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Sample records for karp korea antarctic

  1. Differences in clinical features according to Boryoung and Karp genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi.

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    Dong-Min Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The differences in virulence of O. tsutsugamushi prototypes in humans are still unknown. We investigated whether there are any differences in the clinical features of the Boryoung and Karp genotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients infected with O. tsutsugamushi, as Boryoung and Karp clusters, who had visited 6 different hospitals in southwestern Korea were prospectively compared for clinical features, complications, laboratory parameters, and treatment responses. Infected patients in the Boryoung cluster had significantly more generalized weakness, eschars, skin rashes, conjunctival injection, high albumin levels, and greater ESR and fibrinogen levels compared to the Karp cluster. The treatment response to current antibiotics was significantly slower in the Karp cluster as compared to the Boryoung cluster. CONCLUSION: The frequency of occurrence of eschars and rashes may depend on the genotype of O. tsutsugamushi.

  2. Differences in clinical features according to Boryoung and Karp genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Shin, Sung Heui; Ryu, So Yeon; Yoon, Hee Jung; Wie, Seong Heon; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Chang Youl; Choi, Jong Soo; Yang, Tae Young

    2011-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The differences in virulence of O. tsutsugamushi prototypes in humans are still unknown. We investigated whether there are any differences in the clinical features of the Boryoung and Karp genotypes. Patients infected with O. tsutsugamushi, as Boryoung and Karp clusters, who had visited 6 different hospitals in southwestern Korea were prospectively compared for clinical features, complications, laboratory parameters, and treatment responses. Infected patients in the Boryoung cluster had significantly more generalized weakness, eschars, skin rashes, conjunctival injection, high albumin levels, and greater ESR and fibrinogen levels compared to the Karp cluster. The treatment response to current antibiotics was significantly slower in the Karp cluster as compared to the Boryoung cluster. The frequency of occurrence of eschars and rashes may depend on the genotype of O. tsutsugamushi.

  3. Arhitektor Karp gotov snesti svojo tvorenije / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Rotermanni kvartalis asuva postimaja saatusest. 2005. aastal kehtestatud detailplaneeringu järgi ei tohi hoonet lammutada. Kommenteerivad hoone arhitekt Raine Karp, Mart Saa ja Indrek Toome

  4. Arhitektor Karp gotov snesti svojo tvorenije / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Rotermanni kvartalis asuva postimaja saatusest. 2005. aastal kehtestatud detailplaneeringu järgi ei tohi hoonet lammutada. Kommenteerivad hoone arhitekt Raine Karp, Mart Saa ja Indrek Toome

  5. KARP-1 works as a heterodimer with Ku70, but the function of KARP-1 cannot perfectly replace that of Ku80 in DSB repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2011-10-01

    Ku, the heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80, plays an essential role in the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway, i.e., non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Two isoforms of Ku80 encoded by the same genes, namely, Ku80 and KARP-1 are expressed and function in primate cells, but not in rodent cells. Ku80 works as a heterodimer with Ku70. However, it is not yet clear whether KARP-1 forms a heterodimer with Ku70 and works as a heterodimer. Although KARP-1 appears to work in NHEJ, its physiological role remains unclear. In this study, we established and characterized EGFP-KARP-1-expressing xrs-6 cell lines, EGFP-KARP-1/xrs-6. We found that nuclear localization signal (NLS) of KARP-1 is localized in the C-terminal region. Our data showed that KARP-1 localizes within the nucleus in NLS-dependent and NLS-independent manner and forms a heterodimer with Ku70, and stabilizes Ku70. On the other hand, EGFP-KARP-1 could not perfectly complement the radiosensitivity and DSB repair activity of Ku80-deficient xrs-6 cells. Furthermore, KARP-1 could not accumulate at DSBs faster than Ku80, although EGFP-KARP-1 accumulates at DSBs. Our data demonstrate that the function of KARP-1 could not perfectly replace that of Ku80 in DSB repair, although KARP-1 has some biochemical properties, which resemble those of Ku80, and works as a heterodimer with Ku70. On the other hand, the number of EGFP-KARP-1-expressing xrs-6 cells showing pan-nuclear γ-H2AX staining significantly increases following X-irradiation, suggesting that KARP-1 may have a novel role in DSB response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving the Held and Karp Approach with Constraint Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Pascal; Régin, Jean-Charles; Rousseau, Louis-Martin; Rueher, Michel; van Hoeve, Willem-Jan

    Held and Karp have proposed, in the early 1970s, a relaxation for the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) as well as a branch-and-bound procedure that can solve small to modest-size instances to optimality [4, 5]. It has been shown that the Held-Karp relaxation produces very tight bounds in practice, and this relaxation is therefore applied in TSP solvers such as Concorde [1]. In this short paper we show that the Held-Karp approach can benefit from well-known techniques in Constraint Programming (CP) such as domain filtering and constraint propagation. Namely, we show that filtering algorithms developed for the weighted spanning tree constraint [3, 8] can be adapted to the context of the Held and Karp procedure. In addition to the adaptation of existing algorithms, we introduce a special-purpose filtering algorithm based on the underlying mechanisms used in Prim's algorithm [7]. Finally, we explored two different branching schemes to close the integrality gap. Our initial experimental results indicate that the addition of the CP techniques to the Held-Karp method can be very effective.

  7. Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, Ha-Duong

    Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.

  8. Analysis of the Karmarkar-Karp differencing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, S.; Mertens, S.

    2008-09-01

    The Karmarkar-Karp differencing algorithm is the best known polynomial time heuristic for the number partitioning problem, fundamental in both theoretical computer science and statistical physics. We analyze the performance of the differencing algorithm on random instances by mapping it to a nonlinear rate equation. Our analysis reveals strong finite size effects that explain why the precise asymptotics of the differencing solution is hard to establish by simulations. The asymptotic series emerging from the rate equation satisfies all known bounds on the Karmarkar-Karp algorithm and projects a scaling n - c ln n , where c = 1/(2 ln 2) = 0.7213 .... Our calculations reveal subtle relations between the algorithm and Fibonacci-like sequences, and we establish an explicit identity to that effect.

  9. Analysis of the Karmarkar-Karp Differencing Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The Karmarkar-Karp differencing algorithm is the best known polynomial time heuristic for the number partitioning problem, fundamental in both theoretical computer science and statistical physics. We analyze the performance of the differencing algorithm on random instances by mapping it to a nonlinear rate equation. Our analysis reveals strong finite size effects that explain why the precise asymptotics of the differencing solution is hard to establish by simulations. The asymptotic series emerging from the rate equation satisfies all known bounds on the Karmarkar-Karp algorithm and projects a scaling $n^{-c\\ln n}$, where $c=1/(2\\ln2)=0.7213...$. Our calculations reveal subtle relations between the algorithm and Fibonacci-like sequences, and we establish an explicit identity to that effect.

  10. Analysis of the postulates produced by Karp's Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Meek, Jerrald

    2008-01-01

    This is the final article in a series of four articles. Richard Karp has proven that a deterministic polynomial time solution to K-SAT will result in a deterministic polynomial time solution to all NP-Complete problems. However, it is demonstrated that a deterministic polynomial time solution to any NP-Complete problem does not necessarily produce a deterministic polynomial time solution to all NP-Complete problems.

  11. Karp-Miller Trees for a Branching Extension of VASS

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    Kumar Neeraj Verma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We study BVASS (Branching VASS which extend VASS (Vector Addition Systems with States by allowing addition transitions that merge two configurations. Runs in BVASS are tree-like structures instead of linear ones as for VASS. We show that the construction of Karp-Miller trees for VASS can be extended to BVASS. This entails that the coverability set for BVASS is computable. This allows us to obtain decidability results for certain classes of equational tree automata with an associative-commutative symbol. Recent independent work by de Groote et al. implies that decidability of reachability in BVASS is equivalent to decidability of provability in MELL (multiplicative exponential linear logic, which is still an open problem. Hence our results are also a step towards answering this question in the affirmative.

  12. Early Childhood Educators and the FIS Grant Program: An Interview with Naomi Karp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    Naomi Karp is the Director of the National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education (ECI) in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) in the U.S. Department of Education. This interview concerns funding for early childhood education research through OERI's Field-Initiated Studies (FIS) Grant Program. Questions…

  13. The Statistical Mechanics of Random Set Packing and a Generalization of the Karp-Sipser Algorithm

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    C. Lucibello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of random instances of the maximum set packing (MSP optimization problem, also known as maximum matching or maximum strong independent set on hypergraphs. We give an analytic prediction of the MSPs size using the 1RSB cavity method from statistical mechanics of disordered systems. We also propose a heuristic algorithm, a generalization of the celebrated Karp-Sipser one, which allows us to rigorously prove that the replica symmetric cavity method prediction is exact for certain problem ensembles and breaks down when a core survives the leaf removal process. The e-phenomena threshold discovered by Karp and Sipser, marking the onset of core emergence and of replica symmetry breaking, is elegantly generalized to Cs=e/(d-1 for one of the ensembles considered, where d is the size of the sets.

  14. SISTEM REKOMENDASI PENENTUAN DOSEN PEMBIMBING TUGAS AKHIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA RABIN-KARP

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    Abu Salam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penentuan dosen pembimbing tugas akhir merupakan faktor penting terhadap pengerjaan tugas akhir mahasiswa. Namun, kurangnya informasi mengenai dosen pembimbing dapat menghambat mahasiswa dalam melakukan penentuan dosen pembimbing. Dengan demikian, diperlukan sistem yang dapat membantu mahasiswa sehingga dapat dimudahkan dalam melakukan penentuan dosen pembimbing tugas. Masalah tersebut yang menjadi dasar penelitian ini. Penelitian  dilakukan dengan mengembangkan sistem berbasis web dengan menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem web-engineering dan menerapkan algoritma Rabin-Karp yang merupakan algoritma pencocokan pola string. Peran algoritma Rabin-Karp dalam sistem ini yaitu melakukan pencocokan pola string antara topik tugas akhir mahasiswa dengan judul penelitan yang telah dilakukan oleh setiap dosen pembimbing untuk mendukung sistem dalam memberikan rekomendasi kepada mahasiswa mengenai dosen pembimbing tugas akhir. Sistem rekomendasi penentuan dosen pembimbing tugas akhir yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini dapat memberikan rekomendasi kepada mahasiswa mengenai dosen pembimbing tugas akhir yang telah melakukan penelitian sesuai dengan topik tugas akhir mahasiswa. Namun masih perlu adanya perubahan maupun peningkatan algoritma agar mampu menghasilkan rekomendasi yang memiliki performa lebih baik dan tidak bergantung pada data penelitian dosen pembimbing. Kata Kunci : Sistem rekomendasi, dosen pembimbing, Algoritma Rabin-Karp,web-engineering

  15. Antarctic clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan-Cope, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity studies with global climate models show that, by their influence on the radiation balance, Antarctic clouds play a major role in the climate system, both directly at high southern latitudes and indirectly globally, as the local circulation changes lead to global teleconnections. Unfortunately, observations of cloud distribution in the Antarctic are limited and often of low quality because of the practical difficulty in observing clouds in the harsh Antarctic environment. The best ...

  16. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  17. Genomic Sequencing of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Karp, an Assembly Comparable to the Genome Size of the Strain Ikeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-08-18

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an intracellular bacterium, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae This study presents the draft genome sequence of strain Karp, with 2.0 Mb as the size of the completed genome. This nearly finished draft genome sequence was annotated with the RAST server and the contents compared to those of the other strains.

  18. Genomic Sequencing of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Karp, an Assembly Comparable to the Genome Size of the Strain Ikeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Hung, Guo-Chiuan

    2016-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an intracellular bacterium, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae. This study presents the draft genome sequence of strain Karp, with 2.0 Mb as the size of the completed genome. This nearly finished draft genome sequence was annotated with the RAST server and the contents compared to those of the other strains. PMID:27540052

  19. Asymptotic experimental analysis for the Held-Karp traveling salesman bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.S. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); McGeoch, L.A. [Amherst College, MA (United States); Rothberg, E.E. [Silicon Graphics, Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Held-Karp (HK) lower bound is the solution to the linear programming relaxation of the standard integer Programming formulation of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). For numbers of cities N up to 30,000 or more it can be computed exactly using the Simplex method and appropriate separation algorithms, and for N up to a million good approximations can be obtained via iterative Lagrangean relaxation techniques first suggested by Held and Karp. In this paper, we consider three applications of our ability to compute/approximate this bound. First, we provide empirical evidence in support of using the HK bound as a stand-in for the optimal tour length when evaluating the quality of near-optimal tours. We show that for a wide variety of randomly generated instance types the optimal tour length averages less than 0.8% over the HK bound, and even for the real-world instances in TSPLIB the gap is almost always less than 2%. Moreover, our data indicates that the HK bound can provide substantial {open_quotes}variance reduction{close_quotes} in experimental studies involving randomly generated instances. Second, we estimate the expected HK bound as a function of N for a variety of random instance types, based on extensive computations. For example, for random Euclidean instances it is known that the ratio of the Held-Karp bound to {radical}N approaches a constant C{sub HK}, and we estimate both that constant and the rate of convergence to it. Finally, we combine this information with our earlier results on expected HK gaps to obtain estimates for expected optimal tour lengths. For random Euclidean instances, we conclude that C{sub OPT}, the limiting ratio of the optimal tour length to {radical}N, is .7124 +- .0002, thus invalidating the commonly cited estimates of .749 and .765 and undermining many claims of good heuristic performance based on those estimates. For random distance matrices, the expected optimal tour length appears to be about 2.042.

  20. Implementation of Karp-Rabin string matching algorithm in reconfigurable hardware for network intrusion prevention system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwicz, Jakub; Buciak, Piotr; Sapiecha, Piotr

    2006-03-01

    Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPSs) have become widely recognized as a powerful tool and an important element of IT security safeguards. The essential feature of network IPSs is searching through network packets and matching multiple strings, that are fingerprints of known attacks. String matching is highly resource consuming and also the most significant bottleneck of IPSs. In this article an extension of the classical Karp-Rabin algorithm and its implementation architectures were examined. The result is a software, which generates a source code of a string matching module in hardware description language, that could be easily used to create an Intrusion Prevention System implemented in reconfigurable hardware. The prepared module matches the complete set of Snort IPS signatures achieving throughput of over 2 Gbps on an Altera Stratix I1 evaluation board. The most significant advantage of the proposed architecture is that the update of the patterns database does not require reconfiguration of the circuitry.

  1. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  2. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  3. Kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP) quantifies the contribution of protein kinases to the regulation of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Edmund H; Casado, Pedro; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Cutillas, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    Cell survival is regulated by a signaling network driven by the activity of protein kinases; however, determining the contribution that each kinase in the network makes to such regulation remains challenging. Here, we report a computational approach that uses mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics data to rank protein kinases based on their contribution to cell regulation. We found that the scores returned by this algorithm, which we have termed kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP), were a quantitative measure of the contribution that individual kinases make to the signaling output. Application of KARP to the analysis of eight hematological cell lines revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1/2, casein kinase (CK) 2, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p21-activated kinase (PAK) were the most frequently highly ranked kinases in these cell models. The patterns of kinase activation were cell-line specific yet showed a significant association with cell viability as a function of kinase inhibitor treatment. Thus, our study exemplifies KARP as an untargeted approach to empirically and systematically identify regulatory kinases within signaling networks. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Palm-Print Pattern Matching Based on Features Using Rabin-Karp for Person Identification

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    S. Kanchana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm-print based individual identification is regarded as an effectual method for identifying persons with high confidence. Palm-print with larger inner surface of hand contains many features such as principle lines, ridges, minutiae points, singular points, and textures. Feature based pattern matching has faced the challenge that the spatial positional variations occur between the training and test samples. To perform effective palm-print features matching, Rabin-Karp Palm-Print Pattern Matching (RPPM method is proposed in this paper. With the objective of improving the accuracy of pattern matching, double hashing is employed in RPPM method. Multiple patterns of features are matched using the Aho-Corasick Multiple Feature matching procedure by locating the position of the features with finite set of bit values as an input text, improving the cumulative accuracy on hashing. Finally, a time efficient bit parallel ordering presents an efficient variation on matching the palm-print features of test and training samples with minimal time. Experiment is conducted on the factors such as pattern matching efficiency rate, time taken on multiple palm-print feature matching efficiency, and cumulative accuracy on hashing.

  5. Palm-Print Pattern Matching Based on Features Using Rabin-Karp for Person Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, S; Balakrishnan, G

    2015-01-01

    Palm-print based individual identification is regarded as an effectual method for identifying persons with high confidence. Palm-print with larger inner surface of hand contains many features such as principle lines, ridges, minutiae points, singular points, and textures. Feature based pattern matching has faced the challenge that the spatial positional variations occur between the training and test samples. To perform effective palm-print features matching, Rabin-Karp Palm-Print Pattern Matching (RPPM) method is proposed in this paper. With the objective of improving the accuracy of pattern matching, double hashing is employed in RPPM method. Multiple patterns of features are matched using the Aho-Corasick Multiple Feature matching procedure by locating the position of the features with finite set of bit values as an input text, improving the cumulative accuracy on hashing. Finally, a time efficient bit parallel ordering presents an efficient variation on matching the palm-print features of test and training samples with minimal time. Experiment is conducted on the factors such as pattern matching efficiency rate, time taken on multiple palm-print feature matching efficiency, and cumulative accuracy on hashing.

  6. Comparative analysis on the performance of Japan and South Korea Antarctic krill mid-water trawls with small mesh sizes%日韩小网目南极磷虾拖网性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏翔; 许柳雄; 孟涛; 黄洪亮; 张勋; 周爱忠; 李灵智; 徐国栋

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausua superba) is one of the largest single biological resources on the earth, its large biomass and potential to support a large fishery has received increasing attentions of many countries. China began to be involved in the Antarctic krill fishery in 2009 when two large scale factory trawlers from Chinese fishing enter-prisers went down to the Southern Ocean for exploratory fishing. At the beginning, large mesh size trawl net redesigned based on Chilean Jack Mackerel trawl was used, and the fishing efficiency was not satisfactory due to poor match be-tween the net and the trawl doors, consequently the catch was much lower than those of Norway, Korea and Japan fish-ing fleets. In 2010, Chinese fishing vessel introduced 192.60 m×110.50 m krill trawl, a small mesh size specialized krill trawl from Korea, and fishing operation indicated that catch was also not satisfactory because of the limitation of the opening of net mouth. This was changed in 2012 when Liaoning Province Dalian Ocean Fishery Group of Corporations introduced the specialized krill trawler “Fu Rong Hai” from Japan and used the Japanese krill trawl (185.40 m×128.50 m small mesh size krill trawl) on board the fishing vessel, and the catch increased greatly. This study analyzes the per-formance of the two krill trawl nets described above, i.e., Korean krill trawl (referred to as Net B) and the Japanese krill trawl (referred to as Net A) by carrying out model experiment based on the Tauti’s law. Large scale ratio λ of the model net was chosen as 14 and 16, respectively, for Nets A and B. The average small scale ratio of the model net was 3; the ratio of towing speed between the full scale and the model net was 3. Model experiments were conducted in the towing tank of the East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute. The towing speeds of the model net ranged from 0.345 m/s to 0.685 m/s with the interval 0.085m/s (equivalent to 2.0–4.0 kn with the interval of 0.5 kn for the

  7. Antarctic Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Rogers

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of genomic science and its battery of technologies, polar biology stands on the threshold of a revolution, one that will enable the investigation of important questions of unprecedented scope and with extraordinary depth and precision. The exotic organisms of polar ecosystems are ideal candidates for genomic analysis. Through such analyses, it will be possible to learn not only the novel features that enable polar organisms to survive, and indeed thrive, in their extreme environments, but also fundamental biological principles that are common to most, if not all, organisms. This article aims to review recent developments in Antarctic genomics and to demonstrate the global context of such studies.

  8. [South] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  9. Internal friction between fluid particles of MHD tangent hyperbolic fluid with heat generation: Using coefficients improved by Cash and Karp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, T.; Khan, Imad; Malik, M. Y.; Khan, Mair; Hussain, Arif; Awais, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    The present work examines the internal resistance between fluid particles of tangent hyperbolic fluid flow due to a non-linear stretching sheet with heat generation. Using similarity transformations, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a coupled non-linear ordinary differential system with variable coefficients. Unlike the current analytical works on the flow problems in the literature, the main concern here is to numerically work out and find the solution by using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg coefficients improved by Cash and Karp (Naseer et al., Alexandria Eng. J. 53, 747 (2014)). To determine the relevant physical features of numerous mechanisms acting on the deliberated problem, it is sufficient to have the velocity profile and temperature field and also the drag force and heat transfer rate all as given in the current paper.

  10. South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role.

  11. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...... Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using...

  12. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  13. Arhitektuurist ja ajastust, võimust ja vaimust : vestlusring Raine Karbi näitusel / Dmitri Bruns, Raine Karp, Voldemar Herkel...[jt.] ; interv. Karin-Hallas Murula ja Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Näitus "Arhitekt Raine Karp" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis Rotermanni soolalaos. Raine Karbi suurehitistest (Linnahall, insener Ago Kuddu; Sakala keskus; Rahvusraamatukogu) Tallinnas, suurobjektidele linnas asukoha leidmisest, nõukogude aja ehituskorraldusest, peaarhitektide võimust, vajadusest riikliku institutsiooni järele, mis seisaks arhitektuurse kvaliteedi eest ja paljust muust

  14. Arhitektuurist ja ajastust, võimust ja vaimust : vestlusring Raine Karbi näitusel / Dmitri Bruns, Raine Karp, Voldemar Herkel...[jt.] ; interv. Karin-Hallas Murula ja Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Näitus "Arhitekt Raine Karp" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis Rotermanni soolalaos. Raine Karbi suurehitistest (Linnahall, insener Ago Kuddu; Sakala keskus; Rahvusraamatukogu) Tallinnas, suurobjektidele linnas asukoha leidmisest, nõukogude aja ehituskorraldusest, peaarhitektide võimust, vajadusest riikliku institutsiooni järele, mis seisaks arhitektuurse kvaliteedi eest ja paljust muust

  15. Regional genetic diversity patterns in Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antartica Desv.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wouw, M.J.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Huiskes, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To determine patterns in diversity of a major Antarctic plant species, including relationships of Antarctic populations with those outside the Antarctic zone. Location Antarctic Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica, sub-Antarctic islands, Falkland Islands and South America. Methods Amplified fragment

  16. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  17. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  18. 改进的KR模式匹配算法的研究与实现%On Implementation of Improved Karp-Rabin Pattern Matching Algorighmic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫喜红

    2016-01-01

    文章在详细分析KR匹配算法的基础上,提出了改进的I_KR算法.I_KR算法的改进之处:一是采用2次Hash函数的方法在计算T的子串的散列值之后,马上与P的散列值进行比较;二是采用双向并行方式进行匹配.为了分析 I_KR算法的性能,从不同文本串和模式串角度,在匹配次数和比较的字符个数方面对 I_KR算法进行实验.实验结果表明,I_KR算法能够极大地减少匹配次数,缩短匹配时间,有效地提高模式匹配速度.%An improved Karp-Rabin (I_KR)algorithm has been promoted in this paper for string matching based on the detailed analysis of Karp-Rabin (KR)algorithm.The improvements of I_KR algorithm are in two ways:one is that,after the hashed value of the T'substrings,two times Hash functions has been used,which is compared with the hashed value of the P;the other is that bidirectional parallel is used when matching.To analyze the performance of the I_KR algorithm,some experiments have been done from some aspects which are matched times and compared characters'numbers through the number of dif-ferent text strings and pattern strings.The experimental results show the I_KR algorithm can reduce the times of matching and shorten the time of matching.The I_KR algorithm enhances the algorithm's speed effectively.

  19. Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pierrat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level, sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth. Echinoid occurrence data were compiled from the Antarctic Echinoid Database (David et al., 2005a, which integrates records from oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean until 2003. This database has been upgraded to take into account data from oceanographic cruises led after 2003. The dataset now reaches a total of 6160 occurrence data that have been checked for systematics reliability and consistency. It constitutes today the most complete database on Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoids.

  20. Antarctic Mapping Tools for MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Chad A.; Gwyther, David E.; Blankenship, Donald D.

    2017-07-01

    We present the Antarctic Mapping Tools package, an open-source MATLAB toolbox for analysis and plotting of Antarctic geospatial datasets. This toolbox is designed to streamline scientific workflow and maximize repeatability through functions which allow fully scripted data analysis and mapping. Data access is facilitated by several dataset-specific plugins which are freely available online. An open architecture has been chosen to encourage users to develop and share plugins for future Antarctic geospatial datasets. This toolbox includes functions for coordinate transformations, flight line or ship track analysis, and data mapping in georeferenced or projected coordinates. Each function is thoroughly documented with clear descriptions of function syntax alongside examples of data analysis or display using Antarctic geospatial data. The Antarctic Mapping Tools package is designed for ease of use and allows users to perform each step of data processing including raw data import, data analysis, and creation of publication-quality maps, wholly within the numerical environment of MATLAB.

  1. Shackleton: His Antarctic Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Paul C.

    Two books entitled “Shackleton” were published in the United Kingdom in recent years. The one entitled Shackleton: His Antarctic Writings, Selected and Introduced by Christopher Ralling was published by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1983; the other, by Roland Huntford and simply entitled Shackleton, was published by Hodder and Stoughton (London) in November 1985. The only two things that these books have in common are their title and home publication base: The BBC book is essentially excerpts from two well-known books written by Shackleton, with a strong assist from a New Zealand reporter, Edward Saunders (who served as Shackleton's amanuensis), whereas Huntford's book is an outstanding polar biography.

  2. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  3. Antarctic Cosmic Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duldig, Marc

    Cosmic ray observations related to Antarctica commenced in the austral summer of 1947-48 from sub-Antarctic Heard and Macquarie Islands and from the HMAS Wyatt Earp. Muon telescope observations from Mawson station Antarctica commenced in 1955. The International Geophysical Year was the impetus for the installation of a number of neutron monitors around Antarctica observing the lowest energy cosmic rays accessible by ground based instruments. In 1971 a new observatory was built at Mawson including the only underground muon telescope system at polar latitudes in either hemisphere. In the 1980s the South Pole Air Shower Experiment (SPASE) opened the highest energy cosmic ray window over Antarctica and this was followed by the in-ice neutrino experiment AMANDA. Over more than half a century cosmic ray astronomy has been undertaken from Antarctica and its surrounding regions and these observations have been critical to our growing understanding of nearby astrophysical structures. For example the Parker spiral magnetic field of the sun was confirmed through Mawson observations of a Solar flare induced Ground Level Enahncement in 1960 long before spacecraft were able to directly observe the interplanetary magnetic field. A summary of the Antarctic instrumental developments and the scientific advances that resulted will be presented.

  4. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  5. A new method of researching the Karp conjecture%关于K arp猜想的一种新研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴红梅; 黄桂丰

    2015-01-01

    关于图性质的Karp猜想是计算复杂性理论中的一个著名的悬而未决的问题,以往的研究方法仅仅是对某一种图性质进行研究,针对这一缺陷,给出了图性质的本质复杂性的概念,提出了以本质复杂性为基础的一种新的研究方法,这种方法的研究对象是一组满足某一特定条件的图性质,证明了只要其中一种图性质为诡的,这一组图性质均为诡的。%Karp conjecture which deals with graph properties is still open and becomes a well‐known difficult problem .The existing methods are focus on only one kind of graph property .To overcome the draw back of existing methods ,this article defines the natural complexity of graph properties and proposes a new method .The new method is used to study a group of graph properties which are sat‐isfy with some conditions .It has been proved that this new method could determine the elusiveness of a whole group of graph properties just by deciding one of the graph properies is elusive .

  6. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  7. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  8. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  9. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  10. Moessbauer study of thermal metamorphosed Antarctic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorzelli, R.B. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Galvao da Silva, E. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); Souza Azevedo, I. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil))

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we report on variable temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements on Yamato-82162 and Yamato-86720. These Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites contrast with other non-Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites in which no evidences of thermal metamorphism have been found. (orig.)

  11. Regulating Antarctic Tourism and the Precautionary Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of an overview of the developments in Antarctic tourism since 1956, this current development note examines the issue of international regulation of Antarctic tourism. After discussing one of the main management issues in respect of Antarctic tourism ¿ the assessment and prevention of cu

  12. Extent of the Antarctic Continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, F; Dewart, G

    1959-02-20

    Group velocities of eartquake-generated Love and Rayleigh waves for certain transantarctic paths are abnormally high when compared with data from other continents. For these paths, the data indicate that at most only three-fourths of the antarctic ice sheet is underlain by continent, the remaining area being oceanic in structure.

  13. Principles of the Antarctic Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, M.

    The operation of any base or expedition to Antarctica is regulated by the mutual agreement among nations in the “Antarctic Treaty”. This treaty deals with the major aspects of life in Antarctica and its main principles and provisions are described in what follows.

  14. Special Stamps:Antarctic Scenery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of three stamps, whose theme is Antarctic scenery.The first stamp depicts an iceberg. Antarctica is where 90 percent of the world’s ice exists. Each year countless icebergs float majestically through the sea, and are a magnificent scenic feature of Antarctica.

