEs) were also found to vary with the different DG and reached a magnitude of 10{sup -3}Scm{sup -1} at the DG of 42%. Compared with those containing PE separators, the LiCoO{sub 2}-MCMB coin cells containing GMs demonstrated better cycle life and excellent rate performance. (author)

  11. New approaches to the design of polymer and liquid electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they do not interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference, and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation complexing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach, since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion complexing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF 3SO 3-. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane-based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2 M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in solubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6×10 -3 S cm -1. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn 2O 4 cells.

  12. Synthesis of Nanoscale Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using a Porous Polymer Precursor Method

    KAUST Repository

    Deshazer, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles of metal oxides with carefully controlled compositions can be easily prepared by the thermal decomposition of porous polymers, such as cellulose, into which solutions containing salts of the desired cations have been dissolved. This is a simple and versatile method that can be used to produce a wide variety of materials with a range of particle sizes and carefully controlled chemical compositions. Examples of the use of this method to produce fine particles of LiCoO2 and Li(NiMnCo)1/3O2, which are used in the positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries, are shown. Experiments have demonstrated that materials made using this method can have electrochemical properties comparable to those typically produced by more elaborate procedures. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  13. Electro-thermal modelling of polymer lithium batteries for starting period and pulse power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, P. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Neri, M. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Gueguen, M. [Bollore Technologies, Odet, 29 Quimper (France); Lonchampt, G. [CEA/CEREM, CENG-85X, 38 Grenoble (France)

    1995-04-01

    Since power capabilities of solid polymer lithium batteries can only be delivered above 60 C, the thermal management in electric-vehicle applications has to be carefully considered. Electro-thermal modelling of a thermally insulated 200 kg battery was performed, and electrochemical data were obtained from laboratory cell impedance measurements at 20 and 80 C. Starting at 20 C as initial working temperature, the battery reaches 40 C after 150 s of discharge in a 0.5 {Omega} resistance. At 40 C, the useful peak power is 20 kW. The energy expense for heating the battery from 20 to 40 C is 1.4 kWh, corresponding to 6% of the energy available in the battery. After a stand-by period of 24 h, the temperature decreases from 80 to 50 C, allowing efficient starting conditions. (orig.)

  14. Conductivity, dielectric behavior and FTIR studies of high molecular weight poly(vinylchloride)-lithium triflate polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, S.; Chai, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and dielectric measurements were carried out on these films over a wide frequency regime at various temperatures. The conductivity-temperature plots were found to obey classical Arrhenius relationship. The dielectric behavior was analysed using dielectric permittivity and dielectric modulus of the samples. FTIR studies show some simple overlapping and shift in peaks between high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt in the polymer electrolyte complexes

  15. Conductivity, dielectric behavior and FTIR studies of high molecular weight poly(vinylchloride)-lithium triflate polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: ramesh@mail.utar.edu.my; Chai, M.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2007-05-15

    Thin films of high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and dielectric measurements were carried out on these films over a wide frequency regime at various temperatures. The conductivity-temperature plots were found to obey classical Arrhenius relationship. The dielectric behavior was analysed using dielectric permittivity and dielectric modulus of the samples. FTIR studies show some simple overlapping and shift in peaks between high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt in the polymer electrolyte complexes.

  16. Transparent conducting polymer electrolyte by addition of lithium to the molecular complex chitosane-poly(aminopropyl siloxane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, S.; Retuert, P.J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2003-06-30

    Transparent lithium-ion conducting films were prepared by adding lithium perchlorate to a mixture of chitosane (CHI) and poly(aminopropylsiloxane) (pAPS) in a molar ratio 0.6:1 by sol-gel methods. The morphological and molecular properties, determined by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR, respectively, depend on the lithium salt concentration. The same techniques were also used for performing a 'titration' of the capacity of the film for incorporating lithium salt. Results show that about 0.8 mol lithium salt per mol chitosane can be added before the product losses the transparence and molecular compatibility characteristic of the pristine CHI/pAPS polymer complex. When lithium salt addition reaches the tolerance limit, anisotropically oriented patterns are observed in the hybrid films. Both transparence and ionic conductivity of the product appear to be related to the layered nature of formed nanocomposites. The properties of obtained films may be furthermore rationalized considering the chemical functionality and the Lewis donor-acceptor affinity of the components.

  17. Empirical survey of the application of commercial-graded Lithium Polymer batteries in military systems in conjunction with solar panels and fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an empirical survey into the comparative characteristics of commercial NiCd, Lithium-ion and Lithium Polymer batteries when applied in a range of man portable military radios. The focus is on when the expected load...

  18. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  19. Investigation on the determining factor in the performance of in situ fabricated lithium polymer secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Lingbo; Zhan Hui; Li Yajuan; Zhou Yunhong

    2008-01-01

    In our preliminary research, an in situ fabrication of the lithium polymer cell starting from Li/1 M LiTFSI in DOL + DME (2:1 by weight)/LiCoO 2 cell is successfully achieved owing to the electro-polymerization of DOL solvent. Basing on previous work, a comprehensive investigation on the new technology is conducted and some significant result is presented in this paper. The influence of three leading factors such as: current rate, upper limit voltage and temperature are laid a heavy emphasis. It is found that upper limit voltage is a prerequisite to the initiation of DOL polymerization as long as the operating temperature is kept far below the temperature limit for the occurrence of thermal-initiated polymerization. Once this requirement is satisfied, the current rate exerts a positive influence on DOL's electro-polymerization and helps to the formation of a conductive polymer electrolyte, but as another two factors are concerned, the case is just the reverse. And besides, benefiting from the 'regulation' effect of current rate, the lack of capacity retentivity that is encountered during the high-temperature or high-voltage cycling can be compensated by an electrochemical pretreatment. And finally, it is indicated that all the influential mechanism tightly related to the variation in the cell internal resistance

  20. Coordination Polymer Modified Separator for Mitigating Polysulfide Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-11-19

    The development of the new cathode and anode materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) with high energy density and outstanding electrochemical performance is of substantial technological importance due to the ever-increasing demand for economic and efficient energy storage system. Because of the abundance of element sulfur and high theoretical energy density, Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries have become one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation energy storage system. However, the shuttling effect of electrolyte-soluble polysulfides severely impedes the cell performance and commercialization of Li-S batteries, and significant progress have been made to mitigate this shuttle effect in the past two decades. Coordination polymers (CPs) or Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) have been attracted much attention by virtue of their controllable porosity, nanometer cavity sizes and high surface areas, which supposed to be an available material in suppressing polysulfide migration. In this thesis, we investigate different mechanisms of mitigating polysulfide diffusion by applying a layer of MOFs (including Y-FTZB, ZIF-7, ZIF-8, and HKUST-1) on a separator. We also fabricate a new free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(Benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 with rich hydroxyl (OH-) groups by using a simple, scalable and low cost method at air/water surface. Our results suggest that the chemical stability, the cluster morphology and the surface function groups of MOFs shows a greater impact on minimizing the shuttling effect in Li-S batteries, other than the internal cavity size in MOFs. Meanwhile, the new design of 2D coordination polymer efficiently mitigate the shuttling effect in Li-S battery resulting in a largely promotion of the battery capacity to 1407 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and excellent cycling performance (capacity retention of 98% after 200 cycles at 0.25C). Such excellent cell performance is mainly owing to the fancying physical and chemical structure controllability

  1. Study on performance of composite polymer films doped with modified molecular sieve for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuqing; Zhang Guodong; Du Tingdong; Zhang Lizao

    2010-01-01

    To improve the tensile strength and ionic conductivity of composite polymer films for lithium-ion batteries, molecular sieves of MCM-41 modified with sulfated zirconia (SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 , SZ), denoted as MCM-41/SZ, were doped into a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) matrix to fabricate MCM-41/SZ composite polymer films, denoted as MCM-41/SZ films. Examination by transmission electron microscope (TEM) shows that modified molecular sieves have lower aggregation and a more porous structure. Tensile strength tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical performance of MCM-41/SZ films, and then the electrochemical performance of batteries with MCM-41/SZ films as separators was tested. The results show that the tensile strength (σ t ) of MCM-41/SZ film was up to 7.8 MPa; the ionic conductivity of MCM-41/SZ film was close to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature; and the coulombic efficiency of the assembled lithium-ion battery was 92% at the first cycle and reached as high as 99.99% after the 20th cycle. Meanwhile, the charge-discharge voltage plateau of the lithium-ion battery presented a stable state. Therefore, MCM-41/SZ films are a good choice as separators for lithium-ion batteries due to their high tensile strength and ionic conductivity.

  2. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  3. Progress of the BT-EdF-CEA project. The lithium polymer battery; Avancees du projet BT-EdF-CEA. Batterie lithium polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginedes, D.; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Baudry, P.; Lascaud, S. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bloch, D.; Lebrun, N. [CEA Grenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium-polymer energy storage technology requires the production of thin films of huge surface. The BT-EdF-CEA consortium has studied the various manufacturing techniques of these films and their assembly. The process was chosen according to its productivity, low expensiveness, ecological impact and energy performances with capacities reaching 40 Ah. This paper explains: the objectives and specifications of the project, the advantage of the consortium and the role of the different partners, the results (coating, dry extrusion and battery element manufacturing techniques), and the electrochemical performances of the elements. (J.S.)

  4. Polymer electrolyte for lithium batteries and fuel cells - A key element; L'electrolyte polymere pour batterie lithium et piles a combustible. Un element cle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.Y.; Chauvin, C.; Marechal, M.; Saunier, J.; Glandut, N.; Alloin, F.; My Ahmed Said, A.S.; Guindet, J. [Institut National Polytechnique, ENSEEG/INPG, LEPMI, 38 - Grenoble (France); Chabert, F.; El Kissi, N. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Hydraulique et de Mecanique de Grenoble, ENSHMG/INPG, 38 - Grenoble (France); Lojoiu, C. [ERAS-Labo 222, 38 - Saint Nazaires les Eymes (France); Dufresne, A. [CERMAV/CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2003-10-01

    Fuel cells and lithium batteries based on polymer electrolytes are promising technologies. A global approach of these materials, including their functional as well as their structural properties and the film forming conditions is necessary. At the junction of several scientific fields - i.e. chemistry, electrochemistry, physical chemistry, rheology - the development of new materials requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The huge variety of macromolecular structure, as the opportunity to incorporate the ionic function onto the macromolecular backbone, will allow many draw-backs related to the use of liquid electrolytes to be overcame. (authors)

  5. Progress of the BT-EdF-CEA project. The lithium polymer battery; Avancees du projet BT-EdF-CEA. Batterie lithium polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginedes, D; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Baudry, P; Lascaud, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bloch, D; Lebrun, N [CEA Grenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium-polymer energy storage technology requires the production of thin films of huge surface. The BT-EdF-CEA consortium has studied the various manufacturing techniques of these films and their assembly. The process was chosen according to its productivity, low expensiveness, ecological impact and energy performances with capacities reaching 40 Ah. This paper explains: the objectives and specifications of the project, the advantage of the consortium and the role of the different partners, the results (coating, dry extrusion and battery element manufacturing techniques), and the electrochemical performances of the elements. (J.S.)

  6. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  7. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes Based On PMMA / PEG And Penetrant Diffusion In Kraton Penta-Block Ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan

    The study of diffusion in polymeric material is critical to many research fields and applications, such as polymer morphology, protective coatings (paints and varnishes), separation membranes, transport phenomena, polymer electrolytes, polymer melt, and controlled release of drugs from polymer carriers [1-9]. However, it is still a challenge to understand, predict and control the diffusion of molecules and ions of different sizes in polymers [2]. This work studied the medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) in solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEG/PMMA) for Li-based batteries, and polymeric permselective membranes via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance. Over the past decades polymer electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their promising technological application as an ion-conducting medium in solid-state batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and chemical sensors [10, 11]. However, despite numerous studies related to ionic transport in these electrolytes the understanding of the migration mechanism is still far from being complete, and progress in the field remains largely empirical [10, 12-15]. Among various candidates for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) material, the miscible polymer pair, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA), is an attractive one, because there is a huge difference in mobility between PEO and PMMA in their blends, and PEO chains remain exceptionally mobile in the blend even at temperature below the glass transition temperature of the blend [ 16]. Thus the mechanical strength and dimensional stability is maintained by PMMA component, while the chain motions or rearrangements of the PEO component virtually contribute to the ion transport [17]. The current work prepared two types of SPE based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) /PMMA (40/60 by weight) for Li-based batteries: lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (Li

  8. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki; Yamamoto, Osamu

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M n(CF 3SO 3) n] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard® membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard® #3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5×10 -4 S cm -1 at 12 mol% for LiCF 3SO 3, 1.7×10 -4 S cm -1 at 1 mol% for Mg(CF 3SO 3) 2, and 2.1×10 -4 S cm -1 at 4 mol% for Zn(CF 3SO 3) 2 system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, Li|LiCF 3SO 3-SPE+Celgard® #3401|(CH 3) 4NI 5+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm 2.

  9. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Yamamoto, Osamu [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M{sup n}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n}] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard{sup trademark} membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 12 mol% for LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, 1.7 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 1 mol% for Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and 2.1 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 4 mol% Zn(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, li vertical stroke LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}-SPE+Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 vertical stroke (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}NI{sub 5}+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  10. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  11. Facile and Reliable in Situ Polymerization of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate)-Based Polymer Electrolytes toward Flexible Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Du, Huiping; Duan, Yulong; Xie, Guangwen; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-03-15

    Polycyanoacrylate is a very promising matrix for polymer electrolyte, which possesses advantages of strong binding and high electrochemical stability owing to the functional nitrile groups. Herein, a facile and reliable in situ polymerization strategy of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) via a high efficient anionic polymerization was introduced consisting of PECA and 4 M LiClO 4 in carbonate solvents. The in situ polymerized PECA gel polymer electrolyte achieved an excellent ionic conductivity (2.7 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) at room temperature, and exhibited a considerable electrochemical stability window up to 4.8 V vs Li/Li + . The LiFePO 4 /PECA-GPE/Li and LiNi 1.5 Mn 0.5 O 4 /PECA-GPE/Li batteries using this in-situ-polymerized GPE delivered stable charge/discharge profiles, considerable rate capability, and excellent cycling performance. These results demonstrated this reliable in situ polymerization process is a very promising strategy to prepare high performance polymer electrolytes for flexible thin-film batteries, micropower lithium batteries, and deformable lithium batteries for special purpose.

  12. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  13. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  14. Temperature dependence of electrochemical properties of cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)–lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide–N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetjen, Morten; Kim, Guk-Tae; Joost, Mario; Winter, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solid-state electrolyte for lithium batteries. ► Polymer electrolyte with improved mechanical properties by cross-linking. ► Enhanced performance of polymer electrolytes using water- and air-stable ionic liquids as co-salts. ► Polymer electrolyte with high rate capability at moderate temperatures. - Abstract: An advanced electrochemical characterization of cross-linked ternary solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), prepared by a solvent-free hot-pressing process, is reported. Ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability window and limiting current measurements were performed as a function of the temperature by using both potentiodynamic and galvanostatic techniques. Additionally, the lithium cycleability was evaluated with respect to its dependence on both the operating temperature and the current density by using a new multi-rate Li-stripping-plating procedure. The results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of higher operating temperatures on the rate-capability, without major degradation of the electrochemical stability of the SPE. All-solid-state lithium metal polymer batteries (LMPBs), comprising a lithium metal anode, the cross-linked ternary solid polymer electrolyte and a LiFePO 4 composite cathode, were manufactured and investigated in terms of the interdependencies of the delivered capacity, operating temperature and discharge rate. The results prove quite exceptional delivered capacities both at medium current densities at ambient temperatures and even more impressive capacities above 160 mAh g −1 at high discharge rates (1 C) and temperatures above 60 °C.

  15. Effect of nanosized silica in poly(methyl methacrylate)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S.; Lu, Soon-Chien [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-12-01

    The effect of nanosized silica when incorporated in polymer electrolytes is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, conductivity and thermal properties. Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are synthesized by the dispersion of nanosized silica (SiO{sub 2}), up to 10 wt.% maximum, into a matrix formed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest conductivity is 2.44 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature, with 4 wt.% of silica added. The FTIR spectra show evidence of complexation between PMMA, LiTFSI and SiO{sub 2}. The addition of silica to the polymer electrolytes also improves the thermal stability and the ability to retain conductivity over time. (author)

  16. Lithium polymer cell assembled by in situ chemical cross-linking of ionic liquid electrolyte with phosphazene-based cross-linking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji-Ae; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized and their electrochemical properties were investigated. ► Lithium polymer cells with in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. ► The use of ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes significantly improved the thermal stability of the cells. -- Abstract: Ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with a phosphazene-based cross-linking agent, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. Lithium polymer cells composed of lithium anode and LiCoO 2 cathode were assembled with ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte and their cycling performance was evaluated. The interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the electrolyte by in situ chemical cross-linking resulted in stable capacity retention of the cell. A reduction in the ionic mobility in both the electrolyte and the electrode adversely affected discharge capacity and high rate performance of the cell. DSC studies demonstrated that the use of ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes provided a significant improvement in the thermal stability of the cell

  17. Dynamic NMR studies of polymer electrolyte materials for application to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfan, Amish N.

    This dissertation investigates the structural and dynamical properties of polymer electrolyte materials for applications to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to characterize these materials. NMR aids in understanding the local environments of nuclei and the mobility of a molecular/ionic species. Five research projects were carried out, and they have been outlined in this work. NASA has developed rod-coil block copolymers for use as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The copolymers exhibit a microphase separation within their structure leading to the formation of ionically conducting channels. We studied ion transport properties of the copolymers, and determined the predominant mechanism for transport to occur in the amorphous phase. Seven gel polymer electrolytes, each containing a mixture of LiBETI salt and organic solvents, were studied. Two of them incorporated BMI (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts. BMI had been thought to enhance ion mobility. However, the BMI component was observed to restrict ion mobility. Gel polymer electrolytes containing LiTFSI salt and P13TFSI ionic liquid with or without the inclusion of ethylene carbonate (EC) were studied for application to lithium metal/air batteries, which have high theoretical energy densities. The addition of EC was found to improve lithium ion transport. The gels with EC therefore prove to be favorable for use as electrolytes in lithium metal/air batteries. Highly sulfonated poly(arylenethioethersulfone) (SPTES) membranes were examined for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) as an alternative to the Nafion membrane. DMFCs use methanol as a fuel instead of reformed hydrogen as in conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Compared to Nafion, the SPTES membranes were shown to retain water better at high temperatures and yield lower methanol diffusion. SPTES membranes with the

  18. Gel polymer electrolyte lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, M.C.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Behar, A.; Whitcanack, L.D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Yu, J.-S. [LG Chem/Research Park, P.O. Box 61Yu Song, Science Town, Daejon (Korea); Alamgir, M. [Compact Power, Inc., 1857 Technology Drive, Troy, MI 48083 (United States)

    2007-03-20

    For a number of NASA's future planetary and terrestrial applications, high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries that can operate at very low temperature are desired. In the pursuit of developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance, we have also focused on assessing the viability of using gel polymer systems, due to their desirable form factor and enhanced safety characteristics. In the present study we have evaluated three classes of promising liquid low-temperature electrolytes that have been impregnated into gel polymer electrolyte carbon-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based Li-ion cells (manufactured by LG Chem. Inc.), consisting of: (a) binary EC + EMC mixtures with very low EC-content (10%), (b) quaternary carbonate mixtures with low EC-content (16-20%), and (c) ternary electrolytes with very low EC-content (10%) and high proportions of ester co-solvents (i.e., 80%). These electrolytes have been compared with a baseline formulation (i.e., 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + DEC + DMC (1:1:1%, v/v/v), where EC, ethylene carbonate, DEC, diethyl carbonate, and DMC, dimethyl carbonate). We have performed a number of characterization tests on these cells, including: determining the rate capacity as a function of temperature (with preceding charge at room temperature and also at low temperature), the cycle life performance (both 100% DOD and 30% DOD low earth orbit cycling), the pulse capability, and the impedance characteristics at different temperatures. We have obtained excellent performance at low temperatures with ester-based electrolytes, including the demonstration of >80% of the room temperature capacity at -60 C using a C/20 discharge rate with cells containing 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + EMC + MB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (MB, methyl butyrate) and 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + EMC + EB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (EB, ethyl butyrate) electrolytes. In addition, cells containing the ester-based electrolytes were observed to support 5C pulses at -40 C, while still

  19. A Hierarchically Porous Hypercrosslinked and Novel Quinone based Stable Organic Polymer Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aziz; Meng, Qinghai; Melhi, Saad; Mao, Lijuan; Zhang, Miao; Han, Bao-Hang; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer has been prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. •The novel synthetic route of Poly-P5Q was introduced by the oxidation of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene. •A Friedel-Crafts reaction was employed to prepare a novel Poly-P5Q as organic cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. -- Abstract: In the recent years, organic electrode materials have attracted tremendous attention and becoming promising electrode candidates for the green and sustainable lithium-ion batteries. A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer was prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Poly-P5Q is the oxidized form of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene (Poly-DMP5A) which was obtained from the condensation of dimethoxypillar[5]arene and formaldehyde dimethyl acetal using Friedel-Crafts reaction. The prepared materials were characterized by 13 C solid state NMR, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. The Poly-P5Q cathode showed an initial discharge capacity up to 105 mAh g −1 whereas it retained 82.3% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a current speed of 100 mA g −1 in the potential window between 1.75 to 3.25 V. In future, research in this direction will provide great insight for the development of novel polymers from various small organic molecules as a stable and high performance electrode materials for green lithium-ion batteries.

