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Sample records for karnataka state india

  1. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

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    Schwarz Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  2. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

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    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  3. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Karnataka State, India

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    K. V. V Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents oral mucosal lesions findings from a state oral health survey of Karnataka, India. A total of 46,579 subjects aged 1-4 to 65+ years were selected by using multistage-cluster-stratified random sampling method and subjects were examined by 32 dentists trained in standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for oral mucosal lesions. In the present study, 7.53% of subjects had one or more oral mucosal lesions, in which, male subjects (9.41 % had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions compared to female subjects (4.38%; urban subjects (11.61% had a significantly higher prevalence than rural subjects (5.01 % and the Christian subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions than the Hindus, Muslims and others (F=211.594, <0.001, S. The observed prevalence of oral mucosal lesions increased with age (r=0.8174, P<0.05, S, which is statistically significant. The most prevalent lesions observed were Leukoplakia (1.73%, Lichen planus (2.02% Ulceration (0.73%, Candidiasis (0.94% and Abscess (1.05%. The maximum number of lesions was seen in sulci (7.33% and the minimum number of lesions was seen in lips (0.02%. Differences in prevalence were analyzed by sex, religion, location and geographical area.

  4. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka.

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    Reddy, P H; Badari, V S

    1991-12-01

    An overview, objectives, implementation, and research and evaluation studies of 2 India Population Projects in Karnataka are presented. The India Population Project I (IPP-I) was conducted in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. India Population Project III (IPP-III) took place between 1984-92 in 6 districts of Karnataka: Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwad, Bidar, Gulbarga, and Raichur, and 4 districts in Kerala. The 6 districts in Karnataka accounted for 36% (13.2 million) of the total national population. The project cost was Rs. 713.1 million which was shared by the World Bank, and the Indian national and regional government. Due to poor past performance, these projects were undertaken to improve health and family welfare status. Specific project objectives are outlined. IPP-I included an urban component, and optimal Government of India program, and an intensive rural initiative. The urban program aimed to improved pre- and postnatal services and facilities, and the family planning (FP) in Bangalore city. The rural program was primarily to provide auxiliary nurse-midwives and hospitals and clinics, and also supplemental feeding program for pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 2 years. The government program provided FP staff and facilities. IPP-I had 3 units to oversee building construction, to recruit staff and provide supplies and equipment, and to establish a Population Center. IPP-III was concerned with service delivery; information, education, and communication efforts (IEC) and population education; research and evaluation; and project management. Both projects contributed significantly to improving the infrastructure. A brief account of the types and kinds of studies undertaken is given. Studies were grouped into longitudinal studies of fertility, mortality, and FP; management information and evaluation systems for health and family welfare programs; experimental strategies; and other studies. Research and evaluation studies in IPP-III encompassed studies in

  5. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...... at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent...

  6. Distribution of radionuclides and radiation levels in some district of Karnataka State, India - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is a form of energy that can be travelled through the medium in the form of waves or particles. The heat, sound and light are different forms of radiations that peoples can feel or see but there are other kinds of radiations that human senses cannot detect. Indeed we are constantly receiving such invisible radiation from the sky, earth crust, air, food and even our own body. Such radiations can be divided into ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Our environment contains natural radionuclides in variable amounts. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. Karnataka state has 30 districts and having 74,051 sq m area and it is having various geological formations. The Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, these cover around 60% of the area of the state and it consists of gneisses, granite and charnockite rocks. Some of the minerals found in this region are dolomite, lime stone, gabbro, quartzite, pyroxenite, manganese and iron ore and metabasalt. In addition the proposed uranium mining region is also present in Googi region of Yadagiri district. In many places Iron and manganese mining activities, crushing and quarrying activities are continuously going on. It is expected that such mining and extraction activities can enhance the natural radiation level in the environment. Hence there is a need to estimate the environmental radiation levels in the habitats of these areas. Our research group along with many researches in the Karnataka state initiated systematic study on the dose received by the population in some district of different environmental matrixes and more data are reported in Karnataka state, which have been reviewed and compiled in this paper. (author)

  7. Measurement of gamma natural background radiation at Chamaraja Nagar, Karnataka state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, K.M.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive elements and their radiation are ubiquitous in the environment. The Influence of radiation on living organisms is imminent and very important to study. The ocean, the mountains, the air, and our food all expose us to small amounts of natural background radiation. Cosmic rays from outer space are another large contributor of natural background radiation. Much of the earth's natural background radiation is in the form of gamma radiation, a part of which comes from outer space. Some part of cosmic ray is filtered out by the presence of earth's atmosphere, so there are natural controls for the amount of radiation that people receive. The amount of radiation received by an individual depends on altitude, latitude type of building and the building construction materials. In the present study, measurements of natural background radiation were made in the temples, schools, dwellings, and hill stations in Chamaraja Nagar area, Karnataka state, India by using environmental dosimeter technique. The results show that, absorbed dose rate of background radiations at inside schools varies from 93.96 to 120.93 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 10.62 nGyh -1 and outside schools it varies from 60.9 to 113.1 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 15.1 nGyh -1 . In temples, the absorbed dose rate varies from 104.4 to 244.91 nGyh - 1 with a standard deviation of 48.34 nGyh -1 and outside the temples it varies from 87.9 to 176.61 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 30.896 nGyh -1 . The absorbed dose rate of background radiations at dwellings in indoor varies from 94.0 to 139.2 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 16.6 nGyh -1 and in outdoor it varies from 60.9 to 118.32 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 19.41 nGyh -1 . The measurements were also carried out in dwellings on hill stations in Chamaraja Nagar district. Indoor gamma dose rate varies from 103.53 to 236.64 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 59.8 nGyh -1 and outdoor gamma dose rate varies from 78.3 to 119

  8. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

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    B.R. Harish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  9. Distribution of natural radionuclides and radiation level measurements in Karnataka State, India. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. In this regard, considerable studies have been conducted by different research groups in Karnataka state and more data are reported. In this article, all the studies of natural radioactivity measurements have been combined and reviewed. The majority of the reported articles are about monitoring, distribution and assessment of the radiological health hazards of naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  10. Impact of Rainfall, Land-Cover and Population Growth on Groundwater - A Case Study From Karnataka State, India

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    Srivastav, R. K.; Chinnapa Reddy, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends in climate, land-use pattern and population has affected almost every portable water resources in the world. Due to depleting surface water and untimely distribution of precipitation, the demand to use groundwater has increased considerably. Further recent studies have shown that the groundwater stress is more in developing countries like India. This study focuses on understanding the impacts of three major factors (i.e., rainfall, land-cover and population growth) effecting the groundwater levels. For this purpose, the correlation between the trends in groundwater time series is compared with trends in rainfall, land-cover and population growth. To detect the trends in time series, two statistical methods namely, least square method and Mann-Kendall method, are adopted. The results were analyzed based on the measurements from 1800 observation wells in the Karnataka state, India. The data is obtained for a total of 9 year time period ranging from 2005 to 2013. A gridded precipitation data of 0.5o× 0.5o over the entire region is used. The change in land-cover and population data was approximately obtained from the local governing bodies. The early results show significant correlation between rainfall and groundwater time series trends. The outcomes will assess the vulnerability of groundwater levels under changing physical and hydroclimatic conditions, especially under climate change.