  15. Korea : Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Since the financial crisis in 1997-98, Korea has made major progress in financial, and corporate sector reform - the supervisory and regulatory regime for the financial sector has been substantially strengthened, and recent reforms helped achieve a high degree of observance of international standards, and codes. Moreover, significant consolidation in the banking system took place, with ban...

  16. Dance Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  17. Divided Korea: United Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  18. Chemical studies of differentiated meteorites. I - Labile trace elements in Antarctic and non-Antarctic eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rick L.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Element contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn were analyzed, using RNAA, in 25 Antarctic and nine non-Antarctic eucrites to determine whether these two populations differ significantly in thermal history and derive from the same or different eucrite parent body. Data for these 15 elements indicate that basaltic Antarctic and non-Antarctic eucrite populations reflect the same genetic processes and, hence, come from the same parent asteroid.

  19. Multibranch Antarctic Seismic Data Library facilitates research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.

    In 1991, investigators from 11 nations involved in Antarctic multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection research sought a way to keep the Antarctic Treaty's promise of open access to data, and in the process to encourage Earth-science research using seismic data. The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS) was the solution, and is now a recommendation of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCP). Today—at 12 branches spanning the world—researchers can access over 68,000 km of marine MCS data to use for cooperative research.More than 150,000 km of MCS data have been accumulated since 1976 by 13 countries on nearly 70 cruises. The majority of data now in the library cover the Ross Sea, Wilkes Land, and Prydz Bay sectors of the Antarctic margin, with smaller amounts from the Weddell Sea and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  20. Mis toimub Põhja-Koreas? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Infoagentuuri UPI teatel võib Põhja-Korea liider Kim Jong-il olla surnud, avalikest kohtadest on hakatud maha võtma tema portreesid. Põhja-Korea infoagentuur eitab seda. Ekspertide versioonidest Põhja-Koreas toimuva kohta

  1. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  2. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  3. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  4. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  5. Carbon dioxide emissions of Antarctic tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farreny, R.; Oliver-Solà, J.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Amelung, B.; Gabarrell, X.; Rieradevall, J.; Boada, M.; Benayas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The increase of tourism to the Antarctic continent may entail not only local but also global environmental impacts. These latter impacts, which are mainly caused by transport, have been generally ignored. As a result, there is a lack of data on the global impacts of Antarctic tourism in terms of

  6. South African antarctic biological research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available This document provides a description of the past, current and planned South African biological research activities in the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Future activities will fall under one of the five components of the research programme...

  7. JCADM, new directions in Antarctic data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H.; de Bruin, T. F.

    2008-12-01

    The Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfilment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." JCADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in JCADM. So far, JCADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, JCADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This poster will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

  8. Impact of climate change on Antarctic krill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Atkinson, A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (hereafter ‘krill’) occur in regions undergoing rapid environmental change, particularly loss of winter sea ice. During recent years, harvesting of krill has increased, possibly enhancing stress on krill and Antarctic ecosystems. Here we review the overall impact of

  9. Impact of climate change on Antarctic krill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Atkinson, A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (hereafter ‘krill’) occur in regions undergoing rapid environmental change, particularly loss of winter sea ice. During recent years, harvesting of krill has increased, possibly enhancing stress on krill and Antarctic ecosystems. Here we review the overall impact of

  10. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  11. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  12. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  13. Estonia builds ties with South Korea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Korea Vabariigis toimunud välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Lõuna-Korea välis- ja kaubandusministri Yu Myung-hwani kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja Lõuna-Korea poliitilise, majandus-, teadus- ning infotehnoloogiaalase koostöö arendamisest. Urmas Paet kohtus ka Lõuna-Korea energia ja infotehnoloogia aseministri Cho Seokiga

  14. Estonia builds ties with South Korea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Korea Vabariigis toimunud välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Lõuna-Korea välis- ja kaubandusministri Yu Myung-hwani kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja Lõuna-Korea poliitilise, majandus-, teadus- ning infotehnoloogiaalase koostöö arendamisest. Urmas Paet kohtus ka Lõuna-Korea energia ja infotehnoloogia aseministri Cho Seokiga

  15. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  16. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  17. Underwater Optics in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Coastal Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Pirjo; Ramírez, Jaime; Gómez, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Understanding underwater optics in natural waters is essential in evaluating aquatic primary production and risk of UV exposure in aquatic habitats. Changing environmental conditions related with global climate change, which imply potential contrasting changes in underwater light climate further emphasize the need to gain insights into patterns related with underwater optics for more accurate future predictions. The present study evaluated penetration of solar radiation in six sub-Antarctic estuaries and fjords in Chilean North Patagonian region (39-44°S) and in an Antarctic bay (62°S). Based on vertical diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd), derived from measurements with a submersible multichannel radiometer, average summer UV penetration depth (z1%) in these water bodies ranged 2-11 m for UV-B (313 nm), 4-27 m for UV-A (395 nm), and 7-30 m for PAR (euphotic zone). UV attenuation was strongest in the shallow Quempillén estuary, while Fildes Bay (Antarctica) exhibited the highest transparency. Optically non-homogeneous water layers and seasonal variation in transparency (lower in winter) characterized Comau Fjord and Puyuhuapi Channel. In general, multivariate analysis based on Kd values of UV and PAR wavelengths discriminated strongly Quempillén estuary and Puyuhuapi Channel from other study sites. Spatial (horizontal) variation within the estuary of Valdivia river reflected stronger attenuation in zones receiving river impact, while within Fildes Bay a lower spatial variation in water transparency could in general be related to closeness of glaciers, likely due to increased turbidity through ice-driven processes. Higher transparency and deeper UV-B penetration in proportion to UV-A/visible wavelengths observed in Fildes Bay suggests a higher risk for Antarctic ecosystems reflected by e.g. altered UV-B damage vs. photorepair under UV-A/PAR. Considering that damage repair processes often slow down under cool temperatures, adverse UV impact could be further

  18. South Korea-North Korea Relations: A Toxic Nuclear Tocsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aidan Foster-Carter

    2016-01-01

    .... The past quarter brought numerous fiery threats from Pyongyang, extreme even by their own standards, to nuke or otherwise blitz South Korea's President Park Geun-hye as well as the Blue House (Cheongwadae...

  19. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  20. South Korea and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  1. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  2. South African Antarctic earth science research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...

  3. Unveiling the Antarctic subglacial landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Roland; Roberts, Jason

    2010-05-01

    Better knowledge of the subglacial landscape of Antarctica is vital to reducing uncertainties regarding prediction of the evolution of the ice sheet. These uncertainties are associated with bedrock geometry for ice sheet dynamics, including possible marine ice sheet instabilities and subglacial hydrological pathways (e.g. Wright et al., 2008). Major collaborative aerogeophysics surveys motivated by the International Polar Year (e.g. ICECAP and AGAP), and continuing large scale radar echo sounding campaigns (ICECAP and NASA Ice Bridge) are significantly improving the coverage. However, the vast size of Antarctica and logistic difficulties mean that data gaps persist, and ice thickness data remains spatially inhomogeneous. The physics governing large scale ice sheet flow enables ice thickness, and hence bedrock topography, to be inferred from knowledge of ice sheet surface topography and considerations of ice sheet mass balance, even in areas with sparse ice thickness measurements (Warner and Budd, 2000). We have developed a robust physically motivated interpolation scheme, based on these methods, and used it to generate a comprehensive map of Antarctic bedrock topography, using along-track ice thickness data assembled for the BEDMAP project (Lythe et al., 2001). This approach reduces ice thickness biases, compared to traditional inverse distance interpolation schemes which ignore the information available from considerations of ice sheet flow. In addition, the use of improved balance fluxes, calculated using a Lagrangian scheme, eliminates the grid orientation biases in ice fluxes associated with finite difference methods (Budd and Warner, 1996, Le Brocq et al., 2006). The present map was generated using a recent surface DEM (Bamber et al., 2009, Griggs and Bamber, 2009) and accumulation distribution (van de Berg et al., 2006). Comparing our results with recent high resolution regional surveys gives confidence that all major subglacial topographic features are

  4. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  5. COMMENT ON AEROSOL EFFECT ON ANTARCTIC OZONE

    OpenAIRE

    イワサカ, ヤスノブ; Yasunobu, IWASAKA; Guang-Yu, SHI

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the aerosol layer disturbed by a cold air was suggested from the lidar measurements at Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E). The particle layer containing sublayers of spherical or nonspherical aerosols was frequently observed in Antarctic spring. It is a point one sholud not ignore when he discusses aerosol effects on "Antarctic ozone depletion" through radiative processes and heterogeneous chemical reactions.

  6. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  7. The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management - new directions in access to Antarctic research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.

    2009-04-01

    The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management (SC-ADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfillment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." SC-ADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in SC-ADM. So far, SC-ADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, SC-ADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This poster will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

  8. The Antarctic Geospatial Information Center: Three Years of Supporting Antarctic Science and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.; Larue, M.; Porter, C.; Niebuhr, S.; Antarctic Geospatial Information Center

    2010-12-01

    Founded in 2007, the Antarctic Geospatial Information Center (AGIC) is dedicated to supporting and promoting the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) by providing geospatial information to Antarctic science, operations, and education communities. Since its inception, AGIC contributes to Antarctic science in four significant ways: 1) by direct geospatial support of research groups to advance science, 2) by authoring maps and creating applications to facilitate better logistical support, 3) by serving as a data repository and clearinghouse for Antarctic geospatial data, 4) by providing expertise, analysis, and education to researchers, support staff, and students. This poster will showcase several products, tools, and services developed by AGIC in the past three years, including a collection of 150 ground control points in the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Ross Island, highly accurate maps in the McMurdo Sound region using satellite imagery, and an archive of historical USGS aerial photography accessed through a web-based search application.

  9. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear..., construction, operation and maintenance of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000), the APR1400...

  10. Health aspects of Antarctic tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prociv, P

    1998-12-01

    Increasing numbers of seaborne tourists are visiting Antarctica, with most coming from the United States (3503 in 1996-97), Germany (777), and Australia (680; cf. 356 in 1994-95 and 410 in 1995-96). The impression among travel medicine clinicians is that, each year, more prospective travelers seek advice about the health demands of this type of adventure, mostly relating to fitness for travel, exposure to extreme cold, hazards in ice and snow, and other potential health risks. This is a recent phenomenon. While a regular shipping service had been established between the Falklands and the subantarctic islands of South Georgia and the South Shetlands by 1924, the first documented tourists accompanied an Argentine expedition to the South Orkneys in 1933.1 Commercial airline flights over these islands and the Antarctic Peninsula began in 1956, from Chile, and recreational cruises to the Peninsula began in 1958. Tourist numbers subsequently grew slowly, for what was clearly an exclusive and very expensive undertaking, with few ships available for these hazardous voyages. From 1957 to 1993, 37,000 tourists visited by sea, most seeing only the Peninsula.2 The dramatic recent growth in numbers is a consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The small fleet of ice-strengthened research vessels and working icebreakers, which was made redundant by withdrawal of central government support from isolated communities and military activities along the northern coast of Siberia (and from Antarctic research bases), now accounts for the bulk of charter-cruise tourism to Antarctica, at competitive prices. According to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators,3 7322 people traveled to Antarctica on commercially organized voyages in the 1996-97 season, and a record 10,000 shipborne visitors were expected for the 1997-98 season (November-March), traveling mainly from South America to the Peninsula on 15 ice-reinforced vessels, each carrying between 36 and 180

  11. Korea keele õpetamisest / Angelina Tšaikovskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tšaikovskaja, Angelina

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli külastas 7. dets. 1999 Korea Vabariigi suursaadik Helsingis Dong-chil Yang, kes tundis huvi idamaade keelte õpetamise vastu TPÜ-s ja lubas toetada korea keele õpetamist ülikoolis

  12. Korea keele õpetamisest / Angelina Tšaikovskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tšaikovskaja, Angelina

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli külastas 7. dets. 1999 Korea Vabariigi suursaadik Helsingis Dong-chil Yang, kes tundis huvi idamaade keelte õpetamise vastu TPÜ-s ja lubas toetada korea keele õpetamist ülikoolis

  13. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). The book comprises five parts. One of them is part about sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments. This part "Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments" describes two different environments, namely oceanic and continental ones. Each part contains results of research on environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes in selected sites. Apart from describing the environmental conditions of the whole continent of Antarctica and sub-Antarctic islands (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, A.N.Lastochkin, A.Zhirov, S.Boltramovich) this part of the book characterizes terrestrial polar oases free from multi-year ice and snow covers (Zb.Zwolinski). The detailed results of geoecological and sedimentological research come from different parts of Antarctica. Antarctic continental shelf (E.Isla) is an example of sub-Antarctic oceanic environment. South Shetlands, especially King George Island (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, G.Rachlewicz, I.Sobota, J.Szpikowski), is an example of sub-Antarctic terrestrial environment. Antarctic Peninsula (G.Vieira, M.Francelino, J.C.Fernandes) and surroundings of McMurdo Dry Valleys (W.B.Lyons, K.A.Welch, J.Levy, A.Fountain, D.McKnight) are examples of Antarctic continental environments. The key goals of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic book chapters are following: (i) identify the main environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes, and (ii) model possible effects of projected climate change on solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold climate environments

  14. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  15. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...

  16. Antarctic teleost immunoglobulins: more extreme, more interesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Varriale, Sonia; Giacomelli, Stefano; Oreste, Umberto

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the immunoglobulin molecule and the genes encoding it in teleosts living in the Antarctic seas at the constant temperature of -1.86 °C. The majority of Antarctic teleosts belong to the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes), which includes only a few non-Antarctic species. Twenty-one Antarctic and two non-Antarctic Notothenioid species were included in our studies. We sequenced immunoglobulin light chains in two species and μ heavy chains, partially or totally, in twenty species. In the case of heavy chain, genomic DNA and the cDNA encoding the secreted and the membrane form were analyzed. From one species, Trematomus bernacchii, a spleen cDNA library was constructed to evaluate the diversity of VH gene segments. T. bernacchii IgM, purified from the serum and bile, was characterized. Homology Modelling and Molecular Dynamics were used to determine the molecular structure of T. bernacchii and Chionodraco hamatus immunoglobulin domains. This paper sums up the previous results and broadens them with the addition of unpublished data.

  17. FTA between China and Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 余程程

    2008-01-01

    Under the regional cooperation being a main trend of the World’s economic development, East Asia should make China and Korea as a breakthrough, build Sino-Korean free trade district, and then push the development of the whole East Asia’s regional economic cooperation. Both China and Korea want to contribute to FTA and keep the close geographic, humanistic and trade relation. Both countries’ political relation has been improving. In the IT industry, the focus of sino-Korean FTA, sino-Korean IT industries develop quickly and possess the cooperative basis. While in the FTA’s construction, IT industries’ cooperation faces the obstacles: Sino-Korean economic nationalism ; the existence of huge china trade deficit for sino-Korean trade ; the copyright dispute in the software development. Sino-Korea must take the corresponding measures in order to push the sino-Korean substantial development.

  18. FTA betwee China and Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 余程程

    2008-01-01

    Under the regional cooperation being a main trend of the World’s economic development,East Asia should make China and Korea as a breakthrough,build Sino-Korean free trade district,and then push the development of the whole East Asia’s regional economic cooperation.Both China and Korea want to contribute to FTA and keep the dose geographic,humanistic and trade relation.Both countries’ political relation has been improving.In the IT industry,the focus of sino-Korean FTA,sino-Korean IT industries develop quickly and possess the cooperative basis.While in the FTA’s construction,IT industries’ cooperation faces the obstacles:Sino-Korean economic nationalism; the existence of huge china trade deficit for sino-Korean trade;the copyright dispute in the software development.Sino-Korea must take the corresponding measures in order to push the sino-Korean substantial development.

  19. Antarctic station life: The first 15 years of mixed expeditions to the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Aspa

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the experiences of women who lived and worked on remote and isolated Antarctic stations for up to 15 months at a time. The study employed purposeful sampling and a longitudinal - processual approach to study women's experiences over the first 15 years of mixed gender Antarctic expeditions. The retrospective analysis was based on a semi-structured interview administered to 14 women upon their return to Australia. The results showed that women referred to the natural physical Antarctic environment as one of the best aspects of their experience and the reason they would recommend the Antarctic to their friends as a good place to work. In describing the worst aspect of their experience, women referred to aspects of Antarctic station life, including: (i) the male dominated nature of station culture; (ii) the impact of interpersonal conflict, including gender based conflict and friction between scientists and trades workers; and (iii) the lack of anonymity associated with living and working with the same group of individuals, mainly men, for up to 12 months or more. The results are discussed within the context of the evolution of Antarctic station culture and recommendations are made in terms of the demography of expeditions, expeditioner selection and recruitment and the ongoing monitoring of Antarctic station culture. The study presents a framework that can be applied to groups and teams living and working in analogous isolated, confined and extreme work environments, including outer space missions.

  20. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Article 3 of Annex I to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty requires the preparation of a CEE for any proposed Antarctic activity likely to have more than a... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives...

  1. Antarctic “quiet” site stirs debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists from the United States and New Zealand plan to meet in the coming months to assess the electromagnetic pollution of an Antarctic site especially designated for research. U.S. scientists charge that a satellite Earth station erected apparently inside the preserve by New Zealand's Telecom company could interfere with experiments on the ionosphere and magnetosphere (Eos, April 28, 1992). The Site of Special Scientific Interest at Arrival Heights, the only Antarctic preserve specifically for physical science, is located near the U.S. McMurdo and New Zealand Scott bases.Debate over the Telecom facility inter-twines diplomatic and scientific issues. One question is whether the station violates the Antarctic treaty. Secondly, does it actually impair research at the site—or could it harm future experiments? To deepen the imbroglio, those involved from both nations say that transmissions from sources off-site also interfere with research—raising doubts about how pristine the site really is.

  2. NSF's role in Antarctic environment scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    In the last few years, the National Science Foundation has come under criticism by environmental groups for inadequate stewardship in the U.S. Antarctic Program's environmental issues. Since 1978, NSF was given full responsibility, by Executive Order, for budgeting and managing the entire U.S. national program in Antarctica, including logistics support. NSF has also been responsible for the compliance of the U.S. Antarctic Program with environmental protection measures agreed to by the Antarctic Treaty nations. Specifically under fire by environmentalists have been NSF's maintenance of a land-fill, open-air burning of solid waste, and the removal of toxic substances. According to Peter E. Wilkniss, director of the Division of Polar Programs at NSF, open burning is no longer taking place and will not be allowed in the future.

  3. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  4. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  5. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  6. Life in South Korea Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  7. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; McKinlay, John; Newbery, Kym; Takahashi, Akinori; Kato, Akiko; Barbraud, Christophe; DeLord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    .... Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine...

  8. Antarctic Data Management as Part of the IPY Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.

    2006-12-01

    The Antarctic Treaty states that "scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available". Antarctica includes the Southern Ocean. In support of this, National Antarctic Data Centres (NADC) are being established to catalogue data sets and to provide information on data sets to scientists and others with interest in Antarctic science. The Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP). JCADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres. Currently 30 nations around the world are represented in JCADM. JCADM is responsible for the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. JCADM is the Antarctic component of the IPY Data Infrastructure, which is presently being developed. This presentation will give an overview of the organization of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data management with sections on the organizational structure of JCADM, contents of the Antarctic Master Directory, relationships to the SCAR Scientific Research Programmes (SRP) and IPY, international embedding and connections with discipline-based peer organizations like the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange Committee (IODE). It will focus primarily on the role that an existing infrastructure as JCADM, may play in the development of the IPY Data Infrastructure and will provide considerations for IPY data management, based on the experiences in Antarctic and oceanographic data management.

  9. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  10. Contrasts between Antarctic and Arctic ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Portmann, Robert W; Thompson, David W J

    2007-01-09

    This work surveys the depth and character of ozone depletion in the Antarctic and Arctic using available long balloon-borne and ground-based records that cover multiple decades from ground-based sites. Such data reveal changes in the range of ozone values including the extremes observed as polar air passes over the stations. Antarctic ozone observations reveal widespread and massive local depletion in the heart of the ozone "hole" region near 18 km, frequently exceeding 90%. Although some ozone losses are apparent in the Arctic during particular years, the depth of the ozone losses in the Arctic are considerably smaller, and their occurrence is far less frequent. Many Antarctic total integrated column ozone observations in spring since approximately the 1980s show values considerably below those ever observed in earlier decades. For the Arctic, there is evidence of some spring season depletion of total ozone at particular stations, but the changes are much less pronounced compared with the range of past data. Thus, the observations demonstrate that the widespread and deep ozone depletion that characterizes the Antarctic ozone hole is a unique feature on the planet.

  11. Global dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2002-01-01

    The total mass budget of the Antarctic ice sheet is studied with a simple axi-symmetrical model. The ice-sheet has a parabolic profile resting on a bed that slopes linearly downwards from the centre of the ice sheet into the ocean. The mean ice velocity at the grounding line is assumed to be proport

  12. 恙虫病东方体Karp株47kDa蛋白成熟肽的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of 47kDa Protein Gene of Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余跃飞; 温博海; 牛东升; 温博贵; 魏文进; 邱玲; 高宁

    2003-01-01

    目的:克隆表达恙虫病东方体( Orientia tsutsugamushi,Ot )Karp株47kDa表面蛋白的成熟肽,探索其作为疫苗及诊断抗原的可能性.方法:采用PCR方法,从Ot Karp株菌种基因组DNA中扩增出47kDa成熟蛋白基因片段,将该片段克隆于原核表达载体pQE30,构建成重组质粒pQE30/47,转化大肠杆菌( E.coli ),经IPTG诱导表达,SDS_PAGE和Western_blotting检测目的蛋白的表达.结果:①获得长约1272bp的Ot Karp株47kDa外膜蛋白基因;②SDS_PAGE和免疫印迹显示该重组质粒转化的E.coli有一相对分子量约为4.3×104的独特蛋白带;③重组表达质粒序列分析结果显示pQE30/47中插入的基因片段的序列与已报告的Ot Karp株47kDa外膜蛋白基因序列基本一致,并与已知序列相同.结论:获得了Ot Karp 47kDa蛋白基因,并在E.coli中实现了表达,表达的重组蛋白具有免疫反应性.

  13. Cloning and expression of a gene encoding major outer membrane protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain%恙虫病东方体Karp株主要外膜蛋白基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈唯军; 陈香蕊; 牛东升; 张雪颖; 陈梅玲; 魏文进; 温博海

    2003-01-01

    目的:表达恙虫病东方体(Orientia tsutsugamushi)Karp株56?000表面蛋白,探索其作为诊断抗原的可能性.方法:采用PCR方法,从Ot.Karp株菌种基因组DNA中扩增出56 000成熟蛋白基因片段,将该片段克隆于原核表达载体pQE30,构建重组质粒pQE30/56,转化大肠杆菌,经IPTG诱导表达、SDS-PAGE电泳和免疫印迹检测目的蛋白的表达.结果:(1)获得长约1 500 bp的Ot. Karp株56 000外膜蛋白基因;(2)SDS-PAGE电泳和免疫印迹显示该重组质粒转化的大肠杆菌有一相对分子质量约为56?000的独特蛋白带;(3)表达后菌体超声破碎后,目的蛋白主要以包涵体形式存在;(4)重组表达质粒序列分析结果显示,pQE30/56中插入的基因片段的序列与已报道的Ot. Karp株56 000外膜蛋白基因序列基本一致.结论:获得了Ot.Karp 56 000蛋白基因,并在大肠杆菌中实现了表达,表达的重组蛋白具有免疫反应性.

  14. Neogene kinematic history of Nazca-Antarctic-Phoenix slab windows beneath Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsprecher, Katrin; Thorkelson, Derek J.

    2009-01-01

    The Patagonian slab window is a subsurface tectonic feature resulting from subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic spreading-ridge system (Chile Rise) beneath southern South America. The geometry of the slab window had not been rigorously defined, in part because of the complex nature of the history of ridge subduction in the southeast Pacific region, which includes four interrelated spreading-ridge systems since 20 Ma: first, the Nazca-Phoenix ridge beneath South America, then simultaneous subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic and the northern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge systems beneath South America, and the southern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge system beneath Antarctica. Spreading-ridge paleo-geographies and rotation poles for all relevant plate pairs (Nazca, Phoenix, Antarctic, South America) are available from 20 Ma onward, and form the mathematical basis of our kinematic reconstruction of the geometry of the Patagonia and Antarctic slab windows through Neogene time. At approximately 18 Ma, the Nazca-Phoenix-Antarctic oceanic (ridge-ridge-ridge) triple junction enters the South American trench; we recognize this condition as an unstable quadruple junction. Heat flow at this junction and for some distance beneath the forearc would be considerably higher than is generally recognized in cases of ridge subduction. From 16 Ma onward, the geometry of the Patagonia slab window developed from the subduction of the trailing arms of the former oceanic triple junction. The majority of the slab window's areal extent and geometry is controlled by the highly oblique (near-parallel) subduction angle of the Nazca-Antarctic ridge system, and by the high contrast in relative convergence rates between these two plates relative to South America. The very slow convergence rate of the Antarctic slab is manifested by the shallow levels achieved by the slab edge (< 45 km); thus no point on the Antarctic slab is sufficiently deep to generate "normal" mantle-derived arc-type magmas

  15. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  16. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time.

  17. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary...

  18. The Impact of US Forces in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    did not conclude a pact of friendship and mutual defense with North Korea in order to convince the South Koreans that the North Koreans would not...right), and Maior Tong Gullpai, Commanding Officer of the Group’w Special Attack Battalion, inspect an old Korean fort near Mungkyorig, Korea , which...troops used in repelling an attack by Communist-led North Korean guerrillas. THE IMPACT OF US FORCES IN KOREA _-,a~a _l- .. .. THE IMPACT OF US FORCES

  19. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D W

    1990-12-01

    The lung fluke, Paragonimus, and lung fluke disease, were reviewed, especially on the works performed in Korea. Among 43 species of Paragonimus recorded in the world literature, P. westermani, P. pulmonalis, and P. iloktsuenensis are known to distribute in Korea. Biological studies on P. westermani have revealed that its snail intermediate host is Semisulcospira spp. and major second intermediate hosts are crabs such as Eriocheir japonicus and E. sinensis or crayfish such as Cambaroides similis and C. dauricus. The final hosts other than man are dogs, cats, pigs, and wild animals. Paragonimiasis has been known to distribute widely over the south Korea, however, the prevalence among people and intermediate hosts is gradually decreasing in recent years. In Korean people, the lung fluke have caused pulmonary infections in a great many of cases but as well extrapulmonary ones including cerebral, spinal, subcutaneous, hepatic, splenic, abdominal, urinary, gynecologic, and other types. The definite diagnosis of paragonimiasis can be executed by the recovery of eggs from sputum or feces of patients, however, immunological methods such as intradermal test, complement-fixation test, precipitin reactions, immunofluorescent techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are greatly helpful for egg-negative or extrapulmonary cases. Various drugs have been introduced for the treatment of paragonimiasis, and among them, bithionol, niclofolan and praziquantel have shown high therapeutic efficacy. The most recommendable one is considered praziquantel. For control of this disease, mass chemotherapy of patients seems to be the most efficient and feasible measure.

  20. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  1. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  2. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  3. Psychrotrophic metal tolerant bacteria for mobilisation of metals in Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.

    Cold tolerant psychrotrophic bacteria abound in the Antarctic waters. While Antarctic krills are known to concentrate heavy metals at ppm levels, psychrotrophic bacteria from Antarctic fresh and marine waters have been reported to tolerate them...

  4. Encouraging Advances Made by Chinese Scientists in Antarctic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingsong

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chinese scientists began involving in the Antarctic research in 1980. As the first step, some 40 Chinese scientists were sent to Antarctic stations of Australia and other countries during the period from 1980 to 1984. Then,China established two Antarctic stations of its own, and purchased an icebreaker, enabling China to carry on its own independent research program both on land and at sea.

  5. A simulated Antarctic fast ice ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Kremer, James N.; Sullivan, Cornelius W.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D numerical ecosystem model of Antarctic land fast ice is developed to elucidate the primary production with the Antarctic sea ice zone. The physical component employs atmospheric data to simulate congelation ice growth, initial brine entrapment, desalination, and nutrient flux. The biological component is based on the concept of a maximum temperature-dependent algal growth rate which is reduced by limitations imposed from insufficient light or nutrients, as well as suboptimal salinity. Preliminary simulations indicate that, during a bloom, microalgae are able to maintain their vertical position relative to the lower congelation ice margin and are not incorporated into the crystal matrix as the ice sheet thickens. It is inferred that land fast sea ice contains numerous microhabitats that are functionally distinct based upon the unique set of processes that control microalgal growth and accumulation within each.

  6. Optical Turbulence above the Internal Antarctic Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; Moigne, P Le; Noilhan, J

    2010-01-01

    The internal antarctic plateau revealed in the last years to be a site with interesting potentialities for the astronomical applications due to the extreme dryness and low temperatures, the typical high altitude of the plateau, the weak level of turbulence in the free atmosphere down to a just few tens of meters from the ground and the thin optical turbulence layer developed at the ground. The main goal of a site testing assessment above the internal antarctic plateau is to characterize the site (optical turbulence and classical meteorological parameters) and to quantify which is the gain we might obtain with respect to equivalent astronomical observations done above mid-latitude sites to support plans for future astronomical facilities. Our group is involved, since a few years, in studies related to the assessment of this site for astronomical applications that include the characterization of the meteorological parameters and optical turbulence provided by general circulation models as well as mesoscale atmo...