  20. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF3SO3) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3 SO 3 ), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 2.83x10 -12 Scm -1 , 4.39x10 -11 Scm -1 and 3.93x10 -6 Scm -1 respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10 -5 Scm -1 . Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH 3 band.

  1. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Development of novel strategies for enhancing the cycle life of lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Allcock, Harry; Engelhard, George; Bomberger, N.; Gao, L.; Olmeijer, D.

    2001-04-30

    Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (Li/SPE) secondary batteries are under intense development as power sources for portable electronic devices as well as electric vehicles. These batteries offer high specific energy, high energy density, very low self-discharge rates, and flexibility in packaging; however, problems have inhibited their introduction into the marketplace. This report summarizes findings to examine processes that occur with Li/SPE secondary batteries upon cyclic charging/discharging. The report includes a detailed analysis of the impedance measured on the Li/SPE/IC and IC/SPE/IC systems. The SPE was a derivative of methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene (MEEP) with lithium triflate salt as the electrolyte, while the intercalated cathodes (IC) comprised mixtures of manganese dioxide, carbon powder, and MEEP as a binder. Studies on symmetrical Li/SPE/Li laminates show that cycling results in a significant expansion of the structure over the first few tens of cycles; however, no corresponding increase in the impedance was noted. The cycle life of the intercalation cathode was found to be very sensitive to the method of fabrication. Results indicate that the cycle life is due to the failure of the IC, not to the failure of the lithium/SPE interface. A pattern recognition neural network was developed to predict the cycle life of a battery from the charge/discharge characteristics.

  3. Dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.

  4. Recovery of metals from simulant spent lithium-ion battery as organophosphonate coordination polymers in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Emilie; Andre, Marie-Laure; Navarro Amador, Ricardo [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Hyvrard, François; Borrini, Julien [SARPI VEOLIA, Direction Technique et Innovations, Zone portuaire de Limay-Porcheville, 427 route du Hazay, 78520 Limay (France); Carboni, Michaël, E-mail: michael.carboni@cea.fr [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Meyer, Daniel [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Original waste disposal strategies for battery. • Precipitation of metals as coordination polymers. • Organo-phosphonate coordination polymers. • Selective extraction of manganese or co-precipitation of manganese/cobalt. • The recycling process give a promising application on any waste solution. - Abstract: An innovative approach is proposed for the recycling of metals from a simulant lithium-ion battery (LIBs) waste aqueous solution. Phosphonate organic linkers are introduced as precipitating agents to selectively react with the metals to form coordination polymers from an aqueous solution containing Ni, Mn and Co in a hydrothermal process. The supernatant is analyzed by ICP-AES to quantify the efficiency and the selectivity of the precipitation and the materials are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) and nitrogen gas sorption (BET). Conditions have been achieved to selectively precipitate Manganese or Manganese/Cobalt from this solution with a high efficiency. This work describes a novel method to obtain potentially valuable coordination polymers from a waste metal solution that can be generalized on any waste solution.

  5. Dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.

  6. Coordination Polymer Modified Separator for Mitigating Polysulfide Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The development of the new cathode and anode materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) with high energy density and outstanding electrochemical performance is of substantial technological importance due to the ever-increasing demand for economic

  7. Amphiphilic polymer promoted assembly of macroporous graphene/SnO2 frameworks with tunable porosity for high-performance lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Wu, Dongqing; Wang, Jinzuan; Han, Sheng; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-06-12

    3D macroporous graphene/SnO2 frameworks (MGTFs) are fabricated by amphiphilic polymer-promoted assembly method, which exhibit controllable macroporous structure and outstanding lithium storage performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A Long-Life Lithium-Air Battery in Ambient Air with a Polymer Electrolyte Containing a Redox Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyang; Li, Chao; Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2017-06-19

    Lithium-air batteries when operated in ambient air generally exhibit poor reversibility and cyclability, because of the Li passivation and Li 2 O 2 /LiOH/Li 2 CO 3 accumulation in the air electrode. Herein, we present a Li-air battery supported by a polymer electrolyte containing 0.05 m LiI, in which the polymer electrolyte efficiently alleviates the Li passivation induced by attacking air. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that I - /I 2 conversion in polymer electrolyte acts as a redox mediator that facilitates electrochemical decomposition of the discharge products during recharge process. As a result, the Li-air battery can be stably cycled 400 times in ambient air (relative humidity of 15 %), which is much better than previous reports. The achievement offers a hope to develop the Li-air battery that can be operated in ambient air. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Diffusion of Lithium Ions in Amorphous and Crystalline Poly(ethylene oxide)_3:LiCF_3SO_3 Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Sha; Liu, Yingdi; Li, Yaping; Teeters, Dale; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Wang, Sanwu

    2017-01-01

    The PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 polymer electrolyte has attracted significant research due to high conductivity and enhanced stability in lithium polymer batteries. Most experimental studies have shown that amorphous PEO lithium salt electrolytes have higher conductivity than the crystalline ones. Other studies, however, have shown that crystalline PEO salt complexes can conduct ions. As a result, further theoretical investigations are warranted to help clarify the issue. In this work, we use density functional theory with the climbing image nudged elastic band method to investigate the atomic-scale mechanism of lithium ion transport in the polymer electrolytes. We also use density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the amorphous structure of PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3. The diffusion pathways and activation energies of lithium ions in both crystalline and amorphous PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 are determined. In crystalline PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3, the activation energy for the low-barrier diffusion pathway is approximately 1.0 eV. In the amorphous phase, the value is 0.6 eV. This result would support the experimental observation that amorphous PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 has higher ionic conductivity than the crystalline phase.

  10. A Universal Strategy To Prepare Sulfur-Containing Polymer Composites with Desired Morphologies for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Zeng, Xierong; Tu, Wenxuan; Huang, Haitao; Yu, Liang; Yao, Yuechao; Jin, Nengzhi; Zhang, Qi; Zou, Jizhao

    2018-06-19

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are probably the most promising candidates for the next-generation batteries owing to their high energy density. However, Li-S batteries face severe technical problems where the dissolution of intermediate polysulfides is the biggest problem because it leads to the degradation of the cathode and the lithium anode, and finally the fast capacity decay. Compared with the composites of elemental sulfur and other matrices, sulfur-containing polymers (SCPs) have strong chemical bonds to sulfur and therefore show low dissolution of polysulfides. Unfortunately, most SCPs have very low electron conductivity and their morphologies can hardly be controlled, which undoubtedly depress the battery performances of SCPs. To overcome these two weaknesses of SCPs, a new strategy was developed for preparing SCP composites with enhanced conductivity and desired morphologies. With this strategy, macroporous SCP composites were successfully prepared from hierarchical porous carbon. The composites displayed discharge/charge capacities up to 1218/1139, 949/922, and 796/785 mA h g -1 at the current rates of 5, 10, and 15 C, respectively. Considering the universality of this strategy and the numerous morphologies of carbon materials, this strategy opens many opportunities for making carbon/SCP composites with novel morphologies.

  11. Advanced separators based on aromatic polymer for high energy density lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Woo, Jung-Je; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-21

    A process includes casting a solution including poly(phenylene oxide), inorganic nanoparticles, a solvent, and a non-solvent on a substrate; and removing the solvent to form a porous film; wherein: the porous film is configured for use as a porous separator for a lithium ion battery.

  12. Synthesis of Nanoscale Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using a Porous Polymer Precursor Method

    KAUST Repository

    Deshazer, H.D.; Mantia, F. La; Wessells, C.; Huggins, R.A.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    (NiMnCo)1/3O2, which are used in the positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries, are shown. Experiments have demonstrated that materials made using this method can have electrochemical properties comparable to those typically produced by more elaborate

  13. A QuaternaryPoly(ethylene carbonate)-Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-Ionic Liquid-Silica Fiber Composite Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kento; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Hassoun, Jusef; Panero, Stefania; Scrosati, Bruno; Tominaga, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quaternary PEC-LiTFSI-Pyr 14 TFSI-Silica fiber electrolyte was prepared by a solvent casting method. • Both electrochemical and mechanical properties were improved by the presence of the Silica fiber. • The electrolyte showed a t Li+ value of 0.36 with an anodic stability extended up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li + . • A prototype Li/LiFePO 4 polymer cell delivered a discharge capacity of about 100 mAh g −1 (75 °C, C/15). - Abstract: Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is known as an alternating copolymer derived from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and an epoxide as monomers. Here, we describe a new quaternary PEC-based composite electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt, N-n-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (Pyr 14 TFSI) ionic liquid, and an electrospun silica (SiO 2 ) fiber (SiF) with a submicron diameter in view of its possible applications in solid-state Li polymer batteries. A free-standing electrolyte membrane is prepared by a solvent casting method. The Pyr 14 TFSI ionic liquid enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte as a result of its plasticizing effect. The electrochemical properties, such as ionic conductivity and Li transference number (t Li+ ), as well as mechanical strength of the electrolyte, are further improved by the SiF. We show that the quaternary electrolyte has a conductivity of the order of 10 −7 S cm −1 at ambient temperature and a high t Li+ value of 0.36 with an excellent flexibility. A prototype Li polymer cell using LiFePO 4 as a cathode material is assembled and tested. We demonstrate that this battery delivers a reversible charge-discharge capacity close to 100 mAh g −1 at 75 °C and C/15 rate. We believe that this work may pave the road to utilize CO 2 as a carbon source for highly-demanded, functional battery materials in future

  14. Facile preparation of polymer electrolytes based on the polymerized ionic liquid poly((4-vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide)) for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingtao; Wang, Lu; Yang, Bolun; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (A) The main components of PIL electrolytes, (B) A PIL electrolyte sample. - Highlights: • A new polymer electrolyte incorporating a DEME-TFSI liquid is prepared. • The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes reaches 7.58 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 60 °C. • Batteries discharge 130 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C rates with good capacity retention. - Abstract: The polymer electrolytes based on a novel poly((4-vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide)) polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as polymer host and containing DEME-TFSI ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and nano silica are prepared. The polymer electrolyte is chemically stable even at a higher temperature of 60 °C in contact with lithium anode. Particularly, the electrolyte exhibits high lithium ion conductivity, wide electrochemical stability window and good lithium stripping/plating performance. When the IL content reaches 60% (the weight ratio of DEME-TFSI/PIL), the PIL electrolyte presents a higher ionic conductivity, and it is 7.58 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 60 °C. Preliminary battery tests show that Li/LiFePO 4 cells with the PIL electrolytes are capable to deliver above 130 mAh g −1 at 60 °C with very good capacity retention

  15. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Doris, Sean E; Li, Longjun; Hughes, Mark A; Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A; Helms, Brett A

    2017-05-24

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device's active materials when they enter the membrane's pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane's ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium-sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development.

  16. Functional Polymer Electrolytes for Multidimensional All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Pressing demands for high power and high energy densities in novel electrical energy storage units have caused reconsiderations regarding both the choice of battery chemistry and design. Practical concerns originating in the conventional use of flammable liquid electrolytes have renewed the interests of using solvent-free polymer electrolytes (SPEs) as solid ionic conductors for safer batteries. In this thesis work, SPEs developed from two polymer host structures, polyethers and polycarbonate...

  17. Preparation and characterization of novel solid polymer blend electrolytes based on poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) with various concentrations of lithium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, K., E-mail: kesavanphysics@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Mathew, Chithra M. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Rajendran, S., E-mail: sraj54@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Ulaganathan, M. [Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637 553 (Singapore)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.2307 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} for PEO(90 wt%)/PVP(10 wt%)/LiClO{sub 4}(8 wt%) based electrolyte at room temperature. • The structural and functional groups were studied by XRD and FTIR. • Both direct and indirect optical band gap values were evaluated from UV–vis analysis. • The change in viscosity of the polymer electrolytes was studied by photoluminescence spectra. - Abstract: A series of conducting novel solid polymer blend electrolytes (SPE) based on the fixed ratio of poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PEO/PVP) and various concentrations of salt lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) were prepared by solvent casting technique. Structural and complex formation of the prepared electrolytes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses. The maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.2307 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} for 8 wt% of LiClO{sub 4} based system at ambient temperature. Thermal stability of the present system was studied by thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). Surface morphology of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM). Optical properties like direct and indirect band gaps were investigated by UV–vis analysis. The change in viscosity of the polymer complexes were also identified using photoluminescence emission spectra. PEO(90)/PVP(10)/LiClO{sub 4}(8) has the highest conductivity which is supported by the lowest optical band gap and lowest intensity in photoluminescence spectroscopy near 400–450 nm.

  18. Surface-protected LiCoO2 with ultrathin solid oxide electrolyte film for high-voltage lithium ion batteries and lithium polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Huang, Jie; Li, Yejing; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Jiliang; Zhang, Jienan; Yu, Huigen; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2018-06-01

    Surface modification of LiCoO2 with the ultrathin film of solid state electrolyte of Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 (LATP) has been realized by a new and facile solution-based method. The coated LiCoO2 reveals enhanced structural and electrochemical stability at high voltage (4.5 V vs Li+/Li) in half-cell with liquid electrolyte. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that a dense LATP coating layer is covered on the surface of LiCoO2 uniformly with thickness of less than 20 nm. The LATP coating layer is proven to be able to prevent the direct contact between the cathode and the electrolyte effectively and thus to suppress the side reactions of liquid electrolyte with LiCoO2 surface at high charging voltage. As a result, dissolution of Co3+ has been largely suppressed over prolonged cycling as indicated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Due to this surface passivating feature, the electrochemical performance of 0.5 wt% LATP modified LiCoO2 has also been evaluated in an all solid lithium battery with poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte. The cell exhibits 93% discharge capacity retention of the initial discharge capacity after 50 cycles at the charging cut-off voltage of 4.2 V, suggesting that the LATP coating layer is effective to suppress the oxidation of PEO at high voltage.

  19. Preparation and application of PVDF-HFP composite polymer electrolytes in LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 lithium-polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lian, Zuo-Yu; Lin, S.J.; Shih, Jeng-Ywan; Chen, Wei-Houng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PVDF-HFP/SBA15 membrane and NCM cathode material were prepared for Li ion battery. • SBA15 fillers can trap more liquid electrolytes to enhance the ionic conductivity. • Modified fillers with functional groups play a key role in reducing impedance. • LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 polymer battery showed excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of a composite polymer electrolyte for application in LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 lithium-polymer batteries. Poly(vinylidiene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (denoted as PVDF-HFP) was used as the polymer host and mesoporous modified-silica fillers (denoted as m-SBA15) used as the solid plasticizer were added into the polymer matrix. The characteristic properties of the composite polymer membranes were examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and an AC impedance method. The discharge capacities of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 polymer batteries with a PE separator, pure PVDF-HFP polymer membrane, or a PVDF-HFP/10 wt.%m-SBA15 composite at 0.1 C were determined to be 155.5, 159.5, and 198.6 mAh g −1 , respectively. The LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 polymer battery containing the PVDF-HFP/10 wt.%m-SBA15 composite achieved discharge capacities of 194, 170, 161, 150, 129, 115, and 87 mAh g −1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 C, respectively. The lithium-polymer battery demonstrated a high coulomb efficiency of ca. 99%. The PVDF-HFP/m-SBA15 composite membrane is a strong candidate for application in LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 lithium-polymer batteries

  20. A composite of hollow carbon nanospheres and sulfur-rich polymers for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Zeng, Xierong; He, Qianjun; Zheng, Xianfeng; Chen, Shuangshuang; Tu, Wenxuan; Zou, Jizhao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are the most promising candidates for future high-energy applications because of the unparalleled capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1). However, lithium-sulfur batteries have limited cycle life and rate capability due to the dissolution of polysulfides and the extremely low electronic conductivity of sulfur. To solve these issues, various porous carbons including hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) have been used for improving the conductivity. However, these methods still suffer from polysulfides dissolution/loss owing to their weak physical adsorption to polysulfides. Herein, we introduced a covalent grafting route to composite the HCNs and the vulcanized trithiocyanuric acid (TTCA). The composite exhibits a high loading of the vulcanized TTCA by the HCNs with high surface area and large pore volume, and covalent bonds to sulfur, effectively depressing the dissolution of polysulfides. The first discharge capacity of the composite reaches 1430 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1227 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  1. Synthesis of manganese coordination polymer microspheres for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Hailong; Liu, Xin; Li, Zhiwei; Feng, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We achieve controllable synthesis of manganese 2,5-thiophene dicarboxylate microspheres with DMF and CTABr. • We perform research on changes in morphologies and crystalline structure. • It is a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: A simple and versatile method for preparation of novel manganese 2,5-thiophene dicarboxylate microspheres is developed via a surfactant-assisted solvo-thermal route, which are found to be a new high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows better cycling performance and higher discharge capacity than its counterpart of irregular shapes. A reversible capacity was achieved as high as 645.7 mA h g −1 after 250 cycles at a current density of 400 mA g −1 . Furthermore, the coulombic efficiency can be close to 100% even after 650 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 500 mA g −1

  2. Compliant gel polymer electrolyte based on poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl alcohol) for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xianguo; Huang, Xinglan; Gao, Jiandong; Zhang, Shu; Deng, Zhenghua; Suo, Jishuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Compliant gel polymer electrolyte based on P(MA-co-AN)/PVA is facilely prepared for flexible lithium-ion batteries. •The compliant gel polymer electrolyte displays high ionic conductivity, self-standing and mechanical flexible. •The compliant gel polymer electrolyte exhibits excellent chemical and electrochemical performances. -- Abstract: In this report, mechanically compliant gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) for flexible lithium-ion batteries is facilely fabricated. The GPE that based on the poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (P(MA-co-AN)/PVA) was prepared via emulsion polymerization. Herein, the P(MA-co-AN) copolymer is anticipated to exert beneficial for the bendability of the GPE, as well as swollen with the liquid electrolyte to provide a facile pathway for ion movement. The PVA serves as a stabilizer during the emulsion polymerization and a mechanical framework for the compliant polymer membrane. Performance benefits of the mechanically compliant membrane are elucidated in terms of mechanical behavior, thermostability and ionic conductivity. The GPE is still self-standing and mechanical flexible after swollen with liquid electrolyte. The GPE displays a conductivity of 0.98 mS cm −1 with the uptake electrolyte up to 150% of its own weight at 30 °C, excellent electrochemical stability window (5.2 V vs. Li/Li + ) and favorable interfacial characteristics. When used in flexible lithium-ion batteries, such a GPE demonstrates satisfactory compatibility with LiCoO 2 and graphite electrodes

  3. Application of polyacrylonitrile-based polymer electrolytes in rechargeable lithium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, K.S.; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based polymer electrolytes have obtained considerable attention due to their fascinating characteristics such as appreciable ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and mechanical stability. This study is based on the system PAN-ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbona...

  4. PEGDA/PVdF/F127 gel type polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan-Jie; Kim, Dukjoon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer Technology Institute, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi 440-746 (Korea)

    2007-03-30

    A novel porous gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) membrane based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), and polyethylene oxide-co-polypropylene oxide-co-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO, F127) was fabricated by a phase inversion technique. The PEGDA cross-linking oligomer could be randomly mixed with unraveled PVdF polymer chains to form the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure. Several experimental techniques including infrared (IR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiostat/galvanostat were employed to investigate the characteristics of the polymer membranes. PEGDA and F127 influenced the porous size and structure. The mechanical strength and flexibility of the membrane were controlled by its composition. The membrane with the composition of PEGDA/PVdF/F127 (0/4/4) showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 152.6% and the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.0 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature. All GPEs prepared in this study were electrochemically stable up to 4.5 V. (author)

  5. In situ growth of polymer electrolytes on lithium ion electrode surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Enany, Gaber; Lacey, Matthew J.; Johns, Phil A.; Owen, John R. [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton, Hants (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films were grown on glassy carbon, nickel foam and MnO{sub 2} substrates by cathodic electropolymerisation of acrylonitrile in acetonitrile with tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) as the supporting electrolyte. The electronic barrier properties of the films were confirmed by impedance spectroscopy of carbon vertical stroke PAN vertical stroke Hg cells while the ionic resistance of the films varied from 200 k{omega} cm{sup 2} in the dry state to 1.4 {omega} cm{sup 2} when plasticised with 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in propylene carbonate. A galvanic cell was prepared by successive electrodepositions of MnO{sub 2} and PAN on a carbon substrate, using liquid lithium amalgam as the top contact. The cell showed a stable open circuit potential and behaved normally under the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). (author)

  6. Preparation and performance of a novel gel polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene separator for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiuqing; Wu, Xiufeng; He, Junying; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride)/graphene (PVDF/graphene) gel polymer electrolyte is prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique for lithium ion battery application. The effect of graphene on the ion conductivity is investigated by AC impedance measurement. The relationship among the chemical structure, PVDF crystallinity, the graphene on macroporous formation and the ion conductivity are investigated. The results indicate that the graphene disperses homogenously in PVDF, and it also increases the porosity and decreases the crystallinity of the PVDF. At the same time, the unique structure increases the liquid uptake capability of PVDF/graphene polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of the PVDF/graphene polymer electrolyte increases significantly from 1.85 mS cm"−"1 in pristine PVDF to 3.61 mS cm"−"1 with 0.002 wt% graphene. It is found that graphene not only increases the ionic conductivity but also markedly enhances the rate capability and the cycling performances of coin cell. This study shows that PVDF/graphene gel polymer electrolyte is a very promising material for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Polymer-derived-SiCN ceramic/graphite composite as anode material with enhanced rate capability for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2011-08-01

    We report on a new composite material in view of its application as a negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries. A commercial preceramic polysilazane mixed with graphite in 1:1 weight ratio was transformed into a SiCN/graphite composite material through a pyrolytic polymer-to-ceramic conversion at three different temperatures, namely 950 °C, 1100 °C and 1300 °C. By means of Raman spectroscopy we found successive ordering of carbon clusters into nano-crystalline graphitic regions with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The reversible capacity of about 350 mAh g-1 was measured with constant current charging/discharging for the composite prepared at 1300 °C. For comparison pure graphite and pure polysilazane-derived SiCN ceramic were examined as reference materials. During fast charging and discharging the composite material demonstrates enhanced capacity and stability. Charging and discharging in half an hour lead to about 200 and 10 mAh g-1, for the composite annealed at 1300 °C and pure graphite, respectively. A clear dependence between the final material capacity and pyrolysis temperature is found and discussed with respect to possible application in batteries, i.e. practical discharging potential limit. The best results in terms of capacity recovered under 1 V and high rate capability were also obtained for samples synthesized at 1300 °C.