  11. Adoption and Completeness of Documentation Using a Structured Delivery Record in Secondary Care, Subdistrict Government Hospitals of Karnataka State, India

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    Prem K. Mony

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor medical record documentation remains a pervasive problem in hospital delivery rooms, hampering efforts aimed at improving the quality of maternal and neonatal care in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the feasibility and completeness of labor room documentation within a quasi-experimental study aimed at improving emergency preparedness for obstetric and neonatal emergencies in 8 nonteaching, subdistrict, secondary care hospitals of Karnataka state, India. Methods: We redesigned the existing open-ended case sheet into a structured, delivery record cum job aide adhering to principles of local clinical relevance, parsimony, and computerizability. Skills and emergency drills training along with supportive supervision were introduced in 4 “intervention arm” hospitals while the new delivery records were used in eight intervention and control hospitals. Results: Introduction of the new delivery record was feasible over a “run-in” period of 4 months. About 92% (6103 of 6634 of women in intervention facilities and 80% (6205 of 7756 in control facilities had their delivery records filled in during the 1-year study period. Completeness of delivery record documentation fell into one of two subsets with one set of parameters being documented with minimal inputs (in both intervention and control sites and another set of parameters requiring more intensive training efforts (and seen more in intervention than in control sites; P < .05. Conclusion: Under the stewardship of the local government, it was possible to institute a robust, reliable, and valid medical record documentation system as part of efforts to improve intrapartum and postpartum maternal and newborn care in hospitals.

  12. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

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    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  13. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  14. Pattern of seizure cases in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka state of India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment. Materials and Methods: Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results: Nearly half (44.4% of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years and 2/3 rd (60.7% were males. Majority (>80% cases were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7% cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%. Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032. Conclusion: Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.

  15. Groundwater fluoride contamination and its possible health implications in Indi taluk of Vijayapura District (Karnataka State), India.

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    Ugran, Vidyavati; Desai, Naveen N; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Masali, Kallappa A; Mantur, Prakash; Kulkarni, Shreepad; Deshmukh, Niranjan; Chadchan, Kailash S; Das, Swastika N; Tanksali, Anuradha S; Arwikar, Asha S; Guggarigoudar, Suresh P; Vallabha, Tejaswini; Patil, Shailaja S; Das, Kusal K

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater fluoride concentration and fluoride-related health problems were studied in twenty-two villages of Indi taluk of Vijayapura district, Karnataka, India. Present study (2015) was also used to compare groundwater fluoride concentration in same 22 villages with previous government report (2000). Groundwater fluoride concentrations of 62 bore wells of 22 villages were analyzed by using an ion-sensitive electrode. A total of 660 adults and 600 children were screened for fluorosis symptoms and signs. Sixty clinically suspected fluorosis patients' urine samples were further analyzed for fluoride. The mean value (1.22 ± 0.75 mg/L) of fluoride concentration of 62 bore wells and 54.83 % bore wells with ≥1.0 mg/L of fluoride concentrations in Indi taluk indicates higher than the permissible limit of drinking water fluoride concentration recommended for India. Clinical symptoms like arthritis, joint pains, gastrointestinal discomfort and lower limb deformities with high urinary fluoride concentrations in some subjects suggest fluorosis. Results also showed an increase in groundwater fluoride concentration of the same 22 villages between previous and present study. Preliminary arthritis symptom of the villagers could be due to drinking fluoride-contaminated water. Increase in fluoride concentration with time to the bore wells definitely indicates future danger.

  16. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India.

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    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S

    2017-01-01

    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  17. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

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    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  18. Cost of unserved power in Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar; Shukla, Megha; Srivastava, Leena; Yaron, Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the cost of unserved energy (CUE) or value of lost load in agriculture and industrial sectors and provides insights that can provide useful inputs in designing effective policies for the power sector. About 500 manufacturing units and 900 farmers were surveyed in the south Indian state of Karnataka using a two-stage random sampling to provide interval estimates of CUE for the industrial and agricultural consumers. The results from the survey help in providing guidance on consumer perceptions and their willingness to pay different or higher tariffs. The estimated economic loss due to power outage in the agriculture sector varies from 1.9% to 3.6% of total State Domestic Product (SDP), i.e., Rs 950 billion at 1999/2000 prices, while in industry, the economic loss varies between 0.04% and 0.17% of total SDP depending upon the size of industry during the study period in 1999

  19. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

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    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  20. Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of

  1. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh V Parande; Subarna Roy; B G Mantur; Aisha M Parande; Rupali S Shinde

    2017-01-01

    Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of dipht...

  2. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 ... Seas; swells; wind waves; Arabian Sea; mixed sea state; wave spectrum. ..... Range and average value of the wave parameters at three locations during three different ..... fully developed seas based on the similarity theory of S A.

  3. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI =  2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  4. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J.-M.; Hoareau, J.; Grammare, M.; Caron, D.; Nandagiri, L.; Legchenko, A.

    2012-11-01

    Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements. We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m-2 of surface area (± 50%). We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  5. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  6. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

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    SHIVANAND BHAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.