  7. The signs of Antarctic ozone hole recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, Jayanarayanan; Nair, Prijitha J

    2017-04-03

    Absorption of solar radiation by stratospheric ozone affects atmospheric dynamics and chemistry, and sustains life on Earth by preventing harmful radiation from reaching the surface. Significant ozone losses due to increases in the abundances of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) were first observed in Antarctica in the 1980s. Losses deepened in following years but became nearly flat by around 2000, reflecting changes in global ODS emissions. Here we show robust evidence that Antarctic ozone has started to recover in both spring and summer, with a recovery signal identified in springtime ozone profile and total column measurements at 99% confidence for the first time. Continuing recovery is expected to impact the future climate of that region. Our results demonstrate that the Montreal Protocol has indeed begun to save the Antarctic ozone layer.

  8. Antarctic microfungi as models for exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, S.; Selbmann, L.; Zucconi, L.; Pagano, S.

    2004-01-01

    Microfungi living in different Antarctic environments are generally well adapted to high stress conditions such as low temperatures, wide thermal fluctuations, high UV irradiance, and low water and nutrients availability; for this reason they could be investigated in order to explore limits of microbial life. Microfungi living in simple cryptoendolithic microbial communities inside the porosity of rocks in the Antarctic Dry Valleys, the closest terrestrial analogue of Mars, are particularly suitable for exobiological studies. Until now studies on exobiology focused mainly on prokaryotes; since cryptoendolithic black meristematic fungi are able to tolerate hard desiccation, high UV exposure, extremely low temperatures and wide thermal fluctuations, they are proposed as the best eukaryotic models for the biological exploration of Mars. Indeed, their adaptive strategies could be crucial as predictive tools in investigating the limits of life.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy and porosity of Antarctic chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Hamano,Yozo/Yomogida,Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy and porosity were measured in eleven Antarctic meteorites. These meteorites are ordinary chondrites (H and L type) in various metamorphic stages. Large magnetic anisotropy has been observed in most of the chondrites. The foliation type of the anisotropy, inferred from the shape of the susceptibility ellipsoid indicates that a uniaxial compressional type deformation is responsible for the anisotropy. The degree of the anisotropy and the porosity do not correl...

  10. A diagnostic study of Antarctic fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Matthew A.

    2008-10-01

    The United States Antarctic Program (USAP) is the largest scientific research program in the Antarctic and requires a considerable aviation operation. Although fog is one of the top three forecast problems related to flights aborted due to weather, it is largely unstudied. The objective of this project is to gain an understanding of fog that affects McMurdo Station, Antarctica and its nearby airfields. This understanding is gained through analyses of surface based weather observations, satellite measurements and numerical weather prediction models. Multi-channel satellite observations indicate that most austral summer fog events are "advective" in nature. This is supported by weather observations from McMurdo Station and nearby airfields where fog occurs at moderate wind speeds, and primarily from the eastward direction. Analyses using both a back trajectory model and mesoscale numerical model are consistent with this finding. The primary source region for fog is found to be from the southeast over the Ross Ice Shelf (72% of the cases studied), while only a minority of cases (23%) reveals a secondary source of fog from the north along the Scott Coast with airflow influences from the East Antarctic Plateau. McMurdo experiences two fog seasons with a primary peak in January and a secondary peak in September. Fog events are often short lived---typically 1 to 3 hours, though some can last up to 30 hours. Fog occurrences over the last 30 years appear to be decreasing. Time series analysis between the observed fog variability and large-scale circulations (e.g., El Nino, Antarctic Oscillation) yielded no correlations, while there is only a limited relationship of fog occurrence to ice concentration in nearby Lewis Bay and McMurdo Sound. Fog is more likely to take place at the nearby airfields rather than at McMurdo Station, which is consistent with the advective nature of the fog.

  11. Structural Uncertainty in Antarctic sea ice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    The inability of the vast majority of historical climate model simulations to reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice has motivated many studies about the quality of the observational record, the role of natural variability versus forced changes, and the possibility of missing or inadequate forcings in the models (such as freshwater discharge from thinning ice shelves or an inadequate magnitude of stratospheric ozone depletion). In this presentation I will highlight another source of uncertainty that has received comparatively little attention: Structural uncertainty, that is, the systematic uncertainty in simulated sea ice trends that arises from model physics and mean-state biases. Using two large ensembles of experiments from the Community Earth System Model (CESM), I will show that the model is predisposed towards producing negative Antarctic sea ice trends during 1979-present, and that this outcome is not simply because the model's decadal variability is out-of-synch with that in nature. In the "Tropical Pacific Pacemaker" ensemble, in which observed tropical Pacific SST anomalies are prescribed, the model produces very realistic atmospheric circulation trends over the Southern Ocean, yet the sea ice trend is negative in every ensemble member. However, if the ensemble-mean trend (commonly interpreted as the forced response) is removed, some ensemble members show a sea ice increase that is very similar to the observed. While this results does confirm the important role of natural variability, it also suggests a strong bias in the forced response. I will discuss the reasons for this systematic bias and explore possible remedies. This an important problem to solve because projections of 21st -Century changes in the Antarctic climate system (including ice sheet surface mass balance changes and related changes in the sea level budget) have a strong dependence on the mean state of and changes in the Antarctic sea ice cover. This problem is not unique to

  12. Antarctic Meteorite Classification and Petrographic Database Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Meteorite collection, which is comprised of over 18,700 meteorites, is one of the largest collections of meteorites in the world. These meteorites have been collected since the late 1970 s as part of a three-agency agreement between NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution [1]. Samples collected each season are analyzed at NASA s Meteorite Lab and the Smithsonian Institution and results are published twice a year in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which has been in publication since 1978. Each newsletter lists the samples collected and processed and provides more in-depth details on selected samples of importance to the scientific community. Data about these meteorites is also published on the NASA Curation website [2] and made available through the Meteorite Classification Database allowing scientists to search by a variety of parameters. This paper describes enhancements that have been made to the database and to the data and photo acquisition process to provide the meteorite community with faster access to meteorite data concurrent with the publication of the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter twice a year.

  13. EVA: Evryscopes for the Arctic and Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Law, N.; Tasuya, O.; Fors, O.; Dennihy, E.; Carlberg, R.; Tuthill, P.; Ashley, M.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2017-06-01

    We are planning to build Evryscopes for the Arctic and Antarctic (EVA), which will enable the first ultra-wide-field, high-cadence sky survey to be conducted from both Poles. The system is based on the successful Evryscope concept, already installed and operating since 2015 at Cerro Tololo in Chile with the following characteristics: robotic operation, 8,000 square degrees simultaneous sky coverage, 2-minute cadence, milli-mag level photometric accuracy, pipelined data processing for real-time analysis and full data storage for off-line analysis. The initial location proposed for EVA is the PEARL station on Ellesmere island; later also an antarctic location shall be selected. The science goals enabled by this unique combination of almost full-sky coverage and high temporal cadence are numerous, and include among others ground-breaking forays in the fields of exoplanets, stellar variability, asteroseismology, supernovae and other transient events. The EVA polar locations will enable uninterrupted observations lasting in principle over weeks and months. EVA will be fully robotic. We discuss the EVA science drivers and expected results, and present the logistics and the outline of the project which is expected to have first light in the winter of 2018. The cost envelope can be kept very competitive thanks to R&D already employed for the CTIO Evryscope, to our experience with both Arctic and Antarctic locations, and to the use of off-the-shelf components.

  14. Antarctic isolation: immune and viral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingate, T. R.; Lugg, D. J.; Muller, H. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions are a major determinant of immune reactivity. This effect is pronounced in Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition populations exposed to prolonged periods of isolation in the Antarctic. Alterations of T cell function, including depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and a peak 48.9% reduction of T cell proliferation to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin, were documented during a 9-month period of isolation. T cell dysfunction was mediated by changes within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell compartment, including a paradoxical atypical monocytosis associated with altered production of inflammatory cytokines. There was a striking reduction in the production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the predominant pro-inflammatory monokine TNF-alpha and changes were also detected in the production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ra and IL-10. Prolonged Antarctic isolation is also associated with altered latent herpesvirus homeostasis, including increased herpesvirus shedding and expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cell population. These findings have important long-term health implications.

  15. Antarctic Treaty Summit: Washington, DC (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.; Young, O. R.

    2005-12-01

    Advancement in Earth system science and international cooperation have been intertwined with the International Polar Years since 1882. In particular, the 3rd International Polar Year (which was convened as the International Geophysical Year from 1 July 1957 through 31 December 1958) specifically demonstrates the role of science in international policy: Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Preamble, 1959 Antarctic Treaty To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and to explore the complexities of the science-policy relationship through the lens of a well-constrained case study, an international and interdisciplinary Antarctic Treaty Summit is being planned for 2009 in Washington, DC in conjunction with the International Polar Year 2007-08 (http://www.ipy.org).

  16. Mirror seeing of the Antarctic survey telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kaiyuan; LI Zhengyang; YUAN Xiangyan; PEI Chong

    2014-01-01

    Site testing results indicate that Antarctic Dome A is an excellent ground-based astronomical site suitable for observations ranging from visible to infrared wavelengths. However, the harsh environment in Antarctica, especially the very low temperature and atmospheric pressure, always produces frost on the telescopes’ mirrors, which are exposed to the air. Since the Dome A site is still unattended, the Antarctic telescope tubes are always designed to be filled with dry nitrogen, and the outer surfaces of the optical system are heated by an indium-tin oxide thin film. These precautions can prevent the optical surfaces from frosting over, but they degrade the image quality by introducing additional mirror seeing. Based on testing observations of the second Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-2) in the Mohe site in China, mirror seeing resulting from the heated aspheric plate has been measured using micro-thermal sensors. Results comparing the real-time atmospheric seeing monitored by the Differential Image Motion Monitor and real-time examinations of image quality agree well.

  17. A paleomagnetic study of the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Paleozoic, South America, South Africa and Antarctica were part of Gondwana. The Weddell Sea began to form at about 146 Ma, after rifting between the Antarctic Peninsula and southernmost South America. Much uncertainty still exists about the geometrical fit and subsequent drift history between Patagonia and Antarctica. Geophysical and geological data which describe the tectonic history are sparsely distributed and often of poor quality. During the last two years we have collected more than 1000 paleomagnetic samples from 70 sites at several localities (King George Island, Robert Island, Yankee Bay, Half Moon Island, Byers Peninsula and Snow Island) from the South Shetland Islands and Anderson Island in the northern tip of Antarctic Peninsula. Our main objective was to provide first-order constraints on latitudinal displacements and the amount of tectonic rotations as an essential test of published tectonic models. Paleomagnetic results were obtained from 50 sites. All samples from sites in volcanic and intrusive rocks have well-defined univectorial magnetizations. Unfortunately, all sites in late Paleozoic sediments have been remagnetized and the magnetizations are often unstable upon thermal demagnetization. Cretaceous and Cenozoic units display very little apparent polar wander. Results from intrusive rocks of expected Jurassic age do not confirm the expected relative rotation betwen the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctica. Further radiometric dating are needed to confirm the age of these units.

  18. Update on terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welten, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

    2000-01-14

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites are one of the few parameters that will help us to understand the meteorite concentration mechanism on blue-ice fields. Traditionally, terrestrial ages were determined on the basis of {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase, which has an uncertainty of about 70 ky. For young meteorites (< 40 ky), the terrestrial age is usually and most accurately determined using {sup 14}C in the stone phase. In recent years two methods have been developed which are independent of shielding effects, the {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method and the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 36}Cl method. These methods have reduced the typical uncertainties in terrestrial ages by a factor of 2, to about 30 ky. The {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method is quite dependent on the exposure age, which is unknown for most Antarctic meteorites. The authors therefore also attempt to use the relation between {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl/{sup 26}Al to derive a terrestrial age less dependent on the exposure age. The authors have measured the concentrations of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase of {approximately} 70 Antarctic meteorites, from more than 10 different ice-fields, including many new ones. They then discuss the trends in terrestrial ages of meteorites from different ice-fields.

  19. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  20. The Flynn effect in Korea: Large gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Cho, S.H.; Murphy, R.; Lee, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Secular gains in IQ test scores have been reported for many Western countries. This is the first study of secular IQ gains in South Korea, using various datasets. The first question is what the size of the Flynn effect in South Korea is. The gains per decade are 7.7 points for persons born between 1

  1. The Flynn effect in Korea: Large gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Cho, S.H.; Murphy, R.; Lee, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Secular gains in IQ test scores have been reported for many Western countries. This is the first study of secular IQ gains in South Korea, using various datasets. The first question is what the size of the Flynn effect in South Korea is. The gains per decade are 7.7 points for persons born between

  2. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  3. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  4. Geoethical Approach to Antarctic Subglacial Lakes Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel; Markov, Alexey; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Antarctic subglacial aquatic environment have become of great interest to the science community because they may provide unique information about microbial evolution, the past climate of the Earth, and the formation of the Antarctic ice sheet. Nowadays it is generally recognized that a vast network of lakes, rivers, and streams exists thousands of meters beneath Antarctic Ice Sheets. Up to date only four boreholes accessed subglacial aquatic system but three of them were filled with high-toxic drilling fluid, and the subglacial water was contaminated. Two recent exploration programs proposed by UK and USA science communities anticipated direct access down to the lakes Ellsworth and Whillans, respectively, in the 2012/2013 Antarctic season. A team of British scientists and engineers engaged in the first attempt to drill into Lake Ellsworth but failed. US research team has successfully drilled through 800 m of Antarctic ice to reach a subglacial lake Whillans and retrieve water and sediment samples. Both activities used hot-water drilling technology to access lakes. Hot water is considered by the world science community as the most clean drilling fluid medium from the present point of view but it cannot solve environmental problems in total because hot-water even when heated to 90 °C, filtered to 0.2 μm, and UV treated at the surface could pick up microorganisms from near-surface snow and circulate them in great volume through the borehole. Another negative impact of hot-water circulation medium is thermal pollution of subglacial water. The new approach to Antarctic subglacial lakes exploration is presented by sampling technology with recoverable autonomous sonde which is equipped by two hot-points with heating elements located on the bottom and top sides of the sonde. All down-hole sonde components will be sterilized by combination of chemical wash, HPV and UV sterilization prior using. At the beginning of the summer season sonde is installed on the surface of the

  5. Graafikatriennaali grand prix Korea kunstnikule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali rahvusvaheline žürii andis grand prix korea kunstnikule Chung¡Sang-Gonile, kolm võrdset preemiat - soome kunstnikele Anita Jensenile ja Tapani Mikkonenile ning jaapani kunstnikule Estuko Obatale. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi preemia - Wendy Swallow. Tallinna linna preemia ja Ivar Luki sponsoripreemia - Walter Jule. Sponsoripreemiad : Paletti Eesti AS preemia - Inga Heamägi; Rannila Profiili preemia - Mojca Zlokarnik; UNDP preemia - Andrea Juan. Rotermanni soolalao arhitektuuri- ja kunstikeskuse diplom - Lis Ingram, Heli Päivikki Kurunsaari, Randi Strand, Wendy Swallow

  6. Graafikatriennaali grand prix Korea kunstnikule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali rahvusvaheline žürii andis grand prix korea kunstnikule Chung¡Sang-Gonile, kolm võrdset preemiat - soome kunstnikele Anita Jensenile ja Tapani Mikkonenile ning jaapani kunstnikule Estuko Obatale. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi preemia - Wendy Swallow. Tallinna linna preemia ja Ivar Luki sponsoripreemia - Walter Jule. Sponsoripreemiad : Paletti Eesti AS preemia - Inga Heamägi; Rannila Profiili preemia - Mojca Zlokarnik; UNDP preemia - Andrea Juan. Rotermanni soolalao arhitektuuri- ja kunstikeskuse diplom - Lis Ingram, Heli Päivikki Kurunsaari, Randi Strand, Wendy Swallow

  7. Planning for a Peaceful Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Korea caused the “Cold War structure” in that part of East Asia. He says the United States must see to it that its “Cold War syndromes ” are ended...and his son Kim Jong Il) are Romanized in accordance with the McCune -Reischauer system, less diacritical marks. 2. The term “Kim family regime” is...Secretary of State Madeleine Albright , address to troops in Korea’s DMZ, February 22, 1997, as released by the Office of the State Department spokesman

  8. UV radiation and primary production in the Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Krishnakumari, L.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    obtained between pp and the above parameters in the Antarctic sub-surface waters determined at discrete depths of 10, 20, 30 and 40 m. However, when the primary productivity values were normalised for PAR, a more negative effect was noticed at the Antarctic...

  9. Ice core reconstruction of Antarctic climate change and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mayewski,Paul Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Antarctica is the Earth’s largest environmental library for ice cores. Examples of the scientific fin-dings of the 21-nation consortium called the International Trans Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) under the auspices of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) are presented with special emphasis on the value of these records in reconstructing atmospheric circulation over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.

  10. The distribution of Fe in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löscher, B.M.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, J.T.M. de; Veth, C.; Dehairs, F.

    1997-01-01

    The large-scale distributions of dissolved and total Fe in surface and deep waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current exhibit strong relationships with hydrography and biological processes. The mean dissolved Fe concentrations are low in surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

  11. Challenges to the Future - Conservation of the Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chown, S.L.; Lee, J.E.; Hughes, K.A.; Barnes, J.; Bergstrom, D.M.; Convey, P.; Cowan, D.A.; Crosbie, K.; Dyer, G.; Frenot, Y.; Grant, S.M.; Herr, D.; Kennicutt, M.C.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Murray, A.; Possingham, H.P.; Reid, K.; Riddle, M.J.; Ryan, P.G.; Sanson, L.; Shaw, J.D.; Sparrow, M.D.; Summerhayes, C.; Terauds, A.; Wall, D.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Treaty System, acknowledged as a successful model of cooperative regulation of one of the globe's largest commons (1), is under substantial pressure. Concerns have been raised about increased stress on Antarctic systems from global environmental change and growing interest in the regio

  12. The distribution of Fe in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löscher, B.M.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, J.T.M. de; Veth, C.; Dehairs, F.

    1997-01-01

    The large-scale distributions of dissolved and total Fe in surface and deep waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current exhibit strong relationships with hydrography and biological processes. The mean dissolved Fe concentrations are low in surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (0.31–0.

  13. Antarctic bacteria inhibit growth of foodborne microorganisms at low temperatures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. O'Brien; R. Sharp; N.J. Russell; S. Roller

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Antarctic microorganisms with the ability to produce cold-active antimicrobial compounds with potential for use in chilled food preservation. Colonies (4496) were isolated from 12 Antarctic soil samples and tested against Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas fragi and

  14. Reaching for the Horizon: Enabling 21st Century Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan-Finnemore, M.; Kennicutt, M. C., II; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs' (COMNAP) Antarctic Roadmap Challenges(ARC) project translated the 80 highest priority Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific questionsidentified by the community via the SCAR Antarctic Science Horizon Scan into the highest prioritytechnological, access, infrastructure and logistics needs to enable the necessary research to answer thequestions. A workshop assembled expert and experienced Antarctic scientists and National AntarcticProgram operators from around the globe to discern the highest priority technological needs includingthe current status of development and availability, where the technologies will be utilized in the Antarctic area, at what temporal scales and frequencies the technologies will be employed,and how broadly applicable the technologies are for answering the highest priority scientific questions.Secondly the logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were defined that are necessary todeliver the science in terms of feasibility including cost and benefit as determined by expected scientific return on investment. Finally, based on consideration of the science objectives and the mix oftechnologies implications for configuring National Antarctic Program logistics capabilities andinfrastructure architecture over the next 20 years were determined. In particular those elements thatwere either of a complexity, requiring long term investments to achieve and/or having an associated cost that realistically can only (or best) be achieved by international coordination, planning and partnerships were identified. Major trends (changes) in logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were identified that allow for long-term strategic alignment of international capabilities, resources and capacity. The outcomes of this project will be reported.

  15. 77 FR 31044 - Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... No: 2012-12616] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) is required to publish...

  16. Biological studies in the Antarctic waters: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_407.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_407.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO...

  17. Sport Nationalism in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Tosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history and characteristics of sport nationalism in South Korea as a step toward a comparative study in East Asia, with special emphasis on media, postcolonial history of the policies, and the ritual dimension of sport. The Korean government has sought triumphalism embodied by a focused strategy of close collaboration at the state and local levels, elitist training method, special rewards for athletes’ distinguished results, and so on. Nationwide enthusiasm promoted by media creates nationalistic solidarity. In postcolonial South Korea, sport has been used as a special tool to achieve focused political aims, such as prevailing against the anti-communist and anti-Japanese competitions. But recently, as the Korean society becomes more affluent and matured, people begin to enjoy the appeal of sport per se. The mega sport events, including public viewing, present a typical scene of Korean nationalistic enthusiasm, but it is also a good example of ritual consumption and the development of sport as art. To understand the vitality of sport in East Asia, it is important to notice the coexistence of the non-utilitarian aspect of sports with their political and ritual use.

  18. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  19. The ANGWIN Antarctic Research Program: First Results on Coordinated Trans-Antarctic Gravity Wave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M. K.; Murphy, D. J.; Moffat-Griffin, T.; Kavanagh, A. J.; Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    ANGWIN (ANrctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network) is a new "scientist driven" research program designed to develop and utilize a network of Antarctic atmospheric gravity wave observatories, operated by different nations working together in a spirit of close scientific collaboration. Our research plan has brought together colleagues from several international institutions, all with a common goal to better understand the large "continental-scale" characteristics and impacts of gravity waves on the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) environment over Antarctica. ANGWIN combines complementary measurements obtained using new and existing aeronomy instrumentation with new modeling capabilities. To date, our activities have focused on developing coordinated airglow image data of gravity waves in the MLT region at the following sites: McMurdo (US), Syowa (Japan), Davis (Australia), Halley (UK), Rothera (UK), and Comandante Ferraz (Brazil). These are all well-established international research stations that are uniformly distributed around the continental perimeter, and together with ongoing measurements at South Pole Station they provide unprecedented coverage of the Antarctic gravity wave field and its variability during the extended polar winter season. This presentation introduces the ANGWIN program and research goals, and presents first results on trans-Antarctic wave propagation using coordinated measurements during the winter season 2011. We also discuss future plans for the development of this exciting program for Antarctic research.

  20. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wie eChong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in knowledge of patterns of biogeography in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms have led to a fundamental paradigm shift in understanding of the controls and history of life on land in Antarctica, and its interactions over the long term with the glaciological and geological processes that have shaped the continent. However, while it has long been recognized that the terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica are dominated by microbes and their processes, knowledge of microbial diversity and distributions has lagged far behind that of the macroscopic eukaryote organisms. Increasing human contact with and activity in the continent is leading to risks of biological contamination and change in a region whose isolation has protected it for millions of years at least; these risks may be particularly acute for microbial communities which have, as yet, received scant recognition and attention. Even a matter apparently as straightforward as Protected Area designation in Antarctica requires robust biodiversity data which, in most parts of the continent, remain almost completely unavailable. A range of important contributing factors mean that it is now timely to reconsider the state of knowledge of Antarctic terrestrial prokaryotes. Rapid advances in molecular biological approaches are increasingly demonstrating that bacterial diversity in Antarctica may be far greater than previously thought, and that there is overlap in the environmental controls affecting both Antarctic prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe. In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote

  1. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker

    2014-07-13

    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  2. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John E.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1988-01-01

    The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies enhanced levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth's surface. Model calculations show that UV irradiances encountered during the occurrence of an Antarctic 'ozone hole' remain less than those typical of a summer solstice at low to middle latitudes. However, the low ozone amounts observed in October 1987 imply biologically effective irradiances for McMurdo Station, Antarctica, that are comparable to or greater than those for the same location at December solstice. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.

  4. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  5. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. C.; Lubin, D.; Bromwich, D. H.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Verlinde, J.; Russell, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating (1) the prevalence of single- versus mixed-phase clouds and their role in the

  6. Elav, tegutsev monument Jaan Tõnissonile / Kadri Karp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karp, Kadri, 1958-

    2008-01-01

    Maaülikool asutas sihtasutuse Eesti Maaülikooli Mahekeskus, mille eesmärk on mahepõllumajanduse kui teadusharu edendamine, keskkonnasäästliku eluviisi propageerimine, teadlikkuse suurendamine tervisliku toitumise ja looduslähedase elurütmi eesmärgil tehtavate valikute tegemiseks

  7. Elav, tegutsev monument Jaan Tõnissonile / Kadri Karp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karp, Kadri, 1958-

    2008-01-01

    Maaülikool asutas sihtasutuse Eesti Maaülikooli Mahekeskus, mille eesmärk on mahepõllumajanduse kui teadusharu edendamine, keskkonnasäästliku eluviisi propageerimine, teadlikkuse suurendamine tervisliku toitumise ja looduslähedase elurütmi eesmärgil tehtavate valikute tegemiseks

  8. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, J.R. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  9. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations: e0139877

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colin Southwell; Louise Emmerson; John McKinlay; Kym Newbery; Akinori Takahashi; Akiko Kato; Christophe Barbraud; Karine DeLord; Henri Weimerskirch

    2015-01-01

    .... Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine...

  10. Korea's 1-watt plan ''Standby Korea 2010''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yungrae

    2010-09-15

    Korea announced standby power of all electronics shall be reduced to below 1W by 2010. Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korean government) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO) established ''Standby Korea 2010'' which is a roadmap to limit standby power below 1W by 2010. Korea implemented mandatory program over a relatively short period of time, incorporating the better elements from the more established national program and adding new initiatives, such as the threat of using mandatory warning label for products that fail to meet standby power targets.

  11. Korea's 1-watt plan ''Standby Korea 2010''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yungrae

    2010-09-15

    Korea announced standby power of all electronics shall be reduced to below 1W by 2010. Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korean government) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO) established ''Standby Korea 2010'' which is a roadmap to limit standby power below 1W by 2010. Korea implemented mandatory program over a relatively short period of time, incorporating the better elements from the more established national program and adding new initiatives, such as the threat of using mandatory warning label for products that fail to meet standby power targets.

  12. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  13. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  14. Interhemispheric coupling and warm Antarctic interglacials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Holden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice core evidence indicates that even though atmospheric CO2 concentrations did not exceed ~300 ppm at any point during the last 800 000 years, East Antarctica was at least ~3–4 °C warmer than pre-industrial (CO2 ~280 ppm in each of the last four interglacials. During the previous three interglacials, this anomalous warming was short lived (~3 000 years and apparently occurred before the completion of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. Hereafter, we refer to these periods as "Warmer than Present Transients" (WPTs. We here present transient 800 kyr simulations using the intermediate complexity model GENIE-1 which suggest that WPTs could be explained as a consequence of the meltwater-forced slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC during glacial terminations. It is well known that a slowed AMOC would increase southern Sea Surface Temperature (SST through the bipolar seesaw. Observational data supports this hypothesis, suggesting that the AMOC remained weak throughout the terminations preceding WPTs, strengthening rapidly at a time which coincides closely with peak Antarctic temperature. In order to investigate model and boundary condition uncertainty, we additionally present three ensembles of transient GENIE-1 simulations across Termination II (135 000 to 124 000 BP and three snapshot HadCM3 simulations at 130 000 Before Present (BP. These simulations together reproduce both the timing and magnitude of WPTs, and point to the potential importance of an albedo feedback associated with West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS retreat.

  15. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  16. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  17. Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.

  18. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes on Antarctic glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Glasser

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'' are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1 as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2 as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  19. Widespread Antarctic glaciation during the Late Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrew; Riley, Teal R.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Rittner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Marine sedimentary rocks drilled on the southeastern margin of the South Orkney microcontinent in Antarctica (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 113 Site 696) were deposited between ∼36.5 Ma to 33.6 Ma, across the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. The recovered rocks contain abundant grains exhibiting mechanical features diagnostic of iceberg-rafted debris. Sand provenance based on a multi-proxy approach that included petrographic analysis of over 275,000 grains, detrital zircon geochronology and apatite thermochronometry rule out local sources (Antarctic Peninsula or the South Orkney Islands) for the material. Instead the ice-transported grains show a clear provenance from the southern Weddell Sea region, extending from the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains of West Antarctica to the coastal region of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica. This study provides the first evidence for a continuity of widespread glacier calving along the coastline of the southern Weddell Sea embayment at least 2.5 million yrs before the prominent oxygen isotope event at 34-33.5 Ma that is considered to mark the onset of widespread glaciation of the Antarctic continent.

  20. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  1. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  2. China-Korea Relations: Under New Leaderships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Snyder; See-won Byun

    2012-01-01

    .... Xi and Park will face a full agenda that includes management of growing economic ties, policy toward North Korea, and a complex regional environment beset by territorial and historical disputes...