  8. Composite polymer electrolyte based on PEO/Pvdf-HFP with MWCNT for lithium battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwinraj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Selvakumar, K.; Prabhu, M. Ramesh, E-mail: email-mkram83@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present study PEO and PVdF-HFP blend based composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) has been prepared by using Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT), in order to examine the filler addition effect on the electrochemical properties. The complexed nanocomposite polymer electrolytes were obtained in the form of dimensionally stable and free standing films by using solution casting technique. The electrochemical properties of CPEs were measured by the AC impedance method. From the ionic conductivity results, the CPE containing MWCNT 2wt% showed the highest ionic conductivity with an excellent thermal stability at room temperature. The dielectric loss curve s for the sample 6.25wt% PEO: 18.75 wt% PVdF-HFP: 2wt% MWCNT reveal the low frequency β relaxation peak pronounced at high temperature, and it may caused by side group dipoles.

  9. Polymer containing functional end groups is base for new polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Butadiene is polymerized with lithium-p-lithiophenoxide to produce linear polymer containing oxy-lithium group at one end and active carbon-lithium group at other end. Living polymers represent new approach to preparation of difunctional polymers in which structural features, molecular weight, type and number of end groups are controlled.

  10. Preparation and characterization of MWCNT nanofiller incorporated polymer composite for lithium battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Raj, S. Edwin; Selvakumar, K.; Sowmya, G.; Prabhu, M. Ramesh, E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630 003, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Poly (ethyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting technique incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as filler and characterized using XRD and Ac impedance analysis. The electrical conductivity is increased with increasing filler concentration (upto 6wt %), which is attributed to the formation of charge transfer complexes. The maximum ionic conductivity value is found to be 1.171×10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 303K for PEMA (19wt %) -LiClO{sub 4} (8wt %) -MWCNT (6wt %) -PC (67wt %) electrolyte system. The temperature dependent ionic conductivity plot seems to obey Vogel -Tamman-Fulcher relation.

  11. Porous coordination polymer with flexibility imparted by coordinatively changeable lithium ions on the pore surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Solvothermal reactions of equimolar zinc acetate, lithium acetate, and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H(3)btc) in different mixed solvents yielded isostructural three-dimensional frameworks [LiZn(btc)(cG)].lG [cG and lG denote coordinated and lattice guests, respectively; cG = (nmp)(0.5)(H(2)O)(0.5), lG = (EtOH)(0.5) (1a); cG = H(2)O, lG = EtOH (1b); nmp = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone] with one-dimensional channels occupied by guest molecules and solvent-coordinated, extrusive Li(+) ions. Thermogravimetry analyses and powder X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that both 1a and 1b can lose all lattice and coordinated guests to form a desolvated phase [LiZn(btc)] (MCF-27, 1) and almost retains the original framework structure. Gas adsorption measurements on 1 confirmed its permanent porosity but suggested a structural transformation from 1a/1b to 1. It is noteworthy that only 1a can undergo a single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformation into 1 upon desolvation. The crystal structure of 1 revealed that the Li(+) ions were retracted into the channel walls via complementary coordination to the carboxylate oxygen atoms in the framework rather than being exposed on the pore surface. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed for N(2)- and CO(2)-loaded samples of 1, revealing that the framework remained unchanged when the gases were adsorbed. Although the gas molecules could not be modeled, the residue electrons inside the channels demonstrated that the retracted Li(+) ions still behave as the primary interacting site for CO(2) molecules. Nevertheless, solvent molecules such as H(2)O can readily compete with the framework oxygen atom to retrieve the extrusive Li(+) ions, accompanying the reverse structural transformation, i.e., from 1 to 1a/1b.

  12. In-situ preparation of poly(ethylene oxide)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte with good nanofiller distribution for rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wang, Junye; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Lili; Wei, Zhenyao; Deng, Yonghong; Xie, Dongjiu; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized fillers in a polymer matrix with good distribution can play a positive role in improving polymer electrolytes in the aspects of ionic conductivity, mechanical property and electrochemical performance of Li-ion cells. Herein, polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte is prepared via a new in-situ approach. The ionic conductivities of the novel hybrid electrolytes with variable proportions are measured, and the optimal electrolyte of PEO-2%vol Li3PS4 presents a considerable ionic conductivity of 8.01 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 °C and an electrochemical window up to 5.1 V. The tests of DSC and EDXS reveal that the Li3PS4 nanoparticles with better distribution, as active fillers scattering in the PEO, exhibit a positive effect on the transference of lithium ion and electrochemical interfacial stabilities. Finally, the assembled solid-state LiFePO4/Li battery presents a decent cycling performance (80.9% retention rate after 325 cycles at 60 °C) and excellent rate capacities with 153, 143, 139 and 127 mAh g-1 at the discharging rate of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C. It is fully proved that it is an advanced strategy to preparing the new organic/inorganic hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries applications.

  13. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  14. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  15. Follow up of the functioning of a lithium-polymer battery using confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy; Suivi du fonctionnement d`un accumulateur lithium-polymere par microspectrometrie Raman confocale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, I.; Bruneel, J.L.; Lassegues, J.C.; Servant, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Baudry, P.; Lascaud, S. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France)

    1996-12-31

    The confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy has been used for the study of a Lithium/polymer electrolyte-LiTFSI/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} type battery in which the polymer electrolyte thickness is of about 80 {mu}m. The analysis is performed on the side of the battery thanks to a specially designed cell which preserves all the characteristics of the real system. The analysis is performed on 20 points aligned between the anode and the cathode and with a depth of several tenth of {mu}m. The analysis of data obtained during charging/output cycles allows to evaluate the gradients of salt concentration inside the electrolyte, the pollutions of LiOH, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N -type at the lithium interface, but also the structural modifications of the cathode material. The in-situ study of concentration gradients inside the electrolyte is of prime importance for the understanding of dendrites growth. (J.S.) 11 refs.

  16. Follow up of the functioning of a lithium-polymer battery using confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy; Suivi du fonctionnement d`un accumulateur lithium-polymere par microspectrometrie Raman confocale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, I; Bruneel, J L; Lassegues, J C; Servant, L [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Baudry, P; Lascaud, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France)

    1997-12-31

    The confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy has been used for the study of a Lithium/polymer electrolyte-LiTFSI/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} type battery in which the polymer electrolyte thickness is of about 80 {mu}m. The analysis is performed on the side of the battery thanks to a specially designed cell which preserves all the characteristics of the real system. The analysis is performed on 20 points aligned between the anode and the cathode and with a depth of several tenth of {mu}m. The analysis of data obtained during charging/output cycles allows to evaluate the gradients of salt concentration inside the electrolyte, the pollutions of LiOH, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N -type at the lithium interface, but also the structural modifications of the cathode material. The in-situ study of concentration gradients inside the electrolyte is of prime importance for the understanding of dendrites growth. (J.S.) 11 refs.

  17. Defect structure in lithium-doped polymer-derived SiCN ceramics characterized by Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emre; Mass, Valentina; Gembus, Armin; Schulz, Armin; Liebau-Kunzmann, Verena; Fasel, Claudia; Riedel, Ralf; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2009-07-21

    Lithium-doped polymer-derived silicon carbonitride ceramics (SiCN:Li) synthesized at various pyrolysis temperatures, have been investigated by means of multifrequency and multipulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine different defect states that may impact the materials electronic properties. In particular, carbon- and silicon-based 'dangling bonds' at elevated, as well as metallic networks containing Li0 in the order of 1 microm at low pyrolysis temperatures have been observed in concentrations ranging between 10(14) and 10(17) spins mg(-1).

  18. Effect of lithium salt concentrations on blended 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber and poly(methyl methacrylate) based solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su’ait, M.S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF 4 and lithium perchlorate, LiClO 4 ) as doping salts in rubber-polymer blends, 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film for electrochemical devices application was investigated. The electrolyte films were prepared via the solution casting technique using 0–25 wt.% lithium salt. The effect of the lithium salts on chemical interaction, ionic conductivity and structural and morphological studies of (70:30) MG49-PMMA films was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared analysis showed that the interactions between lithium ions and oxygen atoms occur at the ether group (C–O–C) (1500–1100 cm −1 ) on the MMA structure in both MG49 and PMMA. The oxygen atoms in the structure of the polymer host act as electron donor atoms and form a coordinate bond with the lithium ions from the doping salt to form polymer–salt complexes. The ionic conductivity was investigated at room temperature as well as at a temperature range from 303 K to 373 K. The ionic conductivity without the addition of salt was 1.1 × 10 −12 S cm −1 . The highest conductivity at room temperature for (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiBF 4 was 8.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiBF 4 . The ionic conductivity of (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiClO 4 was 1.5 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiClO 4 . However, both electrolyte systems do not exhibit Arrhenius-like behavior. Systems with LiBF 4 salt have higher ionic conductivity than those with LiClO 4 salt because of the differences in anionic size and lattice energy of the appropriate salt. The observations from structural and morphology studies showed that complexation and re-crystallization occur in the system. The XRD studies showed a reduction of the MMA peak

  19. 4.4 V lithium-ion polymer batteries with a chemical stable gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takeru; Hara, Tomitaro; Akashi, Hiroyuki [Sony Corporation, Energy Business Group, R and D Division, 1-1 Aza, Shimosugishita, Takakura, Hiwada-machi, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima 963-0531 (Japan); Segawa, Ken; Honda, Kazuo [Sony Energy Device Corporation, PB Technology Center, 1-1 Aza, Shimosugishita, Takakura, Hiwada-machi, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima 963-0531 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We tested 4.2 V Li-ion polymer batteries (LIPB) with physical gel electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 4.4 V LIPB and 4.4 V Li-ion batteries (LIB) with a liquid electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the 4.4 V LIPB reached 520 Wh l{sup -1} which was 9% higher than that of the 4.2 V LIPB. The 4.4 V LIPB had a high capacity retention ratio of 91.4% at 3 C because of the excellent ion conductivity of the PVDF gel. The capacity retention ratio of the 4.4 V LIPB was 82% after 500 cycles, which is comparable to those of some commercial LIBs. The 4.4 V LIPB retained its original thickness even after many cycles and after being stored at 90 C, whereas the 4.4 V LIB swelled by over 20%. Peaks in the FT-IR spectrum of the discolored separator in the 4.4 V LIB after storage were assigned to C=C double bonds, suggesting that the separator in direct contact with the 4.4 V cathode had been oxidized. The PVDF gel electrolyte not only had a high ionic conductivity but also completely suppressed oxidation. The 4.4 V LIPB with PVDF gel electrolyte has properties suitable for practical cells, namely, high energy density, high permanence and it is safe to use. (author)

  20. Development and characterization of a neutron detector based on a lithium glass–polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Kukharev, V.; Foster, A.; Meddeb, A. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Trivelpiece, C. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ounaies, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jovanovic, I., E-mail: ijovanovic@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a neutron scintillation detector based on a Li-glass–polymer composite that utilizes a combination of pulse height and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) to achieve high gamma rejection. In contrast to fast neutron detection in a PSD medium, we combine two scintillating materials that do not possess inherent neutron/gamma PSD properties to achieve effective PSD/pulse height discrimination in a composite material. Unlike recoil-based fast neutron detection, neutron/gamma discrimination can be robust even at low neutron energies due to the high Q-value neutron capture on {sup 6}Li. A cylindrical detector with a 5.05 cm diameter and 5.08 cm height was fabricated from scintillating 1 mm diameter Li-glass rods and scintillating polyvinyltoluene. The intrinsic efficiency for incident fission neutrons from {sup 252}Cf and gamma rejection of the detector were measured to be 0.33% and less than 10{sup −8}, respectively. These results demonstrate the high selectivity of the detector for neutrons and provide motivation for prototyping larger detectors optimized for specific applications, such as detection and event-by-event spectrometry of neutrons produced by fission.

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  2. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  3. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  4. Conductive polymer and Si nanoparticles composite secondary particles and structured current collectors for high loading lithium ion negative electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao

    2017-07-11

    Embodiments of the present invention disclose a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses a method for preparing a composition of matter comprising a plurality of silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with a conductive polymer comprising providing Si nanoparticles, providing a conductive polymer, preparing a Si nanoparticle, conductive polymer, and solvent slurry, spraying the slurry into a liquid medium that is a non-solvent of the conductive polymer, and precipitating the silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with the conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses an anode comprising a current collector, and a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer.

  5. Structure and properties of solid polymer electrolyte based on chitosan and ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto,, E-mail: dryanto@batan.go.id; Yulianti, Evi, E-mail: yulianti@batan.go.id [Center for Sains and Technology Advanced Materials – BATAN Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, BantenV 15314 (Indonesia); Patimatuzzohrah, E-mail: pzohrah@yahoo.com [Department Of Physics, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit 62, Mataram, NTB 83125 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    In order to develop all solid lithium ion battery, study on the structure and properties of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on chitosan has been done. The SPE were prepared by adding Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) nanoparticle and LiClO{sub 4} as lithium salt into the chitosan solution followed by casting method. Effect of the ZrO{sub 2} and salt concentration to the structure and properties of SPE were elaborated using several methods. The structure of the SPE cast film, were characterized mainly by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). While the electrical properties of SPE were studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) and ion transference number measurement. XRD profiles show that the addition of ZrO{sub 2} and LiClO{sub 4} disrupts the crystality of chitosan. The decrease in sample crytalinity with the nanoparticle and salt addition may increase the molecular mobility result in the increasing sample conductivity and cathionic transference number as determined by EIS and ion transference number measurement, respectively. The highest ionic conductivity (3.58×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}) was obtained when 4 wt% of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle and 40 wt% of LiClO{sub 4} salt were added to the chitosan. The ion transference number with that composition was 0.55. It is high enough to be used as SPE for lithium ion battery.

  6. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity increased with the increase in lithium iodide concentration as well as temperature. The membrane comprising 30 wt % of lithium iodide was found to give the highest conductivity of 3.89 × 10−3 S·cm−1 at room temperature. The increase in conductivity was associated with the increase in the number as well as the mobility of the charge carries. The conductivity increase with temperature followed the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher model. The fabricated dye-sensitive solar cell, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-LiI (30 wt % +I2/Pt exhibited the highest conversion efficiency of 0.11% at a light intensity of 100 mW·cm−2. This indicated that the biopolymer blend electrolyte system has potential for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  8. Precursor polymers for the carbon coating of Au@ZnO multipods for application as active material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Bresser, Dominic; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of statistical and block copolymers based on polyacrylonitrile, as a source for carbonaceous materials, and thiol-containing repeating units as inorganic nanoparticle anchoring groups is reported. These polymers are used to coat Au@ZnO multipod heteroparticles with polymer brushes. IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy prove the successful binding of the polymer onto the inorganic nanostructures. Thermogravimetric analysis is applied to compare the binding ability of the block and statistical copolymers. Subsequently, the polymer coating is transformed into a carbonaceous (partially graphitic) coating by pyrolysis. The obtained carbon coating is characterized by Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The benefit of the conformal carbon coating of the Au@ZnO multipods regarding its application as lithium-ion anode material is revealed by performing galvanostatic cycling, showing a highly enhanced and stabilized electrochemical performance of the carbon-coated particles (still 831 mAh g(-1) after 150 cycles) with respect to the uncoated ones (only 353 mAh g(-1) after 10 cycles). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lithium Ion Transport Across and Between Phase Boundaries in Heterogeneous Polymer Electrolytes, Based on PVdF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenbaum, Steven

    1998-01-01

    .... In the first reported attempt to exploit 17O NMR to study lithium battery electrolytes, we have prepared 17O-enriched Li triflate and several electrolytes containing the isotopically enriched salt...

  10. Novel Solid Polymer Nanocomposite Electrolyte to Enable Lithium Metal Safely Cycling for Next Generation High Energy Battery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA future missions demand safe, high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) batteries. Current state-of-the-art (SOA) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can only provide...

  11. Capacitive behavior studies on electrical double layer capacitor using poly (vinyl alcohol)–lithium perchlorate based polymer electrolyte incorporated with TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chin-Shen; Teoh, K.H.; Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ramesh, S., E-mail: rameshtsubra@gmail.com

    2014-01-15

    Electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated carbon electrodes and poly (vinyl alcohol)–lithium perchlorate (PVA–LiClO{sub 4})-nanosized titania (TiO{sub 2}) doped polymer electrolyte have been fabricated. Incorporation of TiO{sub 2} into PVA–LiClO{sub 4} system increases the ionic conductivity. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.3 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} is achieved at ambient temperature upon inclusion of 8 wt.% of TiO{sub 2}. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses reveal that addition of TiO{sub 2} into polymer system increases the flexibility of polymer chain and favors the ion migration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses display the surface morphology of the nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. The electrochemical stability window of composite polymer electrolyte is in the range of −2.3 V to 2.3 V as shown in cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. The performance of EDLC is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), CV and galvanostatic charge–discharge technique. CV test discloses a nearly rectangular shape, which signifies the capacitive behavior of an ELDC. The EDLC containing composite polymer electrolyte gives higher specific capacitance value of 12.5 F g{sup −1} compared to non-composite polymer electrolyte with capacitance value of 3.0 F g{sup −1} in charge–discharge technique. The obtained specific capacitance of EDLC is in good agreement with each method used in this present work. Inclusion of filler into the polymer electrolyte enhances the electrochemical stability of EDLC. - Highlights: • PVA–LiClO{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} possesses ionic conductivity value of 1.30 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}. • CV indicates the electrochemical stability window in the range of −2.3 V to 2.3 V. • The EDLC gives specific capacitance value of 12.5 F g{sup −1}.