  7. Studies on radon concentration at the work places of Mysuru, Bengaluru, Tumkuru and Kolar Districts of Karnataka State, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningappa, C.; Reddy, K. Umesha; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas and is the decay product of naturally occurring uranium. It decays into radioactive metal ions polonium-218 and polonium-214 by alpha radiation, which are harmful to the human health. The concentrations of radon and its progeny inside a given working place depends on activity of radium both in the soil surrounding the workplace and in the building materials, atmospheric conditions, design of the workplace, porosity of the surrounding soil, building layout, and the ventilation habits of the inhabitants of the building. The estimation of dose due to radon and its progeny to the general public and workers at work places are very important. Thus, concentration of radon and its progeny and dose due to radon and its progeny to the public and workers were measured at sixty workplaces of Mysuru, Bengaluru, Tumkur and Kolar districts based on geology and willingness of the workplace owner using twin cup dosimeter based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) and results are discussed in the present study. The values measured indoor radon in the area of study ranged from a 11.6 to 284.8 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  8. Study on indoor radon concentration and gamma radiation dose rate in different rooms in some dwellings around Bharath Gold Mines Limited, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesha Reddy, K.; Jayasheelan, A.; Sannappa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. The indoor concentration of radon in different rooms in the same type of dwellings around Bharath Gold Mines Limited (BGML), Karnataka State (12°57' min N and 78°16' min E) were measured by using LR-115 (type-Il) Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). The maximum indoor radon concentration is observed in the bathroom and minimum in the hall. The maximum average indoor radon concentration is observed in the Champion and minimum in the BEML nagar. The indoor gamma radiation dose rate is also measured in these locations using scintillometer. The geology of this part forms predominantly Hornblende Schist, Granite gneiss, Champion gneiss, Quartzite etc. The indoor radon concentration shows good correlation with the indoor gamma radiation dose. (author)

  9. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

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    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  10. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  11. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreejith S; Raghunath, Pooja; Nair, Sreekanth S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India. This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software. We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196) as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170). The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%), and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group. Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for this purpose as part of our future efforts.

  12. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

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    Shuchismita Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  13. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

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    K.S Vinayaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  14. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Vandana; Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Maddur, Srinath; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-10-02

    Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are

  15. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma

  16. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie Tara SH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media, and primary stakeholders (FSWs, as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face. Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.3 to 0.5, p Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  17. Quantitative Estimation of Coastal Changes along Selected Locations of Karnataka, India: A GIS and Remote Sensing Approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayaraj, P.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Gowthaman, R.

    Qualitative and quantitative studies on changes of coastal geomorphology and shoreline of Karnataka, India have been carried out using toposheets of Survey of India and satellite imageries (IRS-P6 and IRS-1D). Changes during 30 years period...

  18. Bhima Basin, Karnataka, India uranium mineralisation in the Neoproterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achar, K.K.; Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Kumar, M.K.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the geological analogy of known uranium mineralisation in other Proterozoic basins of India, the Bhima basin in northern Karnataka, covering an area of 5200 sq km, was taken up for uranium exploration. An integrated approach involving exploration techniques such as terrain analysis using satellite imageries, jeep-borne radiation survey, regional hydrogeochemical sampling and ground radiometric surveys were used. In addition gamma-ray logging of borewells drilled for water have enabled delineation of subsurface mineralisation at Gogi. Uranium mineralisation is associated with: (1) altered phosphatic limestone along the cherty limestone-shale boundary as at Ukinal, (2) brecciated non-phosphatic limestone as at Gogi, and (3) basic enclaves in the basement granites, as at Gogi East. Uranium occurs essentially as adsorbed phase on limonite and absorbed in collophane in the phosphatic limestone as at Ukinal. Mineralisation at Gogi is characterised by intense fracturing and brecciation apparently related to E-W trending Kurlagere-Gogi fault and is essentially low temperature (c.200 deg. C) hydrothermal nature represented by coffinite (thin veins and globular aggregates) along with pitchblende, pyrite (both framboidal and euhedral), pyrrhotite, haematite and anatase. Mineralisation is both syngenetic - remobilised as in the phosphatic limestones (Ukinal) and epigenetic hydrothermal (Gogi). The spatial relation of the unconformity, basement faults, and uranium - bearing basic enclaves within the basement points to the importance of the unconformity as a surface for fluid transport and fixation in conducive hosts. Presence of labile uranium in the basement granites with significant groundwater anomalies (up to 309 ppb U) enhances such possibilities. (author)

  19. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  20. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, H L; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, B M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, pViolence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), pviolence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs.

  1. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  2. A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita

    2018-05-11

    Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study

  3. Electron spin resonance dating of bones samples from recently excavated in Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, Ramya; Godhandabani, Velraj

    2011-01-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to paleontology and archaeology. A preliminary attempt has been made to date the bone samples from the archaeological site Gudnapur in Karnataka state, India. Each sample was divided into five sets which were given an artificial dose (AD) by using γ rays of 50 Gy, 300 Gy, 800 Gy and 1500 Gy and 3200 Gy. All the samples show similar EPR spectra having g-values 2.0026, 2.0025 and 2.0013 corresponding to CO 2 - orthorhombic and axial CO 2 - respectively. These signals have been used for the age estimation of the archaeological bone samples assuming the dose rate to be 1.12 mGy/a. The calculated ages of the samples are 199 ± 54 ka, 28 ± 23 ka and 225 ± 74 ka. The first and third correspond to the III interglacial stage whereas the second one corresponds to I glacial stage of the Pleistocene epoch respectively and in good agreement with age predicted by archaeological Department. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a community-based HIV preventive intervention for female sex workers in rural areas of Karnataka State, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Reynold G; Nath, Anita; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To examine changes in behavioral outcomes among rural female sex workers (FSWs) involved in a community-based comprehensive HIV preventive intervention program in south India. A total of 14, 284 rural FSWs were reached by means of a community-based model for delivering outreach, medical, and referral services. Changes in behavior were assessed using 2 rounds of polling booth surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. In all, 95% of the mapped FSWs were reached at least once, 80.3% received condoms as per need, and 71% received health services for sexually transmitted infections. There was a significant increase in condom use (from 60.4% to 72.4%, P = .001) and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (from 63.9% to 92.4%; P = .000) between the 2 time periods. This model for a community-based rural outreach and HIV care was effective and could also be applied to many other health problems. © 2014 APJPH.

  5. Comparing conventional and organic agriculture in Karnataka, India: Where and when can organic farming be sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, S.; Reidsma, P.; Shah, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Wolf, J.

    2014-01-01

    Karnataka is one of the south-western Indian states where agrarian distress as a major problem. Crop yields have been stagnant in the last decade, and coupled with increased input costs, this has led to reduced incomes and debts. There is an urgent need to study options to improve the sustainability

  6. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  7. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  8. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

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    Ramachandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  9. SUFI SAINTS IN KARNATAKA

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    Maruti KAMBLE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Karnataka is one of the most important southern states of India. It has gainedprominence politically, socio-economically, philosophically and in many otherways. It is a meeting place of many religious philosophies and a melting pointhelping to achieve the synthesis of the teaching ofmany religious reforms. Sufismis a mystic religion. It is an offshoot of Islam. Sufi saints are the followers ofALLAH and the practice of peace, benevolence and tolerance. They promulgateda religion based on the concept of love, the love with the fellow being and thelove with the ultimate or the creator. Sufi saintsand Sufism are an existing realityin Indian socio-religious fold and it has contributed for a healthy and amicablesocial order. It has lead to a new social set-up full of values, and discipline.Sufism as a religion of the teaming millions becamethe practicing system amongthe people of India as well as Karnataka. This study of Sufi Saints in Karnataka isthus an inspired attempt to portray this religion of the soul and heart. Muchemphasis is laid on the concepts and special aspects of Sufism, along with variouspractices found in it. I was always attracted by its spiritual significance andpractical essence and also its profound influence on the general public. Hence, mylittle attempt to explain the same through the lifestories of some of the great Sufisaints in Karnataka.