  3. Biodiversity and adaptive evolution of Antarctic notothenioid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea surrounding the Antarctic continent is one of the coldest regions in the world. It provides an environmentally unique and isolated “hotbed” for evolution to take place. In the past 30 million years, species of Perciform suborder Notothenioidei evolved and diversified from a benthic and temperate-water ancestor, and now dominate the fish fauna of the coldest ocean. Because of their distribution across temperature zones both inside and outside the Antarctic Polar Front, notothenioid fishes are regarded as excellent model organisms for exploring mechanisms of adaptive evolution, particularly cold adaptation. We first summarize research progress on the biodiversity of Antarctic fish and then review current findings on the peculiar biological characteristics of Antarctic notothenioids that evolved in response to a freezing environment. Research has revealed that extensive gene duplication and transcriptomic changes occurred during the adaptive radiation of notothenioid fish. Examples of highly duplicated genes in the Antarctic lineages include genes encoding hepcidin, and zona pellucida proteins, in addition to various retrotransposable elements. A few genes from Antarctic notothenioid fishes have been used as transgenes and demonstrated to be effective in making transgenic plants cold-hardy. In the coming years, the genomes of some Antarctic notothenioid species will be fully sequenced and the adaptive functions of duplicated genes will be further elucidated. Such studies will deepen our understanding of how genomes evolve in freezing environments, and provide an improved knowledge of molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation.

  4. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  5. Microbial biomass and basal respiration in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abakumov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the unique place for pedological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century. Antarctic logistic provides the possibility to scientists access the terrestrial landscapes mainly in the places of polar stations. That is why the main and most detailed pedological investigations were conducted in Mc Murdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann hills and Schirmacher Oasis. Investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions on the base of soil pits and samples collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Soils of diverse Antarctic landscapes were studied with aim to assess the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. The investigation conducted shows that soils of Antarctic are quite different in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod organo-mineral horizons as well as the upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King-George Island, where its thickness reach even 80 cm. These soils as well as soils under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC 7.22–33.70%. Coastal and continental soils of Antarctic are presented by less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol with TOC levels about 0.37–4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones which can be interpreted as result of higher amounts of fresh organic remnants in organic and organo-mineral horizons. Also the soils of King-George island have higher portion of microbial biomass (max 1.54 mg g−1 than coastal (max 0.26 mg g−1 and continental (max 0.22 mg g−1 Antarctic soils. Sub-Antarctic soils mainly differ from Antarctic ones in increased organic layers thickness and total

  6. Korea Peninsula Landscape Extends from Continent End

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Korea peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. It is divided just slightly north of the 38th parallel. The peninsula is roughly 1020 km(612 miles) long and 175 km(105 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Korean people are big sports fans. During the past 20 years, Korea has hosted many international sports events including the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and has achieved excellent results in various sports competitions.

  7. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    push factor” for potential refugees seeking to flee the country, creates pressures for the country to trade in arms or engage in illicit economic...play basketball and reportedly was a fan of the NBA and Michael Jordan. He returned to Pyongyang in his late teens. Goals and Means These...treatment of returned refugees in North Korea. The Six-Party Agreement (United States, China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, and the DPRK) of February

  8. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon; Roh, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods: This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organiza...

  9. The impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Fleming, Z. L.; Hughes, K. A.; Ainley, D. G.; Convey, P.; Moreno, C. A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Scott, J.; Snape, I.

    2009-04-01

    An overview of a recently published review of the scientific literature from the past decade on the impacts of human activities on the Antarctic environment is presented. An assessment of the cumulative effects of scientists and accompanying base construction, tourists and fishery activities in Antarctica is timely given a decade since the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1998 and the increasing attention given to and human presence in Antarctica during this 2007-2009 IPY. A range of impacts has been identified at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Chemical contamination and sewage disposal on the continent have been found to be long-lived, with contemporary sewage management practices at many coastal stations insufficient to prevent local contamination. Human activities, particularly construction and transport, have affected Antarctic flora and fauna and a small number of non-indigenous plant and animal species has become established on some of the Antarctic Peninsula and sub Antarctic islands. There is little indication of recovery of overexploited fish stocks, and ramifications of fishing activity on bycatch species and the ecosystem could also be far-reaching. The Antarctic Treaty System and its instruments, in particular the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the Environmental Protocol, provide a framework within which management of human activities take place. In order to ensure comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment, including its intrinsic, wilderness and scientific values in the face of the continuing expansion of human activities in Antarctica, a more effective implementation of a wide range of measures is essential. These include effective environmental impact assessments, long-term monitoring, mitigation measures for non-indigenous species, ecosystem-based management of living resources, and increased regulation of National Antarctic

  10. 78 FR 48201 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... sites at various sub-Antarctic (within geographic coverage area of the Antarctic Treaty) and Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  11. Antarctic Treaty Summit to Focus on Global Science Policy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Walton, David W. H.; Weiler, C. Susan

    2008-10-01

    The Antarctic Treaty Summit, which will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the treaty's signing, will be held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, D. C., from 30 November to 3 December 2009. The summit will provide an open international forum for scientists, legislators, lawyers, administrators, educators, students, corporate executives, historians, and other members of global civil society to explore science policy achievements from the first 50 years of the Antarctic Treaty. In addition, the summit will complement official government celebrations of the Antarctic Treaty anniversary that do not include public participation.

  12. Adjustment of pigment composition in Desmarestia (Desmarestiaceae species along a sub-Antarctic to Antarctic latitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis at high latitudes demands efficient strategies of light utilization to maintain algal fitness and performance. The fitness, and physiological adaptation, of a plant or algae species depends in part on the abundance and efficiency of the pigments it can produce to utilize the light resource from its environment. We quantified pigment composition and concentration in six species of the brown macroalgal genus Desmarestia, collected from sub-Antarctic sites (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel–Cape Horn Province and sites on the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. Sub-Antarctic Desmarestia species exhibited lower concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin than endemic Antarctic species. Antarctic samples of D. menziesii and D. antarctica collected along a decreasing latitudinal gradient showed spatial and interspecific differences in light-harvesting pigment composition. Our results suggest distinct physiological adjustments in Desmarestia species in response to heterogeneous abiotic environmental conditions. The marine sub-Antarctic and Antarctic ecosystems are characterized by harsh environments (e.g., extreme irradiance, photoperiod, temperature, salinity to which the physiology of macroalgal species must adapt.

  13. Different adaptations of Chinese winter-over expeditioners during prolonged Antarctic and sub-Antarctic residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Wu, Quan; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Chengli

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged residence in Antarctica is characterized by exposure to isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment. Winter-over expeditioners at research stations often exhibit a complex of psychophysiological symptoms, which varied by stations and sociocultural backgrounds. To understand the different patterns of psychophysiological responses provoked by environmental stress, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of mood and endocrine function in two groups of Chinese expeditioners who were deployed to sub-Antarctic (Great Wall Station, 62°S, N = 12) and Antarctic (Zhongshan Station, 66°S, N = 16) from December 2003 to 2005. Measures of mood, thyroid function, the levels of plasma catecholamine, and circulating interleukins were obtained at departure from China, mid-winter (Antarctica), end of winter (Antarctica), and return to China, respectively. The Zhongshan Station crew experienced significant increases in fatigue, anger, tension, confusion, and decrease in free thyroxine (FT4), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (E) during the winter, increase in thyrotropin (TSH) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) when returning, whereas their counterparts at Great Wall Station only experienced increased TT3 after deployment. Moreover, compared with the Great Wall Station crew, the Zhongshan Station crew exhibited greater increase in anger, greater decrease in FT4, total thyroxine (TT4), NE and E over the winter, and greater increase in TSH when returning. Chinese expeditioners who lived and worked at the Antarctic station and the sub-Antarctic station for over a year showed different change patterns in mood and endocrine hormones. Negative mood and endocrine dysfunction were positively associated with the severity of environment. The study is a supplement to scientific knowledge on psychophysiological variation under ICE environment, which has certain applied value for the development of preventive countermeasures or interventions.

  14. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net ph

  15. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net

  16. A Comparative Study of Antarctic Arctic and Himalayan Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Pathak

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic, Antarctic and inaccessible lofty regions of Himalayas,which are geographically diverse areas and have been a constant source of inspiration, envisages a challenging field of study 'by early adventurers and scientists of the world. Characteristics of ice obtained at Arctic and Antarctic do not possess similar properties. Even thesalient properties of snow and ice of western and central Himalayas vary due to its differing free water content. A study has been carriedout based on recent Antarctic Expedition by Indian scientists and the data gathered along litha-tectonic regions of Himalayas and their characteristics have been compared, wkich brings out stratigraphic and metamorphic characteristics of the ice and snow. In the present paper,an analysis of the ice and snow properties of Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan regions has been presented.

  17. West antarctic ice sheet collapse: Chimera or clear danger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, R.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); MacAyeal, D.R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The specter of a west antarctic collapse has been with us for 25 years. Recently, certain official assessments concerned primarily with the future response to projected global warming have concluded that Antarctica will not cause much sea-level rise within the planning horizon of a century or so. At the same time startling new results on ice sheet (in)stability have been emerging, pointing to less stability then previously believed. Some recent results are reviewed briefly: Heinrich layers in the North Atlantic show basally lubricated surges of the Laurentide ice sheet; the west antarctic ice sheet collapsed recently; the modern west antarctic ice sheet is changing rapidly locally; the bed of ice stream B is exceptionally well lubricated by water and water-saturated soft sediments; the modern ice sheet is thinning slowly on average; a model west antarctic ice sheet undergoes rapid collapses long after forcing and probably related to penetration of warmth to the bed. 23 refs.

  18. During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore Biological Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    with a Leica S360 scanning electron microscope. (SEM). ... Antarctic material has tentacular club suckers which possess, on the distal half of the ring, a prominent central recurved ... South African Journal of Marine Science 20. 1998. Fig.

  19. The Antarctic is a region where the largest human- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Antarctic, blue whale, krill, minke whale, multispecies model, .... these animals, given that this age increased from. 1964 to ... development of a complex multispecies model at a ... predator-prey model can reproduce past population.

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Daily Antarctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) is a leading teleconnection pattern in the Southern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as the first Empirical Orthogonal...

  1. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Monthly Antarctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) is a leading teleconnection pattern in the Southern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as the first Empirical Orthogonal...

  2. An Antarctic molluscan biomineralisation tool-kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Victoria A.; Marie, Benjamin; Jackson, Daniel J.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.; Marie, Arul; Clark, Melody S.

    2016-11-01

    The Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica lives almost permanently below 0 °C and therefore is a valuable and tractable model to study the mechanisms of biomineralisation in cold water. The present study employed a multidisciplinary approach using histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, proteomics and gene expression to investigate this process. Thirty seven proteins were identified via proteomic extraction of the nacreous shell layer, including two not previously found in nacre; a novel T-rich Mucin-like protein and a Zinc-dependent metalloprotease. In situ hybridisation of seven candidate biomineralisation genes revealed discrete spatial expression patterns within the mantle tissue, hinting at modular organisation, which is also observed in the mantle tissues of other molluscs. All seven of these biomineralisation candidates displayed evidence of multifunctionality and strong association with vesicles, which are potentially involved in shell secretion in this species.

  3. Organic analysis of the Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotra, R. K.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Hare, P. E.; Yanai, K.

    1981-01-01

    Thus far, organic analysis of carbonaceous chondrites has proven the only fruitful means of examining complex organic matter of extraterrestrial origin. The present paper presents the results of organic analysis of two Antarctic meteorites, Allan Hills (77306) and Yamato (74662), which may be considered free from terrestrial contamination. Ion-exchange chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometery of meteorite samples reveal the presence in Yamato of 15 and in Allan Hills of 20 protein and nonprotein amino acids, the most abundant of which are glycine and alanine. Abundances of the D and L enantiomers of each amino acid are also found to be nearly equal. Data thus indicate an abiotic extraterrestrial origin for the matter, and confirm a lack of terrestrial contamination.

  4. Joint Antarctic School Expedition - An International Collaboration for High School Students and Teachers on Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, J.; Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.; Reed, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Antarctic School Expedition (JASE) is an international collaboration program between high school students and teachers from the United States and Chile aimed at providing the skills required for establishing the scientific international collaborations that our globalized world demands, and to develop a new approach for science education. The National Antarctic Programs of Chile and the United States worked together on a pilot program that brought high school students and teachers from both countries to Punta Arenas, Chile, in February 2014. The goals of this project included strengthening the partnership between the two countries, and building relationships between future generations of scientists, while developing the students' awareness of global scientific issues and expanding their knowledge and interest in Antarctica and polar science. A big component of the project involved the sharing by students of the acquired knowledge and experiences with the general public. JASE is based on the successful Chilean Antarctic Science Fair developed by Chile´s Antarctic Research Institute. For 10 years, small groups of Chilean students, each mentored by a teacher, perform experimental or bibliographical Antarctic research. Winning teams are awarded an expedition to the Chilean research station on King George Island. In 2014, the Chileans invited US participation in this program in order to strengthen science ties for upcoming generations. On King George Island, students have hands-on experiences conducting experiments and learning about field research. While the total number of students directly involved in the program is relatively small, the sharing of the experience by students with the general public is a novel approach to science education. Research experiences for students, like JASE, are important as they influence new direction for students in science learning, science interest, and help increase science knowledge. We will share experiences with the

  5. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  6. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  7. Morphogenesis of Antarctic Paleosols: Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Newsom, Horton E.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, Iain; Sheppard, D.; Milner, M. W.

    2001-11-01

    Samples of horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (Aztec and New Mountain areas) were analyzed for their physical characteristics, mineralogy, chemical composition, and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents and the presence/absence of microbial populations. Salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived over time, in part from nearby oceanic and high-altitude atmospheric sources. The chemical composition of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of airborne-influxed salts and other materials, as well as the weathering of till derived principally from local dolerite and sandstone outcrops. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of Cl, whereas near the inland ice sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, in the order of several million years. Four of the six selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in two ancient soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between 3 and 8 cm, in two profiles, yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium brevicompactum, indicating very minor input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate, and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds. The cold, dry soils of the Antarctic bear a close resemblance to various present and past martian environments where similar weathering could occur and possible microbial populations

  8. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J.; Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental differences in observed ozone depletion between the Arctic and the Antarctic are shown, clarifying distinctions between both average and extreme ozone decreases in the two hemispheres. Balloon-borne and satellite measurements in the heart of the ozone layer near 18−24 km altitude show that extreme ozone decreases often observed in the Antarctic ozone hole region have not yet been measured in the Arctic in any year, including the unusually cold Arctic spring of 2011. The data provi...

  9. Depth and density of the Antarctic firn layer

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The depth and density of the Antarctic firn layer is modeled, using a combination of regional climate model output and a steady-state firn densification model. The modeled near-surface climate (temperature, wind speed, and accumulation) and the depth of two critical density levels (550 kg m−3 and 830 kg m−3) agree well with climate and firn density observations selected from >50 Antarctic coring sites (r = 0.90–0.99, p

  10. The present and future state of the Antarctic firn layer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Firn is the transitional product between fresh snow and glacier ice and acts as a boundary between the atmosphere and the glacier ice of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). Spatiotemporal variations in firn layer characteristics are therefore important to consider when assessing the mass balance of the AIS. In this thesis, a firn densification model, forced with a realistic climate, is used to examine contemporary (1979-2012) and future (2000-2200) variations in the Antarctic firn layer. Currently...

  11. Serpentine Jade (Bowenite) in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A bowenite deposit, recently discovered in Booyo County, Republic of Korea, is the first of its kind in the country. This deposit is located along the contacts of garnet veins intruding the serpenfinite. The bowenite is translucent, dark green in color, greasy in luster, 5 in Mohs' scale of hardness, ~2. 57 in SG, 2. 58 in RI, and 1.56 in ND. The X-ray powder diffraction analysis identified the bowenite as antigorite of the serpentine group minerals, whose major chemical compositions are composed of SiO2(42. 49 %), MgO (39. 08 %), Fe203(3. 85 %), and H2O (11.87 %) and whose important trace elements include Cr (2 188× 10-6), Ni (1 110× 10-6), and Co (58× 10-6). The IR spectrum shows the absorptions at 3 670 (OH stretching), I 190, I 070, 980 (SiO stretching) and 610 cm-1 (OH bending). The DTA/TGA thermogram shows the peaks at 343, 755 and 830. 1 ℃. The endothermic reaction at 755 ℃ denotes expulsion of structural water, and the strong exothermal reaction at 830. 1 ℃ is related to the formation of olivine. Black inclusions finely dispersed in the mineral are identified, with X-ray Gandolfi camera method, as magnetite.

  12. Antarctic marine biodiversity and deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining.

  13. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  14. Parasites of the Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni Norman, 1937 (Perciformes, Nototheniidae in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya I. Gordeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni Norman, 1937 is one of the main target species of commercial fisheries in the Antarctic. It is an endemic and is found along the shelf of Antarctica, as well as on the slopes of seamounts, underwater elevations and islands in the sub-Antarctic. It feeds on a variety of fish and cephalopods and can be an intermediate/paratenic host of some helminthes, whose final hosts are whales, seals, large rays and sharks. This article presents new data on toothfish infection in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic. Specimens were examined during commercial longline fishing in the Ross Sea and the Amundsen Sea in January–February 2013. Fourteen species of parasites were found using standard parasitological methods and genetic analysis.

  15. Põhja-Korea leppe hinnaks on energia / Triin Oppi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Põhja-Korea andis lubaduse seisata 60 päeva jooksul oma olulisim tuumareaktor ja avada taas uksed rahvusvahelistele inspektoritele, kui saab vastutasuks rasket kütteõli. Lisa: Pyongyuang saab vastutasuks. Kaart: Põhja-Korea tuumarajatised

  16. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  17. Prospect for China-Korea Economic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justin Yifu Lin

    2006-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the economic performance of China's economic reform starting in 1978, and which it presents personal views on the experiences of Korea's economic development and lessons for China's economic reform. The paper reviews the ChinaKorea economic relationship, and explores both the opportunities of China's economic development for Korea and the prospects for Bilateral Economic cooperation. It is estimated that the Chinese economy will maintain dynamic growth for the coming decade. The 2008 Olympic Games and the 2010 World Expo in China will provide further impetuses for Chinese economic development. China's huge market and its rapid economic growth can help the further recovery and development of the Korean economy. At the same time, the further development of the Chinese economy can benefit from financial, technical and managerial support from Korea. The complementarities between the industrial structures of China and Korea will surely push their future economic cooperation into a broader and deeper stage. Bilateral trade will enhance the competitiveness of both nations in the global market and help them achieve mutual prosperity and development.

  18. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  19. CERN welcomes Korea as an official collaborator

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    His Excellency Mr. Won-Hwa Park, Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Switzerland, with CERN's Director-General at the signature ceremony to mark Korea as an official collaborator. On 25 October, the Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Switzerland, His Excellency Mr Won-Hwa Park, visited CERN. He came to sign, together with the Director-General Dr Robert Aymar, a formal Cooperation Agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Korea, witnessed by Dr Joo-Han Kim of the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. With this agreement that covers the development of scientific and technical cooperation in high-energy physics, Korea's participation in the experimental physics programme of CERN has now been formalised. Two days earlier, Dr Myung-Bak Lee, the former Mayor of Seoul, paid a visit to CERN, accompanied by ten members of his staff and fifteen Korean journalists. CERN was one of the destinations in Europe (together with GSI in Germany) on Dr Lee's agenda to gain information and to estab...

  20. Strategic Partners: South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Defense in Korea , p. 1. 12. James N. Wallace, " Koreans to Carter: Yankee, Stay Here!", US News and World Report, 2 July 1979, p. 22. 13. Nathan... Korea and the United States Richard T. Detrio 1989 jAJ National Defense University Press Washington, DC NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY PRESS PUBLICATIONS...AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA : THE PAST 1 Evolution of the US-ROK Relationship 5 Korean Foreign Policy 11 Korea in US Strategic Policy 12 2. THE

  1. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  2. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  3. Community Currency in Korea : How do we envision Community Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kang (Joonmo); B.E. Hong (Baeg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCommunity currency schemes were first introduced in Korea in 1998. Since then, there have been many efforts to use them but no report or academic research on the topic in Korea. Thus, we conducted a field investigation to identify the scope of community currency schemes in Korea and as o

  4. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  5. [Feminism in nursing science in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2005-08-01

    Although feminism has been actively discussed and applied to nursing in Western societies since the 1980s, it is little known among Korean scholars as well as Korean nurses. This article explores the use of feminist perspectives in nursing science in other developed countries and suggests how feminism could be applied to nursing science in Korea. The literature related to nursing and feminism were reviewed in terms of nursing practice, education, and research. This article describes what feminism is and how feminism and nursing have evolved historically over time in other countries, especially in Western societies. In addition, it discusses how it can be applied to nursing practice, education, and research in Korea. Accepting feminist perspective in Korean nursing could benefit in empowering nurses by valuing nursing, by raising self-esteem of nurses, and by raising the consciousness of socio-political realities. Eventually it could benefit in changing and developing nursing science in Korea.

  6. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...... this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the effects...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms....

  7. The circum-Antarctic sedimentary record; a dowsing rod for Antarctic ice in the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, H.

    2012-12-01

    Arguments for short-lived Antarctic glacial events during the Eocene (55-34 Ma) are compelling, however the paleoceanographic proxy records upon which these arguments are based (e.g., benthic δ18O, eustatic sea level, deep sea carbonate deposition) are global signals in which the role of Antarctic ice volume variability is ambiguous. That is to say, the proxy response to ice volume may be masked other processes. As a result broad correlations between proxies for ice volume are lacking during suspected Eocene glacial events. I will present a more direct approach for detecting Antarctic ice sheets in the Eocene; utilizing provenance information derived from the radiogenic isotopic composition of the terrigenous component of marine sediments near Antarctica. The method relies on knowledge that marine sediments represent a mixture derived from different basement terrains with different isotopic fingerprints. A key issue when using sedimentary deposits to characterize continental sediment sources is to deconvolve different sources from the mixed signal of the bulk sample. The pioneering work of Roy et al. (2007) and van de Flierdt et al. (2007) represents a major advance in Antarctic provenance studies. It is now known that the isotopic composition of neodymium (Nd) and hafnium (Hf) in modern circum-Antarctic sediments are distributed in a pattern that mimics the basement age of sediment sources around Antarctica. For this study I selected two Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites on southern Kerguelen Plateau (ODP Sites 738 and 748) because of their proximity to Prydz Bay, where Precambrian sediment sources contribute to extremely nonradiogenic isotopic signatures in modern sediments in the Prydz Bay region. New detrital Nd isotope records from these sediment cores reveal an Nd isotope excursion at the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary (ca. 37 Ma) that coincides with a 0.5 ‰ increase in benthic foram δ18O values. Detrital sediment ɛNd values are around -12 in intervals

  8. Interhemispheric coupling, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and warm Antarctic interglacials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Holden

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice core evidence indicates that even though atmospheric CO2 concentrations did not exceed ~300 ppm at any point during the last 800 000 years, East Antarctica was at least ~3–4 °C warmer than preindustrial (CO2~280 ppm in each of the last four interglacials. During the previous three interglacials, this anomalous warming was short lived (~3000 years and apparently occurred before the completion of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. Hereafter, we refer to these periods as "Warmer than Present Transients" (WPTs. We present a series of experiments to investigate the impact of deglacial meltwater on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC and Antarctic temperature. It is well known that a slowed AMOC would increase southern sea surface temperature (SST through the bipolar seesaw and observational data suggests that the AMOC remained weak throughout the terminations preceding WPTs, strengthening rapidly at a time which coincides closely with peak Antarctic temperature. We present two 800 kyr transient simulations using the Intermediate Complexity model GENIE-1 which demonstrate that meltwater forcing generates transient southern warming that is consistent with the timing of WPTs, but is not sufficient (in this single parameterisation to reproduce the magnitude of observed warmth. In order to investigate model and boundary condition uncertainty, we present three ensembles of transient GENIE-1 simulations across Termination II (135 000 to 124 000 BP and three snapshot HadCM3 simulations at 130 000 BP. Only with consideration of the possible feedback of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS retreat does it become possible to simulate the magnitude of observed warming.

  9. Korea in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    countenanced in a democratic or even a semi- democratic system of government because of the emphasis on the rule of law—but in Korea’s case, it was all the more...than in the past, the democratic system can do this. But 26. MarkL. Clifford, Troubled Tiger (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1994). 47 if the political...How deeply is democracy taking root in South Korea? The answer to this cannot be given in the absolute. It depends on the problems the democratic

  10. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    States and North Korea. Beijing played an interlocutor role via high-level visits, such as Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan’s visit to the...stability-or-status-quo-on-the-korean- peninsula/. 92 Sung-Yoon Lee, “Is Status Quo Destiny? China’s Interests in Post-Kim Dynasty Korea,”a presentation at...preferences will heavily impact that outcome). Tang Shiping, a Chinese academic, clearly distinguishes between the two, “While China clearly believes that

  11. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    found a secret weapon that has been a hit with North Koreans: South Korean “ Choco Pies,” a snack consisting of two large round cookies covered with...chocolate with a filling of marshmallow in between much like an Oreo cookie. Choco Pies have been so popular in the lunches provided to Kaesong...North Korea,” Reuters, June 4, 2009. 26 “N.Koreans Love Choco Pie,” Chosen Ilbo, May 23, 2009, English Internet edition. . North Korea: Economic

  12. Pteropods and climate off the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Valerie J.; Santora, Jarrod A.

    2013-09-01

    Shelled (thecosome) and naked (gymnosome) pteropods are regular, at times abundant, members of Southern Ocean zooplankton assemblages. Regionally, shelled species can play a major role in food webs and carbon cycling. Because of their aragonite shells thecosome pteropods may be vulnerable to the impacts of ocean acidification; without shells they cannot survive and their demise would have major implications for food webs and carbon cycling in the Southern Ocean. Additionally, pteropod species in the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean inhabit a region of rapid warming and climate change, the impacts of which are predicted to be observed as poleward distribution shifts. Here we provide baseline information on intraseasonal, interannual and longer scale variability of pteropod populations off the Antarctic Peninsula between 1994 and 2009. Concentrations of the 4 dominant taxa, Limacina helicina antarctica f. antarctica, Clio pyramidata f. sulcata, Spongiobranchaea australis and Clione limacina antarctica, are similar to those monitored during the 1928-1935 Discovery Investigations and reflect generally low values but with episodic interannual abundance peaks that, except for C. pyr. sulcata, are related to basin-scale climate forcing associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate mode. Significant abundance increases of L. helicina and S. australis after 1998 were associated with a climate regime shift that initiated a period dominated by cool La Niña conditions and increased nearshore influence of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). This background information is essential to assess potential future changes in pteropod species distribution and abundance associated with ocean warming and acidification. construct maps of pteropod spatial frequency and mean abundance to assess their oceanographic associations; quantify pteropod abundance anomalies for comparing intraseasonal and interannual variability relative to m-3 environmental

  13. Antarctic Single Frames = Frame Level Records of Antarctica Photos: 1946 - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs of Antarctica from the United States Antarctic Resource Center (USARC) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) are maintained in this collection....

  14. South Korea-North Korea Relations: Sunshine's Final Sunset? Maybe Not

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aidan Foster-Carter

    2016-01-01

      North Korea's decision to start the new year with a bang -- its fourth nuclear test, carried out on January 6 -- guaranteed a downturn in inter-Korean ties, and in the DPRK's relations with the international community...

  15. Evaluation of the Chile-Korea FTA and Policy Implications for Korea's FTA Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyo Cheong

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the Korea Chile FTA focusing on the market access of goods and tries to draw policy implications for Korea's future FTA policy. Moreover, it analyzes problems involving the FTA negotiations with Chile and Korea's domestic ratification process, and suggests overall policy implications for Korea's FTA initiatives and appropriate future directions for each FTA now under consideration. Korea and Chile agreed to eliminate tariffs over all the industries including agriculture and tariffs on almost all the products, except some highly sensitive products, will be phased down to zero eventually. In consideration of reality of Korea's agriculture, rice, apples and pears were excluded from the tariff elimination list in order to minimize damages. On the other hand, tariffs on passenger and commercial vehicles and computers, which took up 67% of Korea's total export to Chile, are eliminated immediately. Korea has experienced many trials and errors in the process of promoting the first Korea Chile FTA. It is because Korea had no experiences regarding FTAs at all and the severe protests of less competitive industries made it worse. The examples of problems in the process of the Korea Chile FTA are that parties supporting the FTA did not expand enough and that too much cost was paid to persuade the opposing farmers. Moreover, there were few coordinating activities on the political side for lack of strong leadership, even though the negotiations were in a stalemate for a long time. The policy directions that this paper suggests are first to make a plan for structural reforms of industries including agriculture and then to provide some measures and rational standards for supporting industries that are damaged due to FTAs. In addition, the FTA promotion system including related procedures is to be reinforced and consideration and implementation of ways to boost FTA supporting parties are required. At last, this paper emphasizes that the

  16. Choanoflagellates in the Antarctic Ocean, with special reference to Parvicorbicula socialis (Meunier) Deflandre

    OpenAIRE

    Hara,Shigemitsu/Tanoue,Eiichiro/Zenimoto,Michio/Komaki,Yuzo/Takahashi,Eiji

    1984-01-01

    Distribution and morphology of choanoflagellates, collared heterotrophic flagellates bearing an extracellular siliceous lorica, were reviewed. Eleven species were reported from the Antarctic Ocean. Three of the eleven species were originally described from the Antarctic and are known to be endemic to the Antarctic. The other eight were found in various oceanic areas. Choanoflagellates had been found in both ice and water, which suggested their wide and abundant distribution in the Antarctic. ...