  12. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  13. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  14. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  15. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  16. Analysis of the Deposit Layer from Electrolyte Side Reaction on the Anode of the Pouch Type Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries: The Effect of State of Charge and Charge Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agubra, Victor A.; Fergus, Jeffrey W.; Fu, Rujian; Choe, Song-yul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Raising the battery cycling potential increased the rate of side reaction. • Growth of deposit layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface at high SOC. • A significant amount of lithium was consumed in forming the deposit layer. • Some of the lithium were “trapped” in the graphite after the discharge cycle. - Abstract: The formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the anode electrode of a lithium ion battery prevents further electrolyte decomposition reaction. However, at certain battery operating conditions, the SEI breakdown leading to more electrolyte decomposition reactions that form several species on the anode electrode surface. This paper focuses on the effect of battery potential and charge rate on the decomposition side reaction on the anode electrode of a lithium ion polymer battery, as a result of the breakdown of the SEI layer. The results from this study indicate that raising the state of charge (SOC) increases the rate of the electrolyte decomposition side reaction that resulted in formation of a thick deposit layer at the electrolyte/electrolyte interface. This deposit layer contains lithium that can no longer participate in the reversible electrochemical reaction. In addition, at high cycling potential and charge rates the amount of lithium in the graphite after complete cell discharge increased due to the entrapment of lithium in the graphite. The amount of irreversible capacity loss for the batteries cycled at high potential and current correlates with the amount of trapped lithium in the graphite and the growth of the deposit layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface

  17. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrochemistry Study on PVC-LiClO4 Polymer Electrolyte Supported by Bengkulu Natural Bentonite for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghufira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research bentonite was used as filler to produce polymer electrolyte (PVCLiClO4. Some weight variation of bentonite have been made by addition, such as 0% wt/wt; 5% wt/wt ; 10% wt/wt ; 15% wt/wt ; 20% wt/wt ; and 25% wt/wt of bentonite to the mixture of 0,5 gramof PVC and 0,125 gram of LiClO4. Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was tested using impedance spectroscopy. The result of the research was showed that a mixture of PVCBentonite(10% wt/wt-LiClO4 gives the highest ionic conductivity (4,86 x 10-3 S.Cm-1. This result indicated that the presence of natural bentonite can be used as a filler in the current composite polymer electrolyte and can increase the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

  19. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  20. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  1. Polymer-derived Ceramic SiCN-MoS2 Nanosheet Composite for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of a novel SiCN-MoS2 nanosheet composite for use as Li-ion battery anode for high power applications. The nanosheet composite was prepared by thermal decomposition of polysilazane (SiCN precursor) on exfoliated MoS2 surfaces. The morphology and chemical structure was studied using a range of spectroscopy techniques that revealed a sidewall functionalization of exfoliated MoS2 by the polymeric precursor. The thermodynamic stability of SiCN-MoS2 nanosheets was also confirmed by thermo-gravimetric analysis (1000 degree C). Batteries assembled using MoS2-SiCN nanosheets as active anode material showed that lithium can be reversibly intercalated in the voltage range of 0-2.5 V with first cycle discharge capacity of 620 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

  2. Lithium ion conducting PVA:PVdF polymer electrolytes doped with nano SiO2 and TiO2 filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M.; Tamilselvi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of nano SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on the thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties of PVA:PVdF:LiCF3SO3 have been investigated by three optimized systems of SPE (80PVA:20PVdF:15LiCF3SO3), CPE-I (SPE:8SiO2) and CPE-II (SPE:4TiO2). From the TGA curve least weight loss has been observed for CPE-II indicating high thermal stability compared to other systems. Stress-strain curve of the prepared samples confirm the enhancement of tensile strength in CPE-II compared to CPE-I and SPE. Conductivity studies show that addition of TiO2 filler slightly enhances ionic conductivity 3.7×10-3 S cm-1 compared to filler free system at 303 K. Dielectric plots have been analyzed and CPE-II possesses higher dielectric constant compared to CPE-I and filler free system. Temperature dependence of modulus plots has been studied for highest conductivity possessing sample. Wider electrochemical stability has been obtained for nano-composite polymer electrolytes. The results conclude that the prepared CPE-II shows the best performance and it will be well suited for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Effects of compatibility of polymer binders with solvate ionic liquid electrolytes on discharge and charge reactions of lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toshitada; Ikoma, Ai; Kido, Ryosuke; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions in Li-S cells with a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) electrolyte composed of tetraglyme (G4) and Li[TFSA] (TFSA: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) are studied. The sulfur cathode (S cathode) comprises sulfur, carbon powder, and a polymer binder. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-x) with different degrees of saponification (x%) are used as binders to prepare the composite cathodes. For the Li-S cell containing PEO binder, lithium polysulfides (Li2Sm, 2 ≤ m ≤ 8), reaction intermediates of the S cathode, dissolve into the electrolyte, and Li2Sm acts as a redox shuttle in the Li-S cell. In contrast, in the Li-S cell with PVA-x binder, the dissolution of Li2Sm is suppressed, leading to high columbic efficiencies during charge-discharge cycles. The compatibility of the PVA-x binder with the SIL electrolyte changes depending on the degree of saponification. Decreasing the degree of saponification leads to increased electrolyte uptake by the PVA-x binder, increasing the charge and discharge capacities of Li-S cell. The rate capability of Li-S cell is also enhanced by the partial swelling of the PVA-x binder. The enhanced performance of Li-S cell containing PVA-x is attributed to the lowering of resistance of Li+ ion transport in the composite cathode.

  4. Gold-coated silicon nanowire-graphene core-shell composite film as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Sang Eon; Lee, Jihye; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Eung-Sug; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Jun-Ho; Oh, Minsub; Hyun, Seungmin; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We designed and fabricated a gold (Au)-coated silicon nanowires/graphene (Au-SiNWs/G) hybrid composite as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A large amount of SiNWs for LIB anode materials can be prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process. The Au-SiNWs/G composite film on current collector was obtained by vacuum filtration using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and hot pressing method. Our experimental results show that the Au-SiNWs/G composite has a stable reversible capacity of about 1520 mA h/g which was maintained for 20 cycles. The Au-SiNWs/G composite anode showed much better cycling performance than SiNWs/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/Super-P, SiNWs/G composite, and pure SiNWs anodes. The improved electrochemical properties of the Au-SiNWs/G composite anode material is mainly ascribed to the composite's porous network structure.

  5. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  6. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  7. Interface polymerization synthesis of conductive polymer/graphite oxide@sulfur composites for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian; Yan, Xiaolin; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid nanostructure that incorporate the merits of conductive polymer nanorods and graphite oxide sheets. • A novel approach based on interface polymerization for synthesizing CP/GO@S ternary composite. • CP/GO@S ternary composite cathode shows enhanced electrochemical properties compared with CP@S binary composite cathode. • PEDOT/GO@S composite is the material system that have best electrochemical performance in all CP/GO@S ternary composites. - Abstract: The novel ternary composites, conductive polymers (CPs)/graphene oxide (GO)@sulfur composites were successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot route and used as cathode materials for Li-S batteries The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/GO and polyaniline (PANI)/GO composites were prepared by interface polymerization of monomers on the surface of GO sheets. Then sulfur was in-situ deposited on the CPs/GO composites in same solution. The component and structure of the composites were characterized by XPS, TGA, FTIR, SEM, TEM and electrochemical measurements. In this structure, the CPs nanostructures are believed to serve as a conductive matrix and an adsorbing agent, while the highly conductive GO will physically and chemically confine the sulfur and polysulfide within cathode. The PEDOT/GO@S composites with the sulfur content of 66.2 wt% exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 800.2 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles at 0.5 C, which is much higher than that of PANI/GO@S composites (599.1 mAh g −1 ) and PANI@S (407.2 mAh g −1 ). Even at a high rate of 4 C, the PEDOT/GO@S composites still retain a high specific capacity of 632.4 mAh g −1

  8. A Lithium/Polysulfide Battery with Dual-Working Mode Enabled by Liquid Fuel and Acrylate-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Ren, Yuxun; Zhou, Dong; Jiang, Haoran; Kang, Feiyu; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-25

    The low density associated with low sulfur areal loading in the solid-state sulfur cathode of current Li-S batteries is an issue hindering the development of this type of battery. Polysulfide catholyte as a recyclable liquid fuel was proven to enhance both the energy density and power density of the battery. However, a critical barrier with this lithium (Li)/polysulfide battery is that the shuttle effect, which is the crossover of polysulfides and side deposition on the Li anode, becomes much more severe than that in conventional Li-S batteries with a solid-state sulfur cathode. In this work, we successfully applied an acrylate-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) to the Li/polysulfide system. The GPE layer can effectively block the detrimental diffusion of polysulfides and protect the Li metal from the side passivation reaction. Cathode-static batteries utilizing 2 M catholyte (areal sulfur loading of 6.4 mg cm -2 ) present superior cycling stability (727.4 mAh g -1 after 500 cycles at 0.2 C) and high rate capability (814 mAh g -1 at 2 C) and power density (∼10 mW cm -2 ), which also possess replaceable and encapsulated merits for mobile devices. In the cathode-flow mode, the Li/polysulfide system with catholyte supplied from an external tank demonstrates further improved power density (∼69 mW cm -2 ) and stable cycling performance. This novel and simple Li/polysulfide system represents a significant advancement of high energy density sulfur-based batteries for future power sources.

  9. Lithium dynamics in carbon-rich polymer-derived SiCN ceramics probed by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Riedel, Ralf; Hammerath, Franziska; Büchner, Bernd; Grafe, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We report 7Li, 29Si, and 13C NMR studies of two different carbon-rich SiCN ceramics SiCN-1 and SiCN-3 derived from the preceramic polymers polyphenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide and polyphenylvinylsilazane, respectively. From the spectral analysis of the three nuclei, we find that only the 13C spectrum is strongly influenced by Li insertion/extraction, suggesting that carbon phases are the major electrochemically active sites for Li storage. Temperature (T) and Larmor frequency (ωL) dependences of the 7Li linewidth and spin-lattice relaxation rates T1-1 are described by an activated law with the activation energy EA of 0.31 eV and the correlation time τ0 in the high temperature limit of 1.3 ps. The 3 / 2 power law dependence of T1-1 on ωL which deviates from the standard Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) model implies that the Li motion on the μs timescale is governed by continuum diffusion mechanism rather than jump diffusion. On the other hand, the rotating frame relaxation rate T1ρ-1 results suggest that the slow motion of Li on the ms timescale may be affected by complex diffusion and/or non-diffusion processes.

  10. Lithium ion intercalation in thin crystals of hexagonal TaSe2 gated by a polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueshen; Lian, Hailong; He, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyu; Wang, Shun; Xing, Hui; Mao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquid gating has been used to modify the properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including two-dimensional (2D) crystals of TMDCs used extensively recently in the device work, which has led to observations of properties not seen in the bulk. The main effect comes from the electrostatic gating due to the strong electric field at the interface. In addition, ionic liquid gating also leads to ion intercalation when the ion size of the gate electrolyte is small compared to the interlayer spacing of TMDCs. However, the microscopic processes of ion intercalation have rarely been explored in layered TMDCs. Here, we employed a technique combining photolithography device fabrication and electrical transport measurements on the thin crystals of hexagonal TaSe2 using multiple channel devices gated by a polymer electrolyte LiClO4/Polyethylene oxide (PEO). The gate voltage and time dependent source-drain resistances of these thin crystals were used to obtain information on the intercalation process, the effect of ion intercalation, and the correlation between the ion occupation of allowed interstitial sites and the device characteristics. We found a gate voltage controlled modulation of the charge density waves and a scattering rate of charge carriers. Our work suggests that ion intercalation can be a useful tool for layered materials engineering and 2D crystal device design.

  11. Lithiated Nafion as polymer electrolyte for solid-state lithium sulfur batteries using carbon-sulfur composite cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Sun, Chunshui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Chong; Guo, Decai; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Due to flexible property and light weight, the lithiated Nafion membrane swollen with PC (PC-Li-Nafion) has been employed as both solid-state electrolyte and separator to fabricate solid-state Li-S cells. The electrochemical measurements of PC-Li-Nafion membrane show that its Li-ion transference number is 0.928, ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 can be achieved at 70 °C and its electrochemical window is 0 ∼ +4.1 V vs. Li+/Li. It is observed that the Li dendrites are suppressed by using PC-Li-Nafion membrane due to its single-ion conducting property. The amounts of Li-Nafion resin binder and conductive carbon in the cathode are optimized as 40% and 10% respectively to make a balance of ionic and electronic conductivities. A thin-layer Li-Nafion resin with a thickness of around 2 μm is fabricated between the cathode and PC-Li-Nafion membrane to improve the interfacial contact and further enhance the specific capacity of the cell. When measured at 70 °C, the Li-S cell delivers a reversible specific capacity of 1072.8 mAh g-1 (S) at 0.05 C and 895 mAh g-1 (S) at 1 C. The capacity retention at 1 C is 89% after 100 cycles. These results suggest that high-performance solid-state Li-S cells can be fabricated with the Li-Nafion polymer electrolyte.

  12. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Functionalized MoS2 Composite Paper as a Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L.; Bhandavat, R.; Barrera, U.; Singh, G.

    2015-04-01

    A facile process is demonstrated for the synthesis of layered SiCN-MoS2 structure via pyrolysis of polysilazane functionalized MoS2 flakes. The layered morphology and polymer to ceramic transformation on MoS2 surfaces was confirmed by use of electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Tested as thick film electrode in a Li-ion battery half-cell, SiCN-MoS2 showed the classical three-stage reaction with improved cycling stability and capacity retention than neat MoS2. Contribution of conversion reaction of Li/MoS2 system on overall capacity was marginally affected by the presence of SiCN while Li-irreversibility arising from electrolyte decomposition was greatly suppressed. This is understood as one of the reasons for decreased first cycle loss and increased capacity retention. SiCN-MoS2 in the form of self-supporting paper electrode (at 6 mg.cm-2) exhibited even better performance, regaining initial charge capacity of approximately 530 mAh.g-1 when the current density returned to 100 mA.g-1 after continuous cycling at 2400 mA.g-1 (192 mAh.g-1). MoS2 cycled electrode showed mud-cracks and film delamination whereas SiCN-MoS2 electrodes were intact and covered with a uniform solid electrolyte interphase coating. Taken together, our results suggest that molecular level interfacing with precursor-derived SiCN is an effective strategy for suppressing the metal-sulfide/electrolyte degradation reaction at low discharge potentials.

  13. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles A [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  14. Modeling and fabrication of lithium polymer ion batteries designed for wireless sensor network applications and printed directly on device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingart, Daniel Artemis

    CVD produce excellent thin film microstructures, but face considerable problems with regard to stress build up as thickness grows beyond 10 mum. When total battery area is constrained to 1 cm2 a single electrode thickness of 10 mum is simply insufficient to create a useful battery. The second major issue is processing temperature. The processes that are used to deposit most thin film battery materials require temperatures greater than 300°C [3], which is greater than the temperature most CMOS devices can withstand. While electrical engineers may get around this by (1) using a separate chip for the battery or (2) use the battery as the substrate to build the device both cases would require more packaging to protect the batteries, to some degree defeating the purpose of reducing the packaging. To overcome this obstacle, a new method to place the materials necessary to make a battery on a chip has been developed. This process was done at room temperature, at packaging to protect the batteries, to some degree defeating the purpose of reducing the packaging. To overcome this obstacle, a new method to place the materials necessary to make a battery on a chip has been developed. This process is done at room temperature, at atmospheric pressure, and with thicknesses great enough to provide significantly more capacity than thin film solutions. The method uses tools used to apply adhesives, traditionally, including screen-printing and pneumatic extrusion. These methods produce structures that in theory should provide the energy and power density available in large-scale batteries (a feat heretofore not replicated by thin film fabrication methods) and with improvements in solid polymer electrolytes, may provide the necessary power density. These tools can be used to produce capacitors as well, which can help in load leveling the battery, thereby increasing both discharge time and cycle life. Finally, in the course of this research conventional battery test equipment was either

  15. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  16. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florjanczyk, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    This project report concerns studies on the synthesis of new polymer electrolytes for application in lithium and lithium-ion batteries characterized by limited participation of anions in the transport...

  17. New Fabrication Strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriver, D

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to fabricate lithium-polymer batteries by techniques that may produce a thin electrolyte and cathode films and with minimal contamination during fabrication. One such technique, ultrasonic spray was used. Another objective of this research was to test lithium cells that incorporate the new polymer electrolytes and polyelectrolytes.

  18. NMR Studies of Polymer Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenbaum, Steve

    2001-01-01

    ... of their kind ever published. Standard ambient pressure results for lithium ion conducting polymer electrolytes containing nanoscopic silica are included, as well as the description of a novel scheme to produce highly conducting...

  19. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  20. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium-sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium-sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g-1 at 5 C.

  1. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  2. Polymer-Templated LiFePO4/C Nanonetworks as High-Performance Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael G; Hua, Xiao; Wilts, Bodo D; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Steiner, Ullrich

    2018-01-17

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is currently one of the main cathode materials used in lithium-ion batteries due to its safety, relatively low cost, and exceptional cycle life. To overcome its poor ionic and electrical conductivities, LFP is often nanostructured, and its surface is coated with conductive carbon (LFP/C). Here, we demonstrate a sol-gel based synthesis procedure that utilizes a block copolymer (BCP) as a templating agent and a homopolymer as an additional carbon source. The high-molecular-weight BCP produces self-assembled aggregates with the precursor-sol on the 10 nm scale, stabilizing the LFP structure during crystallization at high temperatures. This results in a LFP nanonetwork consisting of interconnected ∼10 nm-sized particles covered by a uniform carbon coating that displays a high rate performance and an excellent cycle life. Our "one-pot" method is facile and scalable for use in established battery production methodologies.

  3. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  4. Embedding nano-Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} in hierarchical porous carbon matrixes derived from water soluble polymers for ultra-fast lithium ion batteries anodic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Chun-Kai; Bao, Qi; Huang, Yao-Hui; Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-07-15

    Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/hierarchical porous carbon matrixes composites are successfully prepared by a facile and fast polymers assisted sol–gel method, aiming to promote both electronic and ionic conductivity. As indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, three less expensive cost and available water soluble polymers (e.g. PAA, CMC, and SA) can homogeneously react with Li–Ti–O precursor to incorporate into interior of nano-scale lithium titanate and provide a continues conductive network after pyrolysis. In addition, the results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy also prove that the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanoparticles are firmly embedded in porous carbon matrix with no obvious agglomeration. EIS measurement and cyclic voltammetry further reveal that the facilitated electrode kinetics and better ionic transport of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/hierarchical porous carbon matrixes composites than that of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. The c-CMC-LTO exhibits a superior capacity of 92 mAh g{sup −1} and retains its initial value with no obviously capacity decay over 200 cycles under an ultra-high C rate (50 C). - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustrations of the formation process of embedding LTO into Carbon matrixes derived from water soluable polymers (upper) and the electrochemical reaction paths in LTO/Carbon composites during charging/discharging processes (lower). - Highlights: • Hierarchical porous carbon matrixes were used to improve the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anodes. • Carbon matrixes could suppress the agglomeration of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanoparticles. • meso-nanoporous carbon structure was beneficial for filtration of electrolyte. • The c-CMC-LTO exhibited superior high rate capability and cycling durability.

  5. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-polymer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pan [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Han, Jia-Jun, E-mail: hanjiajunhitweihai@163.com [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Li-Feng [Dalian Chemical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116011 (China); Li, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Jin-Ning [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The polyaniline multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, and the materials were characterized by physical and chemical methods. • The PANI/WMCNTs was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization with core-shell structures. • The WMCNTs highly enhanced the conductivity of composites. • The comopsites were more conducive to the intercalation and deintercalation of anions and cations. • The much better performance as the cathode for lithium-ion cells was acquired for the composites. • The composites are low cost and eco-friendly which have a good prospect in future. - Abstract: The aniline was polymerized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in order to obtain a cathode material with core-shell structures for lithium batteries. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, the charge/discharge property, coulombic efficiency, and ac impedance spectroscopy in detail. At a constant current density of 0.2 C, the first specific discharge capacity of the reduced and oxidized PANI/WMCNTs were 181.8 mAh/g and 135.1 mAh/g separately, and the capacity retention rates were corresponding to 76.75% and 86.04% for 100 cycles with 99% coulombic efficiency. It was confirmed that the CNTs obviously enhanced the conductivity and electrochemical performance of polyaniline, and compared with the pure PANI, the reduced composite possessed a quite good performance for the cathode of lithium batteries.

  6. Performance limitations of polymer electrolytes based on ethylene oxide polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Han, Yong Bong; Hou, Jun; Kerr, John B.; Qiao, Jun; Sloop, Steven E.; Tian, Minmin; Wang, Shanger

    1999-01-01

    Studies of polymer electrolyte solutions for lithium-polymer batteries are described. Two different salts, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), were dissolved in a variety of polymers. The structures were all based upon the ethylene oxide unit for lithium ion solvation and both linear and comb-branch polymer architectures have been examined. Conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient and transference number measurements demonstrate the superior transport properties of the LiTFSI salt over LiTf. Data obtained on all of these polymers combined with LiTFSI salts suggest that there is a limit to the conductivity achievable at room temperature, at least for hosts containing ethylene oxide units. The apparent conductivity limit is 5 x 10-5 S/cm at 25 C. Providing that the polymer chain segment containing the ethylene oxide units is at least 5-6 units long there appears to be little influence of the polymer framework to which the solvating groups are attached. To provide adequate separator function, the mechanical properties may be disconnected from the transport properties by selection of an appropriate architecture combined with an adequately long ethylene oxide chain. For both bulk and interfacial transport of the lithium ions, conductivity data alone is insufficient to understand the processes that occur. Lithium ion transference numbers and salt diffusion coefficients also play a major role in the observed behavior and the transport properties of these polymer electrolyte solutions appear to be quite inadequate for ambient temperature performance. At present, this restricts the use of such systems to high temperature applications. Several suggestions are given to overcome these obstacles

  7. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Haiyan, E-mail: hyyan1979@163.com; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is explored as cathode material for Lithium-ion batteries. • The introduce of PEDOT is effectively way to enhance the electron condcutivity of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g{sup −1} for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-11

    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A reduced order electrochemical and thermal model for a pouch type lithium ion polymer battery with LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2/LiFePO4 blended cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Choe, Song-Yul; Joe, Won Tae

    2015-10-01

    LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) and LiFePO4 (LFP) as a cathode material have been widely employed for cells designed for high power applications. However, NMC needs further improvements in rate capability and stability that can be accomplished by blending it with LFP. Working mechanism of the blended cells is very complex and hard to understand. In addition, characteristics of the blended cells, particularly the plateau and path dependence of LFP materials, make it extremely difficult to estimate the state of charge and state of health using classical electric equivalent circuit models. Therefore, a reduced order model based on electrochemical and thermal principles is developed with objectives for real time applications and validated against experimental data collected from a large format pouch type of lithium ion polymer battery. The model for LFP is based on a shrinking core model along with moving boundary and then integrated into NMC model. Responses of the model that include SOC estimation and responses of current and voltage are compared with those of experiments at CC/CV charging and CC discharging along with different current rates and temperatures. In addition, the model is used to analyze effects of mass ratios between two materials on terminal voltage and heat generation rate.