  10. Stigma as experienced by women accessing prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV services in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Banandur, Pradeep; Sreenivas, Amita; Turan, Janet; Washington, Reynold; Cohen, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    In Karnataka, India only one-third of HIV-infected pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis at delivery in 2007 through the state government’s prevention of parent-to-child HIV transmission (PPTCT) program. The current qualitative study explored the role of HIV-associated stigma as a barrier to accessing PPTCT services in the rural northern Karnataka district of Bagalkot using in depth interviews and focus group discussions with HIV-infected women who had participated in the PPTCT program, male and female family members, and HIV service providers. Participants discussed personal experiences, community perceptions of HIV, and decision-making related to accessing PPTCT services. They described stigma towards HIV-infected individuals from multiple sources: healthcare workers, community members, family and self. Stigma-related behaviors were based on fears of HIV transmission through personal contact and moral judgment. Experience and/or fears of discrimination led pregnant women to avoid using PPTCT interventions. Government, cultural and historical factors are described as the roots of much the stigma-related behavior in this setting. Based on these formative data, PPTCT program planners should consider further research and interventions aimed at diminishing institutional and interpersonal HIV-associated stigma experienced by pregnant women. PMID:20635247

  11. Scaling up antiretroviral treatment services in Karnataka, India: impact on CD4 counts of HIV-infected people.

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    Suresh Shastri

    Full Text Available SETTING: Twelve antiretroviral treatment centres under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP, Karnataka State, India. OBJECTIVE: For the period 2004-2011, to describe the trends in the numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV registered for care and their median baseline CD4 counts, disaggregated by age and sex. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving analysis of routinely captured data (year of registration, age, sex, baseline CD4 count under NACP. RESULTS: 34,882 (97% of total eligible PLHIV were included in analysis. The number registered for care has increased by over 12 times during 2004-11; with increasing numbers among females. The median baseline CD4 cell count rose from 125 in 2004 to 235 in 2011--the increase was greater among females as compared to males. However, about two-thirds still presented at CD4 cell counts less than 350. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend of median CD4 counts among PLHIV presenting to ART centres in Karnataka, an indicator of enhanced and early access to HIV care. Equal proportion of females and higher baseline CD4 counts among them allays any fear of differential access by gender. Despite this relative success, a substantial proportion still presented at low CD4 cell counts indicating possibly delayed HIV diagnosis and delayed linkage to HIV care. Universal HIV testing at health care facilities and strengthening early access to care are required to bridge the gap.

  12. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  13. Preferences for infant delivery site among pregnant women and new mothers in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Sharon G; Blanchard, Andrea K; Gurav, Kaveri; Roy, Anuradha; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2015-02-27

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of India aims to increase the uptake of safe and institutional delivery among rural communities to improve maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) outcomes. Previous studies in India have found that while there have been increasing numbers of institutional deliveries there are still considerable barriers to utilization and quality of services, particularly in rural areas, that may mitigate improvements achieved by MNCH interventions. This paper aims to explore the factors influencing preference for home, public or private hospital delivery among rural pregnant and new mothers in three northern districts of Karnataka state, South India. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers (infants born within past 3 months), their husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted in the local language (Kannada) and then translated to English for analysis. The interviews of pregnant women and new mothers were used for analysis to ultimately develop broader themes around definitions of quality care from the perspective of service users, and the influence this had on their delivery site preferences. Geographical and financial access were important barriers to accessing institutional delivery services in all districts, and among those both above and below the poverty line. Access issues of greatest concern were high costs at private institutions, continuing fees at public hospitals and the inconsistent receipt of government incentives. However, views on quality of care that shaped delivery site preferences were deeply rooted in socio-cultural expectations for comfortable, respectful and safe care that must ultimately be addressed to change negative perceptions about institutional, and particularly public hospital, care at delivery. In the literature, quality of care beyond access has largely been overlooked in favour of support for incentives on the demand side, and more trained

  14. Occurrence of the Madras Tree Shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse (Scandentia: Tupaiidae in the Biligirirangan Hills, Karnataka, India

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    U. Srinivasan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Madras Tree Shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse 1850 is a small mammal belonging to the order Scandentia, and is endemic to peninsular India. It inhabits deciduous forests and has till date not been reported from the Biligiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (BRT WLS or the contiguous hill ranges or from anywhere else in the state of Karnataka. We provide details of nine independent sightings of this species from six locations in the BRT WLS between 2003 and 2008. Photographs of the three individuals from different locations are also presented. These records indicate an extension of the range of this species in the BRT WLS, and possibly the forests contiguous to the protected area.

  15. Analysing malaria incidence at the small area level for developing a spatial decision support system: A case study in Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S; Yoo, E-H; Ahmed, S A; Haining, R; Kadannolly, S

    2017-02-01

    Spatial decision support systems have already proved their value in helping to reduce infectious diseases but to be effective they need to be designed to reflect local circumstances and local data availability. We report the first stage of a project to develop a spatial decision support system for infectious diseases for Karnataka State in India. The focus of this paper is on malaria incidence and we draw on small area data on new cases of malaria analysed in two-monthly time intervals over the period February 2012 to January 2016 for Kalaburagi taluk, a small area in Karnataka. We report the results of data mapping and cluster detection (identifying areas of excess risk) including evaluating the temporal persistence of excess risk and the local conditions with which high counts are statistically associated. We comment on how this work might feed into a practical spatial decision support system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

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    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  17. THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN KARNATAKA

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    Varija BOLAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Karnataka is the sixth largest state in India. It was directly under the Muslim ruleof the Bahamani Sultans, the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, the Barid Shahis and theMughals since the middle of the 14thcentury. After the rise of Haider and TipuSultan in the 18thcentury, South Karnataka, including the old Mysorestates wasunder the Muslim rule. Thus the Muslims, though only a minority in Karnataka,wielded great political power over many parts of Karnataka since medieval times,which for our purposes in reviewing the history ofKarnataka, we may assumeended with the end of the 18thcentury i.e., the conquest of Srirangapatna by theBritish and the death of Tipu. This paper examinesthe role of Islam in Karnatakaand its influence on the life and culture of its people. Islam played an importantrole in Karnataka in the introduction of arts and crafts based on Persian models. Alarge number of Persian words belonging to the field of public administrationentered Karnataka. In the same way, in business andlegal proceedings, especiallythose of courts of justice, words of Persian originabound in Kannada language.Many words of apparel, words denoting kinds of foodentered Kannada throughPersian Language. Islamic influence can be seen inthe fields of economy,education, religion, language, art and architecture, paintings and music. In thispaper an attempt is made to highlight the role of Islamic dynasties and theircontributions to Karnataka in all fields.