  17. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Academician Vernadsky" (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyak, Kornyliy; Hlotov, Volodymyr; Holubinka, Yuriy; Marusazh, Khrystyna

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station "Academician Vernadsky". Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.

  18. Skip spawning as a reproductive strategy in Antarctic fish species: the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pisano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica (Notothenioidei, Nototheniidae is the most abundant pelagic fish inhabiting the frigid Antarctic coastal waters. It plays relevant roles in the local ecosystems, where it is often considered a keystone species connecting lower and upper trophic levels within the coastal marine food web. Despite its ecological relevance, and although many aspects of the Antarctic silverfish biology have already been elucidated, knowledge on important components of its life cycle, including the reproductive features, is still poor. The available data on the reproduction of the Antarctic silverfish remains fragmentary and, in particular, information on the silverfish from the Ross Sea is lacking, in spite of the intensive ecological studies on this unique region and the fact that the only known nursery ground for this species is located in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea where hatching occurs under the sea-ice. We present the here first description of the reproductive features of Antarctic silverfish from fish sampled in late Summer (mid February 2008 in the Ross Sea. The gross reproductive traits are consistent with those reported from other Antarctic sectors but, interestingly, widespread follicular atresia has been detected in the fish examined. The intensity and prevalence of such a follicular degenerative process suggest that skip spawning (not all adults spawn every year could be a reproductive strategy of this Antarctic species. Such an hypothesis is discussed both on the short-term and on the evolutionary time-scale. Overall, the data presented also contribute to support the acknowledgment that skip-spawning is a diffuse phenomenon in fishes.

  19. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  20. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Tiwari; Amit Jain; Shivalika Sarkar; Sudhir Jain; A K Gwal

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in the space weather studies. Scintillation is a major problem in navigation application using GPS and in satellite communication at high latitudes. Severe amplitude fading and strong scintillation affect the reliability of GPS navigational system and satellite communication. To study the effects of the ionospheric scintillations, GPS receiver installed at Antarctic station Maitri (Geog. 70.76°S; 11.74°E) was used. The data is collected by using GISTM 4004A, NOVATEL’S GPS receiver during March 2008. Studies show that percentage occurrence of phase scintillation is well correlated with geomagnetic activity during the observation period. The result also shows that very intense scintillations can degrade GPS based location determination due to loss of lock of satellites. These findings indicate that the dependence of scintillations and irregularity occurrence on geomagnetic activity is associated with the magnetic local time (MLT). Large number of patches are reported and their activity depends on the magnetic activity index.

  1. Antarctic icebergs distributions 1992-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournadre, J.; Bouhier, N.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Rémy, F.

    2016-01-01

    Basal melting of floating ice shelves and iceberg calving constitute the two almost equal paths of freshwater flux between the Antarctic ice cap and the Southern Ocean. The largest icebergs (>100 km2) transport most of the ice volume but their basal melting is small compared to their breaking into smaller icebergs that constitute thus the major vector of freshwater. The archives of nine altimeters have been processed to create a database of small icebergs (iceberg size distribution, covering the 0.1-10,000 km2 range, estimated by combining small and large icebergs size measurements follows well a power law of slope -1.52 ± 0.32 close to the -3/2 laws observed and modeled for brittle fragmentation. The global volume of ice and its distribution between the ocean basins present a very strong interannual variability only partially explained by the number of large icebergs. Indeed, vast zones of the Southern Ocean free of large icebergs are largely populated by small iceberg drifting over thousands of kilometers. The correlation between the global small and large icebergs volumes shows that small icebergs are mainly generated by large ones breaking. Drifting and trapping by sea ice can transport small icebergs for long period and distances. Small icebergs act as an ice diffuse process along large icebergs trajectories while sea ice trapping acts as a buffer delaying melting.

  2. Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fischer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice can increase pCO2 during precipitation in winter and decrease pCO2 during dissolution in spring. CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice is thought to potentially drive significant CO2 uptake by the ocean. However, little is known about the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of CaCO3 within sea ice. This is the first quantitative study of hydrous calcium carbonate, as ikaite, in sea ice and discusses its potential significance for the carbon cycle in polar oceans. Ice cores and brine samples were collected from pack and land fast sea ice between September and December 2007 during an expedition in the East Antarctic and another off Terre Adélie, Antarctica. Samples were analysed for CaCO3, Salinity, DOC, DON, Phosphate, and total alkalinity. A relationship between the measured parameters and CaCO3 precipitation could not be observed. We found calcium carbonate, as ikaite, mostly in the top layer of sea ice with values up to 126 mg ikaite per liter melted sea ice. This potentially represents a contribution between 0.12 and 9 Tg C to the annual carbon flux in polar oceans. The horizontal distribution of ikaite in sea ice was heterogenous. We also found the precipitate in the snow on top of the sea ice.

  3. Biogeography of circum-Antarctic springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughran, Angela; Stevens, Mark I; Holland, Barbara R

    2010-10-01

    We examine the effects of isolation over both ancient and contemporary timescales on evolutionary diversification and speciation patterns of springtail species in circum-Antarctica, with special focus on members of the genus Cryptopygus (Collembola, Isotomidae). We employ phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (cox1), and ribosomal DNA (18S and 28S) genes in the programmes MrBayes and RAxML. Our aims are twofold: (1) we evaluate existing taxonomy in light of previous work which found dubious taxonomic classification in several taxa based on cox1 analysis; (2) we evaluate the biogeographic origin of our chosen suite of springtail species based on dispersal/vicariance scenarios, the magnitude of genetic divergence among lineages and the age and accessibility of potential habitat. The dubious taxonomic characterisation of Cryptopygus species highlighted previously is confirmed by our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, according to the current taxonomy, Cryptopygus antarcticus subspecies are not completely monophyletic and neither are Cryptopygus species in general. We show that distribution patterns among species/lineages are both dispersal- and vicariance-driven. Episodes of colonisation appear to have occurred frequently, the routes of which may have followed currents in the Southern Ocean. In several cases, the estimated divergence dates among species correspond well with the timing of terrestrial habitat availability. We conclude that these isotomid springtails have a varied and diverse evolutionary history in the circum-Antarctic that consists of both ancient and recent elements and is reflected in a dynamic contemporary fauna.

  4. Uranium-series dating of antarctic ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is very interesting to date polar ice radiometrically. Bands of dust imbedded in ice are frequently observed in antarctic ice fields. This work focuses on dating ice samples with high dust contents by the uranium-series method. The author obtained uranium-series ages of 325 thousand (+/- 75) and 100 thousand (+/- 20) years for dusty ice samples from two sites in the main Allan Hills ice field. The dust-banded ice was collected from 50- to 100-centimeter depth at two sites, called Cul de Sac 100 and Cul de Sac 150. The particles in these samples were examined with an optical microscope and found to consist essentially (more than 95% of the particulates) of fine volcanic glass shards full of vesicles and microvesicles. Evidently the fine volcanic glass shards were deposited on snow, became incorporated in the ice, and moved with the ice to the Allan Hills sites. Ice samples with other types of particulates, such as terrestrial morraine, may also be amenable to uranium-series dating; however, it is difficult to date ice with less than 0.03 gram of fine particulates per kilogram of ice with their present technique. The uranium-series method can cover the age range from 10,000 to 600,000 years.

  5. Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Lyons, W. B.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Wall, D. H.; Moorhead, D. L.

    2007-03-01

    Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10-106 years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass, and when activated by availability of liquid water, they influence the chemical composition of their environment according to these ratios. Nitrogen and phosphorus varied significantly in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurring on landscape surfaces across a wide range of exposure ages, indicating strong influences of landscape development and geochemistry on nutrient availability. Biota control the elemental ratio of stream waters, while geochemical stoichiometry (e.g., weathering, atmospheric deposition) evidently limits the distribution of soil invertebrates. We present a conceptual model describing transformations across dry valley landscapes facilitated by exchanges of liquid water and biotic processing of dissolved nutrients. We conclude that contemporary ecosystem stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley soils, glaciers, streams, and lakes results from a combination of extant biological processes superimposed on a legacy of landscape processes and previous climates.

  6. Evidence for warmer interglacials in East Antarctic ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, L C; Wolff, E W; Oliver, K I C; Tindall, J C

    2009-11-19

    Stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in the Antarctic ice core record have revolutionized our understanding of Pleistocene climate variations and have allowed reconstructions of Antarctic temperature over the past 800,000 years (800 kyr; refs 1, 2). The relationship between the D/H ratio of mean annual precipitation and mean annual surface air temperature is said to be uniform +/-10% over East Antarctica and constant with time +/-20% (refs 3-5). In the absence of strong independent temperature proxy evidence allowing us to calibrate individual ice cores, prior general circulation model (GCM) studies have supported the assumption of constant uniform conversion for climates cooler than that of the present day. Here we analyse the three available 340 kyr East Antarctic ice core records alongside input from GCM modelling. We show that for warmer interglacial periods the relationship between temperature and the isotopic signature varies among ice core sites, and that therefore the conversions must be nonlinear for at least some sites. Model results indicate that the isotopic composition of East Antarctic ice is less sensitive to temperature changes during warmer climates. We conclude that previous temperature estimates from interglacial climates are likely to be too low. The available evidence is consistent with a peak Antarctic interglacial temperature that was at least 6 K higher than that of the present day -approximately double the widely quoted 3 +/- 1.5 K (refs 5, 6).

  7. Estimating the extent of Antarctic summer sea ice during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinburgh, Tom; Day, Jonathan J.

    2016-11-01

    In stark contrast to the sharp decline in Arctic sea ice, there has been a steady increase in ice extent around Antarctica during the last three decades, especially in the Weddell and Ross seas. In general, climate models do not to capture this trend and a lack of information about sea ice coverage in the pre-satellite period limits our ability to quantify the sensitivity of sea ice to climate change and robustly validate climate models. However, evidence of the presence and nature of sea ice was often recorded during early Antarctic exploration, though these sources have not previously been explored or exploited until now. We have analysed observations of the summer sea ice edge from the ship logbooks of explorers such as Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton and their contemporaries during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (1897-1917), and in this study we compare these to satellite observations from the period 1989-2014, offering insight into the ice conditions of this period, from direct observations, for the first time. This comparison shows that the summer sea ice edge was between 1.0 and 1.7° further north in the Weddell Sea during this period but that ice conditions were surprisingly comparable to the present day in other sectors.

  8. Sakala arhitekt Raine Karp : uus aeg nõuab teistsuguseid karpe / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Raine Karbi elust ja loomingust, mõtteid Sakala keskuse projekteerimisest, ehitamisest ja ümberehitamisest. Karin Hallas-Murula kommentaar "Tõstis paekivi taas ausse" ja Ivi Eenmaa kommentaar "Teadis raamatukogust hämmastavalt palju"

  9. Sakala arhitekt Raine Karp : uus aeg nõuab teistsuguseid karpe / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Raine Karbi elust ja loomingust, mõtteid Sakala keskuse projekteerimisest, ehitamisest ja ümberehitamisest. Karin Hallas-Murula kommentaar "Tõstis paekivi taas ausse" ja Ivi Eenmaa kommentaar "Teadis raamatukogust hämmastavalt palju"

  10. An Analysis of Korea-ASEAN Trade and its Implications for the Shipping Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Seok Ha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shipping industry is an import economic player in Korea, and demand for shipping closely intertwines with the global trade climate. Understanding how movements of income and price influence freight volume measured in TEU is critical for improving shipping companies’ fleet deployment and scheduling. This paper estimated within the framework of a vector error correction model in a time series analysis for the period of 2000Q1 to 2015Q2 trade elasticities of income and real exchange rate of Korea's exports to and imports from ASEAN-5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. We found that trade elasticity of income exerts a significant, positive influence on the volume of Korea's exports to and imports from ASEAN-5 and that during the same period the real exchange rate exerts asymmetric influence over Korea's trade with them. Surprisingly, we failed to find the Korea-ASEAN FTA to further facilitate trade volume between Korea and ASEAN-5, when measured in TEU.

  11. 78 FR 41960 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. All other wastes would be packaged and removed to the yacht for... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act...

  12. 77 FR 9707 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ..., innovative, affordable, sustainable, and consistent with the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda: Present the Panel with... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal... following meeting: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review, 76826. Date/Time: March 5, 2012,...

  13. 78 FR 41959 - Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Modification Requested: The Foundation must report to the Antarctic Treaty annually, no later than June 1 on... Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit modification under the Antarctic Conservation Act of...

  14. 76 FR 63329 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ..., affordable, sustainable, and consistent with the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda: First meeting of the Panel to... Doc No: 2011-26281] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review... National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon...

  15. 77 FR 1743 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... sound, safe, innovative, affordable, sustainable, and consistent with the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal Advisory...: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review, 76826. Date/Time: January 24, 2012, 8 a.m. to...

  16. 78 FR 51213 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty done at Madrid on October 4, 1991. The NSF is... Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of document availability under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, as amended by...

  17. 77 FR 20852 - U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... the Antarctic Treaty. Agenda: Present the Panel with additional programmatic information related to... U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal... following meeting: Name: U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Review, 76826. Date/Time: April 20,...

  18. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two 21st century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trusel, L.D.; Frey, Karen; Das, Sarah; Karnauskas, Kristopher; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van Meijgaard, E.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean. Following rapid atmospheric warming over the past decades, Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have progressively retreated,

  19. 77 FR 38834 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Science Foundation, as directed by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996,...

  20. 78 FR 28000 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of... National Science Foundation, as directed by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for...

  1. 77 FR 67407 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of... National Science Foundation, as directed by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for...

  2. 78 FR 59728 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY:...

  3. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  4. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two 21st century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trusel, L.D.; Frey, Karen; Das, Sarah; Karnauskas, Kristopher; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; van Meijgaard, E.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2015-01-01

    Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean. Following rapid atmospheric warming over the past decades, Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have progressively retreated,

  5. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  6. KOREA INSAM,SAFE FOR YOUR HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    KOREA INSAM is not only a species different from those of American ginseng or Chinese Sanchi ginseng, but it is also grown in an optimal geographical environment with climatic conditions suitable for growing superior quality ginseng.The latitudinal range in which

  7. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  8. International Competition Yeongcheon Horse Park in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grigorieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The international project competition for the design of a Horse Park in Yeongcheon, Korea was organized by the Korean Racing Authority (KRA and approved by the UIA. The jury awarded three prizes and eight honourable mentions for projects that successfully integrated the themes of horses and nature with the local history and culture.

  9. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  10. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  11. Security Cooperation and Deterrence in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    York: The Penguin Press, 2011), chap. 1, under “Introduction,” Kindle eBook , Loc 163. 136 Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ian E. Rinehart, North Korea: U.S...America’s Armed Forces in an Age of Austerity, chap. 1, under “Introduction,” Kindle eBook , Loc 134. 149 Ibid, Loc 2267. 150 Ibid, Loc 163. 45

  12. (Environmental impact statement on the US Antarctic program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M.; Railsback, S.F.; McLean, R.B.

    1989-12-22

    Three staff members from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in a site visit to US Antarctic Program (USAP) facilities at McMurdo Station, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and remote field and support sites. Interviews were conducted with National Science Foundation, Navy, and ITT/Antarctic Services staff responsible for environmental management functions. The ORNL team visited all facilities at McMurdo Station, three remote field camps, a Navy refueling facility, South Pole Station, and Scott Base (a New Zealand installation). In general, the team found that environmental impacts of the USAP are minor for the Antarctic continent as a whole. Improvements for the handling and disposal of solid wastes and the discharge of wastewaters that have been initiated should help minimize environmental impacts of USAP activities. The information collected during the site visit will be used in a draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the USAP to be published for public review in June 1990.

  13. Mitochondrial function in Antarctic nototheniids with ND6 translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Mark

    Full Text Available Fish of the suborder Notothenioidei have successfully radiated into the Southern Ocean and today comprise the dominant fish sub-order in Antarctic waters in terms of biomass and species abundance. During evolution in the cold and stable Antarctic climate, the Antarctic lineage of notothenioids developed several unique physiological adaptations, which make them extremely vulnerable to the rapid warming of Antarctic waters currently observed. Only recently, a further phenomenon exclusive to notothenioid fish was reported: the translocation of the mitochondrial gene encoding the NADH Dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6, an indispensable part of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system.This study investigated the potential physiological consequences of ND6 translocation for the function and thermal sensitivity of the electron transport system in isolated liver mitochondria of the two nototheniid species Notothenia coriiceps and Notothenia rossii, with special attention to the contributions of complex I (NADH DH and complex II (Succinate DH to oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, enzymatic activities of NADH:Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome C Oxidase were measured in membrane-enriched tissue extracts.During acute thermal challenge (0-15°C, capacities of mitochondrial respiration and enzymatic function in the liver could only be increased until 9°C. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH Dehydrogenase was fully functional but displayed a higher thermal sensitivity than the other complexes of the electron transport system, which may specifically result from its unique amino acid composition, revealing a lower degree of stability in notothenioids in general. We interpret the translocation of ND6 as functionally neutral but the change in amino acid sequence as adaptive and supportive of cold stenothermy in Antarctic nototheniids. From these findings, an enhanced sensitivity to ocean warming can be deduced for Antarctic notothenioid fish.

  14. Mitochondrial function in Antarctic nototheniids with ND6 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Felix C; Lucassen, Magnus; Strobel, Anneli; Barrera-Oro, Esteban; Koschnick, Nils; Zane, Lorenzo; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pörtner, Hans O; Papetti, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Fish of the suborder Notothenioidei have successfully radiated into the Southern Ocean and today comprise the dominant fish sub-order in Antarctic waters in terms of biomass and species abundance. During evolution in the cold and stable Antarctic climate, the Antarctic lineage of notothenioids developed several unique physiological adaptations, which make them extremely vulnerable to the rapid warming of Antarctic waters currently observed. Only recently, a further phenomenon exclusive to notothenioid fish was reported: the translocation of the mitochondrial gene encoding the NADH Dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), an indispensable part of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system.This study investigated the potential physiological consequences of ND6 translocation for the function and thermal sensitivity of the electron transport system in isolated liver mitochondria of the two nototheniid species Notothenia coriiceps and Notothenia rossii, with special attention to the contributions of complex I (NADH DH) and complex II (Succinate DH) to oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, enzymatic activities of NADH:Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome C Oxidase were measured in membrane-enriched tissue extracts.During acute thermal challenge (0-15°C), capacities of mitochondrial respiration and enzymatic function in the liver could only be increased until 9°C. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH Dehydrogenase) was fully functional but displayed a higher thermal sensitivity than the other complexes of the electron transport system, which may specifically result from its unique amino acid composition, revealing a lower degree of stability in notothenioids in general. We interpret the translocation of ND6 as functionally neutral but the change in amino acid sequence as adaptive and supportive of cold stenothermy in Antarctic nototheniids. From these findings, an enhanced sensitivity to ocean warming can be deduced for Antarctic notothenioid fish.

  15. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rios

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea. It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data.This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS. The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodivers­ity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author’s collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO in the city of Gijón (Spain. The data are available in GBIF.

  16. Antarctic marine biodiversity and deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Chown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining.

  17. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE SPONGES IN THIS DATASET IS DERIVED FROM THE SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING FIVE SPANISH ANTARCTIC EXPEDITIONS: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using various sampling gears. The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides information for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea). It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data. This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities. The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS). The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodiversity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author's collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in the city of Gijón (Spain). The data are available in GBIF.

  18. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... (DFARS) to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party..., 2012, to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade...

  19. Põhja-Korea pani tuumarelvaohte ümber hindama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Korea tuumakatsetusest. Praegu on varasemad oletused Põhja-Korea peatsest tuumarünnakust USA-le asendunud teadmisega, et Põhja-Korea raketid suudavad lennata 1300 km. Kaart: Põhja-Korea tuumarelvaohu ulatus. Lisa: Korea teadlasi õpetasid venelased

  20. Põhja-Korea pani tuumarelvaohte ümber hindama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Korea tuumakatsetusest. Praegu on varasemad oletused Põhja-Korea peatsest tuumarünnakust USA-le asendunud teadmisega, et Põhja-Korea raketid suudavad lennata 1300 km. Kaart: Põhja-Korea tuumarelvaohu ulatus. Lisa: Korea teadlasi õpetasid venelased

  1. DECADAL VARIABILITY OF THE ANTARCTIC OSCILLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚道溢; 王绍武

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the long-term and decadal time-scale fluctuations of atmospheric circulation in the Southern (Hemisphere) middle and high latitudes. The long time series of Antarctic Oscillation Indices (AOIs) were established for January, April, July and October based on the historical sea level pressure maps and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis surface pressure data set. It was found that the AOI of January had upward trend at a rate of 1.17 hPa/100 a, and July had downward trend at a rate of -1.49 hPa/100 a since 1871. The method of wavelet analysis was applied to detect the low frequency characteristics of AOIs, and it is clear that there are decadal variations in the time scale of about 20-30 years in all 4 indices. Since the averaged value of 4 months could explain most variance of annual AOI thus it is reasonable using the mean AOI of January, April, July and October to represent the annual AOI. The value of annual AOI was much lower in periods of about 1894-1901. 1910-1935, and was much higher in periods of about 1880 -1893, 1936-1945. The positive anomalies were remarkable since 1980s. Power spectra of modeled AOIs from Hadley Center Control Integration (HCCI) were compared with the observations, it is found that the interannual time scale frequencies were more significant than decadal frequencies. But, there also had the possibility for generating weak decadal fluctuations in some special months and years by Hasselmann mechanism.

  2. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  3. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  4. Antarctic marine gravity field from high-density satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    High-density (about 2-km profile spacing) Geosat/GM altimetry profiles were obtained for Antarctic waters (6-deg S to 72 deg S) and converted to vertical gravity gradient, using Laplace's equation to directly calculate gravity gradient from vertical deflection grids and Fourier analysis to construct gravity anomalies from two vertical deflection grids. The resultant gravity grids have resolution and accuracy comparable to shipboard gravity profiles. The obtained gravity maps display many interesting and previously uncharted features, such as a propagating rift wake and a large 'leaky transform' along the Pacific-Antarctic Rise.

  5. Running PILOT: operational challenges and plans for an Antarctic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Andrew; Saunders, Will; Gillingham, Peter; Ward, David; Storey, John; Lawrence, Jon; Haynes, Roger

    2008-07-01

    We highlight the operational challenges and planned solutions faced by an optical observatory taking advantage of the superior astronomical observing potential of the Antarctic plateau. Unique operational aspects of an Antarctic optical observatory arise from its remoteness, the polar environment and the unusual observing cycle afforded by long continuous periods of darkness and daylight. PILOT is planned to be run with remote observing via satellite communications, and must overcome both limited physical access and data transfer. Commissioning and lifetime operations must deal with extended logistics chains, continual wintertime darkness, extremely low temperatures and frost accumulation amidst other challenging issues considered in the PILOT operational plan, and discussed in this presentation.

  6. Contrasting time trends of organic contaminants in Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Nico W; Riddle, Martin J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; van Franeker, Jan Andries

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that pelagic Antarctic seabirds show significant decreases in concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants. Trends in Adélie penguins and Southern fulmars fit in a general pattern revealed by a broad literature review. Downward trends are also visible in pelagic fish, contrasting sharply with steady or increasing concentrations in Antarctic benthic organisms. Transfer of contaminants between Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs is associated with seasonal sea-ice dynamics which may influence the balance between the final receptors of contaminants under different climatic conditions. This complicates the predictability of future trends of emerging compounds in the Antarctic ecosystem, such as of the brominated compounds that we detected in Antarctic petrels. The discrepancy in trends between pelagic and benthic organisms shows that Antarctic biota are still final receptors of globally released organic contaminants and it remains questionable whether the total environmental burden of contaminants in the Antarctic ecosystem is declining.

  7. Environmental Factors Influencing Antarctic Krill Recruitment along the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, J. S.; Steinberg, D. K.; Thanassekos, S.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is impacting pelagic food web structure. Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, are a critical food-web link between primary producers and higher trophic levels such as penguins, seals, and whales. Climate-induced changes in krill recruitment are thus an important consideration when evaluating future WAP ecosystem trends. We examined long-term (1993 to 2015) and spatial (north/south) changes in summer krill recruitment. Krill were collected within the epipelagic zone during the Palmer Antarctica Long-Term Ecological Research (PAL LTER) cruises within a 700 x 260 km sampling grid along the WAP. Krill from each tow were enumerated and their lengths were measured. A simple recruitment index based on the proportion of krill smaller than 40 mm (F40) was used in our analyses. There was a significant 5-6-year cyclical trend in F40. In the last 5 years, the southern population has begun to deviate from this cycle. To investigate potential environmental factors leading to this pattern in recruitment success, F40 was regressed with environmental factors and climatological indices for both the whole PAL LTER grid and north/south sub-regions. Over the whole grid, F40 was positively correlated with chlorophyll a and primary production, both with a 1-year lag. Spatially, these trends were strongest for chlorophyll in the north, and primary production in the south. Krill recruitment in the south was also correlated to climatological indices such as the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). These correlations could be used to forecast future krill population changes.

  8. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saralees Nadarajah; Dongseok Choi

    2007-08-01

    Annual maxima of daily rainfall for the years 1961–2001 are modeled for five locations in South Korea (chosen to give a good geographical representation of the country). The generalized extreme value distribution is fitted to data from each location to describe the extremes of rainfall and to predict its future behavior. We find evidence to suggest that the Gumbel distribution provides the most reasonable model for four of the five locations considered. We explore the possibility of trends in the data but find no evidence suggesting trends. We derive estimates of 10, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 year return levels for daily rainfall and describe how they vary with the locations. This paper provides the first application of extreme value distributions to rainfall data from South Korea.

  9. Status of nuclear data activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa [Nuclear Data Evaluation Lab., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusung, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    Although nuclear data activities in Korea are still in the early stage, considerable demands for more accurate and wide-range nuclear data from nuclear R and D fields activated a new nuclear data project titled as `Development of Nuclear Data System`. It was launched this year as one of nation-wide long-term nuclear R and D programs in Korea for the next decade. Its main goals are (1) to establish nuclear data system, (2) to build up the infra-structure for utilization of nuclear data and (3) to develop highly reliable nuclear data system. To achieve these goals, international cooperation and cultivation of human resource as well as construction of measurement facilities will be indispensable. This report briefly describes the demands of nuclear data from the nuclear R and D programs, current nuclear data activities and future plan with its strategy. (author)

  10. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Prophylaxis of human hydrophobia in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Ree

    2014-09-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system.

  12. Establishment of Modern Universities in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the historical factors which affected the rise of modern higher education during the late Choson period (1880-1910, and to analyze the implications of these historical factors on educational policies in contemporary higher education in Korea. The rise of modern higher education in Korea can be viewed as occurring in three principal phases: Confucian Choson Royal Government, Western Christian missionaries, and patriotic nationalists. The author points out that the major historical factors influencing the development of modern higher education were Confucianism, Christianity, and Korean nationalism. In particular, Confucianism and Christianity have had substantial impacts on the planning of educational policies in contemporary Korean higher education; the former is viewed as an original source of educational enthusiasm which has expanded Korean higher education, and the latter a matrix of modern Korean higher education which has embodied educational enthusiasm.

  13. Põhja-Korea vanglast põgenes 120 poliitvangi / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Lõuna-Korea ajakirjanduse väitel on Põhja-Korea vangilaagrist põgenenud 120 poliitvangi, 21 tabati, kuid enamik on jõudnud Hiinasse. USA andmeil on Põhja-Korea vangilaagrites ligi 200 000 poliitvangi

  14. Põhja-Korea vanglast põgenes 120 poliitvangi / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Lõuna-Korea ajakirjanduse väitel on Põhja-Korea vangilaagrist põgenenud 120 poliitvangi, 21 tabati, kuid enamik on jõudnud Hiinasse. USA andmeil on Põhja-Korea vangilaagrites ligi 200 000 poliitvangi

  15. Oxygen Isotopes and Origin of Opal in an Antarctic Ureilite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, H.; Beard, A. D.; Franchi, I. A.; Greenwood, R. C.

    2016-08-01

    Fragments of opal (SiO2.nH2O) in several internal chips of a single Antarctic polymict ureilite meteorite Elephant Moraine (EET) 83309 have been studied by NanoSIMS to determine their oxygen isotope compositions and hence constrain their origin.

  16. Molecular evolution of hemoglobins of Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, W.T.; Beintema, J.J; D Avino, R.; Tamburrini, M.; di Prisco, G.