  10. Electrochemical performance of DVB-modified SiOC and SiCN polymer-derived negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guanwei; Kaspar, Jan; Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymer-derived SiCN and SiOC ceramics are studied as anode for Li-ion batteries. • Ceramic precursors are modified in order to increase the carbon content. • Ceramic matrix stabilizes free carbon phase. • Stabilizing role is lost once the amount of carbon exceeds a threshold value. -- Abstract: Chemical modification of commercially available polyorganosilazane (HTT1800) and polyorganosiloxane (Polyramic RD-684a) with divinylbenzene (DVB) is accomplished via hydrosilylation reaction. The incorporation of DVB leads to an increase of the free carbon amount after pyrolysis within the corresponding SiCN and SiOC ceramics. The modification is carried out with lower, equal and higher stoichiometric ratios of the Si-H to C=C groups present in the Si-based polymer and DVB. FTIR results indicate a complete consumption of the Si-H bonds in the case of the stoichiometric amount of DVB and polymer RD-684a, while for HTT1800 neither the stoichiometric ratio nor DVB excess leads to a complete consumption of the Si-H groups. For both SiCN and SiOC ceramics the carbon content is found to increase with the amount of DVB. However, the most significant increase in free carbon content is registered for SiCN samples, namely of ca. 40%. The carbon content changed from 9.9 wt.% in the pure HTT1800-derived material up to 49.3 wt.% for the SiCN ceramic obtained with the highest amount of DVB addition. Accordingly, Li-ion storage and therefore charge storage capacity are simultaneously increased, for the first cycle from 136 to 574 mAh g −1 , while columbic efficiency is raised by 10% up to 60.4%

  11. Investigation on polyethylene-supported and nano-SiO2 doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) based gel polymer electrolyte for high voltage lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Huili; Liao, Youhao; Sun, Ping; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based GPE was developed for high voltage lithium ion battery. • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE has uniform and interconnected pore structure. • The GPE exhibits improved ionic conductivity and compatibility with electrodes. • 5 V battery using the GPE presents excellent cyclic stability. - Abstract: Nano-SiO 2 as dopant was used for preparing polyethylene-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (P(MMA-co-BA)/PE) based membrane and corresponding gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is applied to improve the cyclic stability of high voltage lithium ion battery. P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based membranes and corresponding GPEs were characterized with scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mechanical test, thermogravimetric analysis, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the GPE with 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 shows the best performance. Compared to the undoped membrane, the 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 doped membrane has a better pore structure and higher electrolyte uptake, leading to the enhancement in ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE from 1.23 × 10 −3 to 2.26 × 10 −3 S.cm −1 at room temperature. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the doped membrane is increased from 300 to 320 °C while its decomposition potential of GPE is from 5.0 to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li + ). The cyclic stability of Li/GPE/Li(Li 0.13 Ni 0.30 Mn 0.57 )O 2 cell at the high voltage range of 3.5 V ∼ 5.0 V is consequently improved, the capacity retention of the cell using the doped membrane is 92.8% after 50 cycles while only 88.9% for the cell using undoped membrane and 66.9% for the cell using liquid electrolyte

  12. Overview of ENEA's Projects on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, F.; Conte, M.; Passerini, S.; Prosini, P. P.

    The increasing need of high performance batteries in various small-scale and large-scale applications (portable electronics, notebooks, palmtops, cellular phones, electric vehicles, UPS, load levelling) in Italy is motivating the R&D efforts of various public and private organizations. Research of lithium batteries in Italy goes back to the beginning of the technological development of primary and secondary lithium systems with national know-how spread in various academic and public institutions with a few private stakeholders. In the field of lithium polymer batteries, ENEA has been dedicating significant efforts in almost two decades to promote and carry out basic R&D and pre-industrial development projects. In recent years, three major national projects have been performed and coordinated by ENEA in co-operation with some universities, governmental research organizations and industry. In these projects novel polymer electrolytes with ceramic additives, low cost manganese oxide-based composite cathodes, environmentally friendly process for polymer electrolyte, fabrication processes of components and cells have been investigated and developed in order to fulfill long-term needs of cost-effective and highly performant lithium polymer batteries.

  13. Gel electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile)/sulpholane with hybrid TiO2/SiO2 filler for advanced lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurc, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper describes properties of gel electrolyte based on PAN with TMS and TiO 2 -SiO 2 . • The TiO 2 -SiO 2 oxide composite was precipitated in the emulsion system and used as the fillers. • The capacity of the graphite anode depends on the current rate and the amount of TiO 2 -SiO 2 . • For PE3 electrolyte was obtained practical capacity more than 90% of the theoretical capacity. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of ceramic fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes. Hybrid TiO 2 -SiO 2 ceramic powders have been obtained by co-precipitation from titanium(IV) sulfate solution using sodium silicate as the precipitating agent. The resulting submicron-size powders have been applied as fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The powders and gel electrolytes have been examined structurally and electrochemically, showing favorable properties in terms of electrolyte uptake and electrochemical characteristics in Li-ion cells

  14. Polyether matrices for lithium generators; Matrices polyethers pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, F.; Sanchez, J.Y. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    The use of solvating polymers of polyether type is an interesting solution for the manufacturing of high capacity lithium batteries with lithium metal anodes and which can operate at T > 50 deg. C. These operating conditions are perfectly compatible with electric-powered vehicle and stationary battery applications. In order to improve the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes, new aprotic and amorphous polyether lattices have been synthesized having a good conductivity but also good thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stabilities. Two type of 3-D polyether lattices obtained by reticulation of linear pre-polymers have been selected as host polymers: unsaturated poly-condensate and unsaturated co-polyethers. (J.S.) 18 refs.

  15. Polyether matrices for lithium generators; Matrices polyethers pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, F; Sanchez, J Y [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, 38 - Saint-Martin-d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    The use of solvating polymers of polyether type is an interesting solution for the manufacturing of high capacity lithium batteries with lithium metal anodes and which can operate at T > 50 deg. C. These operating conditions are perfectly compatible with electric-powered vehicle and stationary battery applications. In order to improve the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes, new aprotic and amorphous polyether lattices have been synthesized having a good conductivity but also good thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stabilities. Two type of 3-D polyether lattices obtained by reticulation of linear pre-polymers have been selected as host polymers: unsaturated poly-condensate and unsaturated co-polyethers. (J.S.) 18 refs.

  16. Enhanced Rate Capability of Polymer-Derived SiCN Anode Material for Electrochemical Storage of Lithium with 3-D Carbon Nanotube Network Dispersed in Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei; Xu, Caihong; Liu, Zhaoping; Wang, Wei; Xin, Xing; Shen, Lu; Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Electrochemical performances of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT)-SiCN composite have been investigated. The sample was synthesized by a simple ultrasonication assisted method combined with high-temperature pyrolysis and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. In this composite, CNT were uniformly distributed in the SiCN ceramic matrix, it retained the structural integrity during the polymer-ceramic conversion and had a relatively strong bonding with the SiCN ceramic matrix. When tested as anode in the half cell, the obtained composite exhibited enhanced rate capability and cyclic capacity than that of pristine SiCN powder, CNT and graphite, it could supply a capacity of 222.7 mA h/g when charged at 2000 mA/g, while the SiCN anode showed nearly no capacity even at the low current density of 200 mA/g. It is expected that the CNT-SiCN composite, perhaps the series of CNT-PDC composites, may be prospective candidate for high power applications.

  17. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-01-01

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  18. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  19. International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Rome, Italy, April 27-29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-15

    Topics discussed include the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of organic electrolytes with lithium, the electrochemistry of a nonaqueous lithium/sulfur cell, chromium oxides as cathodes for lithium cells, and the behavior of various cathode materials for nonaqueous lithium cells. Papers are presented on a reversible graphite-lithium negative electrode for electrochemical generators, on interfacial conduction in lithium iodide containing inert oxides, on the mechanism for ion conduction in alkali metal-polymer complexes, and on Li/SOCl2 cells for high temperature applications. Attention is also given to Raman spectroscopic studies of the structure of electrolytes used in the Li/SOCl2 battery, to surface films on lithium in acetonitrile-sulfur dioxide solutions, and to polarization of the lithium electrode in sulfuryl chloride solutions.

  20. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  1. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  2. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing "6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum "6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing "6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of "6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% "6Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  3. Poly(oxyethylene) electrolytes based on lithium pentafluorobenzene sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, E.; Iojoiu, C.; Alloin, F.; Guindet, J.; Sanchez, J.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium pentafluorobenzene sulfonate was synthesized by a protocol whereby pollution by aromatic nucleophilic substitutions on the perfluorinated ring was avoided. Its poly(oxyethylene) complexes, although less conductive than lithium imide complexes, provided cationic transference numbers higher than 0.5. Surprisingly, even at fairly low concentrations, this salt markedly increased the mechanical properties of the polymer electrolyte. This effect was attributed to telechelic interactions of the ion pairs with distinct polyether chains and is in agreement with the high cationic transference numbers

  4. Polarization behavior of lithium electrode in polymetric solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Morita, Masayuki (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Tsutsumi, Hiromori (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

    1993-04-15

    Complexes of novel polymer matrices and lithium salts have been prepared as polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted poly(methylmethacrylate) (PEO-PMMA) and poly(methylsiloxane) (PMS) were used as the matrices. The conductance behavior of the complexes and the basic polarization characteristics of the lithium electrode in the polymeric electrolytes were studied. As high conductivities as 10[sup -3] S cm[sup -1] were obtained at room temperature for the PMMA-based electrolytes containing some liquid plasticizer. Limiting current densities of 3 to 5 mA cm[sup -2] were observed for the anodic and cathodic polarization of the lithium electrode. The transport number of Li[sup +] was approximately unity in 'single-ion type' PMS-based electrolyte, in which the polarization curve of the lithium electrode showed no current hysteresis. (orig.)

  5. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  6. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  7. Ion conducting polymers and polymer blends for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Vitale, Alessandra

    2017-08-29

    Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are also described.

  8. Can Biochemistry Usefully Guide the Search for Better Polymer Electrolytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Woods Halley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available I review some considerations that suggest that the biochemical products of evolution may provide hints concerning the way forward for the development of better electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries.

  9. Safer Battery with Switchable Polymer Coating, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to utilize a switchable polymer (SWP) to prevent catastrophic failure due to internal shorting or overdischarge in lithium-ion...

  10. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  11. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  12. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  13. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  15. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  16. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  17. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qizhao; Wang Qing

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e − and h + ) and ionic species (Li + ) at the electrode–electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li + storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. (topical review)

  18. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  19. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  20. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  2. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  3. Room-Temperature-Cured Copolymers for Lithium Battery Gel Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.

    2009-01-01

    Polyimide-PEO copolymers (PEO signifies polyethylene oxide) that have branched rod-coil molecular structures and that can be cured into film form at room temperature have been invented for use as gel electrolytes for lithium-ion electric-power cells. These copolymers offer an alternative to previously patented branched rod-coil polyimides that have been considered for use as polymer electrolytes and that must be cured at a temperature of 200 C. In order to obtain sufficient conductivity for lithium ions in practical applications at and below room temperature, it is necessary to imbibe such a polymer with a suitable carbonate solvent or ionic liquid, but the high-temperature cure makes it impossible to incorporate and retain such a liquid within the polymer molecular framework. By eliminating the high-temperature cure, the present invention makes it possible to incorporate the required liquid.

  4. Novel polymeric systems for lithium-ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-Pietrasanta, F.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of chemically cross-linked, self-supporting gel-type electrolyte membranes, based on hybrid polyfluorosilicone polymers reinforced with nanosized silica, for lithium-ion battery systems is reported. The polyfluorosilicone materials were selected on the basis of their high chemical and thermal stabilities. The precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional polymer matrices. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. Several kinds of membranes, based on different types of polyfluorosilicone precursor, were prepared and characterized in terms of swelling behavior, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The properties of the swelled matrices were evaluated as a function of dipping time, temperature, kind of electrolytic solution and cross-linking initiator content

  5. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  7. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  8. Lithium purity and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The accurate measurement of impurities in lithium is basic to the study of lithium compatibility with fusion reactor materials. In the last year the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has had the opportunity to develop sampling and analytical techniques and to apply them in support of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) as a part of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Project. In this paper we present the analytical results from the fill, start-up and operation of the ELS. In addition, the analysis and purification of navy surplus ingot lithium which is being considered for use in a larger system will be discussed. Finally, the analytical techniques used in our laboratory will be summarized and the results of a recent round robin lithium analysis will be presented

  9. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  10. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  11. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  12. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  13. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical behavior of carbon-rich SiCN polymer-derived ceramics as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Yamada, Yuto; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Within this study we report on the impact of the pyrolysis temperature on the structural and electrochemical properties of the poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide) derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic. Materials pyrolysed at 800 °C and 1300 °C, SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300, are found amorphous. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the increase in ordering of the free carbon phase with increasing pyrolysis temperature which leads to lower capacity recovered by SiCN 1300. Significant hysteresis is found for materials pyrolysed at 800 °C during electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction. This feature is attributed to much higher hydrogen content in SiCN 800 sample. An aging of SiCN 800 reflected by a change of elemental composition upon contact to air and a strong film formation are attenuated at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Single particle microelectrode investigation on SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300 clarify different electrochemical behavior of the materials. Much lower charge transfer resistance of SiCN 1300 in comparison to SiCN 800 explains better high currents electrochemical performance. Lithium ions diffusion coefficient Dmin ranges from 3.2 10-9 cm2s-1 to 6.4 10-11 cm2s-1 and is independent on the potential.

  14. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  15. The use of anions with sulfate function in electrolyte for lithium battery. Study of transport mechanism; Utilisation d'anions a fonction sulfate dans des electrolytes pour batterie au lithium. Etude des mecanismes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Ch.

    2005-05-15

    Lithium salts based on oligo-ether sulfate were synthesized and characterised. They incorporate oxy-ethylene units which enable the lithium cation salvation and, potentially, their use as ionic liquids. Their properties as lithium salts dissolved in liquid or polymer electrolytes were evaluated. Their electrochemical and thermal stabilities are sufficient for lithium battery application. Due to their weak dissociation in POE, their conductivities are fairly low. On the other hand, they have high cationic transference numbers. In mixture with usual salts as LiTFSI, they provide a good compromise between conductivities/transference number/cost. The second part of this study deals with the synthesis and characterisation of an ionomer with sulfate function and polyether backbone. The electrochemical, physical and chemical properties of this material show that it could be used as polymer electrolyte. Its potential as cross-linked gelled polymer electrolyte is outstanding. Structural analyses on an ionomeric monocrystal have been corroborated with quantum chemistry calculations. (author)

  16. Lithium dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase investigation using OsO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Martin; Scheiba, Frieder; Oswald, Steffen; Thomas, Jürgen; Goers, Dietrich; Scherer, Torsten; Klose, Markus; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO4) staining, commonly used to enhance scattering contrast in electron microscopy of biologic tissue and polymer blends, has been adopted for studies of graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries. OsO4 shows a coordinated reaction with components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and lithium dendrites, thereby increasing material contrast for scanning electron microscopy investigations. Utilizing the high affinity of lithium metal to react with osmium tetroxide it was possible to localize even small lithium deposits on graphite electrodes. In spite of their reaction with the OsO4 fume, the lithium dendrite morphology remains almost untouched by the staining procedure, offering information on the dendrite growth process. Correlating the quantity of osmium detected with the amount of residual ("dead") lithium of a discharged electrode, it was possible to obtain a practical measure for lithium plating and stripping efficiencies. EDX mappings allowed for a localization of electrochemically stripped lithium dendrites by their residual stained SEI shells. Cross sections, prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) of cycled graphite electrodes treated with OsO4, revealed important information about deposition and distribution of metallic lithium and the electrolyte reduction layer across the electrode.

  17. Influence of Electrolyte Modulus on the Local Current Density at a Dendrite Tip on a Lithium Metal Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, KJ; Higa, K; Srinivasan, V; Balsara, NP

    2016-08-10

    Understanding and controlling the electrochemical deposition of lithium is imperative for the safe use of rechargeable batteries with a lithium metal anode. Solid block copolymer electrolyte membranes are known to enhance the stability of lithium metal anodes by mechanically suppressing the formation of lithium protrusions during battery charging. Time-resolved hard X-ray microtomography was used to monitor the internal structure of a symmetric lithium-polymer cell during galvanostatic polarization. The microtomography images were used to determine the local rate of lithium deposition, i.e. local current density, in the vicinity of a lithium globule growing through the electrolyte. Measurements of electrolyte displacement enabled estimation of local stresses in the electrolyte. At early times, the current density was maximized at the globule tip, as expected from simple current distribution arguments. At later times, the current density was maximized at the globule perimeter. We show that this phenomenon is related to the local stress fields that arise as the electrolyte is deformed. The local current density, normalized for the radius of curvature, decreases with increasing compressive stresses at the lithium-polymer interface. To our knowledge, our study provides the first direct measurement showing the influence of local mechanical stresses on the deposition kinetics at lithium metal electrodes.

  18. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  19. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  20. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  3. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Battery Performance of A Lithium Poly (4-vinylphenol) Phenolate Borate Composite Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guodong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Rohan, Rupesh; Cai, Weiwei; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-01-01

    We report synthesis of lithium poly (4-vinylphenol) phenolate borate (LiPVPPB) single-ion conductor comprised of boron atoms with sp 3 electronic configuration covalently bonded to a polystyrene backbone with high thermal and electrochemical stability. The highly delocalized anionic charges surrounding the boron atoms in the polymer give rise to weak association with lithium ions in the polymer matrix, resulting in an ion transference number close to unity and remarkably high ionic conductivity. A composite membrane blended with LiPVPPB and poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) was fabricated. The battery of the electrolyte displays excellent cyclability with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency over a wide temperature range. The superior membrane performance suggests that single ion polymer electrolyte materials are highly promising for safe and high power applications of lithium ion batteries

  5. Recovery of Lithium From Geothermal Fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo by Adsorption Method

    OpenAIRE

    Noerochim, Lukman; Satriawangsa, Gita Akbar; Widodo, Amien

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of lithium from geothermal fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo, Indonesia was investigated employing an adsorption method with polymer membrane as container. The lithium concentration in geothermal fluid from Lumpur Sidoarjo used in the present study was about 5 mg/l. Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) was selected as a promising adsorbent material due to its non-toxic, topotactical behavior and low cost. In this study, LMO with single Li/Mn mole ratio was prepared, i.e. Li1.6Mn1.6O4. The adsorb...

  6. Microfabrication process for patterning metallic lithium encapsulated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukassi, Sami; Dunoyer, Nicolas; Salot, Raphael; Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This work presents recent achievements concerning thin film encapsulation of metallic lithium negative electrode. In the context of this study, the encapsulation stack includes polymer and dielectric layers combined in such way to optimize barrier performances of the whole structure towards oxygen and water vapor permeation. The first part of this work is dedicated to the description of the barrier stack architecture and properties. A second part presents the application of a microfabrication process to the metallic lithium negative electrode and barrier stack so as to have very small features (100 μm x 100 μm patterns). The microfabrication process includes several steps of photolithography and etching (dry and wet) blocks, which allows us to reach the target critical dimensions. These results show a method of patterning functional metallic lithium. It demonstrates the feasibility of energy sources miniaturization which is an important issue in the field of autonomous and wireless sensor networks.

  7. Characterization of Lithium Polysulfide Salts in Homopolymers and Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunyang; Wujcik, Kevin; Balsara, Nitash

    Ion-conducting polymers are important for solid-state batteries due to the promise of better safety and the potential to produce higher energy density batteries. Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes can provide high ionic conductivity and mechanical strength through microphase separation. One of the potential use of block copolymer electrolytes is in lithium-sulfur batteries, a system that has high theoretical energy density wherein the reduction of sulfur leads to the formation of lithium polysulfide intermediates. In this study we investigate the effect of block copolymer morphology on the speciation and transport properties of the polysulfides. The morphology and conductivities of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) containing lithium polysulfides were studies using small-angle X-ray scattering and ac impedance spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy is being used to determine nature of the polysulfide species in poly(ethylene oxide) and SEO. Department of Energy, Soft Matter Electron Microscopy Program and Battery Materials Research Program.

  8. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  9. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  10. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  11. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  12. Photorefractive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, Hendrik Jan; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of photorefractive polymers. Photorefractive polymers are materials in which the refractive index can be varied by the interaction with light. Unlike in numerous other photosensitive materials, in photorefractive materials this occurs via

  13. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Sun Jiazeng; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10 -4 to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the 7 Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids

  14. Organic electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2012-07-15

    Organic compounds offer new possibilities for high energy/power density, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and functional rechargeable lithium batteries. For a long time, they have not constituted an important class of electrode materials, partly because of the large success and rapid development of inorganic intercalation compounds. In recent years, however, exciting progress has been made, bringing organic electrodes to the attention of the energy storage community. Herein thirty years' research efforts in the field of organic compounds for rechargeable lithium batteries are summarized. The working principles, development history, and design strategies of these materials, including organosulfur compounds, organic free radical compounds, organic carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, non-conjugated redox polymers, and layered organic compounds are presented. The cell performances of these materials are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of the area, and straightforwardly revealing the advantages/disadvantages of each class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  16. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  17. Lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Flora; Manoli, Pierre; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 76-year old lady under lithium carbonate for a bipolar disorder who presented with a suspected optic neuritis. A typical lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus was observed. Discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in frank improvement in visual acuity and disappearance of the nystagmus.