  18. Adoption of solar home lighting systems in India: What might we learn from Karnataka?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Santosh M.; Iychettira, Kaveri K.; Raghavan, Shuba V.; Kandlikar, Milind

    2013-01-01

    Karnataka has been among the most successful markets for solar lighting systems (SLS) among Indian states. In order to understand the dynamics of systems adoption and operation, that have fostered market based adoption of solar lighting, we interviewed rural households from six districts that had purchased solar lighting systems using loans at market rates, the rural banks that provided loans and the solar firms that marketed the technology. We found that a large proportion of households in our sample were connected to the grid but chose to install solar lighting because they considered the power supply from the grid to be unreliable. Households in our sample reported savings on electricity costs and reduced kerosene usage for lighting. In addition to providing credit, banks also play a key role in ensuring good service and maintenance; the viability of the SLS market is thus critically dependent on the role that the banks play as intermediaries between consumers and solar firms in rural areas. Government programs should be carefully designed to match the incentives of firms, banks and consumers if the successes of the ‘Karnataka model’ are to be repeated and amplified. -- Highlights: •Solar lighting system (SLS) adoption in Karnataka largely through commercial sales. •Most surveyed households adopted SLS due to grid supply unreliability. •Rural banks critical in introducing consumers to firms and financing systems. •Banks also play support role in ensuring after-sales maintenance. •Institutional structure may limit choice of firms and products

  19. Adil Shahi Mosques in Karnataka

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    Maruti T. Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the mosques (masjids of the period of the Adil Shahis,one of the Muslim dynasties which had Turkish origin that ruled Karnataka alongwith the other parts of the Deccan. A Mosque is primarily a religious building forthe performance of the daily prayers for five times, one of the five pillars of Islam.It is thus, the most important building for Muslims.Mosques in Karnataka have along history and tradition. The Adil Shahis constructed mosques in Maharastra,Andra Pradesh and other parts of Karnataka State.Karnataka “the priceless gift ofindulgent nature” is a unique blend of glorious past and rich present, situated onthe lower West Coast of South India.It was ruled by the Muslim dynasties fromthe middle of the 14thcentury to 18thcentury. The Adil Shahisruled Karnatakafrom 1489 A.D., to 1686 A.D., and wielded a great political power over manyparts of Karnataka.The founder Yusuf Adil Shah was the son of Ottoman SultanMurad II of Turkey.In their period many secular and religious monuments wereconstructed.The Adil Shahi mosques were not only places of worship but alsoplaces for education and social activities.The paper examines the construction ofthe mosques by the Adil Shahis, their patrons and also the construction pattern,architects, features and its role in the society. At present,seventy-five Adil Shahimosques are found in different areas of Karnataka.Almost all the state buildingsof the Adil Shahis are adorned by thecrescentmoon whichwas the emblemof theSultans of Turkey. Their mosques inspired the future generation to construct moreand more mosquesin Karnataka State.

  20. Epidemiological features and financial loss due to clinically diagnosed Haemorrhagic Septicemia in bovines in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, G; Krishnamoorthy, P; Nethrayini, K R; Shalini, R; Rahman, H

    2017-09-01

    The epidemiological features and financial losses due to Haemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) in bovines were studied in Karnataka state using the primary data collected from 133 clinically diagnosed HS affected farms. The various losses due to HS and the Benefit- Cost of the vaccination programme in cattle and water buffaloes were studied using mathematical models. The number of HS outbreaks were higher during the year 2002 and peaked during 2005 and thereafter declined due to targeted vaccination against HS. The morbidity and mortality risks were lower in large farms than medium and small farms, and lower in indigenous cattle compared to high yielding crossbred cattle and water buffaloes. The disease occurrence was more in in-milk animals causing serious economic loss to the farmers. Most outbreaks were observed during monsoon season, though the disease was prevalent throughout the year. The mean milk loss per animal was $2, $11 and $50 in indigenous cattle, water buffaloes and crossbred cattle, respectively. In the case of draught animals, the average effective draught power was unavailable for 1.2days/outbreak resulting in a loss of $5 per affected oxen. The treatment and extra labor expenses incurred per animal were $24 and $7, respectively. The average loss per animal due to mortality loss was $275, $284 and $415 in case of indigenous cattle, water buffaloes and crossbred cattle, respectively. The projected loss for the state of Karnataka were $23.89, $17.92 and $11.95 million under high, medium and low HS incidence scenarios, respectively. The Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) of the vaccination against HS has been estimated at 5.97:1, 4.48:1 and 2.98:1 under high, medium and low incidence scenarios, respectively. The results highlight the important epidemiological features and financial losses to the affected households and the state of Karnataka. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

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    H Manjunatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  2. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

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    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  3. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study

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    Darshan Devang Divakar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females (p < 0.05 (Table 5. Also, significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed in all the variables according to age (Table 6. Out of 24 variables, only ULTc predicts the gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Keywords: Discriminant function analysis, Forensic investigation, Indigenous, Lateral cephalograms, Sex determination

  4. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females ( p  gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  5. Public-private implementation of integrated emergency response services: Case study of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Veena M; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Emergency medical services are important to the functioning of health systems, but these services tend to be neglected in low- and middle-income countries, such as India. In recent years, several models of pre-hospital emergency medical services have emerged in India. Research on these models holds important lessons for existing and future emergency medical service programs in low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of the organizational structure and service delivery model of a public-private partnership in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, with a particular focus on its operations in Bengaluru. A case study methodology was used to explore systematically the organizational model of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute in Karnataka. Qualitative data were collected through an in-person site visit to GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute headquarters in Bengaluru in July 2013. Three sources were used: in-depth, semistructured interviews, document review, and nonparticipant observation. Data were analyzed according to the health system "building blocks" proposed by the World Health Organization. The organization follows a standardized model across the states and union territories where they have contractual arrangements, including Karnataka. Processes for fleet maintenance, information systems/information technology and training, and deployment were well structured at the organizational level. The public-private partnership appears pro-poor in orientation; however, further demand-side research is required on the perspective of patients. Our study reveals a functional structure at the organizational level, which provides a key service at no cost to users. Detailed analyses of this nature can help inform global efforts for the development and strengthening of emergency medical services systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

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    Nitya Nand Deepak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. METHODS: 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais, unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists. RESULTS: Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and

  8. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

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    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  9. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  10. HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay M.V. Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV [active tuberculosis (TB, pregnant women, children <5 years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB”. In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60 million, India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68% were tested for HIV and 2262 (8% were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17% had active TB. Of 1885 “presumptive TB patients without active TB”, 1100 (58% were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79% were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89% were eligible for ART. About 90% of “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about ‘test and treat’.