    1997-01-01

    Amino acid sequences of alpha- and beta-chains of human hemoglobin and of hemoglobins of coelacanth and 24 teleost fish species, including 11 antarctic and two temperate Notothenioidei, were analyzed using maximum parsimony. Trees were derived for the alpha- and beta-chains separately and for tandem

  17. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, M.; Stocchi, P.; van der Heydt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~ 34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean dynami

  18. On the interpretation of stable isotopes in Antarctic precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Polar ice caps contain valuable information about the earth's climate. This thesis investigates the extent to which meteorological data are stored in the composition of snow in order to improve the interpretation of deep ice cores from the Antarctic ice cap. It is demonstrated that annual temperatur

  19. A multivariate analysis of Antarctic sea ice since 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Neto, Newton de; Evangelista, Heitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tanizaki-Fonseca, Kenny [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Dept. Analise Geoambiental, Inst. de Geociencias, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Penello Meirelles, Margareth Simoes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)/Geomatica, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Carlos Eiras [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Laboratorio de Oceanografia Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Recent satellite observations have shown an increase in the total extent of Antarctic sea ice, during periods when the atmosphere and oceans tend to be warmer surrounding a significant part of the continent. Despite an increase in total sea ice, regional analyses depict negative trends in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea and positive trends in the Ross Sea. Although several climate parameters are believed to drive the formation of Antarctic sea ice and the local atmosphere, a descriptive mechanism that could trigger such differences in trends are still unknown. In this study we employed a multivariate analysis in order to identify the response of the Antarctic sea ice with respect to commonly utilized climate forcings/parameters, as follows: (1) The global air surface temperature, (2) The global sea surface temperature, (3) The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, (4) The South Annular Mode, (5) The Nino 3, (6) The Nino (3 + 4, 7) The Nino 4, (8) The Southern Oscillation Index, (9) The Multivariate ENSO Index, (10) the Total Solar Irradiance, (11) The maximum O{sub 3} depletion area, and (12) The minimum O{sub 3} concentration over Antarctica. Our results indicate that western Antarctic sea ice is simultaneously impacted by several parameters; and that the minimum, mean, and maximum sea ice extent may respond to a separate set of climatic/geochemical parameters. (orig.)

  20. TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF ANTARCTIC, ARCTIC AND AMPHIEQUATORIAL SEAWEEDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIENCKE, C; BARTSCH, [No Value; BISCHOFF, B; PETERS, AF; BREEMAN, AM

    1994-01-01

    The temperature requirements for growth and survival of cold water seaweeds from both Hemispheres are compared and discussed in relation to the climatic history of the various regions and in relation to the origin of amphiequatorial distribution patterns. Endemic Antarctic species are most strongly

  1. Local scaling characteristics of Antarctic surface layer turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several studies have validated Nieuwstadt's local scaling hypothesis by utilizing turbulence observations from the mid-latitude, nocturnal stable boundary layers. In this work, we probe into the local scaling characteristics of polar, long-lived stable boundary layers by analyzing turbulence data from the South Pole region of the Antarctic Plateau.

  2. Searching for eukaryotic life preserved in Antarctic permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucconi, L.; Selbmann, L.; Buzzini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi and yeasts isolated in pure culture from Antarctic permafrost collected at different depths in the McMurdo Dry Valleys were identified with cultural, physiological and molecular methods. Fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Eurotium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Engyodonthium, Aureobasidi...... ancestral strains have been found on the base of metabolic profiles....

  3. Maneuver simulation model of an experimental hovercraft for the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Rinichi

    Results of an investigation of a hovercraft model designed for Antarctic conditions are presented. The buoyancy characteristics, the propellant control system, and simulation model control are examined. An ACV (air cushion vehicle) model of the hovercraft is used to examine the flexibility and friction of the skirt. Simulation results are presented which show the performance of the hovercraft.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of a Southern Maritime Antarctic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony Pearce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Antarctic soils is derived from direct culture on selective media, biodiversity studies based on clone library construction and analysis, quantitative PCR amplification of specific gene sequences and the application of generic microarrays for microbial community analysis. Here, we investigated the biodiversity and functional potential of a soil community at Mars Oasis on Alexander Island in the southern Maritime Antarctic, by applying 454 pyrosequencing technology to a metagenomic library constructed from soil genomic DNA. The results suggest that the commonly cited range of phylotypes used in clone library construction and analysis of 78-730 OTUs (de-replicated to 30-140 provides low coverage of the major groups present (~5%. The vast majority of functional genes (>77% were for structure, carbohydrate metabolism and DNA/RNA processing and modification. This study suggests that prokaryotic diversity in Antarctic terrestrial environments appears to be limited at the generic level, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria being common. Cyanobacteria were surprisingly under-represented at 2.6% of sequences, although ~1% of the genes identified were involved in CO2 fixation. At the sequence level there appeared to be much greater heterogeneity, and this might be due to high divergence within the relatively restricted lineages which have successfully colonized Antarctic terrestrial environments.

  5. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL

  6. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, M.; Stocchi, P.; van der Heydt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~ 34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean dynami

  7. Spatial-temporal characters of Antarctic sea ice variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lijuan; Lu Longhua; Bian Lingen

    2004-01-01

    Using sea ice concentration dataset covering the period of 1968-2002 obtained from the Hadley Center of UK, this paper investigates characters of Antarctic sea ice variations .The finding demonstrates that the change of mean sea-ice extent is almost consistent with that of sea-ice area, so sea-ice extent can be chosen to go on this research. The maximum and the minimum of Antarctic sea ice appear in September and February respectively. The maximum and the maximal variation of sea ice appear in Weddell Sea and Ross Sea, while the minimum and the minimal variation of sea-ice appear in Antarctic Peninsula. In recent 35 years, as a whole, Antarctic sea ice decreased distinctly. Moreover, there are 5 subdivision characteristic regions considering their different variations. Hereinto, the sea-ice extent of Weddell Sea and Ross Sea regions extends and area increases, while the sea-ice extent of the other three regions contracts and area decreases. They are all of obvious 2-4 years and 5-7 years significant oscillation periods. It is of significance for further understanding the sea-ice-air interaction in Antarctica region and discussing the relationship between sea-ice variation and atmospheric circulation.

  8. Mass Gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Exceed Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Brenner, Anita; Bromwich, David

    2012-01-01

    During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements of elevation change. The net gain (86 Gt/yr) over the West Antarctic (WA) and East Antarctic ice sheets (WA and EA) is essentially unchanged from revised results for 1992 to 2001 from ERS radar altimetry. Imbalances in individual drainage systems (DS) are large (-68% to +103% of input), as are temporal changes (-39% to +44%). The recent 90 Gt/yr loss from three DS (Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd Coast) of WA exceeds the earlier 61 Gt/yr loss, consistent with reports of accelerating ice flow and dynamic thinning. Similarly, the recent 24 Gt/yr loss from three DS in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is consistent with glacier accelerations following breakup of the Larsen B and other ice shelves. In contrast, net increases in the five other DS of WA and AP and three of the 16 DS in East Antarctica (EA) exceed the increased losses. Alternate interpretations of the mass changes driven by accumulation variations are given using results from atmospheric-model re-analysis and a parameterization based on 5% change in accumulation per degree of observed surface temperature change. A slow increase in snowfall with climate waRMing, consistent with model predictions, may be offsetting increased dynamic losses.

  9. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmot, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto, R.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1

  10. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, Maria; Stocchi, Paolo; von der Heydt, Anna; Dijkstra, Hendrik; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean dynamic

  11. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, M.; Stocchi, P.; van der Heydt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~ 34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean

  12. Present and future variations in Antarctic firn air content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, S. R M; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    A firn densification model (FDM) is used to assess spatial and temporal (1979-2200) variations in the depth, density and temperature of the firn layer covering the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS). A time-dependent version of the FDM is compared to more commonly used steady-state FDM results. Although the

  13. Depth and density of the Antarctic firn layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The depth and density of the Antarctic firn layer is modeled, using a combination of regional climate model output and a steady-state firn densification model. The modeled near-surface climate (temperature, wind speed, and accumulation) and the depth of two critical density levels (550 kg m−3 and 83

  14. The present and future state of the Antarctic firn layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, S.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Firn is the transitional product between fresh snow and glacier ice and acts as a boundary between the atmosphere and the glacier ice of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). Spatiotemporal variations in firn layer characteristics are therefore important to consider when assessing the mass balance of the A

  15. Pioneering work of CAS researchers in Antarctic expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The first observatory at Dome A On 12 January, China scientific expedition to Antarctica succeeded for a second time in climbing up to Dome A, the highest Antarctic icecap peak. A similar feat was made by Chinese scientists about three years ago in January 2005, leaving first human footprints there.

  16. Conclusions: Multiple dimensions of human engagement with the Antarctic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liggett, D.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Tin, T.; Maher, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    The future scenarios developed by the contributors to this volume communicate a strong message. They concur that existing environmental management practices and the current system of governance are insufficient to meet the obligations set out under the Madrid Protocol to protect the Antarctic enviro

  17. Occurrence of a taurine derivative in an antarctic glass sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marianna; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Castelluccio, Francesco; Avila, Conxita; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2014-04-01

    The n-butanol extract of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx (Scolymastra) joubini, was found to contain a taurine-conjugated anthranilic acid, never reported so far either as a natural product or by synthesis. The compound was inactive against human cancer cells in an in vitro growth inhibitory test, and also showed no antibacterial activity.

  18. On the interpretation of stable isotopes in Antarctic precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Polar ice caps contain valuable information about the earth's climate. This thesis investigates the extent to which meteorological data are stored in the composition of snow in order to improve the interpretation of deep ice cores from the Antarctic ice cap. It is demonstrated that annual temperatur

  19. Microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of continental Antarctic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A Cowan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctica Dry Valleys are regarded as the coldest hyperarid desert system on Earth. While a wide variety of environmental stressors including very low minimum temperatures, frequent freeze-thaw cycles and low water availability impose severe limitations to life, suitable niches for abundant microbial colonization exist. Antarctic desert soils contain much higher levels of microbial diversity than previously thought. Edaphic niches, including cryptic and refuge habitats, microbial mats and permafrost soils all harbour microbial communities which drive key biogeochemical cycling processes. For example, lithobionts (hypoliths and endoliths possess a genetic capacity for nitrogen and carbon cycling, polymer degradation and other system processes. Nitrogen fixation rates of hypoliths, as assessed through acetylene reduction assays, suggest that these communities are a significant input source for nitrogen into these oligotrophic soils. Here we review aspects of microbial diversity in Antarctic soils with an emphasis on functionality and capacity. We assess current knowledge regarding adaptations to Antarctic soil environments and highlight the current threats to Antarctic desert soil communities.

  20. Thermoluminescence study of the terrestrial ages of antarctic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Akio [Shiga Univ., Otsu (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    The terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites were estimated from the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of the fusion crust. It was found that there is a good correlation between the TL intensities and terrestrial ages which had been previously determined by cosmogenic radionuclide abundance. (Author).

  1. Terrestrial Ages of Antarctic Meteorites: Up Date 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Welten, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    We are continuing our ongoing study of cosmogenic nuclides in Antarctic meteorites. In addition to the studies of exposure histories of meteorites, we study terrestrial ages and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and desert meteorites. Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites provide information on meteorite accumulation mechanisms, mean weathering lifetimes, and influx rates. The determination of Cl-36 (half-life=3.01 x 10(exp 5) y) terrestrial ages is one of our long-term on-going projects, however, in many instances neither Cl-36 or C-14 (5,730 y) yields an accurate terrestrial age. Using Ca-41 (1.04 x 10(exp 5) y) for terrestrial age determinations solves this problem by filling the gap in half-life between C-14 and Cl-36 ages. We are now applying the new Ca-41 - Cl-36 terrestrial age method as well as the Cl-36 - Be-10 method to Antarctic meteorites. Our measurements and C-14 terrestrial age determinations by the University of Arizona group are always complementary.

  2. EBSD in Antarctic and Greenland Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikusat, Ilka; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Pennock, Gill; Sepp, Kipfstuhl; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    boundaries. However, an almost equal number of tilt subgrain boundaries were measured, involving dislocations gliding on non-basal planes (prism or prism slip). A few subgrain boundaries involving prism edge dislocation glide, as well as boundaries involving basal twist dislocation slip, were also identified. The finding that subgrain boundaries built up by dislocations gliding on non-basal planes are as frequent as those originating from basal plane slip is surprising and has impact on the discussion on rate-controlling processes for the ice flow descriptions of large ice masses with respect to sea-level evolution. Weikusat, I.; Miyamoto, A.; Faria, S. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Azuma, N. & Hondoh, T.: Subgrain boundaries in Antarctic ice quantified by X-ray Laue diffraction J. Glaciol., 2011, 57, 85-94

  3. A hail climatology in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han-Gyul; Lee, Hyunho; Lkhamjav, Jambajamts; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2017-05-01

    A hail observation dataset for 1972-2013 is analyzed to examine the temporal and spatial distributions of hail occurrence in South Korea. Furthermore, using radiosonde data, three thermodynamic factors which are 700-500 hPa temperature lapse rate, water vapor mixing ratio in the lowest 100 hPa, and convective available potential energy (CAPE) and one dynamic factor which is 0-6 km bulk wind shear are calculated and their correlations with hail occurrence in South Korea are examined. Hail days per year in South Korea show a decreasing trend. The monthly variation of hail days exhibits double peaks in April and November. The minimum value of hail days appears in August, which is related to the high freezing-level height, the small midlevel temperature lapse rate, and the weak bulk wind shear. During a day, 44% of the whole hail events occur between 1200 and 1800 local standard time. Spatially, hail primarily occurs in the west coastal area and the east mountainous area of South Korea. Both the regions exhibit double peaks in the monthly variation of hail days, but the east mountainous area exhibits the later spring peak (May) and the lower hail frequency in late autumn compared to the west coastal area. The midlevel temperature lapse rate is strongly correlated with the monthly variation of hail occurrence. Hail is likely to occur when the low-level water vapor mixing ratio is in the range of 3-6 g kg- 1. CAPE is not strongly correlated with hail occurrence. The strong bulk wind shear is correlated with hail occurrence. The bulk wind shear is decreasing and the freezing-level height is increasing annually, which contributes to the annual decrease of hail occurrence.

  4. Consolidation of democracy in South Korea?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Although South Korea has accomplished a democratic transition, democraticconsolidation has not been achieved. The study investigates this notion on thebasis of criteria of democratic consolidation, how the presidents have fulfilledtheir promises on the deepening of democracy and how the Articles in the1987 Constitution on democracy have been implemented. What developmentssupport and disapprove this notion? The interaction between domestic politicsand the implementation of the Constitution dur...

  5. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  6. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    well as research and development work on safety, safeguards, advanced nuclear reactors , and fuel cycle technologies. On June 15, 2015, the United...files/ nnsa/inlinefiles/Korea_South_123. pdf . See also CRS Report R41032, U.S. and South Korean Cooperation in the World Nuclear Energy Market: Major...related to nuclear energy as a whole. Others see fuel cycle capabilities as part of a long-term nuclear reactor export strategy, envisioning that South

  7. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-12

    elections of Park Geun-hye and Abe Shinzo . Neither leader appears willing to be seen as compromising with the other. Moreover, the approaches of both...files/nnsa/inlinefiles/Korea_South_123.pdf. 4 CRS Report RS22937, Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer , by Paul K. Kerr and Mary Beth D...February 2013 testimony before the National Assembly, Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se reportedly said that “it’s too early” to send an emissary to North

  8. Bilateral relations Mexico-Korea today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ramírez Figueroa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambassador of the Republic of Korea in Mexico, Sr. Cho Kyuhyung, remember us the first century if the korean migration to Mexico. In this one hundred years ours countries have approched and lauched a joint work with great value. They have worked for growth of trade and investment, They have promoted cultural and scientific exchanges. They have worked, especially in the enrichment of a friendship that will surely last for many more years.

  9. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  10. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country's government homepage search. Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the "Alternative Chemical Search program," has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances and the Chemical Control act

  11. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions ...

  12. The Chinese Intervention in Korea: An Analysis of Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-19

    precepts to Korea as early as 1936 when he wrote, "If the Koreans wish to break away from the claims of Japanese [read American] imperi- alism, we will... Korea . Both actions .Vcre preceded by the White Paper and Secretary of State Dean Acheson’s public statements that delineated an American defensive ...predictably denounced the American action in Korea , but did so in a manner that indicated little concern over Korean events. What shocked and incensed

  13. The Future of United States Forces in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-22

    Kwak, The Reduction of US Forces in Korea in the Inter- Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990, pp... Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990. 11. Levin, Norman D., and Richard L. Sneider, " Korea in...group with 500 officers and enlisted personnel. After the Korean war broke out in June 1950, the United States sent its troops to Korea in July under

  14. China-Japan-Korea (ROK) Cultural Exchange Forum Set Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Liu Deyou, executive vice president of the China International Culture Association, Chen Yongchang, vice president of the China-Japan Friendship Association, and their party visited the Republic of Korea (ROK) and attended the meeting for the establishment of the China-Japan-Korea (ROK) Cultural Exchange Forum in Seoul from December 5 to 8, 2005. Kim Yong-woon, representative of the Korea (ROK)-Japan Cultural Exchange Council and famous mathematician, Park Sam-koo,

  15. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    January 2005, six Korean people were injured from explosions set off by terrorists at a restaurant in Bali, Indonesia.18 In July 2007, Taliban insurgents...JOOHOON KIM, MAJOR, REPUBLIC OF KOREAN ARMY B.A., Korea Military Academy, Korea, 1997 M.A., University of Yonsei, Korea, 2007... Korean people are exposed to diverse threats from terrorist organizations at home and abroad despite the government’s recently increased efforts to cope

  16. Korea Institute of Sport Science: Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sik Chung

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Korea Institute of Sport Science (KISS, formerly named as Korea Sport Science Institute: KSSI) was established on December 29th, 1980 to perform research and provide support for better performance of the national athletes. KISS had clear objective of supporting scientific training of national athletes for successful hosting of 1986 Asian Games and 1988 Olympics, both were to be held in Seoul,Korea. The objective was successfully achieved with strong support from the government.

  17. On the origin and evolution of Antarctic Peracarida (Crustacea, Malacostraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Brandt

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The early separation of Gondwana and the subsequent isolation of Antarctica caused a long evolutionary history of its fauna. Both, long environmental stability over millions of years and habitat heterogeneity, due to an abundance of sessile suspension feeders on the continental shelf, favoured evolutionary processes of preadapted taxa, like for example the Peracarida. This taxon performs brood protection and this might be one of the most important reasons why it is very successful (i.e. abundant and diverse in most terrestrial and aquatic environments, with some species even occupying deserts. The extinction of many decapod crustaceans in the Cenozoic might have allowed the Peracarida to find and use free ecological niches. Therefore the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatologic, and palaeo-hydrographic changes since the Palaeocene (at least since about 60 Ma ago and the evolutionary success of some peracarid taxa (e.g. Amphipoda, Isopoda led to the evolution of many endemic species in the Antarctic. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic Tanaidacea, Sieg (1988 demonstrated that the tanaid fauna of the Antarctic is mainly represented by phylogenetically younger taxa, and data from other crustacean taxa led Sieg (1988 to conclude that the recent Antarctic crustacean fauna must be comparatively young. His arguments are scrutinized on the basis of more recent data on the phylogeny and biodiversity of crustacean taxa, namely the Ostracoda, Decapoda, Mysidacea, Cumacea, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. This analysis demonstrates that the origin of the Antarctic fauna probably has different roots: an adaptive radiation of descendants from old Gondwanian ancestors was hypothesized for the isopod families Serolidae and Arcturidae, an evolution and radiation of phylogenetically old taxa in Antarctica could also be shown for the Ostracoda and the amphipod family Iphimediidae. A recolonization via the Scotia Arc appears possible for some species, though it is

  18. Prevalence of primary immunodeficiency in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Bong Seong; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwi; Kim, Hwang Min; Park, Hee Ju; Pai, Ki Soo; Son, Byong Kwan; Shin, Kyung Sue; Oh, Moo Young; Woo, Young Jong; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Lee, Kyung Yil; Lee, Chong Guk; Lee, Joon Sung; Chung, Eun Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Youn Soo; Park, Hyun Young; Kim, Joong Gon

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.

  19. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  20. Diabetes Epidemics in Korea: Reappraise Nationwide Survey of Diabetes "Diabetes in Korea 2007"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies on the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and economic burden of diabetes across the past four decades in Korea. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of nationwide study regarding diabetes encompassing all age group. Eight years ago, the Committee on the Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus of Korean Diabetes Association collaborated with Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service to evaluate the status of diabetes care and characteristics in diabetic patients in Korea. In 2007, the collaborative task force team published a comprehensive survey titled "Diabetes in Korea 2007." In this review, we reappraise the diabetic epidemics from the joint report and suggest further studies that are needed to be investigated in the future.

  1. Application of Origin Rules in Kaesong Industrial Complex, North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Na Young

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the expansion of regional economic integration, a product may be assembled in more than one country, creating the problem to determine the origin of the product. This paper aims to analyze the issue to recognize products manufactured in Kaesong Industrial Complex, North Korea, as products originating from South Korea.  Sebagai akibat dari berkembangnya kesatuan-kesatuan ekonomi regional, suatu produk dapat diproduksi di lebih dari satu negara. Hal ini menimbulkan masalah dalam menentukan asal negara produk tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari isu untuk menetapkan produk-produk dari Kompleks Industri Kaesong, Korea Utara, sebagai produk yang berasal dari Korea Selatan.

  2. A poststructuralist analysis of multicultural education in South Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyung Eun Jahng; Soo Jung Lee

    2013-01-01

    .... It looks into hidden dividing practices in the well-intended multicultural education. A poststructuralist framework has been rarely applied to addressing multicultural education in South Korea...

  3. US-Korea Relations: Waltzing Dragon, UFG Drills, DPRK Chills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen Noerper

    2014-01-01

    .... Hailing the alliance and describing the challenges of North Korea as the "dominant strategic element" in the relationship, the CRS specialists also acknowledged "areas of significant differences...

  4. Microbial biomass and basal respiration of selected Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.; Mukhametova, N.

    2014-07-01

    Antarctica is a unique place for soil, biological, and ecological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century, when different national Antarctic expeditions visited the sixth continent with the aim of investigating nature and the environment. Antarctic investigations are comprised of field surveys mainly in the terrestrial landscapes, where the polar stations of different countries are situated. That is why the main and most detailed soil surveys were conducted in the McMurdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann Hills and the Schirmacher Oasis. Our investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions in the base of soil pits, and samples were collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Sub-Antarctic or maritime landscapes are considered to be very different from Antarctic landscapes due to differing climatic and geogenic conditions. Soils of diverse zonal landscapes were studied with the aim of assessing the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. This investigation shows that Antarctic soils are quite diverse in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod) organo-mineral horizons as well as by an upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King George Island, where its thickness reach, in some cases, was 80 cm. These soils as well as soils formed under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC), between 7.22 and 33.70%. Coastal and continental Antarctic soils exhibit less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol, with TOC levels between 0.37 and 4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones, which can be interpreted as a result of higher amounts of fresh organic

  5. Evidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Willems, Anne; Peeters, Karolien; Van de Vijver, Bart; De Wever, Aaike; Leliaert, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale.

  6. Evaluation of the biological toxicity of lfuorine in Antarctic krill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; LU Xiaoqi; WANG Zhangmin; QIN Liqiang; LIN Zhiqin; YUAN Linxi; ZHANG Wen; YIN Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill is a potentially nutritious food source for humans, but lfuorine (F) toxicity is a matter of concern. To evaluate the toxicity of F in Antarctic krill, 30 Wistar rats were divided into three groups with different dietary regimens:a control group, a krill treatment group (150 mg·kg-1 F), and a sodium lfuoride (NaF) treatment group (150 mg·kg-1 F). After three months, F concentrations in feces, plasma, and bone were determined, and the degree of dental and skeletal lfuorosis was assessed. The F concentrations in plasma and bone from the krill treatment group were 0.167 0±0.020 4 mg.L-1 and 2 709.8±301.9 mg·kg-1, respectively, compared with 0.043 8±0.005 5 mg·L-1 and 442.4±60.7 mg·kg-1, respectively, in samples from the control group. Concentrations of F in plasma and bone in the krill treatment group were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the NaF treatment group. The degree of dental lfuorosis in the krill treatment group was moderate, compared with severe in the NaF treatment group and normal in the control group. The degree of skeletal lfuorosis did not change signiifcantly in any group. These results showed that the toxicity of F in Antarctic krill was lower than for an equivalent concentration of F in NaF, but it was toxic for rats consuming krill in large quantities. To conclude, we discuss possible reasons for the reduced toxicity of F in Antarctic krill. The present study provides a direct toxicological reference for the consideration of Antarctic krill for human consumption.

  7. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J; Min, Flora

    2014-04-29

    Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic "hole" contrasts with the generally weaker depletions observed in the warmer Arctic. An unusually cold Arctic stratospheric season occurred in 2011, raising the question of how the Arctic ozone chemistry in that year compares with others. We show that the averaged depletions near 20 km across the cold part of each pole are deeper in Antarctica than in the Arctic for all years, although 2011 Arctic values do rival those seen in less-depleted years in Antarctica. We focus not only on averages but also on extremes, to address whether or not Arctic ozone depletion can be as extreme as that observed in the Antarctic. This information provides unique insights into the contrasts between Arctic and Antarctic ozone chemistry. We show that extreme Antarctic ozone minima fall to or below 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at 18 and 20 km (about 70 and 50 mbar) whereas the lowest Arctic ozone values are about 0.5 ppmv at these altitudes. At a higher altitude of 24 km (30-mbar level), no Arctic data below about 2 ppmv have been observed, including in 2011, in contrast to values more than an order of magnitude lower in Antarctica. The data show that the lowest ozone values are associated with temperatures below -80 °C to -85 °C depending upon altitude, and are closely associated with reduced gaseous nitric acid concentrations due to uptake and/or sedimentation in polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  8. Country Report for Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woon [Shinil General Hospital, 47-7, Suyou5dong, Kangbuk-Gu, 142-070 Suyou 5 Dong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear Power in Korea: Electric generation from 20 reactors: 130,715 million kWh/y; Nuclear generation of total electricity: 40 %. Reactor types: - 4 PHWR (Candu), 16 PWR (6 USA-Westinghouse, 2 French-Framatome, 8 Korean-OPR1000). Nuclear future: - Under Construction: 4 PWR (OPR1000), 2 PWR (APR1400, ShinKori no 3 and 4). - Planned: 2 PWR (APR1400, ShinWooljin no 3 and 4). - R and D investment plan in 2008 managed by MEST (ex- MOST) due to new governmental unification: - next generation reactor: 2 units of APR1400 construction and development of APR1400+, - NTP cooperative research: Gen-IV with SFR, Pyro-process, - Nuclear application: SMART, KSTAR for ITER construction, - Waste disposal management: LILW, SF, Decommission, - RFT, Safety enforcement, radiation protection, public communication, medical use, etc. Nuclear Power in Korea: Status of Radioactive Waste Disposal Site: - Site: Kyeongju, southeast part of Korea, - Size: 2,098,419 m{sup 2}, - Waste type: Low/Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and RI waste, - Disposal type: Cavern, - Capacity: 1. stage 100,000 drums (total 800,000 drums), - Under Licensing Process for Construction WIN-Korea Activity in 2007: 250 members and 11 organization sponsors. 1. 2007 Symposium on Nuclear with Women: - Topic: 'Rendezvous of Nuclear and Renewable Energy', October 11, 2007 at Conference Hall of National Congress. Audience: 400 from Women NGO and the Assembly. - Panel: six specialists from energy, journalism, and women NGO's discussed about energy secure, saving, development of environment friendly energy, protection from global warming. - Results: public communication effect from mass media. 2. 2007 Symposium Conferences: General Meeting/workshop, Nov. 6, 2007, sponsored by KOFWST (Korea Federation of Women's Science and Technology Associations)/Seoul Education Culture Centre. participants: 100 members. Lectures: 'Women's Self Leadership', 'Survey Results of Public understanding on

  9. Methane isotope records from Antarctic firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, T. A.; Battle, M.

    2007-12-01

    The earth's climate is directly influenced by changes in the atmospheric loading of trace "greenhouse" gases. Methane is an important greenhouse gas whose atmospheric concentration has doubled over the last century as a result of various anthropogenic activities. Understanding the methane cycle in the recent past is a compelling scientific problem because increasing methane levels in the modern atmosphere will contribute to predicted future warming. The only source of air that allows us to study the long-term cycles of these gases is found in the trapped gases in ice cores and the interstitial pore spaces in firn from the central portions of Greenland and Antarctica. Firn air samples, retrieved from the South Pole in 1995 and 2001, were analyzed for δ13CH4. In December of 2005, another suite of firn air samples was recovered from the new US deep coring site located along the west Antarctic divide (WAIS D) which were analyzed for both δ13C and δ D of CH4. In general, replicate flasks were sampled from each depth from two separate drillings each year. The precision of the δ13C and δ D analyses is generally better than ± 0.2‰ and 2‰, respectively, with surface values in good agreement with NOAA (INSTAAR) biweekly flask measurements from South Pole. In all cases, δ13C and δD values decrease gradually with depth below the convective zone. However, these isotopes and CH4 mixing ratios decline sharply below the "lock-in" depth. The measured firn air profiles are primarily the result of three factors. First, tropospheric changes drive compositional changes in the near-surface convective layer that are subsequently mixed downward due to bulk air-movement within the shallow firn. Secondly, gases are mixed below the convective zone solely by molecular diffusion, leading to the gradual downward propagation of the compositional changes in the convective layer. Finally, differential gravitational settling causes the heavier atmospheric constituents (both elemental

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of Antarctic marine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Marco; Zanca, Nicola; Rinaldi, Matteo; Dall'osto, Manuel; Simo, Rafel; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Decesari, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Marine aerosol constitutes an important and not thoroughly investigated natural aerosol system. In particular, the poor knowledge of the physical-chemical properties of primary (sea-spray) and secondary particles, especially over biologically active seawaters, affects the current capability of modeling the effect of marine aerosol on climate (O'Dowd et al., 2004). In polar regions, surface seawater composition and its exchanges with the atmosphere is complicated also by the presence of sea-ice and of the variety of micro-organisms (viruses, prokaryotes and microalgae) living within it (Levasseur,2013). In the framework of the Spanish project PEGASO (Plankton-derived Emission of Gases and Aerosols in the Southern Ocean) submicron aerosol samples were collected during a 6 weeks long oceanographic cruise (2nd January 2015 - 11th February 2015) conducted in the regions of Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney and South Georgia Islands, an area of the Southern Ocean characterized every summer by both large patches of productive waters (phytoplankton blooms) and sea-ice cover. The collected samples were analyzed by means of proton-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopy with aim of organic compounds characterization in terms of functional groups and specific molecular tracers identification (Decesari et al., 2011). H-NMR spectral features resulted quite variable among the different samples both in terms of relative abundance of main functional groups and in terms of presence of specific compounds. In all the samples were found biogenic markers, like low-molecular-weight alkyl-amines and methanesulphonate (MSA), of secondary origin (formed by the condensation of vapors onto particles). Resonance signals of other aliphatic compounds of possible primary origin, like lipids, aminoacids (e.g. alanine) and sugars (e.g. sucrose) are present in variable concentrations in the samples. A hierarchical cluster analysis applied on the NMR spectra allowed to identify similarities

  11. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Changes and Impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    The extent of springtime Arctic perennial sea ice, important to preconditioning summer melt and to polar sunrise photochemistry, continues its precipitous reduction in the last decade marked by a record low in 2012, as the Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) was conducted around Barrow, Alaska, to investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on photochemical processes, transport, and distribution in the polar environment. In spring 2013, there was further loss of perennial sea ice, as it was not observed in the ocean region adjacent to the Alaskan north coast, where there was a stretch of perennial sea ice in 2012 in the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea. In contrast to the rapid and extensive loss of sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has a trend of a slight increase in the past three decades. Given the significant variability in time and in space together with uncertainties in satellite observations, the increasing trend of Antarctic sea ice may arguably be considered as having a low confidence level; however, there was no overall reduction of Antarctic sea ice extent anywhere close to the decreasing rate of Arctic sea ice. There exist publications presenting various factors driving changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. After a short review of these published factors, new observations and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, and geological mechanisms contributed to different behaviors of sea ice changes in the Arctic and Antarctic are presented. The contribution from of hydrologic factors may provide a linkage to and enhance thermal impacts from lower latitudes. While geological factors may affect the sensitivity of sea ice response to climate change, these factors can serve as the long-term memory in the system that should be exploited to improve future projections or predictions of sea ice changes. Furthermore, similarities and differences in chemical impacts of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice changes are discussed. Understanding sea ice changes and

  12. Globalization and Higher Education: A South Korea Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine globalization and higher education from a perspective of South Korea. First, the paper reviews the concepts of globalization and internationalization. Second, the author describes a historical synopsis regarding internationalization and higher education in South Korea. Third, Korean government policies on…

  13. Rising South Korea : A Minor Player or a Regional Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Flamm, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    South Korea's rising status in regional and global affairs has received significant attention in recent years. In academic, media, and policy debates, though, South Korea is usually regarded as a mere middle power that, due to its geopolitical situation, has only limited leeway in its foreign policy

  14. EU-Korea Conference on Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jehyun

    2011-01-01

    Current research fields in science and technology were presented and discussed at the EKC2009, informing about the interests and directions of the scientists and engineers in EU countries and Korea. The Conference has emerged from the idea of bringing together EU and Korea to get to know each other better, especially in fields of science and technology.