  18. Multifunctional structural lithium ion batteries for electrical energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Atif; Zeshan Ali, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    Multifunctional structural batteries based on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites are fabricated that can bear mechanical loads and act as electrochemical energy storage devices simultaneously. Structural batteries, containing woven carbon fabric anode; lithium cobalt oxide/graphene nanoplatelets coated aluminum cathode; filter paper separator and cross-linked polymer electrolyte, were fabricated through resin infusion under flexible tooling (RIFT) technique. Compression tests, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and impedance spectroscopy were done on the cross-linked polymer electrolytes while cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and in-plane shear tests were conducted on the fabricated structural batteries. A range of solid polymer electrolytes with increasing concentrations of lithium perchlorate salt in crosslinked polymer epoxies were formulated. Increased concentrations of electrolyte salt in cross-linked epoxy increased the ionic conductivity, although the compressive properties were compromised. A structural battery, exhibiting simultaneously a capacity of 0.16 mAh L‑1, an energy density of 0.32 Wh L‑1 and a shear modulus of 0.75 GPa have been reported.

  19. Lithium ion conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with Lithium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, R.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Shilpa, R.; Moniha, V.

    2018-04-01

    The Biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with lithium nitrate of different concentrations have been prepared by solution casting technique. The decrease in crystalline nature of the biopolymer has been identified by XRD analyses. The complex formation between the polymer and the salt has been revealed using FTIR analysis. The ionic conductivity has been explored using A.C. impedance spectroscopy which reveals that the biopolymer containing 30 wt% Pectin: 70wt%LiNO3 has highest ionic conductivity of 3.97 × 10-3 Scm-1.

  20. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  1. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  2. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Rev. 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std 239.18 298-102 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT CLASSIRCTIO OF THIS PAGE (Whun Data Entered) Lade Form 296 ledk (Row. 2-49...did not burn spontaneously in water, and the hydrogen formed did not ignite in air. When a pea-sized piece of lithium was dropped into a container of...Lithium metal flowed through the cracks in the coating and started to burn brilliantly. The LiOH coating was initially protective; but, as it became

  3. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  4. Functional interface of polymer modified graphite anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaba, S.; Ozeki, T.; Okushi, K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    Graphite electrodes were modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMA), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Their electrochemical properties were examined in 1 mol dm{sup -3} LiClO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC) and propylene carbonate (PC) solutions as an anode of lithium ion batteries. Generally, lithium ions hardly intercalate into graphite in the PC electrolyte due to a decomposition of the PC electrolyte at ca. 0.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}, and it results in the exfoliation of the graphene layers. However, the modified graphite electrodes with PAA, PMA, and PVA demonstrated the stable charge-discharge performance due to the reversible lithium intercalation not only in the EC:DMC but also in the PC electrolytes since the electrolyte decomposition and co-intercalation of solvent were successfully suppressed by the polymer modification. It is thought that these improvements were attributed to the interfacial function of the polymer layer on the graphite which interacted with the solvated lithium ions at the electrode interface. (author)

  5. Functional interface of polymer modified graphite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, S.; Ozeki, T.; Okushi, K.

    Graphite electrodes were modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMA), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Their electrochemical properties were examined in 1 mol dm -3 LiClO 4 ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC) and propylene carbonate (PC) solutions as an anode of lithium ion batteries. Generally, lithium ions hardly intercalate into graphite in the PC electrolyte due to a decomposition of the PC electrolyte at ca. 0.8 V vs. Li/Li +, and it results in the exfoliation of the graphene layers. However, the modified graphite electrodes with PAA, PMA, and PVA demonstrated the stable charge-discharge performance due to the reversible lithium intercalation not only in the EC:DMC but also in the PC electrolytes since the electrolyte decomposition and co-intercalation of solvent were successfully suppressed by the polymer modification. It is thought that these improvements were attributed to the interfacial function of the polymer layer on the graphite which interacted with the solvated lithium ions at the electrode interface.

  6. Al_2O_3/PVdF-HFP-CMC/PE separator prepared using aqueous slurry and post-hot-pressing method for polymer lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Xinhe; Shu, Dong; Nan, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    A composite separator is prepared to improve the safety of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) based on a gravure coating aqueous slurry and post-hot-pressing method. An environmentally friendly aqueous slurry with an Al_2O_3 ceramic holder and polyvinylidene difluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) dual-binders is coated on a polyolefin (PE) substrate to form a prototype Al-PHC/PE separator. Then, after assembling the separator in the batteries and hot-pressing at 70 °C and 0.8 MPa for 3 h, the granular PVdF-HFP is transformed into a colloidal structure containing an electrolyte, which can binds the Al_2O_3 nanoparticles together and increases the battery hardness. Compared with a PE separator (9 μm), the Al-PHC/PE-2 separator (12 μm, with a Al_2O_3/PVdF-HFP weight ratio of 7/3) displays a comparative ionic conductivity of 9.3 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"2 and exhibits no obvious thermal deformation at 110 °C for 60 min. All of the batteries assembled with Al-PHC/PE-2 separators passed nail penetration and impact tests. In addition, the capacity retention increases from 83.4% to 87.6% when the battery is assembled with Al-PHC/PE-2 instead of a PE separator and charge-discharged at 0.7C/1.0C for 350 cycles. The enhanced safety and cycle performance indicate the promising prospect of Al-PHC/PE separators in LIBs.

  7. Single-ion conducting diblock terpolymers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melody; Epps, Thomas H., III

    Block polymer (BP) electrolytes provide an attractive route to overcome the competing constraints of high conductivity and mechanical/thermal stability in lithium-ion batteries through nanoscale self-assembly. For example, macromolecules can be engineered such that one domain conducts lithium ions and the other prevents lithium dendrite formation. Herein, we report on the behavior of a single-ion conducting BP electrolyte that was designed to facilitate the transport of lithium ions. These polymers differ from traditional salt-doped BP electrolytes, which require the addition of a lithium salt to bestow conductivity and typically suffer from substantial counterion motion that reduces efficiency. New single-ion BPs were synthesized, and the nanoscale morphologies were determined using small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Electrolyte performance was measured using AC impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization, and the results were correlated to nanoscale morphology and ion content. Enhanced physical understanding of single-ion BPs was gained by connecting the ion mobility to the chemistry, chain structure, and ion content of the single-ion BP. These studies can be applied to other charged-neutral block polymers to elucidate the effects of ion content on self-assembly and macroscopic properties.

  8. Influence of conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline is utilized to substitute conductive additive acetylene black in the LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Results show that LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 possesses stable structure and good performance. Percolation theory is used to optimize the content of conductive additive ...

  9. Synthesis and properties of new carboxyborate lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładka, Dorota; Krajewski, Mariusz; Młynarska, Sandra; Galińska, Justyna; Zygadło-Monikowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Bis(carboxytrifluoroborate lithium) salts [R(CH 2 COOBF 3 Li) 2 ] with oxyethylene groups R of oligomeric molar masses [R = O(CH 2 CH 2 O) n , where n = 3 or 11, BCB3 and BCB11, respectively] were synthesized via reaction of carboxylates salts with boron fluoride. The new salts were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of the salts were determined by oxyethylene chain length. For n = 3 the salt was crystalline with m p = 197 °C and for n = 11 it showed properties of an ionic liquid at ambient temperature. Their thermal stability was at least 250 °C. The values of lithium-ion transference numbers (T + ) of the solutions in polar aprotic solvents, determined by a well established steady-state technique, were in the range of 0.2–0.6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on PEO and studied salts with different concentration (from 24 to 94 wt %) was carried out. The ionic conductivity of SPEs was in the order of 10 −8 –10 −7 S cm −1 at room temperature and 10 −4 S cm −1 at 80 °C. A distinguishing feature of SPEs with the studied new salts is the high immobilization of anions, which causes almost a monoconducting character of charge transport. Lithium transference numbers (T + ) exceed 0.9.

  10. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  11. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  12. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  13. Synthesis of lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, lithium silicates were synthesised by the combustion technique, the mixtures were prepared with different molar ratios and using urea as fuel. Its characterization was realized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the percentages of its sizes were determined measuring the area under curve of the peaks in the diffractogram. (Author)

  14. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  15. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  16. Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications.

  17. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    longer life cycle, thus an ideal candidate to replace the conventional ... tion in the development of lithium ion batteries as they ... interaction of graphene with lithium based on density ... aromatic hydrocarbons.30 Lithium doping increases.

  20. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  1. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  2. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo by Adsorption Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Noerochim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of lithium from geothermal fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo, Indonesia was investigated employing an adsorption method with polymer membrane as container. The lithium concentration in geothermal fluid from Lumpur Sidoarjo used in the present study was about 5 mg/l. Lithium manganese oxide (LMO was selected as a promising adsorbent material due to its non-toxic, topotactical behavior and low cost. In this study, LMO with single Li/Mn mole ratio was prepared, i.e. Li1.6Mn1.6O4. The adsorbent was synthesized by solid state reaction at 500 °C for 5 hrs. A lithium uptake yield from the geothermal fluid of around 6.6 mg/g was obtained.

  3. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  4. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  6. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  7. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  8. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  9. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  10. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-08

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles.

  11. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  12. The testing report of the development for the lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zongkui; Kong Xianghong; Huang Yong

    2008-06-01

    With the development of lithium industry, the lithium grains and lithium rod, as additive or catalyzer, having a big comparatively acreage and a strong activated feature, have a broad application. The lithium grains and lithium rod belong to the kind of final machining materials. The principle of the lithium grains and lithium rod that how to take shape through the procedures of extrusion, cutting, anti-conglutination, threshing and so on are analysed, A sort of lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine is developed. (authors)

  13. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  14. High Temperature Polymers for use in Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Katherine M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is currently working on polymers for fuel cell and lithium battery applications. The desire for more efficient, higher power density, and a lower environmental impact power sources has led to interest in proton exchanges membrane fuels cells (PEMFC) and lithium batteries. A PEMFC has many advantages as a power source. The fuel cell uses oxygen and hydrogen as reactants. The resulting products are electricity, heat, and water. The PEMFC consists of electrodes with a catalyst, and an electrolyte. The electrolyte is an ion-conducting polymer that transports protons from the anode to the cathode. Typically, a PEMFC is operated at a temperature of about 80 C. There is intense interest in developing a fuel cell membrane that can operate at higher temperatures in the range of 80 C- 120 C. Operating the he1 cell at higher temperatures increases the kinetics of the fuel cell reaction as well as decreasing the susceptibility of the catalyst to be poisoned by impurities. Currently, Nafion made by Dupont is the most widely used polymer membrane in PEMFC. Nafion does not function well above 80 C due to a significant decrease in the conductivity of the membrane from a loss of hydration. In addition to the loss of conductivity at high temperatures, the long term stability and relatively high cost of Nafion have stimulated many researches to find a substitute for Nafion. Lithium ion batteries are popular for use in portable electronic devices, such as laptop computers and mobile phones. The high power density of lithium batteries makes them ideal for the high power demand of today s advanced electronics. NASA is developing a solid polymer electrolyte that can be used for lithium batteries. Solid polymer electrolytes have many advantages over the current gel or liquid based systems that are used currently. Among these advantages are the potential for increased power density and design flexibility. Automobiles, computers, and cell phones require

  15. Mass spectrometric analysis of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Ramasubramanian, P.A.; Shah, P.M.; Almoula, A.I.; Acharya, S.N.; Parab, A.R.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    The details of investigations carried out on the isotopic analysis of lithium using surface ionisation mass spectrometry are presented. Various parameters affecting the precision in isotopic analysis of lithium are discussed. A precision of 1% is achieved in the relative isotope abundance measurement. (author)

  16. Novel configuration of polyimide matrix-enhanced cross-linked gel separator for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Yao, Zhikan; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte with additional lithium ions, was introduced into a nonwoven separator. • The PI nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability and mechanical strength of the IACS. • With the introduction of PAMPS(Li"+), the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the -SO_3"− group, giving rise to a high lithium ion transference number. • This IACS is recommended as a promising candidate for the high-power and high-safety lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel composite nonwoven separator exhibiting high heat resistance, high ionic conductivity and high lithium ion transference number is fabricated by a simple dip-coating and heat treatment method. The thermal stable polyimide (PI) nonwoven matrix is chosen as a mechanical support and contributes to improving the thermal shrinkage of the composite nonwoven separator (abbreviated as IACS). The cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) PAMPS(Li"+) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), lithium ion sources of a single ion conductor, is introduced into the PI nonwoven matrix and acts as a functional filler. This PAMPS (Li"+) GPE is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, to supply more lithium ions dissociating from PAMPS (Li"+) by liquid electrolyte solvent, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance, and thus resulting in an excellent cyclability. More notably, the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the −SO_3"− group in the PAMPS (Li"+) polymer based on electrostatic interaction, giving rise to a very high lithium ion transference number. These fascinating characteristics endow the IACS a great promise for the application in the high power and high safety lithium ion batteries.

  17. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  18. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  19. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  20. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  1. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  2. Novel polymeric systems for lithium ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-PietraSanta, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked, self-supporting, membranes for lithium ion battery gel electrolytes were obtained by cross-linking a mixture of polyfluorosilicone (PFSi) and polysilicone containing ethylene oxide (EO) units [P(Si-EO)]. The membranes were also reinforced with nanosized silica. The two polymer precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional, polymer matrices. The precursors were dissolved in a common solvent and cross-linked to obtain free-standing PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 composite films. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, aprotic, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. The properties of the swelled PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 samples were evaluated as a function of the electrolytic solutions and the dipping time. The PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 membranes exhibited large swelling properties, high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability

  3. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  4. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  5. Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Liao, Meng; Lou, Huiqing; Hu, Yajie; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-03-01

    Since the discovery of conjugated polymers in the 1970s, they have attracted considerable interest in light of their advantages of having a tunable bandgap, high electroactivity, high flexibility, and good processability compared to inorganic conducting materials. The above combined advantages make them promising for effective energy harvesting and storage, which have been widely studied in recent decades. Herein, the key advancements in the use of conjugated polymers for flexible energy harvesting and storage are reviewed. The synthesis, structure, and properties of conjugated polymers are first summarized. Then, their applications in flexible polymer solar cells, thermoelectric generators, supercapacitors, and lithium-ion batteries are described. The remaining challenges are then discussed to highlight the future direction in the development of conjugated polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Examination results on reaction of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi

    2000-12-01

    Before the material corrosion tests in lithium, the reactions of lithium with air and ammonia that will be used for lithium cleaning were examined, and the results were as follows. 1. When lithium put into air, surface of lithium changes to black first but soon to white, and the white layer becomes gradually thick. The first black of lithium surface is nitride (Li 3 N) and it changes to white lithium hydroxide (LiOH) by reaction with water in air, and it grows. The growth rate of the lithium hydroxide is about 1/10 in the desiccator (humidity of about 10%) compare with in air. 2. When lithium put into nitrogen, surface of lithium changes to black, and soon changes to brown and cracks at surface. At the same time with this cracking, weight of lithium piece increases and nitridation progresses respectively rapidly. This nitridation completed during 1-2 days on lithium rod of 10 mm in diameter, and increase in weight stopped. 3. Lithium melts in liquid ammonia and its melting rate is about 2-3 hour to lithium of 1 g. The liquid ammonia after lithium melting showed dark brown. (author)

  7. Ion transport properties of lithium ionic liquids and their ion gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Susan, Md. Abu Bin Hasan; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    A new series of lithium ionic liquids were prepared by introducing of two electron-withdrawing trifluoroacetyl groups in borate salts containing two methoxy-oligo(ethylene oxide) groups in the structures. Successive substitution reactions of oligo-ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and trifluroacetic acid from LiBH 4 yielded the lithium salts, which were clear and colorless liquids at room temperature. The fundamental physicochemical properties, such as density, thermal property, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficients, and electrochemical stability, were measured. The lithium ionic liquids had self-dissociation ability and conducted ions even in the absence of organic solvents. New polymer electrolytes, named 'ion gels', were prepared by radical cross-linking reactions of a poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide)tri-acrylate macromonomer in the presence the lithium ionic liquid. An increase in the glass transition temperatures (T g ) of the ion gels was very small even with increasing lithium ionic liquid concentration, and the T g 's were lower than that of the ionic liquid itself. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels surpassed that of the lithium ionic liquid in the bulk at certain compositions

  8. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has

  9. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  10. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  11. Lithium - no shortage in supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last five years the face of the lithium industry has changed with new sources coming onto the market. The result of developments in supply is a buyers' market and, in the absence of major consumer developments, all things point to an increasing severely overcrowded market through the turn of the decade. As such lithium is likely to maintain charismatic appeal as developments unfold. This article provides an overview of the world's lithium industry and looks at the various market uses and potential. (author)

  12. Instrinsic defect energies of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the defect structure of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride. A potential model is obtained describing the statics and dynamics of these crystals. Intrinsic defect energies are calculated using the Harwell HADES program which is based on a generalised Mott-Littleton method. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and suggest that the vacancy and interstitial migration mechanisms of anions and cations are all comparable in their contribution to ionic conduction. (author)

  13. Equilibrium dissociation pressures of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1977-12-01

    The equilibrium dissociation pressures of plateau composition lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been measured from 450 to 750 0 C. These data were used to derive the relationship of dissociation pressure with temperature over this range and to calculate several thermodynamic properties of these materials. Thermodynamic properties determined included the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation; the enthalpy and entropy of fusion; and the melting points

  14. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  15. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  16. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enhancement of stability for lithium oxygen batteries by employing electrolytes gelled by poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Xie, Xiuqiang; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-01

    Free-standing gel polymer electrolytes with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix plasticized with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) were prepared and investigated. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes exhibited large operating window and acceptable ionic conductivity. When applied in lithium oxygen batteries, the gel polymer electrolyte could support a high initial discharge capacity of 2988 mAh g −1 when a carbon black electrode without catalyst was used as cathode. Furthermore, the battery with gel polymer electrolyte can last at least 50 cycles in the fixed capacity cycling, displaying an excellent stability. Detailed study reveals that the gelling process is essential for the cycling stability enhancement. With excellent electrochemical properties, the free-standing gel polymer electrolyte presented in this investigation has great application potentials in long-life lithium oxygen batteries.

  18. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate

  19. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of

  20. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  1. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  2. FTU cooled liquid lithium upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafrati, M., E-mail: matteo.iafrati@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of the liquid lithium limiter experiment in Frascati a new auxiliary system was developed in order to provide a better control of the energy fluid vector. The cooled liquid lithium system (CLL) was installed for the first time at the end of 2013, it uses overheated water to heat the lithium and to extract, at the same time, the heat from the metal surface when it gets wet by the plasma. A first version of the system, developed and presented in previous papers, has been modified to optimize the heat flux measurement on the liquid lithium surface. The changes include a new power supply logic for the heating system, new sensors and new read-out electronics compatible with the implementation of a real time control system. The prototype was updated with the aim of achieving a low cost and versatile control system.

  3. Probing quantum effects in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemyad, Shanti; Zhang, Rong

    2018-05-01

    In periodic table lithium is the first element immediately after helium and the lightest metal. While fascinating quantum nature of condensed helium is suppressed at high densities, lithium is expected to adapt more quantum solid behavior under compression. This is due to the presence of long range interactions in metallic systems for which an increase in the de-Boer parameter (λ/σ, where σ is the minimum interatomic distance and λ is the de-Broglie wavelength) is predicted at higher densities [1,2]. Physics of dense lithium offers a rich playground to look for new emergent quantum phenomena in condensed matter and has been subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations. In this article recent progress in studying the quantum nature of dense lithium will be discussed.

  4. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  5. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  6. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  7. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  8. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  9. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  10. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  11. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  12. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  13. Lithium Oxysilicate Compounds Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coyle, Jaclyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the structure and composition of lithium silicate thin films deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering is investigated. Five compositions ranging from Li2Si2O5 to Li8SiO6 were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structure analysis on the evolution of non-bridging oxygens in the thin films was conducted with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) increased as the silicate network breaks apart with increasing lithium content which agrees with previous studies on lithium silicates. Thin film impurities were examined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) and traced back to target synthesis. This study utilizes a unique synthesis technique for lithium silicate thin films and can be referred to in future studies on the ionic conductivity of lithium silicates formed on the surface of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries.

  14. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  15. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  16. Poly(o-methoxyaniline modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(o-methoxyaniline for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(o-methoxyaniline was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-4 mol L-1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry.

  17. Poly(ο-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(ο-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(ο-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -4 mol L -1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  18. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}. The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  19. L'enjeu mondial des batteries au lithium - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A l'occasion de son Assemblée générale, Le Solar-Club CERN, ensemble avec le club ConCERNed for Humanity, ont le plaisir d'inviter tout les personnes intéressées dans le domaine du stockage de l'énergie électrique, à une conférence sur les espoirs et déconvenues des batteries au lithium: L'enjeu mondial des batteries au lithium par le professeur Michel ARMAND, Inventeur de la batterie lithium-polymère, Professeur et Directeur de recherches / CNRS à l'Université d'Amiens / Picardie Le lundi 26 mars 2007, à 19 heures, au CERN à la Salle du Conseil, bâtiment 503, 1er étage

  20. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikström, Hanna; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of reserves, resources and key properties of 112 lithium deposits. • Discussions of widely diverging results from recent lithium supply estimates. • Forecasting future lithium production by resource-constrained models. • Exploring implications for future deployment of electric cars. - Abstract: Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports

  1. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  2. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  3. Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    power sources because of its higher energy density, shape and design flexibility, lower-self discharge rate, no memory effect and ... tissue engineering and permeable membranes for separation ... Both PVA and PVP are soluble in DMSO and.