  11. Heavy Metal Analysis of Cauvery River Water Around Krs Dam, Karnataka, India

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    J. Mahadev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is an index of health and is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists, since Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have a direct impact on the water resources. Hence, the study of the reservoirs and river water quality monitoring is most essential aspect of sustainable development and river conservation. The Upstream and KRS reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Mysore city. The study area were selected the Upstream and KRS reservoir of Mysore District of Karnataka, India. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality parameter and heavy metal of upstream and KRS Dam during 2008. Ecological parameters like Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical parameters like Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and physical parameters like Temperature, pH, Turbidity and heavy metals were analyzed and the results were compared with standard permissible limits, WHO and they were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. Results revealed that in three rivers of upstream (Hemavathi, Cauvery and Laxmanatheertha carried high loads of Arsenic, Iron, Nickel in Upstream. In other word, Arsenic is a dominant risk to more than the maximum permissible standard of water quality and is a risk factor in this river

  12. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  13. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  14. Sexual Assault in Ballari, Karnataka, India: A Four Year Retrospective Review

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    Charan Kishor Shetty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%.  The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51% of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06% cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.

  15. Tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vishal V; Shigli, Kamal; Hebbal, Mamata; Agrawal, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The health of industrial workers often goes uncared for due to their stressful working conditions, busy schedules and poor economic conditions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (1997). A total of 614 workers participated in the study. Information was obtained regarding their oral hygiene practice. The presence or absence of habits, and the frequency and duration since the last visit to a dentist were recorded followed by clinical examination. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between the variables and tooth loss. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of missing teeth in different age groups, methods of cleaning, smoking habits and visits to the dentist. Regarding prosthetic status, only one worker had a fixed prosthesis in the mandibular arch. The study revealed that tooth loss was associated with oral hygiene practices, habits and visits to the dentist. Poor prosthetic status and high treatment needs were observed. This study emphasized the need for improved dental health awareness and availability of dental facilities to industrial workers.

  16. Unfree markets: socially embedded informal health providers in northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Iyer, Aditi

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of informal health markets in marginalised regions are relevant to policy discourse in India, but are poorly understood. We examine how informal health markets operate from the viewpoint of informal providers (those without any government-recognised medical degrees, otherwise known as RMPs) by drawing upon data from a household survey in 2002, a provider census in 2004 and ongoing field observations from a research site in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. We find that despite their illegality, RMPs depend on government and private providers for their training and referral networks. Buffeted by unregulated market pressures, RMPs are driven to provide allopathic commodities regardless of need, but can also be circumspect in their practice. Though motivated by profit, their socially embedded practice at community level at times undermines their ability to ensure payment of fees for their services. In addition, RMPs feel that communities can threaten them via violence or malicious rumours, leading them to seek political favour and social protection from village elites and elected representatives. RMPs operate within negotiated quid pro quo bargains that lead to tenuous reciprocity or fragile trust between them and the communities in which they practise. In the context of this 'unfree' market, some RMPs reported being more embedded in health systems, more responsive to communities and more vulnerable to unregulated market pressures than others. Understanding the heterogeneity, nuanced motivations and the embedded social relations that mark informal providers in the health systems, markets and communities they work in, is critical for health system reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

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    Bradley Janet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters

  18. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Alary, Michel; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Ramesh, B M

    2011-12-29

    Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct

  19. Lay health workers perceptions of an anemia control intervention in Karnataka, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Arun S; Rao, Abha; Jebaraj, Paul; Mascarenhas, Maya; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Atkins, Salla

    2017-09-18

    Lay health workers (LHWs) are increasingly used to complement health services internationally. Their perceptions of the interventions they implement and their experiences in delivering community based interventions in India have been infrequently studied. We developed a novel LHW led intervention to improve anemia cure rates in rural community dwelling children attending village day care centers in South India. Since the intervention is delivered by the village day care center LHW, we sought to understand participating LHWs' acceptance of and perspectives regarding the intervention, particularly in relation to factors affecting daily implementation. We conducted a qualitative study alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a complex community intervention for childhood anemia control in Karnataka, South India. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with trained LHWs assigned to deliver the educational intervention. These were complemented by non-participant observations of LHWs delivering the intervention. Transcripts of the FGDs were translated and analyzed using the framework analysis method. Several factors made the intervention acceptable to the LHWs and facilitated its implementation including pre-implementation training modules, intervention simplicity, and ability to incorporate the intervention into the routine work schedule. LHWs felt that the intervention impacted negatively on their preexisting workload. Fluctuating relationships with mothers weakened the LHWs position as providers of the intervention and hampered efficient implementation, despite the LHWs' highly valued position in the community. Modifiable barriers to the successful implementation of this intervention were seen at two levels. At a broader contextual level, hindering factors included the LHW being overburdened, inadequately reimbursed, and receiving insufficient employer support. At the health system level, lack of streamlining of LHW duties, inability of LHWs to

  20. Sediment transport along the Goa-north Karnataka Coast, western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    Landsat images, aerial photographs, and topographic maps of the coast of Goa and of north Karnataka were interpreted to delineate sediment-transpoet sectors. Thirty six sediment-transpoet sectors were identified from landform indicators and patterns...

  1. Sex work, syphilis, and seeking treatment: an opportunity for intervention in HIV prevention programming in Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Hanumaiah, Prakash K; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Blanchard, James F

    2009-03-01

    To measure the determinants of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in the state of Karnataka, South India. During 2004-2006, cross-sectional surveys were administered to 2312 FSWs across 5 districts in the state, in the context of a large-scale HIV preventive intervention program. Demographic and behavioral information, and serum (for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV) and urine specimens (for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) were obtained. The prevalences of lifetime (TPHA positive) and active (RPR and TPHA positive) syphilis were 25.3% and 9.6%, respectively. There was considerable variation in the prevalence between districts, ranging from 10.9% to 37.4% lifetime, and 3.4% to 24.9% active infection. Factors associated with lifetime syphilis were older age, longer duration of sex work, illiteracy, client volume, practising sex work in >1 city, and sex work typology (public solicitation followed by brothel or lodge-based sex). The same typology, client volume, illiteracy, and having been widowed, divorced or deserted, were predictive of active infection. Of the 976 women who had symptoms of an STI, 78.8% had sought medical treatment, behavior that was protective for both outcomes. HIV infection was strongly associated with lifetime (OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.6) and active syphilis (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.9). Despite reasonable treatment-seeking behavior, the high prevalence of syphilis has necessitated enhanced outreach efforts for FSWs and acceleration of the implementation of syphilis screening. Mobilizing resources to enhance syphilis control will not only reduce the burden of syphilis morbidity, but should impact in reducing HIV transmission.