  15. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing...-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  16. Põhja-Korea raketirahe ajas maailma vihale / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 6. juuli lk. 10. Põhja-Korea katsetas eile seitsmendat korda rakette, sundides ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu erakorralisele koosolekule. Analüütikute hinnangul soovib Põhja-Korea sel viisil tõmmata endale USA tähelepanu kahepoolsete kõneluste alustamiseks. Lisa: Kommunistliku riigi relvakatsetused

  17. Põhja-Korea valmistub sõjaks / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Korea juhi Kim Yong Nami sõnul on riik nõus naasma läbirääkimistele USA-ga, kui tühistataks senised sanktsioonid Põhja-Korea vastu. ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus alustati resolutsiooniprojekti arutamist, mis näeb ette Põhja-Koreale tuumakatsetuste eest karistusi. Lisa: Kahtlane katsetus

  18. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  19. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  20. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  1. Integrating standardization into engineering education: the case of forerunner Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Choi (Dong Geun); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea.

  2. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  3. Rising South Korea : A Minor Player or a Regional Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Flamm, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    South Korea's rising status in regional and global affairs has received significant attention in recent years. In academic, media, and policy debates, though, South Korea is usually regarded as a mere middle power that, due to its geopolitical situation, has only limited leeway in its foreign policy

  4. The Elusive China-Japan-South Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    institutional underpinning to NEA regionalism.50 Specifically, the GATT/WTO architecture provides China- Japan -South Korea with self-satisfying...normative glue between China and Japan that is instilled by a liberal institutional underpinning.350 Specifically, the WTO architecture provides China... JAPAN -SOUTH KOREA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT by Jonathan D. Greenberg September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Michael Glosny Second Reader: Naazneen

  5. Kindergarten Teachers' Professional Training and Their Social Status in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guang-Lea; Myers, Donald A.; Kim, Kyoung Jin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes kindergarten teachers' professional training and their social status in Korea. It includes discussions of the historical development of Korea's kindergarten teacher training system and pedagogical methods, the unequal social status of kindergarten teachers, and the implementation of innovative pedagogical practices modeled…

  6. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean.

  7. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  8. The history of dental hygiene in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.

  9. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  10. Defense Innovation and Industrialization in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Chung-in; Paek, Jae-Ok

    2010-01-01

    South Korea’s defense industrial transformation has been impressive by any standard. It was able to satisfy most of its basic weapons needs within a decade after launching its defense industry. Since the late 1990s, South Korea has been elevated from a third-tier arms producer to the second tier by moving from the stage of imitation and assembly to that of creative imitation and indigenization. It now competes with major arms-supplying countries. In addition, the South Korean defense...

  11. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook [Department of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang 10326 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yookyung [Department of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul 07985 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon 21565 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis.

  12. Radiologic diagnosis of asbestosis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yook Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis.

  13. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yang Ree

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 20...

  14. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  15. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  16. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  17. DINSAR measurement of glacier motion in Antarctic Grove Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiao; LI XiaoWen; SHAO Yun; LI Zhen

    2007-01-01

    Grove Mountain is an important nunatak region on East Antarctic Glacier that blocks the ice flow toward Lambert Glacier. The existence of nunataks and subglacial mountains leads to complex ice flow patterns, which are difficult to be measured by conventional ground-based methods. In this study, several JERS-1 and ERS-1/2 SAR images covering this area are used for 3-pass and 4-pass differential interferometric processing. The ice flow field of Grove Mountain and the eastern zone are derived and validated with related knowledge. The research shows that DINSAR is an effective method for measuring complex ice flow in Antarctic inland glacier. L-band DINSAR is more suitable for mid or fast ice flow than C-band over this region.

  18. Windblown Pliocene diatoms and East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Reed P; DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Alley, Richard B

    2016-09-20

    Marine diatoms in tillites along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) have been used to suggest a diminished East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) during Pliocene warm periods. Updated ice-sheet modelling shows significant Pliocene EAIS retreat, creating marine embayments into the Wilkes and Aurora basins that were conducive to high diatom productivity and rapid accumulation of diatomaceous sediments. Here we show that subsequent isostatic uplift exposed accumulated unconsolidated marine deposits to wind erosion. We report new atmospheric modelling utilizing Pliocene climate and derived Antarctic landscapes indicating that prevailing mid-altitude winds transported diatoms towards the TAMs, dominantly from extensive emerged coastal deposits of the Aurora Basin. This result unifies leading ideas from competing sides of a contentious debate about the origin of the diatoms in the TAMs and their link to EAIS history, supporting the view that parts of the EAIS are vulnerable to relatively modest warming, with possible implications for future sea-level rise.

  19. UAV Observations of an Antarctic Polynya During Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, J.; Maslanik, J. A.; Knuth, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be used during September 2009 to observe the atmosphere and ocean / sea ice surface state in the vicinity of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica. The flights will take place at the end of the Antarctic winter, in an environment characterized by strong katabatic winds and strong air-sea fluxes. Flights of up to 20 hours duration are planned. This mission will be the second deployment of UAVs in the Antarctic, and the first deployment funded by the United States National Science Foundation. Results from this UAV deployment and lessons learned during the deployment will be presented. Visible satellite image of Terra Nova Bay polynya (6 Oct 2007).

  20. On the manoeuvering simulation of an Antarctic hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, R.; Nojiri, T.

    Since 1981 an experimental hovercraft for the Antarctic has been tested in Japan's Antarctic station Syowa. During tests on the ice field near Syowa station, it was experienced that the yaw response of this craft is very sensitive to certain ice conditions. In this report, we deal with course keeping of the craft in relative crosswinds and with the maneuvering simulation while turning. Maneuvering at large yaw angle is required to generate the effective centripetal force in turning. The trajectories based on pulse steering are obtained. The course stability is very dependent upon the friction between skirts and ground, and generally not good on smooth flat ice. It is shown, however, that the rudder automatic control provides good course stability independent of ice conditions. The trajectories obtained from the simulation show that the use of a combination of rudder control and puff ports produces quick turning.

  1. Ozone depletion - Ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. C.; Prezelin, B. B.; Baker, K. S.; Bidigare, R. R.; Boucher, N. P.; Coley, T.; Karentz, D.; Macintyre, S.; Matlick, H. A.; Menzies, D.

    1992-01-01

    The near-50-percent thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer over the Antarctic, with increased passage of mid-UV radiation to the surface of the Southern Ocean, has prompted concern over possible radiation damage to the near-surface phytoplankton communities that are the bases of Antarctic marine ecosystems. As the ozone layer thinned, a 6-week study of the marginal ice zone of the Bellingshousen Sea in the austral spring of 1990 noted sea-surface and depth-dependent ratios of mid-UV irradiance to total irradiance increased, and mid-UV inhibition of photosynthesis increased. A 6-12 percent reduction in primary production associated with ozone depletion was estimated to have occurred over the course of the present study.

  2. Antarctic springtime ozone depletion computed from temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    An observationally based, mechanistic dynamical model is used to simulate the decline of total ozone during September and October for the years 1979 through 1986. Vertical velocities derived from observed stratospheric temperature changes and computed radiative heating rates are used to advect an ozone mixing ratio profile during the Antarctic spring period. An early August 1982 Syowa balloonsonde ozone profile is used to initialize the computations. The model reasonably simulates the September and October changes in total ozone, considering the uncertainties in the observed data and the radiative heating. The simulated decline is found to be very sensitive to the choice of initial ozone profile and to small changes in the radiative heating. The results of this study suggest that the dynamical hypothesis of the Antarctic ozone depletion is both quantitatively credible and consistent with the observed temperature changes.

  3. The 1988 Antarctic ozone depletion - Comparison with previous year depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 spring Antarctic ozone depletion was observed by TOMS to be substantially smaller than in recent years. The minimum polar total ozone values declined only 15 percent during September 1988, compared to nearly 50 percent during September 1987. At southern midlatitudes, exceptionally high total ozone values were recorded beginning in July 1988. The total integrated southern hemispheric ozone increased rapidly during the Austral spring, approaching 1980 levels during October. The high midlatitude total ozone values were associated with a substantial increase in eddy activity as indicated by the standard deviation in total ozone in the zonal band 30-60 deg S. Mechanisms through which the increased midlatitude eddy activity could disrupt the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole are briefly discussed.

  4. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph;

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [" Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis...... in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate (15N, 17O, and 18O) provide...... additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters...

  5. Ecosystem function decays by fungal outbreaks in Antarctic microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, David; López-Bueno, Alberto; Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; de los Ríos, Asunción; Alcamí, Antonio; Quesada, Antonio

    2016-03-14

    Antarctica harbours a remarkably diverse range of freshwater bodies and terrestrial ecosystems, where microbial mats are considered the most important systems in terms of biomass and metabolic capabilities. We describe the presence of lysis plaque-like macroscopic blighted patches within the predominant microbial mats on Livingston Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Those blighting circles are associated with decay in physiological traits as well as nitrogen depletion and changes in the spatial microstructure; these alterations were likely related to disruption of the biogeochemical gradients within the microbial ecosystem caused by an unusually high fungal abundance and consequent physical alterations. This phenomenon has been evidenced at a time of unprecedented rates of local warming in the Antarctic Peninsula area, and decay of these ecosystems is potentially stimulated by warmer temperatures.

  6. Results and perspectives of tectonomagnetic investigations in the Western Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor O. Chobotok

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of long-term (1998-2005 yrs. tectonomagnetic investigations in the Western Antarctic near the location
    of Ukrainian Antarctic Station «Academic Vernadsky» are reviewed. The peculiarities of the Earth’s
    anomalous magnetic field and its dynamic temporal variations (tectonomagnetic anomalies were studied using
    the newly founded tectonomagnetic polygon. Near the Argentine Archipelago intensive tectonomagnetic effects
    up to -2.8 nT/year were determined. Their spatial-temporal structure agrees with tectonic structure elements. We
    suggest that the nature of such effects is caused by a piezomagnetic effect under the influence of stretching tectonic
    forces (few bars per year in sub-latitudinal direction. Perspectives of tectonomagnetic investigations in the
    region are discussed.

  7. The effect of low temperature on Antarctic endolithic green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Morris, G. J.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that undercooling to about -5 degrees C occurs in colonized Beacon sandstones of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. High-frequency temperature oscillations between 5 degrees C and -5 degrees C or -10 degrees C (which occur in nature on the rock surface) did not damage Hemichloris antarctica. In a cryomicroscope, H. antarctica appeared to be undamaged after slow or rapid cooling to -50 degrees C. 14CO2 incorporation after freezing to -20 degrees C was unaffected in H. antarctica or in Trebouxia sp. but slightly depressed in Stichococcus sp. (isolated from a less extreme Antarctic habitat). These results suggest that the freezing regime in the Antarctic desert is not injurious to endolithic algae. It is likely that the freezing-point depression inside the rock makes available liquid water for metabolic activity at subzero temperatures. Freezing may occur more frequently on the rock surface and contribute to the abiotic nature of the surface.

  8. Definition of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Variation Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongxia; Liu Na; Pan Zengdi; Zhang Qinghua

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that varying of the sea ice not only in the Antarctic but also in the Arctic has an active influence on the globe atmosphere and ocean. In order to understand the sea ice variation in detail, for the first time, an objective index of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice variation is defined by projecting the monthly sea ice concentration anomalies poleward of 20°N or 20°S onto the EOF (empirical orthogonal function)-1 spatial pattern. Comparing with some work in former studies of polar sea ice, the index has the potential for clarifying the variability of sea ice in northern and southern high latitudes.

  9. Development of the Australian-Antarctic depth anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joanne M.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The oceanic Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) contains two unusual features: (1) N-S trending anomalously deep bathymetries and (2) rough basement morphologies in young (geological observations. We find that the interaction of negative dynamic topography and crustal thickness variations results in the observed complex patterns of residual basement depths. Downwelling, caused by a sinking Mesozoic slab, is the most likely cause of the broad N-S trending residual depth anomalies, while overprinting by westward flowing, buoyant Pacific mantle resulted in the distinctive V-shaped eastern boundary of the AAD. The particularly large residual depths proximal to the Australian and Antarctic margins may be due to negative dynamic topography combined with thinned oceanic crust caused by ultraslow (45° spreading obliquities.

  10. The South Atlantic in the Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Stevens

    Full Text Available The geographical area covered by the Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM includes that part of the South Atlantic south of 24°S. A description of the dynamics and thermodynamics of this region of the model is presented. Both the mean and eddy fields in the model are in good agreement with reality, although the magnitude of the transients is somewhat reduced. The heat flux is northward and in broad agreement with many other estimates. Agulhas eddies are formed by the model and propagate westward into the Atlantic providing a mechanism for fluxing heat from the Indian Ocean. The confluence of the Brazil and Falkland currents produces a strong front and a large amount of mesoscale activity. In the less stratified regions to the south, topographic steering of the Antarctic circumpolar current is important.

  11. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  12. Molecular evidence for cryptic species among the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Trematomus hansoni

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bernardi, G.; Goswami, U.

    stream_size 19711 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Antarct_Sci_9_381.pdf.txt stream_source_info Antarct_Sci_9_381.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Antarctic Science 9 (4..., in other, more variable regions, such as mitochondria1 control regions or nuclear microsatellites. T. bernacchii from the Antarctic Peninsula and other sequences One substitution difference was found between the T. bernacchii individual sampled off...

  13. Medical supplies for the expeditions of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guly, H R

    2012-06-01

    During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration (1895-1922) there were at least 18 expeditions to the Antarctic lasting between 18 and 30 months. This is an introduction to a series of articles about the drugs taken and used in the Antarctic at this time. Most of the information relates to the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton and the main supplier of medical equipment was Burroughs Wellcome and Co. This article also describes the medical cases that were taken to the Antarctic.

  14. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergence of healing in the Antarctic ozone layer

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, S.; Ivy, DJ; Kinnison, D.; Mills, MJ; Neely III, RR; Schmidt, A.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial chlorofluorocarbons that cause ozone depletion have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. A chemically driven increase in polar ozone (or “healing”) is expected in response to this historic agreement. Observations and model calculations together indicate that healing of the Antarctic ozone layer has now begun to occur during the month of September. Fingerprints of September healing since 2000 include (i) increases in ozone column amounts, (ii) changes in the vertical profile...

  16. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... an adaptation to the low-temperature habitat needs to be revised. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Inc Udgivelsesdato: 1997/10...

  17. Genetics differentiation between Arctic and Antarctic monothalamous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Majewski, Wojciech; Longet, David

    2008-01-01

    Monothalamous (single-chambered) foraminifers are a major component of the benthic meiofauna in high latitude regions. Several morphologically similar species are common in the Arctic and Antarctic. However, it is uncertain whether these morphospecies are genetically identical, or whether...... from Norwegian fjords. Our study has revealed a high number of cryptic species within each of the examined genera, and demonstrates the unexplored potential of monothalamous foraminifers for use as a tool to evaluate the origin and biogeography of polar meiofauna....

  18. Cyclone formation and development in the Antarctic Prydz Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 梅山; 刘克威; 魏立新

    2002-01-01

    Using meteorological data of field observation in 1990~ 2000 , especially polar orbit highresolution NOAA satellite cloud maps received from the Antarctic expedition vessel since 1997, the formation and development of the Prydz Bay cyclone are studied in this paper. Some new viewpoints are suggested such as: when surround-polar cyclone enters the Prydz Bay, it can also intensify and develop in summer; cyclone can also develop in the easterlies in this bay. These view points revise old uncomplete view point that the Prydz Bay is a burial ground of cyclone, and also further consummate formation-development theory of surround-cyclone in the Antarctic westerlies and cyclone in the Antarctic easterlies. In this paper, the mechanism of ice-air-sea interaction in the Prydz Bay is studied, and the physical process of cyclone formation-development is explained. By use of wholly dynamic transportation method, an energy exchange case of a cyclone, which explosively developed after entering the Prydz Bay, is calculated. In the open water area, momentum flux is - 2.205 N/m2, sensible heat flux is 486.69 W/m2, and latent heat flux is 261.84 W/m2. It is larger than values of westerlies burst over the Pacific. The heat transferred from ocean to atmosphere in form of sensible and latent heat promotes cyclone development rapidly. In this case wind force was as strong as 12 grade, with 10 minutes average wind speed of 38 m/s, and instantaneous wind speed of 100 m/s which broke the wind speed record of 96 m/s in the Antarctic (Wendler and Kodama).

  19. Subglacial (bio)geochemical weathering and the unexplored Antarctic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. C.; Christner, B. C.; Mikucki, J.; Priscu, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Water exported from Alpine and polar glaciers is often concentrated in a range of major ions, and minor and trace elements, derived from the dissolution of subglacial rocks and minerals. The export of these species from subglacial environments to the oceans via subglacial hydrological systems appears to constitute an important global flux of biochemically essential species, such as Fe, potentially impacting upon plankton activity in the oceans and the associated consumption of CO2 on glacial-interglacial timescales. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence and activity of microorganisms in a range of subglacial environments, from Alpine glaciers, Arctic glaciers, and most recently in sub-Antarctic systems. Equally, isotopic studies at Alpine and Arctic glaciers provide evidence that microbe-mineral associations occur in subglacial environments, and account for the release and transformation of dissolved nutrients. However, the link between microbiological presence & activity, mineral weathering, ionic species transformations, and the configuration of the subglacial hydrological system, remains poorly understood. We will report on Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD), an NSF funded integrative study of ice sheet stability and life habitats in sub Antarctic aquatic environments. Direct sterile sampling from a subglacial Antarctic lake and grounding zone, will allow us for the first time to address these gaps in our knowledge, to determine the role of microbes on the weathering of rocks and the release and transport of nutrients in and from the unexplored sub-Antarctic environment. These data will yield seminal information on these systems and test the overarching hypothesis that active hydrological systems connect various subglacial environments and exert major control on geochemistry, metabolic and phylogenetic diversity, and biogeochemical transformations, as well as ice sheet dynamics. This will provide a basis for understanding

  20. Antarctic krill 454 pyrosequencing reveals chaperone and stress transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody S Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a keystone species in the Antarctic food chain. Not only is it a significant grazer of phytoplankton, but it is also a major food item for charismatic megafauna such as whales and seals and an important Southern Ocean fisheries crop. Ecological data suggest that this species is being affected by climate change and this will have considerable consequences for the balance of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Hence, understanding how this organism functions is a priority area and will provide fundamental data for life history studies, energy budget calculations and food web models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assembly of the 454 transcriptome of E. superba resulted in 22,177 contigs with an average size of 492bp (ranging between 137 and 8515bp. In depth analysis of the data revealed an extensive catalogue of the cellular chaperone systems and the major antioxidant proteins. Full length sequences were characterised for the chaperones HSP70, HSP90 and the super-oxide dismutase antioxidants, with the discovery of potentially novel duplications of these genes. The sequence data contained 41,470 microsatellites and 17,776 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELS, providing a resource for population and also gene function studies. CONCLUSIONS: This paper details the first 454 generated data for a pelagic Antarctic species or any pelagic crustacean globally. The classical "stress proteins", such as HSP70, HSP90, ferritin and GST were all highly expressed. These genes were shown to be over expressed in the transcriptomes of Antarctic notothenioid fish and hypothesized as adaptations to living in the cold, with the associated problems of decreased protein folding efficiency and increased vulnerability to damage by reactive oxygen species. Hence, these data will provide a major resource for future physiological work on krill, but in particular a suite of "stress" genes for studies understanding

  1. Evolution of the Australian-Antarctic discordance since Miocene time

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Karen M.; Stock, Joann M.; Quinn, Katherine J.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we chronicle the development of the Australian-Antarctic discordance (AAD), the crenelated portion of the Southeast Indian Ridge between ∼120° and 128°E, since anomaly 6y time (19 Ma). We reconstruct satellite-derived marine gravity fields and depth anomalies at selected times by first removing anomalies overlying seafloor younger than the selected age, and then rotating the remaining anomalies through improved finite rotations based on a very detailed set of magnetic anomaly id...

  2. In situ primary production in young Antarctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    An in situ incubation technique used successfully to measure the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of internal algal assemblages within thick multiyear Arctic sea ice was developed and improved to measure the photosynthetic carbon assimilation within young sea ice only 50 cm thick (Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica). The new device enabled some of the first precise measurements of in situ photosynthetic carbon assimilation in newly formed Antarctic sea ice.

  3. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, T.; Powell, R.; Levy, R.; Wilson, G.; Scherer, R.; Talarico, F.; Krissek, L.; Niessen, F.; Pompilio, M.; Wilson, T.; Carter, L.; DeConto, R.; Huybers, P.; McKay, R.; Pollard, D.; Ross, J.; Winter, D.; Barrett, P.; Browne, G.; Cody, R.; Cowan, E.; Crampton, J.; Dunbar, G.; Dunbar, N.; Florindo, F.; Gebhardt, C.; Graham, I.; Hannah, M.; Hansaraj, D.; Harwood, D.; Helling, D.; Henrys, S.; Hinnov, L.; Kuhn, G.; Kyle, P.; Laufer, A.; Maffioli, P.; Magens, D.; Mandernack, K.; McIntosh, W.; Millan, C.; Morin, R.; Ohneiser, C.; Paulsen, T.; Persico, D.; Raine, I.; Reed, J.; Riesselman, C.; Sagnotti, L.; Schmitt, D.; Sjunneskog, C.; Strong, P.; Taviani, M.; Vogel, S.; Wilch, T.; Williams, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records from microfossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth's orbital geometry control the ice ages, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the 'warmer-than-present' early-Pliocene epoch (???5-3 Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possible range of ice-sheet behaviour in the context of future global warming. Here we present a marine glacial record from the upper 600 m of the AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the northwest part of the Ross ice shelf by the ANDRILL programme and demonstrate well-dated, ???40-kyr cyclic variations in ice-sheet extent linked to cycles in insolation influenced by changes in the Earth's axial tilt (obliquity) during the Pliocene. Our data provide direct evidence for orbitally induced oscillations in the WAIS, which periodically collapsed, resulting in a switch from grounded ice, or ice shelves, to open waters in the Ross embayment when planetary temperatures were up to ???3??C warmer than today and atmospheric CO 2 concentration was as high as ???400 p.p.m.v. (refs 5, 6). The evidence is consistent with a new ice-sheet/ice-shelf model that simulates fluctuations in Antarctic ice volume of up to +7 m in equivalent sea level associated with the loss of the WAIS and up to +3 m in equivalent sea level from the East Antarctic ice sheet, in response to ocean-induced melting paced by obliquity. During interglacial times, diatomaceous sediments indicate high surface-water productivity, minimal summer sea ice and air temperatures above freezing, suggesting an additional influence of surface melt under conditions of elevated CO2. ??2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Blue and fin whale acoustics and ecology off Antarctic Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) in the Southern Ocean were subjects of extensive whaling industry during the twentieth century. Their current population numbers remain low, making population monitoring using traditional visual surveys difficult. Both blue and fin whales produce low frequency, regularly repeated calls and are suitable for acoustic monitoring. Eight, continuously recording acoustic recorders were deployed off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) betwe...

  5. Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, Jonathan; Ely, Jeremy C.; Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.

    2017-04-01

    Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise. Numerical models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet that incorporate meltwater’s impact on ice shelves, but ignore the movement of water across the ice surface, predict a metre of global sea-level rise this century in response to atmospheric warming. To understand the impact of water moving across the ice surface a broad quantification of surface meltwater and its drainage is needed. Yet, despite extensive research in Greenland and observations of individual drainage systems in Antarctica, we have little understanding of Antarctic-wide surface hydrology or how it will evolve. Here we show widespread drainage of meltwater across the surface of the ice sheet through surface streams and ponds (hereafter ‘surface drainage’) as far south as 85° S and as high as 1,300 metres above sea level. Our findings are based on satellite imagery from 1973 onwards and aerial photography from 1947 onwards. Surface drainage has persisted for decades, transporting water up to 120 kilometres from grounded ice onto and across ice shelves, feeding vast melt ponds up to 80 kilometres long. Large-scale surface drainage could deliver water to areas of ice shelves vulnerable to collapse, as melt rates increase this century. While Antarctic surface melt ponds are relatively well documented on some ice shelves, we have discovered that ponds often form part of widespread, large-scale surface drainage systems. In a warming climate, enhanced surface drainage could accelerate future ice-mass loss from Antarctic, potentially via positive feedbacks between the extent of exposed rock, melting and thinning of the ice sheet.

  6. Present and future variations in Antarctic firn air content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of the properties of the Antarctic firn layer are necessary for the correct interpretation of satellite remote sensing measurements. For example, using a correction for the amount of air content in a firn layer, the total mass of an ice column can be simply deduced from ice sheet surface elevation. However, Antarctic firn air content varies in both space and time and (time-dependent) modelling of the firn layer is therefore needed to assess these variations. Here, we present results from a firn densification model (FDM), that simulates spatial and temporal variability in Antarctic firn air content from the recent past (1979-2012), into the two coming centuries (until 2200). For both time periods, the FDM is forced with climate data from the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2. Recent seasonal and inter-annual variations in firn air content are mainly caused by the occurrence or absence of large accumulation events. In areas with significant snowmelt, the amount of summer melt also has a major influence on the amount of firn air. In the future simulation, firn air content first increases across the entire ice sheet, as a consequence of increased average precipitation. In coastal areas and on ice shelves, however, the temperature increase and subsequent increase in snowmelt lowers the firn air content during the 22nd century. This also decreases the refreezing capacity of the firn pack in these regions, making them more vulnerable for melt water runoff production.