  4. Crosslinkable fumed silica-based nanocomposite electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yangxing; Yerian, Jeffrey A.; Khan, Saad A.; Fedkiw, Peter S. [Department of Chemical & amp; Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    Electrochemical and rheological properties are reported of composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) consisting of dual-functionalized fumed silica with methacrylate and octyl groups+low-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGdm)+lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, lithium imide)+butyl methacrylate (BMA). The role of butyl methacrylate, which aids in formation of a crosslinked network by tethering adjacent fumed silica particles, on rheology and electrochemistry is examined together with the effects of fumed silica surface group, fumed silica weight percent, salt concentration, and solvent molecular weight. Chemical crosslinking of the fumed silica with 20% BMA shows a substantial increase in the elastic modulus of the system and a transition from a liquid-like/flocculated state to an elastic network. In contrast, no change in lithium transference number and only a modest decrease (factor of 2) on conductivity of the CPE are observed, indicating that a crosslinked silica network has minimal effect on the mechanism of ionic transport. These trends suggest that the chemical crosslinks occur on a microscopic scale, as opposed to a molecular scale, between adjacent silica particles and therefore do not impede the segmental mobility of the PEGdm. The relative proportion of the methacrylate and octyl groups on the silica surface displays a nominal effect on both rheology and conductivity following crosslinking although the pre-cure rheology is a function of the surface groups. Chemical crosslinked nanocomposite polymer electrolytes offer significant higher elastic modulus and yield stress than the physical nanocomposite counterpart with a small/negligible penalty of transport properties. The crosslinked CPEs exhibit good interfacial stability with lithium metal at open circuit, however, they perform poorly in cycling of lithium-lithium cells. (author)

  5. Polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Naik, Sanjeev

    2017-08-22

    The present invention provides, among other things, extruded blends of aliphatic polycarbonates and polyolefins. In one aspect, provided blends comprise aliphatic polycarbonates such as poly(propylene carbonate) and a lesser amount of a crystalline or semicrystalline polymer. In certain embodiments, provided blends are characterized in that they exhibit unexpected improvements in their elongation properties. In another aspect, the invention provides methods of making such materials and applications of the materials in applications such as the manufacture of consumer packaging materials.

  6. Conductivity studies of PEG based polymer electrolyte for applications as electrolyte in ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravikumar V.; Praveen, D.; Damle, R.

    2018-05-01

    Development of lithium ion batteries employing solid polymer electrolytes as electrolyte material has led to efficient energy storage and usage in many portable devices. However, due to a few drawbacks like lower ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), studies on SPEs for improvement in conductivity still have a good scope. In the present paper, we report the conductivity studies of a new SPE with low molecular weight poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as host polymer in which a salt with larger anion Lithium trifluro methane sulphonate (LTMS). XRD studies have revealed that the salt completely dissociates in the polymer giving a good stable electrolyte at lower salt concentration. Conductivity of the SPEs has been studied as a function of temperature and we reiterate that the conductivity is a thermally activated process and follows Arrhenius type behavior.

  7. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started

  8. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kubota, S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  9. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  10. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  11. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  12. Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zheng; He Xiangming; Pu Weihua; Wan Chunrong; Jiang Changyin

    2006-01-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel polymer electrolyte was prepared for lithium ion batteries. The preparation started with synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) by radical emulsion polymerization, followed by phase inversion to produce microporous membrane. Then, the microporous gel polymer electrolytes (MGPEs) was prepared with the microporous membrane and LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate. The dry microporous membrane showed a fracture strength as high as 18.98 MPa. As-prepared gel polymer electrolytes presented ionic conductivity in excess of 3.0 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at ambient temperature and a decomposition voltage over 6.6 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for Li-ion batteries

  13. Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Zheng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xiangming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: hexm@tsinghua.edu.cn; Pu Weihua [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wan Chunrong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang Changyin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-10-25

    Poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel polymer electrolyte was prepared for lithium ion batteries. The preparation started with synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) by radical emulsion polymerization, followed by phase inversion to produce microporous membrane. Then, the microporous gel polymer electrolytes (MGPEs) was prepared with the microporous membrane and LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate. The dry microporous membrane showed a fracture strength as high as 18.98 MPa. As-prepared gel polymer electrolytes presented ionic conductivity in excess of 3.0 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature and a decomposition voltage over 6.6 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for Li-ion batteries.

  14. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  15. Use of a polyacetylene cathode in primary lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the work performed for the Navy with regard to the use of poly(acetylene), (CH)x, as a cathode material in a lithium/thionyl (Li/SOC12) battery. The objective of the project was three fold: (1) To characterize and understand the electrochemistry of (CH)x in a detailed manner, (2) To study the compatibility of (CH)x with SOC12 and (3) To synthesize and investigate modified (CH)x polymers which may possess more desirable properties than the parent polymer.

  16. Use of a polyacetylene cathode in primary lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the work performed for the Navy with regard to the use of poly(acetylene), (CH)x, as a cathode material in a lithium/thionyl (Li/SOCl/sub 2/) battery. The objective of the project was three fold: (1) To characterize and understand the electrochemistry of (CH)x in a detailed manner, (2) To study the compatibility of (CH)x with SOCl/sub 2/ and (3) To synthesize and investigate 'modified' (CH)x polymers which may possess more desirable properties than the parent polymer.

  17. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  18. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  19. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  20. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  1. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to characterize the transport properties in electronically conductive polymers and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in lithium/polymer secondary batteries. During this research period, progress has been made in a literature survey of the historical background, methods of preparation, the physical and chemical properties, and potential technological applications of polythiophene. Progress has also been made in the characterization of polypyrrole flat films and fibrillar films. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronocoulometry were used to gain information on peak currents and potentials switching reaction rates, charge capacity, and charge retention. Battery charge/discharge studies were also performed.

  2. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  3. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  4. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  5. Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163 544 mg/kg; σ = 62 897; limit 8000), copper (average 98 694 mg/kg; σ = 28 734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11 438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  6. Development of membranes and a study of their interfaces for rechargeable lithium-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Binod [Electrochemical Power Group, Metals and Ceramics Division, University of Dayton Research Institute, OH 45469-0171 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes an investigation with an objective to screen and select high performance membrane materials for a working, rechargeable lithium-air battery. Membrane laminates comprising glass-ceramic (GC) and polymer-ceramic (PC) membranes were assembled, evaluated and analyzed. A superionic conducting GC membrane with a chemical composition of Li{sub 1+x}Al{sub x}Ge{sub 2-x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (x = 0.5) was used. Polymer membranes comprising of PC(BN), PC(AlN), PC(Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and PC(Li{sub 2}O) electrochemically coupled the GC membrane with the lithium anode. The cell and membrane laminates were characterized by determining cell conductivity, open circuit voltage and carrier concentration and its mobility. The measurements identified Li{sub 2}O and BN as suitable dopants in polymer matrix which catalyzed anodic charge transfer reaction, formed stable SEI layer and provided high lithium ion conductivity. (author)

  7. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  8. Polymers containing phosphorus groups and polyethers: from synthesis to application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliescu Smaranda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorus-containing high performance polymers have aroused wide interest, mainly due to good mechanical properties and their excellent fire resistance. The flexibility of synthetic polyphosphoesters allows the development of polymers in order to obtain solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries based on solid films with superior fire resistance. Results Novel linear Phosphonate-PEG polymers were synthesized by solution polycondensation of 4-chlorophenyldichlorophosphonate as a linking agent and poly(ethylene glycols with different molecular weights in the presence of triethylamine or 1-methylimidazole as acid scavenger. The yields were between 54% and 88% and inherent viscosity between 0.18-0.48 dl/g. Molar masses, Mn were about 26300 g/mol for polyphosphonates with PEG 2000 and 4600 g/mol for polyphosphonates with PEG 200. The LOI values for these polymers and membranes are in the range of 26–29. The membranes based on polyphosphonate with PEG 200 and 2000 showed conductivity between 6 × 10-8 S.cm-1 and 6 × 10-7 S.cm-1 at room temperature and total ionic transference number between 0.87- 0.96. The evolution of conductivity vs. temperature is linear. Conclusions 1-methylimidazole was found to be better HCl scavenger than triethylamine, and allowed higher yields and more eco-friendly synthesis of the Phosphonate-PEG polymers for SPE. These polymers and membranes based on these polymers showed good LOI values and indicate an improvement of the safety of lithium batteries. The membranes present conductivities around 6 × 10-7 S.cm-1at room temperature and total ionic transference number is higher for membranes based on polymers with high EG unit content. Best results yield 88%, inherent viscosities 0.48 dl/g and Mn 26000 were obtained with 1-methylimidazole and PEG 2000. These membranes based on these polymers showed good LOI values (in the range 26-29% and indicate an improvement of the safety of

  9. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2015-11-17

    of ceramic electrolytes that meet the modulus and stability requirements have to date proven to be insurmountable obstacles to progress. In this Account, we first review recent advances in continuum theory for dendrite growth and proliferation during metal electrodeposition. We show that the range of options for designing electrolytes and separators that stabilize electrodeposition is now substantially broader than one might imagine from previous literature accounts. In particular, separators designed at the nanoscale to constrain ion transport on length scales below a theory-defined cutoff, and structured electrolytes in which a fraction of anions are permanently immobilized to nanoparticles, to a polymer network or ceramic membrane are considered particularly promising for their ability to stabilize electrodeposition of lithium metal without compromising ionic conductivity or room temperature battery operation. We also review recent progress in designing surface passivation films for metallic lithium that facilitate fast deposition of lithium at the electrolyte/electrode interface and at the same time protect the lithium from parasitic side reactions with liquid electrolytes. A promising finding from both theory and experiment is that simple film-forming halide salt additives in a conventional liquid electrolyte can substantially extend the lifetime and safety of LMBs.

  10. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    modulus and stability requirements have to date proven to be insurmountable obstacles to progress. In this Account, we first review recent advances in continuum theory for dendrite growth and proliferation during metal electrodeposition. We show that the range of options for designing electrolytes and separators that stabilize electrodeposition is now substantially broader than one might imagine from previous literature accounts. In particular, separators designed at the nanoscale to constrain ion transport on length scales below a theory-defined cutoff, and structured electrolytes in which a fraction of anions are permanently immobilized to nanoparticles, to a polymer network or ceramic membrane are considered particularly promising for their ability to stabilize electrodeposition of lithium metal without compromising ionic conductivity or room temperature battery operation. We also review recent progress in designing surface passivation films for metallic lithium that facilitate fast deposition of lithium at the electrolyte/electrode interface and at the same time protect the lithium from parasitic side reactions with liquid electrolytes. A promising finding from both theory and experiment is that simple film-forming halide salt additives in a conventional liquid electrolyte can substantially extend the lifetime and safety of LMBs.

  11. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  12. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  13. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  14. Lithium-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yursova, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of using scintillation lithium-based detectors (LiJ(Eu) and 6 LiJ(Eu)), as well as lithium glasses for neutron detection are described. As compared with the glasses the LiJ(Eu) monocrystal possesses substantially higher energy resolution, its luminescence yield is considerably higher (in some cases ten fold), its application makes possible gamma radiation discrimination with the energy approximately four times higher and its higher specific mass ensures better efficiency of gamma radiation counting. The only 6 LiJ(Eu) drawback is its high hydroscopicity as well as its possibility to be used only in a limited temperature range (maximum temperature +35 deg C). The lithium glass can be used (with the exception of spectrometric measurements and radiation mixed regions measurement) with more than 1 MeV gamma radiation energy in a wide temperature range, in agressive, corroding and acid media

  15. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  17. Sulfonate-grafted porous polymer networks for preferential CO(2) adsorption at low pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, W.; Yuan, D.; Sculley, J.; Zhao, D.; Krishna, R.; Zhou, H.-C.

    2011-01-01

    A porous polymer network (PPN) grafted with sulfonic acid (PPN-6-SO3H) and its lithium salt (PPN-6-SO3Li) exhibit significant increases in isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption and CO2-uptake capacities. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and a 15/85 CO2/N2 ratio at 295 K and 1 bar

  18. Improving the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries by Conductive Polymer Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan; Yu, Guihua; Cha, Judy J.; Wu, Hui; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Yao, Yan; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Ah/g after 150 cycles at C/5 rate. We believe that this conductive polymer coating method represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of Li-S batteries and can be applicable to other electrode materials in lithium ion batteries

  19. A new nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) incorporating hypergrafted nano-silica

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xian-Lei

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) incorporating hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (HBPAE) grafted nano-silica (denoted as SiO2-g-HBPAE) have been prepared and investigated. Through surface pretreatment of nanoparticles, followed by Michael-addition and a self-condensation process, hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) was directly polymerized from the surface of nano-silica. Then the hypergrafted nanoparticles were added to PVA matrix, and blended with lithium perchlorate via mold casting method to fabricate nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. By introducing hypergrafted nanoparticles, ionic conductivity of solid composite is improved significantly at the testing temperature. Hypergrafted nano-silica may act as solid plasticizer, promoting lithium salt dissociation in the matrix as well as improving segmental motion of matrix. In addition, tensile testing shows that such materials are soft and tough even at room temperature. From the dielectric spectra of nanocomposite polymer electrolyte as the function of temperature, it can be deduced that Arrhenius behavior appears depending on the content of hypergrafted nano-silica and concentration of lithium perchlorate. At a loading of 15 wt% hypergrafted nano-silica and 54 wt% lithium perchlorate, promising ionic conductivities of PVA nanocomposite polymer electrolyte are achieved, about 1.51 × 10 -4 S cm-1 at 25 °C and 1.36 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 100 °C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  1. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  2. Role of salt concentration in blend polymer for energy storage conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L., E-mail: alsharmaiitkgp@gmail.com [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central university of Punjab, Bathinda-151001. INDIA (India); Sadiq, M. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. (BHU), Varanasi-India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are materials of considerable interest worldwide, which serves dual purpose of electrolyte and separator between electrode compartments in renewable energy conversion/storage devices such as; high energy density batteries, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors. Polymer blend electrolytes are prepared for various concentration of salt (Ö/Li) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of each PEO and PAN polymers (blend polymer) using solution casting technique. Solid polymeric ionic conductor as a separator is the ultimate substitute to eliminate the drawback related to liquid and gel polymer ionic conductors. In the present work, solid polymer electrolyte film consisting of PEO, PAN and LiPF{sub 6} are examined for various concentration of lithium salt by keeping PEO/PAN blend ratio as a constant with a view to optimize the dominant salt concentration which could give the maximum conductivity at ambient temperature.

  3. Flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors based on electrically conducting carbon nanotube fiber springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Cheng, Xunliang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-22

    The construction of lightweight, flexible and stretchable power systems for modern electronic devices without using elastic polymer substrates is critical but remains challenging. We have developed a new and general strategy to produce both freestanding, stretchable, and flexible supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries with remarkable electrochemical properties by designing novel carbon nanotube fiber springs as electrodes. These springlike electrodes can be stretched by over 300 %. In addition, the supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have a flexible fiber shape that enables promising applications in electronic textiles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polymer dynamics; reptation; domain dynamics biomolecules. Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the ...

  5. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  6. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  7. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  8. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  9. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  10. Lithium target simulation in TECHNOFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, C.; Arino, X.; Reig, J.; Aleman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to build a facility where testing, under neutronic irradiation, the necessary materials for the construction of future fusion reactors. The intention is produced irradiation in a controlled way by deuterons bombing on a high speed lithium surface specially designed for that.

  11. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  12. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2013-03-26

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration gradients within the cell, leading to high internal resistances that ultimately limit cell lifetime, charging rates, and energy density. Herein, we report on the synthesis and electrochemical features of electrolytes based on nanoparticle salts designed to provide high tLi+. The salts are created by cofunctionalization of metal oxide nanoparticles with neutral organic ligands and tethered lithium salts. When dispersed in a conducting fluid such as tetraglyme, they spontaneously form a charged, nanoporous network of particles at moderate nanoparticle loadings. Modification of the tethered anion chemistry from -SO3 - to -SO3BF3 - is shown to enhance ionic conductivity of the electrolytes by facilitating ion pair dissociation. At a particle volume fraction of 0.15, the electrolyte exists as a self-supported, nanoporous gel with an optimum ionic conductivity of 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature. Galvanostatic polarization measurements on symmetric lithium metal cells containing the electrolyte show that the cell short circuit time, tSC, is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current density tSC ∼ J-2, consistent with previously predicted results for traditional polymer-in-salt electrolytes with low tLi+. Our findings suggest that electrolytes with tLi+ ≈ 1 and good ion-pair dissociation delay lithium dendrite nucleation and may lead to improved lithium plating in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  14. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  15. Polymer stability and function for electrolyte and mixed conductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paula; Davis, Nicole; Liu, David; Amanchukwu, Chibueze; Lewis, Nate; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Polymers exhibit a number of attractive properties as solid state electrolytes for electrochemical energy devices, including the light weight, flexibility, low cost and adaptive transport properties that polymeric materials can exhibit. For a number of applications, mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials are of interest to achieve transport of electrons and holes or ions within an electrode or at the electrode-electrolyte interface (e.g. aqueous batteries, solar water splitting, lithium battery electrode). Using layer-by-layer assembly, a mode of alternating adsorption of charged or complementary hydrogen bonding group, we can design composite thin films that contain bicontinuous networks of electronically and ionically conducting polymers. We have found that manipulation of salt concentration and the use of divalent ions during assembly can significantly enhance the number of free acid anions available for ion hopping. Unfortunately, for certain electrochemical applications, polymer stability is a true challenge. In separate studies, we have been investigating macromolecular systems that may provide acceptable ion transport properties, but withstand the harsh oxidative environment of lithium air systems. An investigation of different polymeric materials commonly examined for electrochemical applications provides insight into polymer design for these kinds of environments. NSF Center for Chemical Innovation, NDSEG Fellowship and Samsung Corporation.

  16. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  17. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  18. Lithium diffusion in polyether ether ketone and polyimide stimulated by in situ electron irradiation and studied by the neutron depth profiling method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Attar, F. M. D.; Mathakari, N. L.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 10 (2014), s. 885-891 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : diffusion * lithium * neutron depth profiling * polymers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2014

  19. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tun Tun Moe

    2011-12-01

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  20. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  1. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  2. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xing-Cheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact. PMID:24418812

  3. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  5. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  6. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking

  7. Role of perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes in lithium metal batteries: Implication for suppressed Al current collector corrosion and the stability of Li metal/electrolytes interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lina; Liu, Jia; Armand, Michel; Mauger, Alain; Julien, Christian M.; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Liqun

    2018-03-01

    The development of safe and high performance lithium metal batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century. Historically, intrinsic instabilities of conventional liquid organic electrolytes induced battery failures and safety issues that hinder the practical utilization of advanced rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Herein, we report a multifunctional perfluoropolyether-based liquid polymer electrolyte (PFPE-MC/LiTFSI), presenting a unique "anion-solvent" interaction. This interaction optimizes the interfacial chemistry of lithium metal batteries, which effectively inhibits the corrosion of aluminum current collectors, suppresses lithium dendrite growth, and also facilitates the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer on Li anode. Even at a high current density of 0.7 mA cm-2, the lithium dendrites do not form after 1360 h of continuous operation. The LiFePO4|PFPE-MC/LiTFSI|Li cell delivers a stable cycling performance with over 99.9% columbic efficiency either at ambient temperature or high temperature, which is significantly superior to those using traditional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, PFPE-MC/LiTFSI electrolyte also possesses eye-catching properties, such as being non-flammable, non-volatile, non-hygroscopic, and existing in the liquid state between -90 °C and 200 °C, which further ensures the high safety of the lithium metal batteries, making this electrolyte promising for the development of high energy lithium metal batteries.