  2. Water Resource Planning Under Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainty in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Conway, Declan; Dessai, Suraje; Stainforth, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India. A water resources model is calibrated and validated satisfactorily using observed streamflow. Plausible future changes in Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation and water demand are used to drive simulations of water resources from 2021 to 2055. Two stakeholder-identified decision-critical metrics are examined: a basin-wide metric comprising legal instream flow requirements for the downstream state of Tamil Nadu, and a local metric comprising water supply reliability to Bangalore city. In model simulations, the ability to satisfy these performance metrics without adaptation is reduced under almost all scenarios. Implementing adaptation options can partially offset the negative impacts of change. Sequencing of options according to stakeholder priorities into Adaptation Pathways affects metric satisfaction. Early focus on agricultural demand management improves the robustness of pathways but trade-offs emerge between intrabasin and basin-wide water availability. We demonstrate that the fine balance between water availability and demand is vulnerable to future changes and uncertainty. Despite current and long-term planning challenges, stakeholders in developing countries may engage meaningfully in coproduction approaches for adaptation decision-making under deep uncertainty.

  3. Study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg District, Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.M; KaliPrasad, C.S.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg district, Karnataka state. The level of terrestrial radiation are related to the geological composition of the region, and to the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in rock. Rocks are used in various construction activities, which also have these natural radionuclides. Hence, a study was done to assess the concentration of these radionuclides in rock samples. Coorg lies along the eastern slopes of Western Ghats, which is in the south western side of Karnataka state. The rock samples were collected from different locations of Coorg. The samples were crushed, ovendried and sieved through 240µm sieve. The sieved samples were sealed in a plastic container of 300ml and stored for 30 days

  4. Reducing violence and increasing condom use in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers: study protocol for Samvedana Plus, a cluster randomised controlled trial in Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara S. Beattie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are at increased risk of HIV and STIs compared to women in the general population, and frequently experience violence in their working and domestic lives from a variety of perpetrators, which can enhance this risk. While progress has been made in addressing violence by police and clients, little work has been done to understand and prevent violence by intimate partners (IPs among FSW populations. Methods Samvedana Plus is a multi-level intervention programme that works with FSWs, their IPs, the sex worker community, and the general population, and aims to reduce violence and increase consistent condom use within these ‘intimate’ relationships. The programme involves shifting norms around the acceptability of beating as a form of discipline, challenging gender roles that give men authority over women, and working with men and women to encourage new relationship models based on gender equity and respect. The programme will aim to cover 800 FSWs and their IPs living in 47 villages in Bagalkot district, northern Karnataka. The study is designed to assess two primary outcomes: the proportion of FSWs who report: (i physical or sexual partner violence; and (ii consistent condom use in their intimate relationship, within the past 6 months. The evaluation will employ a cluster-randomised controlled trial design, with 50 % of the village clusters (n = 24 randomly selected to receive the intervention for the first 24 months and the remaining 50 % (n = 23 receiving the intervention thereafter. Statisticians will be blinded to treatment arm allocation. The evaluation will use an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at midline (12 months and endline (24 months. The evaluation design will involve quantitative and qualitative assessments with (i all FSWs who report an IP (ii IPs; and process/ implementation monitoring. Baseline

  5. Design and Development of Maize Dehusker cum Sheller: A Technology for Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilur, Rudragouda; Kumar, Sushilendra

    2018-06-01

    The Maize ( Zea mays L.) crop is one of the most important cereal in agricultural production systems of Northern Transition Zone (Hyderabad-Karnataka region) in India. These Hyderabad Karnataka farmers (small-medium) are lack of economic technologies with maize dehusking and shelling, which fulfils the two major needs as crops and as livestock in farming. The portable medium size (600 kg/h capacity) electric motor (2.23 kW) operated Maize Dehusker cum Sheller (MDS) was designed to resolve the issue by considering engineering properties of maize. The developed trapezium shaped MDS machine having overall dimensions (length × (top and bottom) × height) of 1200 × (500 and 610) × 810 mm. The selected operational parameters viz, cylinder peripheral speed (7.1 m/s), concave clearance (25 mm) and feed rate (600 kg/h) were studied for machine-performance and seed-quality parameters. The performance of machine under these parameters showed the dehusking efficiency of 99.56%, shelling efficiency of 98.01%, cleaning efficiency of 99.11%, total loss of 3.63% machine capacity of 527.11 kg/kW-h and germination percentage of 98.93%. Overall machine performance was found satisfactory for maize dehusking cum shelling operation as well as to produce the maize grains for seeding purpose.

  6. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and Development of Maize Dehusker cum Sheller: A Technology for Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilur, Rudragouda; Kumar, Sushilendra

    2018-02-01

    The Maize (Zea mays L.) crop is one of the most important cereal in agricultural production systems of Northern Transition Zone (Hyderabad-Karnataka region) in India. These Hyderabad Karnataka farmers (small-medium) are lack of economic technologies with maize dehusking and shelling, which fulfils the two major needs as crops and as livestock in farming. The portable medium size (600 kg/h capacity) electric motor (2.23 kW) operated Maize Dehusker cum Sheller (MDS) was designed to resolve the issue by considering engineering properties of maize. The developed trapezium shaped MDS machine having overall dimensions (length × (top and bottom) × height) of 1200 × (500 and 610) × 810 mm. The selected operational parameters viz, cylinder peripheral speed (7.1 m/s), concave clearance (25 mm) and feed rate (600 kg/h) were studied for machine-performance and seed-quality parameters. The performance of machine under these parameters showed the dehusking efficiency of 99.56%, shelling efficiency of 98.01%, cleaning efficiency of 99.11%, total loss of 3.63% machine capacity of 527.11 kg/kW-h and germination percentage of 98.93%. Overall machine performance was found satisfactory for maize dehusking cum shelling operation as well as to produce the maize grains for seeding purpose.

  8. A badger in Bannerghatta: an opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A single observation of a Ratel Mellivora capensis has been photo-documented in Bannerghatta National Park on 2 November 2015. This record being the first contemporary evidence of badgers in this region of Karnataka, India, the paper also presents a case study of badgers being close to a highly human-dominated landscape which could be due to some ecological factors that may be conducive as a habitat within the Park. Though a resident population and distribution within the BNP could not be ascertained, it can be proposed that the region may be an extension of range of its most recently documented distribution in the Eastern Ghats landscape. 