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Anna; Medvedeva, Sofia; Shmakov, Sergey; Logacheva, Maria D; Krylenkov, Vjacheslav; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  8. On the Atmospheric Correction of Antarctic Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Black

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for processing airborne hyperspectral data in this unique coastal Antarctic environment. Results from the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction version 4 (ATCOR-4 package reveal absolute reflectance values somewhat in line with laboratory measured spectra, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 5% in the visible near infrared (0.4–1 µm and 8% in the shortwave infrared (1–2.5 µm. Residual noise remains present due to the absorption by atmospheric gases and aerosols, but certain parts of the spectrum match laboratory measured features very well. This study demonstrates that commercially available packages for carrying out atmospheric correction are capable of correcting airborne hyperspectral data in the challenging environment present in Antarctica. However, it is anticipated that future results from atmospheric correction could be improved by measuring in situ atmospheric data to generate atmospheric profiles and aerosol models, or with the use of multiple ground targets for calibration and validation.

  9. Temperature-oxygen interactions in Antarctic nudibranch egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, H Arthur; Moran, Amy L

    2008-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is one of the coldest, most stable marine environments on Earth and represents a unique environment for investigating metabolic consequences of low temperature. Here we test predictions of a new diffusion-reaction model of O(2) distributions in egg masses, using egg masses of the Antarctic nudibranch mollusk, Tritonia challengeriana. When warmed from -1.5 degrees to +1.5 degrees C, embryos of T. challengeriana showed large increases in O(2) consumption (Q(10) values of 9.6-30.0). Oxygen electrode measurements in intact masses showed, however, that O(2) levels were high throughout and virtually unaffected by temperature. The model suggested that both effects stemmed from very low metabolic densities in egg masses. Detailed morphological measurements of egg masses of T. challengeriana and a temperate congener, T. diomedea, revealed large differences in structure that may be related to O(2) availability. Egg masses of T. challengeriana were approximately twice as thick. However, the most dramatic effects were observed in embryos: embryos of T. challengeriana were >32 times larger (by volume) than embryos of T. diomedea. Antarctic embryos also were contained singly in large egg capsules ( approximately 500 mum diameter). Consequently, Antarctic embryos occurred at much lower densities, with very low metabolic densities.

  10. Antarctic birds (Neornithes during the Cretaceous-Eocene times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tambussi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic fossil birds can be confidently assigned to modern orders and families, such as a goose-like anseriform, two loon-like and a seriema-like, all recorded before the K/T boundary at the López de Bertodano Fomation. Also, the discovery of a ratite and a phororhacids from the uppermost levels of the Submeseta Allomember (Late Eocene, suggests that West Antarctica was functional to dispersal routes obligate terrestrial birds. Representatives of Falconiformes Polyborinae, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicoteriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelagornitidae and Diomedeidae constitute the non-penguin avian assemblages of the Eocene of La Meseta Formation. Fifthteen Antarctic species of penguins have been described including the oldest penguin of West Antarctica, Croswallia unienwillia. The Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone (36.13 and 34.2 Ma, Late Eocene is characterized by bearing one of the highest frequencies of penguin bones and the phospatic brachiopod Lingula., together with remains of Gadiforms, sharks and primitive mysticete whales. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, Delphinornis gracilis, D. arctowski, Archaeospheniscus lopdelli, and Palaeeudyptes antarcticus are exclusively of the La Meseta Formation. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi was evidently the largest penguin recorded at the James Ross Basin, whereas Delphinornis arctowski is the smallest, and include one of the worldwide highest morphological and taxonomic penguin diversity living sympatrically. The progressive climate cooling of the Eocene could have affected the penguin populations, because of climatic changes linked with habitat availability and food web processes. However, there is not available evidence about Antarctic penguins' evolution after the end of the Eocene.

  11. Extreme phenotypic plasticity in metabolic physiology of Antarctic Demosponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Anthony Morley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal measurements of the metabolic physiology of four Antarctic demosponges and their associated assemblages, maintained in a flow through aquarium facility, demonstrated one of the largest differences in seasonal strategies between species and their associated sponge communities. The sponge oxygen consumption measured here exhibited both the lowest and highest seasonal changes for any Antarctic species; metabolic rates varied from a 25% decrease to a 5.8 fold increase from winter to summer, a range which was greater than all 17 Antarctic marine species (encompassing 8 phyla previously investigated and amongst the highest recorded for any marine environment. The differences in nitrogen excretion, metabolic substrate utilisation and tissue composition between species were, overall, greater than seasonal changes. The largest seasonal difference in tissue composition was an increase in CHN (Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen content in Homaxinella balfourensis, a pioneer species in ice-scour regions, which changed growth form to a twig-like morph in winter. The considerable flexibility in seasonal and metabolic physiology across the Demospongiae likely enables these species to respond to rapid environmental change such as ice-scour, reductions in sea ice cover and ice-shelf collapse in the Polar Regions, shifting the paradigm that polar sponges always live life in the slow lane. Great phenotypic plasticity in physiology has been linked to differences in symbiotic community composition, and this is likely to be a key factor in the global success of sponges in all marine environments and their dominant role in many climax communities.

  12. Modeling Drastic Ice Retreat in Antarctic Subglacial Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, D.; Deconto, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Various data indicate that global mean sea level has fluctuated on O(10,000 to 100,000) year time scales during the last ~25 million years, reaching 20 m or more above modern. If correct, this implies substantial variations in the size of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, climate and ice-sheet models have not been able to simulate significant EAIS retreat from continental size, given low proxy atmospheric CO2 levels during this time. Here, we use a new mechanism involving a maximum vertical ice cliff size of ~100 m above the ocean at the grounding line beyond which structural failure occurs, triggered by the complete melting of floating shelves that normally prevent this configuration in large embayments. This is tested in a 3-D ice-sheet model by applying oceanic and climatic warming representing past warm periods, which attacks floating ice shelves by basal melting and by increased calving due to surface melt or rain draining into crevasses. In addition to accelerating the expected collapse of West Antarctic ice, the new mechanisms cause drastic retreat into 3 major East Antarctic subglacial basins, causing ~20 m global sea-level rise within a few thousand years that takes more than 10,000 years to recover. This offers a resolution of the past sea level model-data conflict, but suggests that Antarctica may be more vulnerable to future warming than previously realized.

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLopatina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  14. 77 FR 13952 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... RIN 9000-AM18 Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement. The...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Pub. L...

  15. 77 FR 56739 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration... Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already... the Republic of Korea to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' in multiple locations in...

  16. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade... provisions and clauses in DFARS part 252 to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the...

  17. Lõuna-Korea teatel võib Kim peagi surra / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Viidates Lõuna-Korea ja Hiina luureandmetele, väidab Lõuna-Korea meedia, et Põhja-Korea liidril Kim Jong-ilil on kõhunäärmevähk ja talle pole antud elada rohkem kui 5 aastat. Põhja-Korea valitsejadünastia

  18. Põhja-Korea tõrjub nälga suure sõjaisuga / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Selgunud on, et Lõuna-Korea sõjalaeva uputas 26. märtsil Põhja-Korea torpeedo, Põhja-Korea ähvardab sanktsioonide korral sõjaga. Põhja-Korea on jõudnud näljahädani ning vajab uut sõjapaanikat, et püüda suunata rahva viha välisvaenlaste pihta

  19. Põhja-Korea tõrjub nälga suure sõjaisuga / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Selgunud on, et Lõuna-Korea sõjalaeva uputas 26. märtsil Põhja-Korea torpeedo, Põhja-Korea ähvardab sanktsioonide korral sõjaga. Põhja-Korea on jõudnud näljahädani ning vajab uut sõjapaanikat, et püüda suunata rahva viha välisvaenlaste pihta

  20. Lõuna-Korea teatel võib Kim peagi surra / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Viidates Lõuna-Korea ja Hiina luureandmetele, väidab Lõuna-Korea meedia, et Põhja-Korea liidril Kim Jong-ilil on kõhunäärmevähk ja talle pole antud elada rohkem kui 5 aastat. Põhja-Korea valitsejadünastia

  1. 76 FR 76146 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 49439 (August 10, 2011). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement...

  2. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  3. Preferences for Advance Directives in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Sun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of advance directives is to help patients retain their dignity and autonomy by making their own decisions regarding end-stage medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine preferences of advance directives among general population in Korea. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed from October 2007 to June 2008 in Seoul, Korea. A total of 336 city-dwelling adults self-administered the questionnaire and returned it via mail. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. Results. Subjects reported the need for healthcare providers' detailed explanations and recommendations regarding end-of-life care. When there is no hope of recovery and death is imminent, most subjects did not want to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation nor an IV or tube feeding. However, most of the subjects wanted pain management care. Conclusions. The present study showed that many Korean people have an interest in advance directives. The results show that the autonomy and dignity of patient have increased in importance. To provide better end-of-life care, there is a need to educate patients on the definition and intent of an advance directive. Additional proactive communication between patients and their caregivers should be educated to healthcare providers.

  4. Disability weights for cancers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyu Sik; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Kwang Sig

    2013-06-01

    This study renewed the estimation of disability weights for cancers in Korea, reflecting the nation's economic and medical-technological development during the past 10 yr. Thirty-two medical doctors evaluated disability weights for 24 major cancers based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) method. To check the intra-rater reliability, a correlation was calculated between 2011 and 2012 medians. To assess the inter-rater reliability, a correlation was estimated between oncologist and non-oncologist medians. To assess the inter-method reliability, a correlation was calculated between medians on VAS and Person-Trade-Off approaches. Moreover, findings in this study were compared to those in 2003 research. Spearman correlation was used and the 1% significance level was applied. Disability weights were relatively high for pancreas cancer (0.90), gallbladder cancer (0.81), mouth and oropharynx cancer (0.80), and esophagus cancer (0.80). Conversely, they were relatively low for breast cancer (0.37), prostate cancer (0.33) and thyroid cancer (0.10). All the inter-rater reliabilities were higher than 0.7. Indeed, the intra-rater and inter-method reliabilities were 0.752 and 0.927, respectively. Above all, disability weights for major cancers went down in Korea during 2003-2012, reflecting the progress of medical technology and the growth of cancer survival.

  5. The treatment of tuberculosis in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, K J; Bai, G H; Kim, S J; Lew, W J; Park, S K; Kim, J Y

    2003-10-01

    South Korea's complex system of tuberculosis control has never been fully described. The prevalence of tuberculosis has dropped dramatically since 1965, partly because of farsighted governmental policy that provided low-cost, accessible tuberculosis treatment to the entire population. Within the tuberculosis control system, public and private sector entities provide a wide variety of treatment options. The National Tuberculosis Program focuses on improving cure rates for new cases, while the private sector has taken more of a role in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and other types of complicated cases. There has been a decrease in drug-resistant tuberculosis since 1980 for multiple reasons, including increased cure rates from the introduction of rifampin-based regimens, improved nutrition and living standards, and the treatment of drug-resistant cases in the private sector. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, however, still poses a significant threat to public health. The limited outcomes data that exist in South Korea for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment suggest that cure rates are low and failure and abandonment rates are high. New public health measures are needed to improve the control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  6. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Blancke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions are grappling for power and wealth. Beside the powerful Kim clan there exist other families in North Korea whose loyalty must be secured with bribes. If the loyalty of the influential families is eroded, the power base of Kim Jong Un is likely to soon diminish. As a result, the North Korean government is searching for sources of money. Illicit drugs may be one solution the ruling regime find attractive to this problem, but there appears to be a twist: struggling ordinary citizens are showing signs that they too are taking part in this illegal enterprise. This is manifested by their willingness to become involved in crime in the same way as the corrupt regime.

  7. Regionalization of neonatal intensive care in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sil Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of low-birth rate in Korea, it is important to improve our neonatal intensive care and to establish an integrative system including a regional care network adequate for both high-risk pregnancies and highrisk newborn infants. Therefore, official discussion for nation-wide augmentation, proper leveling, networking, and regionalization of neonatal and perinatal care is urgently needed. In this report, I describe the status of neonatal intensive care in Korea, as well as nationwide flow of transfer of high-risk newborn infants and pregnant women, and present a short review of the regionalization of neonatal and perinatal care in the Unites States and Japan. It is necessary not only to increase the number of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU beds, medical resources and manpower, but also to create a strong network system with appropriate leveling of NICUs and regionalization. A systematic approach toward perinatal care, that includes both high-risk pregnancies and newborns with continuous support from the government, is also needed, which can be spearheaded through the establishment of an integrative advisory board to propel systematic care forward.

  8. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  9. Photochemical modeling of the Antarctic stratosphere: Observational constraints from the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment and implications for ozone behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid decrease in O3 column densities observed during Antarctic spring has been attributed to several chemical mechanisms involving nitrogen, bromine, or chlorine species, to dynamical mechanisms, or to a combination of the above. Chlorine-related theories, in particular, predict greatly elevated concentrations of ClO and OClO and suppressed abundances of NO2 below 22 km. The heterogeneous reactions and phase transitions proposed by these theories could also impact the concentrations of HCl, ClNO3 and HNO3 in this region. Observations of the above species have been carried out from the ground by the National Ozone Expedition (NOZE-I, 1986, and NOZE-II, 1987), and from aircrafts by the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) during the austral spring of 1987. Observations of aerosol concentrations, size distribution and backscattering ratio from AAOE, and of aerosol extinction coefficients from the SAM-II satellite can also be used to deduce the altitude and temporal behavior of surfaces which catalyze heterogeneous mechanisms. All these observations provide important constraints on the photochemical processes suggested for the spring Antarctic stratosphere. Results are presented for the concentrations and time development of key trace gases in the Antarctic stratosphere, utilizing the AER photochemical model. This model includes complete gas-phase photochemistry, as well as heterogeneous reactions. Heterogeneous chemistry is parameterized in terms of surface concentrations of aerosols, collision frequencies between gas molecules and aerosol surfaces, concentrations of HCl/H2O in the frozen particles, and probability of reaction per collision (gamma). Values of gamma are taken from the latest laboratory measurements. The heterogeneous chemistry and phase transitions are assumed to occur between 12 and 22 km. The behavior of trace species at higher altitudes is calculated by the AER 2-D model without heterogeneous chemistry. Calculations are performed for

  10. Reconciling projections of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Holden, Philip; Edwards, Neil; Wernecke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Two recent studies of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise this century had best estimates that differed by an order of magnitude (around 10 cm and 1 m by 2100). The first, Ritz et al. (2015), used a model calibrated with satellite data, giving a 5% probability of exceeding 30cm by 2100 for sea level rise due to Antarctic instability. The second, DeConto and Pollard (2016), used a model evaluated with reconstructions of palaeo-sea level. They did not estimate probabilities, but using a simple assumption here about the distribution shape gives up to a 5% chance of Antarctic contribution exceeding 2.3 m this century with total sea level rise approaching 3 m. If robust, this would have very substantial implications for global adaptation to climate change. How are we to make sense of this apparent inconsistency? How much is down to the data - does the past tell us we will face widespread and rapid Antarctic ice losses in the future? How much is due to the mechanism of rapid ice loss ('cliff failure') proposed in the latter paper, or other parameterisation choices in these low resolution models (GRISLI and PISM, respectively)? How much is due to choices made in the ensemble design and calibration? How do these projections compare with high resolution, grounding line resolving models such as BISICLES? Could we reduce the huge uncertainties in the palaeo-study? Emulation provides a powerful tool for understanding these questions and reconciling the projections. By describing the three numerical ice sheet models with statistical models, we can re-analyse the ensembles and re-do the calibrations under a common statistical framework. This reduces uncertainty in the PISM study because it allows massive sampling of the parameter space, which reduces the sensitivity to reconstructed palaeo-sea level values and also narrows the probability intervals because the simple assumption about distribution shape above is no longer needed. We present reconciled probabilistic

  11. Major advance of South Georgia glaciers during the Antarctic Cold Reversal following extensive sub-Antarctic glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alastair G. C.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Meisel, Ove; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Ehrmann, Werner; Wacker, Lukas; Wintersteller, Paul; Dos Santos Ferreira, Christian; Römer, Miriam; White, Duanne; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    The history of glaciations on Southern Hemisphere sub-polar islands is unclear. Debate surrounds the extent and timing of the last glacial advance and termination on sub-Antarctic South Georgia in particular. Here, using sea-floor geophysical data and marine sediment cores, we resolve the record of glaciation offshore of South Georgia through the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene. We show a sea-bed landform imprint of a shelf-wide last glacial advance and progressive deglaciation. Renewed glacier resurgence in the fjords between c. 15,170 and 13,340 yr ago coincided with a period of cooler, wetter climate known as the Antarctic Cold Reversal, revealing a cryospheric response to an Antarctic climate pattern extending into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. We conclude that the last glaciation of South Georgia was extensive, and the sensitivity of its glaciers to climate variability during the last termination more significant than implied by previous studies.

  12. 78 FR 76862 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism.... Likewise, the sex of individual whales can be determined from genetic markers from the skin samples...

  13. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  14. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD.

  15. Latest tendency in the Antarctic ozone longitudinal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Grytsai, Asen; Klekociuk, Andrew; Evtushevsky, Olexander

    2014-05-01

    Significant ozone depletion was observed within the southern polar vortex during spring in the 1980s - early 1990s. Later, a stabilization in total ozone levels and ozone hole area has been observed. Atmosphere models predict a consequent recovery of the Antarctic ozone. Nevertheless, identification of the long-term processes is complicated by high interannual variability hiding their general regularities. In particular, a large stratosphere warming in 2002 resulted in significant increase in total ozone levels. The Antarctic ozone hole is formed inside polar stratospheric vortex, which is under influence of large-scale planetary waves. The components of the quasi-stationary wave (QSW) in the spring Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratosphere is mainly contributed by zonal wave number 1 which in turn determines the location of the total ozone extremes in spring: QSW minimum (maximum) is located in the South Atlantic (Australian) sector. In our work the satellite data of TOMS/Nimbus-7, TOMS/Earth Probe and OMI/Aura (http://ozoneaq.gsfc.nasa.gov/) have been used to investigate longitudinal distribution of the total ozone in Antarctic region. The gap in these satellite observations (1993-1995) was filled by the Multi-Sensor Reanalysis data (http://www.temis.nl/). Ozone distribution in the SH high and mid latitudes 80-50S were analyzed for southern spring season including months from September to November. The zonal distribution is considered along seven latitude circles from 80S to 50S with step of five degrees. To distinguish long-term processes and to obtain a quasi-stationary pattern, daily September - November ozone was averaged. Our previous study demonstrated a systematic eastward shift of the QSW minimum region. In this study, we extended the analysis to 2013 and obtained new results that exhibited a probable cessation in that eastward shift. Polynomial fit for all chosen latitudes is even evidence of a change in the tendency to opposite. It more time needs to

  16. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station “Academician Vernadsky” (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station “Academician Vernadsky”. Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penol...

  17. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station “Academician Vernadsky” (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak Kornyliy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station “Academician Vernadsky”. Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.

  18. External constraints in Korea`s long-term nuclear development -A search for their resolution-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Duk Min [IFANS (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    Korea`s long-term nuclear development is subject to the external constraints. The most decisive legal constraint is the South-North Joint Declaration of denuclearization in 1991. In order to meet the conditions for the long-term nuclear development, this study proposed and analyzed various policy alternatives to adjust the constraints of the joint declaration. Finally, the long-term approach to the issue, the use of ASIATOM initiative, a strong national commitment to the denuclearization and consolidating cooperation with countries who have adopted nuclear recycle policy were suggested as ideas on how to advance the long-term nuclear research and development under the present situations. (Author) 13 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. North Korea and Support to Terrorism: An Evolving History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DPRK's (Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea support for terrorism began as an ideologically-based policy financed by the Soviet Union that eventually led to a policy designed to put money into the coffers of the elite in Pyongyang—in short, a "proliferation for hire" policy. This article articulates a brief history of the North Korean regime, the rise to power of Kim Il-sung and his son, Kim Jong-il, and North Korea's persistent support to terrorist groups around the globe.

  20. Endoscopic mucosal resection of early gastric cancer: Experiences in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Haeng Lee; Jae J Kim

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been established as one of the treatment options for early gastric cancer (EGC). However, there are many uncertain areas such as indications of EMR, best treatment methods, management of complications and follow-up methods after the procedure. Most studies on this topic have been carried out by researchers in Japan. In Korea,gastric cancer is the most common malignant disease,and the second leading cause of cancer death. In these days, EMR for EGC is widely performed in many centers in Korea. In this review, we will provide an overview of the techniques and outcomes of EMR in Korea.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  2. Bringing Home the Japanese Abductees from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITO, Takuya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the official and unofficial attitude of former Japanese prime minister Abe Shinzo towards the abductions of Japanese people by North Korea. Officially, Abe displayed an aggressive attitude towards the problem. However, unofficially, he possessed an ingratiating attitude. A Japanese weekly magazine reported that he had been in regular negotiations with North Korea surreptitiously. Abe's ingratiating attitude may be explained by his alleged connection with the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity—which preaches the establishment of a harmonious relationship with North Korea. Abe's dual attitude confounded the families of the abductees as they were unable to ascertain which of his attitudes was genuine.

  3. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    2001). And Sung-Jin Yang, "Korea Storms Chinas Handset Market ," Asia Computer Weekly (Aug 19 2002): 1. 40 Snyder, "Economic Interests Uber Alles...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department...Korea’s position toward this growing relationship and the implications of it for Pyongyang. Finally, this thesis analyzes the implications for Japan

  4. North Korea’s Choice of the Types of Provocation Against South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    behavior, even during the ten years when South Korea undertook practical changes for peace under the Sunshine Policy of the Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo...since these dependent foreign relations could be easily swayed by the influence of great powers, their eternal stability was fundamentally uncertain...jeopardized the institutional base of the Kim regime. Moreover, Seoul, by criticizing this tragic situation, discontinued its Sunshine Policy and instead

  5. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  6. 75 FR 53723 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  7. 76 FR 30397 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Modification Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  8. 77 FR 31044 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  9. 78 FR 69709 - Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and would be disposed of properly Now the applicant proposes a... Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  10. Living resources of Antarctic India's contribution to exploration and future plans for exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_459.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_459.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Standing crop and growth rates of net phytoplankton and nanoplankton in Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goes, J.I.; Fondekar, S.P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 16 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_419.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_419.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  12. Concentration and environmental significance of lead in surface snow of Antarctic ice sheet (III)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大河; 任贾文; 孙俊英; 陈瓞延; 文克玲; 李良权

    1995-01-01

    Lead as an ultra-trace heavy metal becomes one of popular topics in glaciochemistry of the Antarctic ice sheet, because of its very low concertration (pg·g-1) and background and its sensitivity to the quality of the environment. The lead concentration of surface snow of the Antarctic ice sheet (corresponding to modern precipitation) applying LEAF technique by Chinese scholars has systematically been studied for the first time in the world. The distribution principle of lead concentration of surface snow of the Antarctic ice sheet is "low in the west and high in the east" along the route of 1990 International Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITAE). The concentration of lead in East Antarctica is 2 - 3 fold higher than that in Larsen ice shelf and Antarctic Peninsula, which majorly results from the activity of pre-Soviet Antarctic Expedition The concentration of lead in Larsen ice shelf and Antarctic Peninsula can be regarded as the background value of modern precipitation of the Antarctic ice sheet in the en

  13. 75 FR 53351 - Notice of Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Notice of Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act... permit application for operation of a camp at Patriot Hills, Heritage Range, southern Ellsworth...

  14. Antarctic ice volume for the last 740 ka calculated with a simple ice sheet model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuations in the volume of the Antarctic ice sheet for the last 740 ka are calculated by forcing a simple ice sheet model with a sea-level history (from a composite deep sea δ18O record) and a temperature history (from the Dome C deuterium record). Antarctic ice volume reaches maximum values of a

  15. Modelling the Isotopic Response to Antarctic Ice Sheet Change During the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Max; Sime, Louise; Singarayer, Joy; Tindall, Julia; Valdes, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet changes can exert major control over spatial water isotope variations in Antarctic surface snow. Consequently a significant mass loss or gain of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) would be expected to cause changes in the water isotope record across Antarctic ice core sites. Analysis of sea level indicators for the last interglacial (LIG), around 125 to 128 ka, suggest a global sea level peak 6 to 9 m higher than present. Recent NEEM Greenland ice core results imply that Greenland likely provided a modest ~2m contribution towards this global sea level rise. This implies that a WAIS contribution is necessary to explain the LIG sea level maxima. In addition, Antarctic ice core records suggest that Antarctic air temperatures during the LIG were up to 6°C warmer than present. Climate models have been unable to recreate such warmth when only orbital and greenhouse gas forcing are considered. Thus changes to the Antarctic ice sheet and ocean circulation may be required to reconcile model simulations with ice core data. Here we model the isotopic response to differing WAIS deglaciation scenarios, freshwater hosing, and sea ice configurations using a fully coupled General Circulation Model (GCM) to help interpret Antarctic ice core records over the LIG. This approach can help isolate the contribution of individual processes and feedbacks to final isotopic signals recorded in Antarctic ice cores.

  16. Escherichia coli out in the cold: Dissemination of human-derived bacteria into the Antarctic microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Smith, James J; Stark, Jonathon S; Gillings, Michael R; Gordon, David M

    2016-08-01

    Discharge of untreated sewage into Antarctic environments presents a risk of introducing non-native microorganisms, but until now, adverse consequences have not been conclusively identified. Here we show that sewage disposal introduces human derived Escherichia coli carrying mobile genetic elements and virulence traits with the potential to affect the diversity and evolution of native Antarctic microbial communities. We compared E. coli recovered from environmental and animal sources in Antarctica to a reference collection of E. coli from humans and non-Antarctic animals. The distribution of phylogenetic groups and frequency of 11 virulence factors amongst the Antarctic isolates were characteristic of E. coli strains more commonly associated with humans. The rapidly emerging E. coli ST131 and ST95 clones were found amongst the Antarctic isolates, and ST95 was the predominant E. coli recovered from Weddell seals. Class 1 integrons were found in 15% of the Antarctic E. coli with 4 of 5 identified gene cassette arrays containing antibiotic resistance genes matching those common in clinical contexts. Disposing untreated sewage into the Antarctic environment does disseminate non-native microorganisms, but the extent of this impact and implications for Antarctic ecosystem health are, as yet, poorly understood.

  17. JCADM, new Directions in Antarctic Data Management in Support of IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfilment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." JCADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in JCADM. So far, JCADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, JCADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This presentation will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

  18. 77 FR 67407 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  19. 78 FR 44165 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  20. 77 FR 47121 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  1. 75 FR 35508 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  2. 78 FR 41961 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits cancelled under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law...

  3. 77 FR 37446 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  4. 77 FR 36581 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Conservation Act of 1978. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) is required to publish a notice of... INFORMATION: The National Science Foundation, as directed by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has...

  5. 78 FR 69710 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  6. 77 FR 38834 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  7. 77 FR 64831 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  8. 75 FR 56147 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law...

  9. 77 FR 69660 - Notice of Permit Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law...

  10. 77 FR 46528 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  11. 77 FR 21112 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ] ACTION: Notice of permit issued under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  12. 75 FR 12311 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  13. 75 FR 68831 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28209] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  14. 77 FR 67408 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  15. 76 FR 39905 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  16. 77 FR 68851 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  17. 78 FR 66075 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  18. 77 FR 50533 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  19. 76 FR 36938 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  20. 78 FR 58568 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  1. 78 FR 6142 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  2. 77 FR 16567 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit issued under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  3. 78 FR 18374 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  4. 78 FR 66074 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  5. 78 FR 12799 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  6. 78 FR 33115 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  7. 77 FR 42515 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  8. 77 FR 68154 - Notice of Permit Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY:...

  9. 78 FR 66076 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  10. 78 FR 59979 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  11. 77 FR 61033 - Notice of Permit Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY:...

  12. 78 FR 36604 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  13. 77 FR 35068 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  14. 77 FR 50174 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  15. 78 FR 75376 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  16. 75 FR 31819 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law...

  17. 76 FR 40754 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  18. 75 FR 67143 - Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permits Issued Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permits issued under the Antarctic Conservation of 1978, Public Law...

  19. Spatial pattern in Antarctica: what can we learn from Antarctic bacterial isolates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chun Wie; Goh, Yuh Shan; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David; Tan, Irene Kit Ping

    2013-09-01

    A range of small- to moderate-scale studies of patterns in bacterial biodiversity have been conducted in Antarctica over the last two decades, most suggesting strong correlations between the described bacterial communities and elements of local environmental heterogeneity. However, very few of these studies have advanced interpretations in terms of spatially associated patterns, despite increasing evidence of patterns in bacterial biogeography globally. This is likely to be a consequence of restricted sampling coverage, with most studies to date focusing only on a few localities within a specific Antarctic region. Clearly, there is now a need for synthesis over a much larger spatial to consolidate the available data. In this study, we collated Antarctic bacterial culture identities based on the 16S rRNA gene information available in the literature and the GenBank database (n > 2,000 sequences). In contrast to some recent evidence for a distinct Antarctic microbiome, our phylogenetic comparisons show that a majority (~75 %) of Antarctic bacterial isolates were highly similar (≥99 % sequence similarity) to those retrieved from tropical and temperate regions, suggesting widespread distribution of eurythermal mesophiles in Antarctic environments. However, across different Antarctic regions, the dominant bacterial genera exhibit some spatially distinct diversity patterns analogous to those recently proposed for Antarctic terrestrial macroorganisms. Taken together, our results highlight the threat of cross-regional homogenisation in Antarctic biodiversity, and the imperative to include microbiota within the framework of biosecurity measures for Antarctica.

  20. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.