  8. Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Tsuda, H.; Sasao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li - current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li - current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li - upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions

  9. Incorporating allylated lignin-derivatives in thiol-ene gel-polymer electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Elyse A; Stanzione, Joseph F

    2018-07-01

    Growing environmental and economic concerns as well as the uncertainty that accompanies finite petrochemical resources contributes to the increase in research and development of bio-based, renewable polymers. Concurrently, industrial and consumer demand for smaller, safer, and more flexible technologies motivates a global research effort to improve electrolytic polymer separators in lithium-ion batteries. To incorporate the aromatic structural advantages of lignin, a highly abundant and renewable resource, into gel-polymer electrolytes, lignin-derived molecules, vanillyl alcohol and gastrodigenin are functionalized and UV-polymerized with multi-functional thiol monomers. The resulting thin, flexible, polymer films possess glass transition temperatures ranging from -42.1°C to 0.3°C and storage moduli at 25°C ranging from 1.90MPa to 10.08MPa. The crosslinked polymer films swollen with electrolyte solution impart conductivities in the range of 7.04×10 -7 to 102.73×10 -7 Scm -1 . Thiol molecular weight has the most impact on the thermo-mechanical properties of the resulting films while polymer crosslink density has the largest effect on conductivity. The conducting abilities of the bio-based gel-polymer electrolytes in this study prove the viability of lignin-derived feedstock for use in lithium-ion battery applications and reveal structurally and thermally desirable traits for future work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  11. Abundance of lithium in Pleiades F stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilachowski, C.A.; Booth, J.; Hobbs, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of lithium has been determined for 18 stars in the Pleiades cluster with spectral types from A7V to G0V. The pronounced dip in the lithium abundance among the mid-F stars which has been reported for other, older star clusters is not present in the Pleiades. The removal of lithium from the surfaces of middle-F dwarfs therefore occurs principally after about 100 Myr on the main sequence. 25 references

  12. Molecular Spring Enabled High-Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyue Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flexible butyl interconnection segments are synthetically incorporated into an electronically conductive poly(pyrene methacrylate homopolymer and its copolymer. The insertion of butyl segment makes the pyrene polymer more flexible, and can better accommodate deformation. This new class of flexible and conductive polymers can be used as a polymer binder and adhesive to facilitate the electrochemical performance of a silicon/graphene composite anode material for lithium ion battery application. They act like a “spring” to maintain the electrode mechanical and electrical integrity. High mass loading and high areal capacity, which are critical design requirements of high energy batteries, have been achieved in the electrodes composed of the novel binders and silicon/graphene composite material. A remarkable area capacity of over 5 mAh/cm2 and volumetric capacity of over 1700 Ah/L have been reached at a high current rate of 333 mA/g.

  13. Facile and scalable fabrication of polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte with high ceramic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Chen, X. Chelsea; Chen, Jihua; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Ruther, Rose E.; Yang, Guang; Lou, Kun; Nanda, Jagjit; Delnick, Frank M.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2018-06-01

    Solid state electrolytes are a promising alternative to flammable liquid electrolytes for high-energy lithium battery applications. In this work polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte membrane with high ceramic loading (greater than 60 vol%) is fabricated using a model polymer electrolyte poly(ethylene oxide) + lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate and a lithium-conducting ceramic powder. The effects of processing methods, choice of plasticizer and varying composition on ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte are thoroughly investigated. The physical, structural and thermal properties of the composites are exhaustively characterized. We demonstrate that aqueous spray coating followed by hot pressing is a scalable and inexpensive technique to obtain composite membranes that are amazingly dense and uniform. The ionic conductivity of composites fabricated using this protocol is at least one order of magnitude higher than those made by dry milling and solution casting. The introduction of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether further increases the ionic conductivity. The composite electrolyte's interfacial compatibility with metallic lithium and good cyclability is verified by constructing lithium symmetrical cells. A remarkable Li+ transference number of 0.79 is discovered for the composite electrolyte.

  14. Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

  15. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  16. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  17. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  18. pH-sensitive membranes for lithium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinska, Katarzyna; Bryjak, Marek; Wolska, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes followed by grafting of poly(acrylic acid) and copolymers of acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. The evaluation by IR and XPS spectroscopies showed that both polymers were successfully grafted to the porous membranes. Determination of permeate fluxes pointed the membranes to have excellent responses to pH changes when grafting yield was not so high. When grafting exceeded 0.1 mg cm −2 stimuli response gel-filled membranes were formed that could be used for transport of alkaline ions. The best permselectivity was observed for poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes grafted with 1:2 copolymer of acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. The dialysis was more effectively facilitated for lithium than for potassium or sodium salts at solution of pH = 5.5. - Highlights: • Preparation of pore-filled stimuli response membranes that facilitate transport of alkaline salts. • pH controlled transport of alkaline salts. • Facilitation of lithium transport over sodium and potassium

  19. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  20. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  1. Developments of Electrolyte Systems for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries (2,600 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1, lithium-sulfur (Li-S batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for the electrification of vehicles. However, both the polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and dendrite formation of the lithium anode are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in electrolyte systems. First we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with traditional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progresses in liquid systems, including ether-based, carbonate-based, and ionic liquid-based electrolytes. And then we move on to the advances in solid systems, including polymer and non-polymer electrolytes. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research in both the liquid and solid Li-S batteries are presented.

  2. Transparent lithiated polymer films for thermal neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Andrew N., E-mail: andrew.n.mabe@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Auxier, John D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Urffer, Matthew J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penumadu, Dayakar [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Schweitzer, George K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Miller, Laurence F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2013-09-11

    Novel water-soluble {sup 6}Li loaded copolymer scintillation films have been designed and fabricated to detect thermal neutrons. Styrene and maleic anhydride were copolymerized to form an alternating copolymer, then the anhydride functionality was hydrolyzed using {sup 6}Li hydroxide. The resulting poly(styrene-co-lithium maleate) was mixed with salicylic acid as a fluor and cast as a thin film from water. The maximum {sup 6}Li loading obtained that resulted in a transparent film was 4.36% by mass ({sup 6}Li to polymer). The optimum fluorescence output was obtained for 11.7% salicylic acid by mass, presumably in the form of lithium salicylate, resulting in an optimum film containing 3.85% by mass of {sup 6}Li. A facile and robust synthesis method, film fabrication protocol, photoluminescence results, and scintillation responses are reported herein. -- Highlights: • A transparent polymer scintillator containing 3.85 wt% {sup 6}Li has been synthesized. • This class of polymeric thermal neutron scintillation detector is water-soluble. • Salicylic acid, presumably in the form of lithium salicylate, is used as a fluor. • The material emits 373 photons/α ({sup 241}Am) and an average of 139 photons/β ({sup 36}Cl). • The material emits 360 photons per thermal neutron capture event.

  3. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  4. Lithium aluminates and tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Palacios G, O.; Bosch G, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is studied the crystalline structure of lithium aluminates prepared by three different methods, namely: solid state reaction, humid reaction and sol-gel reaction. The analysis methods are the X-ray diffractometry and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This study is realized as in original materials as in irradiated materials at the TRIGA Mark reactor, to correlate the synthesis method with response of these materials to the mixed irradiation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  5. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  6. Chemical Immobilization Effect on Lithium Polysulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Xi, Zhucong; Guo, Dexiang; Chen, Xiangju; Yin, Longwei

    2018-01-01

    Despite great progress in lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs), great obstacles still exist to achieve high loading content of sulfur and avoid the loss of active materials due to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfide products in the electrolyte. Relationships between the intrinsic properties of nanostructured hosts and electrochemical performance of LSBs, especially, the chemical interaction effects on immobilizing polysulfides for LSB cathodes, are discussed in this Review. Moreover, the principle of rational microstructure design for LSB cathode materials with strong chemical interaction adsorbent effects on polysulfides, such as metallic compounds, metal particles, organic polymers, and heteroatom-doped carbon, is mainly described. According to the chemical immobilizing mechanism of polysulfide on LSB cathodes, three kinds of chemical immobilizing effects, including the strong chemical affinity between polar host and polar polysulfides, the chemical bonding effect between sulfur and the special function groups/atoms, and the catalytic effect on electrochemical reaction kinetics, are thoroughly reviewed. To improve the electrochemical performance and long cycling life-cycle stability of LSBs, possible solutions and strategies with respect to the rational design of the microstructure of LSB cathodes are comprehensively analyzed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  8. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  9. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  10. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  11. Novel Stable Gel Polymer Electrolyte: Toward a High Safety and Long Life Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Xizheng; Guo, Shaohua; Zhu, Kai; Xue, Hailong; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-10-28

    Nonaqueous Li-air battery, as a promising electrochemical energy storage device, has attracted substantial interest, while the safety issues derived from the intrinsic instability of organic liquid electrolytes may become a possible bottleneck for the future application of Li-air battery. Herein, through elaborate design, a novel stable composite gel polymer electrolyte is first proposed and explored for Li-air battery. By use of the composite gel polymer electrolyte, the Li-air polymer batteries composed of a lithium foil anode and Super P cathode are assembled and operated in ambient air and their cycling performance is evaluated. The batteries exhibit enhanced cycling stability and safety, where 100 cycles are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. The feasibility study demonstrates that the gel polymer electrolyte-based polymer Li-air battery is highly advantageous and could be used as a useful alternative strategy for the development of Li-air battery upon further application.

  12. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  13. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P. [National Council of Research, Institute of Applied Science & Intelligent Systems (ISASI) ‘E. Caianiello’, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it’s possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  14. Lithium Pharmacogenetics: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Melis, Carla; Squassina, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder with a prevalence of 0.8-1.2% in the general population. Although lithium is considered the first-line treatment, a large percentage of patients do not respond sufficiently. Moreover, lithium can induce severe side effects and has poor tolerance and a narrow therapeutic index. The genetics of lithium response has been largely investigated, but findings have so far failed to identify reliable biomarkers to predict clinical response. This has been largely determined by the highly complex phenotipic and genetic architecture of lithium response. To this regard, collaborative initiatives hold the promise to provide robust and standardized methods to disantenagle this complexity, as well as the capacity to collect large samples of patietnts, a crucial requirement to study the genetics of complex phenotypes. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently published the largest study so far on lithium response reporting significant associations for two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). This result provides relevant insights into the pharmacogenetics of lithium supporting the involvement of the noncoding portion of the genome in modulating clinical response. Although a vast body of research is engaged in dissecting the genetic bases of response to lithium, the several drawbacks of lithium therapy have also stimulated multiple efforts to identify new safer treatments. A drug repurposing approach identified ebselen as a potential lithium mimetic, as it shares with lithium the ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase. Ebselen, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase mimetic, represents a valid and promising example of new potential therapeutic interventions for BD, but the paucity of data warrant further investigation to elucidate its potential efficacy and safety in the management of BPD. Nevertheless, findings provided by the growing field of pharmacogenomic

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  16. Restricted lithium ion dynamics in PEO-based block copolymer electrolytes measured by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël

    2017-10-01

    The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.

  17. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  18. A consideration of lithium cell safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    The safety characteristics of commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use as batteries for cellular phones. This report describes a theoretical approach to an understanding of cell safety, example results of safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells, and also presents our views regarding cell safety.

  19. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  20. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  1. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  3. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  4. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Lithium use and the risk of fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; de Vries, Frank; Thio, Brahm M. K. S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Leutkens, Hubert G. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    A recent study reported a decreased risk of fractures among lithium users. We conducted a case-control study within the UK General Practice Research Database, comparing never, ever, current, recent and past lithium use in 231,778 fracture cases to matched controls. In addition, the risk of fractures

  6. Treatment of lithium induced tremor with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, M

    1989-03-01

    This is the first report on the successful treatment of one patient with lithium induced tremor with hydrophilic atenolol, which is a relatively selective beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocker. Atenolol's advantages over lipophilic beta blockers in the treatment of lithium induced tremor are discussed.

  7. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use

  8. Materials Compositions for Lithium Ion Batteries with Extended Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, Kaushik

    Advancements in portable electronics have generated a pronounced demand for rechargeable energy storage devices with superior capacity and reliability. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have evolved as the primary choice of portable power for several such applications. While multiple variations have been developed, safety concerns of commercial technologies limit them to atmospheric temperature operability. With several niche markets such as aerospace, defense and oil & gas demanding energy storage at elevated temperatures, there is a renewed interest in developing rechargeable batteries that could survive temperatures beyond 100°C. Instability of critical battery components towards extreme thermal and electrochemical conditions limit their usability at high temperatures. This study deals with developing material configurations for LIB components to stabilize them at such temperatures. Flammable organic solvent based electrolytes and low melting polymer based separators have been identified as the primary bottleneck for LIBs to survive increasing temperature. Furthermore, thermally activated degradation processes in oxide based electrodes have been identified as the reason for their limited lifetime. A quasi-solid composite comprising of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and Clay was developed as an electrolyte/separator hybrid and tested to be stable up to 120°C. These composites facilitate complete reversible Li intercalation in lithium titanate (LTO) with a stable capacity of 120 mAh g-1 for several cycles of charge and discharge while simultaneously resisting severe thermal conditions. Modified phosphate based electrodes were introduced as a reliable alternative for operability at high temperatures in this study. These systems were shown to deliver stable reversible capacity for numerous charge/discharge cycles at elevated temperatures. Higher lithium intercalation potential of the developed cathode materials makes them interesting candidates for high voltage

  9. Thermosetting Phthalocyanine Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, G.; Parker, J.; Achar, B.

    1985-01-01

    Group of phthalocyanine polymers resist thermal degradation. Polymers expected semiconducting. Principal applications probably in molded or laminated parts that have to withstand high temperatures. Polymers made from either of two classes of monomer: Bisphthalonitriles with imide linkages or Bisphthalonitriles with ester-imide linkages.

  10. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  11. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  12. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  13. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  14. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzuweit, K.

    1988-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  15. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  16. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  17. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  18. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid

  19. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  20. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  1. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  2. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  3. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  4. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  5. Properties of lithium and its handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Toshiaki; Kawai, Masataka

    2000-09-01

    Lithium is one of good coolants because of high boiling point (1317degC), small specific gravity (0.47 at 600degC) and large specific heat (1 cal/g/degC). Therefore if lithium will be used in fast reactor for coolant, the heat efficiency of reactor will largely increase. Here the fundamental properties of lithium and the results of examination on chemical reaction, combustion and extinction are shown. These examinations were also carried out on sodium to compare with lithium. The differences between both are that lithium reacts more moderately with water, not explosive, and is not combustible but after ignition burns at higher temperature and longer. (author)

  6. Suicide risk in patients treated with lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Kvist, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999. SETTING: All patients treated...... with lithium in Denmark, ie, within community psychiatry, private specialist practice settings, and general practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 186 patients who purchased at least 1 prescription of lithium and 1.2 million subjects from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All suicides identified...

  7. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  8. Self-standing elastomeric composites based on lithium ferrites and their dielectric behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soreto Teixeira, S.; Graça, M. P. F.; Costa, L. C. [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dionisio, M. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ilcíkova, M.; Mosnacek, J.; Spitalsky, Z. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, I. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-12-14

    Lithium ferrite (LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8}) is an attractive material for technological applications due to its physical properties, which are significantly dependent on the preparation method and raw materials. In this work, LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} crystallites were obtained by controlled heat-treatment process at 1100 °C, of a homogeneous mixture of Li{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, prepared by wet ball-milling and using lithium and iron nitrates as raw materials. The main goal was the preparation of a flexible and self-standing tick composite film by embedding lithium ferrite particles in a polymeric matrix, taking advantage of the good mechanical properties of the polymer and of the electrical and dielectric properties of the ferrite. The selected polymer matrix was styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene copolymer. To prepare the composites, the lithium ferrite particles were chemically modified in order to functionalize their surface. To analyse the influence of the particles surface modification, different composites were made, with modified and unmodified particles. The structure of the obtained composites was studied by FTIR, XRD, TGA, and DSC techniques. The dielectric properties were analysed, in the frequency range between 10 Hz and 1 MHz and in function of temperature in the range between −73 °C and 127 °C. These properties were related with the structure and concentration of the particles in the matrix network. The composites with the modified particles present higher dielectric constant, maintaining values of loss tangent sufficiently low (<10{sup −2}) that can be considered interesting for technological applications.

  9. Preparation and properties of new cross-linked polyurethane acrylate electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, P.; Vasudevan, T.; Gopalan, A. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630 003 (India); Lee, Kwang-Pill [Department of Chemistry Education, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-29

    A cross-linked polyurethane acrylate (PUA) is synthesized by end-capping a hexamethylene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate/poly(ethylene glycol)-based prepolymer with hydroxy butyl methacrylate (HBMA). Significant interactions of lithium ions with the soft and hard segments of the host polymer are observed for the PUA complexed with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurements. The DSC results indicate the formation of transient cross-links with the ether oxygen of the soft segment and mixing of soft and hard phases induced by the Li{sup +} ions. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis measurements support the formation of different types of complexes by interaction of Li{sup +} ions with different coordination sites of PUA. No detectable interactions are found between Li{sup +} ions and groups in HBMA. In addition, PUA follows the Arrhenius relationship for ion transport. Predominant formation of contact ion-pairs of LiClO{sub 4} is observed through a.c. conductivity and DSC measurements. The lithium stripping-plating process is reversible and this implies better electrochemical stability over the working voltage range. Also, the PUA electrolyte shows better compatibility with lithium metal as inferred from impedance measurements and has a good cationic transference number that is suitable for the material to be used as a solid polymer electrolyte. Addition of HBMA into the PU matrix improves the tensile strength of the cross-linked PUA. Swelling measurements of PUA with plasticizer indicate better dimensional stability. A cell is constructed with PUA as the electrolyte and its performance is evaluated. (author)

  10. Preparation of thermal resistant-enhanced separators for lithium ion battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Micro-porous membrane made of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) is most widely used as physical separators between the cathode and anode in lithium secondary batteries. However, the polymer membranes so soften or melt when the temperature reaches 130 .deg. C or higher because of thermal shrinkage of the polyolefin separators, and thaw low thermal stability may cause internal short circuiting or lead to thermal runaway. In this study, to realize a highly safe battery, we prepared three type separators as crosslinked PE separator, polymer-coated PE separator, and ceramic-coated PE separators, for lithium secondary battery by electron beam irradiation. We prepared crosslinked PE separators with the improved thermal stability by irradiating a commercial PE separator with an electron beam. A polymer-coated PE separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. Ceramic-coated PE separator was prepared by coating ceramic particles on a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The prepared separators were characterized with FT-IR, SEM, electrolyte uptake, ion conductivity, thermal shrinkage and battery performance test.

  11. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  12. Lithium uptake and the corrosion of zirconium alloys in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on corrosion films on zirconium alloys that were analyzed for lithium by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS). The oxides grown in reactor in dilute lithium hydroxide solution, specimens cut from Zircaloy, and Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes removed from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium, Registered Trademark) reactors showed low concentrations of lithium (4 to 50 ppm). The lithium was not leachable in a warm dilute acid. 6 Li undergoes transmutation by the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction. However, SIMS profiles for d 7 Li were identical through the bulk oxide and the isotopic ratio was close to the natural abundance value. The lithium in the oxide, existing as adsorbed lithium on the surface, has been in dynamic equilibrium with lithium in the coolant, and, in spite of many Effective Full Power Years (EFPY) of operation, lithium added to the CANDU coolant at ∼2.5 ppm is not concentrating in the oxides. On the other hand, corrosion films grown in the laboratory in concentrated lithium hydroxide solutions were very porous and contained hundreds of ppm of lithium in the oxide

  13. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  14. Electroluminescence of Multicomponent Conjugated Polymers. 1. Roles of Polymer/Polymer Interfaces in Emission Enhancement and Voltage-Tunable Multicolor Emission in Semiconducting Polymer/Polymer Heterojunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xuejun, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the electronic structure of polymer/polymer interfaces on the electroluminescence efficiency and tunable multicolor emission of polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes were explored...

  15. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  16. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  17. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  18. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  19. Synthesis and characterizations of novel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthad, Chalathorn

    end-blocks is described for the first time. The synthetic strategy involves the preparation of the telechelic fluoropolymers using a functional benzoyl peroxide initiator as the macro-chain transfer agent for subsequent RAFT polymerization of the imidazolium methacrylate monomer. As revealed in DSC, SAXS and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, there was no microphase separation in the triblock copolymers, likely due to solubility of ionic liquid moieties in the fluoropolymer matrix. The anionic counterion has direct impact on the thermal properties, ionic conductivity and segmental dynamics of the polymers. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is well described by the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher model, suggesting that ion motion is closely coupled to segmental motion. In Chapter 4 and 5, new solid electrolytes for lithium cations have been synthesized by catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction involving hydrogen atoms of polysiloxane and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and double bonds of vinyl tris17-bromo-3,6,9,12,15- pentaoxaheptadecan-1-ol silane. The obtained structures are based on branched or dendritic with ionic liquid-ethylene oxide oligomer. High room temperature ionic conductivities have been obtained in the range of 10-4-10-5 can be regarded as solid electrolytes. This is attributed to the high concentration of ions from ionic liquid moieties in the tripodand molecule, high segmental mobility, and high ion dissociation from ethylene oxide spacers. The influence of anion structures and lithium salts and concentration has been investigated.

  20. Fluorination of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene were reacted with elemental fluorine under carefully controlled conditions to produce fluorocarbon polymers. Fluorination of polymer films resulted in fluorination of only the outer surfaces of the films, while the reaction of elemental fluorine with powdered hydrocarbon polymers produced perfluorocarbon polymers. Existing and newly developed techniques were used to characterize the fluorinated polymers. It was shown that the degree of fluorination was influenced by the surface area of the hydrocarbon material, the concentration, of the fluorine gas, and the time and temperature of fluorination. A fluidized-bed reactor used for the fluorination of polymer powders effectively increased the reaction rate. The surface tension and the oxygen permeability of the fluorinated polymers were studied. The surface tension of hydrocarbon polymers was not influenced by different solvents, but the surface tension of fluorinated polymers was affected by the type of solvent that was used. There were indications that the surface tension was affected by oxygen introduced into the polymer surface during fluorination. Fluorination lowered the permeability of oxygen through hydrocarbon polymers. 55 refs., 51 figs., 26 tabs