  9. THE EVOLVING COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS IN THE RETAIL BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY OF KARNATAKA BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar RAMANATHAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry in India is going through a unique competitive situation: on the one hand, the proliferation of new banks has increased competition multi-fold; on the other hand, given the rigid regulatory environment, banks have very little liberty to innovate products. The entry of multinational banking giants with superior service operations has further amplified the competition for customers. This paper examines the business performance of Karnataka bank during the period between 2006 and 2014 in order to bring home some of these challenges. Based on feedback from the branch managers, savings and current accounts - two classic banking products – suffered the most in the onslaught. Practicing managers as well as customers that we interviewed held that banking services in terms of customer experience ought to be improved and that various value added services could be introduced. Customers also expected reduced penalty for minimum balance and enhanced insurance cover for their accounts.

  10. A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: INCREASING PREVALENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG RURAL ADULT POPULATION OF KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Brata Tripathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A community based cross-sectional study in the age group 25 years and above conducted at the field area of primary health centre Chakenahalli, Hassan district, Karnataka, India. The population was similar in characteristics regarding occupation, socio-economic status and food habits. Total of 626 subjects were included by multi-stage sampling. Information collected by the interviewers through face to face interview, after informed consent. The individuals were assessed on anthropometric parameters and screening was done by Random Blood Glucose (RBG with a standardized technique; diagnosis of type 2 diabetes done by WHO criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was found in 11.3% males and 15% females, altogether the total prevalence was 13.09% with 8.79% self reported cases of diabetes . Hypertension was associated with 25.6% diabetic subjects. It was also observed that 28.1% of study population had BMI ≥ 25.

  11. Effect of water quality on the composition of fish communities in three coastal rivers of Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Shetty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fish assemblage and diversity in relation to water quality of three coastal rivers Sita, Swarna and Varahi of Udupi district, Karnataka, India was studied. 71 species representing 7 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded from 21 sites along the three rivers. Species composition varied longitudinally in relation to the environmental factors of the habitat. The downstream change in the three rivers indicates that fish assemblage changed with increasing loss of riparian canopy cover and increasing agricultural land-use. The richness and abundance of fishes were correlated with land-use type, canopy cover, pH and turbidity. Diversion of water, discharge of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff were prominent among the disturbances that alter the habitat quality.

  12. Status of potato husbandry and farmer's socio-economic profile in moisture and heat prone karnataka, india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, R.K.; Kadian, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)

  13. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  14. Village-scale (Phase III) evaluation of the efficacy and residual activity of SumiShield® 50 WG (Clothianidin 50%, w/w) for indoor spraying for the control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies Giles in Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragayala, S; Kamaraju, R; Tiwari, S N; Sreedharan, S; Ghosh, S K; Valecha, N

    2018-03-30

    There is an urgent need to test and incorporate new molecules with promising efficacy and novel mode of action to control insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors for disease control. We tested a new compound, clothianidin (SumiShield 50 WG), for its efficacy as an indoor residual spray (IRS) for the control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in comparison with pirimiphos methyl (Actellic CS) as a positive control. Ten villages were selected, five each for IRS with clothianidin (300 mg AI/m 2 ) and pirimiphos methyl (1000 mg AI/m 2 ) in Almatti Dam catchment area in Karnataka state, India. Entomological parameters were monitored in these sprayed villages using standard methods. Assessment of quality of spray was performed by analysing the insecticide content in the filter paper samples collected from sprayed houses. Perceptions of spray men and inhabitants were recorded post-spray on safety of these molecules. The mean applied to target ratio of content was 1.7 (n = 29) for clothianidin and 1.8 (n = 50) for pirimiphos methyl on filter paper samples analysed. Residual activity (≥80% mortality in exposed mosquitoes) after 24 h post-exposure of SumiShield WG was 5 months and increased to 6 months when the holding period was extended to 120 h and that of Actellic CS was 3 months at 24-h holding period and extended to 4 months at 120-h extended holding period. The mean densities of An. culicifacies in both arms fell drastically post-spray. In light trap collections, density of mosquitoes collected indoors was lower than outdoors in both arms indicating effectiveness of IRS. SumiShield WG was more efficacious in reducing the per-structure density than Actellic CS. The proportion of nulliparous mosquitoes was higher than that of parous mosquitoes during post-spray collections in both arms. The majority of adverse events reported were transitory and subsided without medication. Indoor residual spraying with SumiShield WG was found effective

  15. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  16. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  17. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen N; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-12-29

    Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3). Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (plodges were at increased risk for CT/NG (AOR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.9-20.6, p=.03). Examining co-infections, clients with HSV-2 infections were at substantially higher risk of being HIV-positive (AOR: 10.4; 95%CI: 6.1-17.7, p<.0001). This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  18. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...

  19. Biological indicators in relation to coastal pollution along Karnataka coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Desai, S.R.; Sarkar, A.; Dalal, S.G.

    pollutants in relation to planktonic and benthic organisms were examined at two locations along Karnataka coast, one at Kulai (740 47.74? E and 120 55.16? N) receiving huge amount of industrial effluents from fertilizer, petroleum and chemical plants along... with t 0 45? E and 130 10? N) is located 20 kms away, which is a typically agricultural and fishing village having no stress of industrial discharges. Although the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), nutrients and trace metals in water and sediment...

  20. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

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    D P Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is

  1. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  2. Factors associated with sexual violence against men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals in Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T.Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India.Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV.A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p = .104. In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2-14.3, p = .029. Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7, p = .012.These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.

  3. Compliance to Occupational Safety Measures among the Paramedical Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Karnataka, South India

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    P Phukan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The guidelines for minimizing occupational health risk from exposure to highly infectious diseases is already established but little information exists on the compliance of these measures among paramedical workers in India. Objective: To study the awareness of occupational safety measures such as universal precautions, biomedical waste handling, disposal and its compliance in their daily practice. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in a tertiary private hospital in Karnataka, Bangalore, India. Data was collected using a pretested and predesigned proforma from 120 respondents: 85 nurses and 35 laboratory technicians. Results: 27 (32% nurses and 20 (57% laboratory technicians could relate universal precautions to infection prevention. Only 6 (7% nurses and 2 (6% technicians had knowledge about proper hospital waste segregation. 45 (52.9% nurses and 15 (42.8% technicians had knowledge about post-exposure prophylaxis. 3 (4% nurses and 9 (26% technicians were formally trained in following universal precautions. Adequate hand washing was practiced among 17 (20% nurses and none of the technicians. Faulty practice such as recapping of needle was prevalent among 57 (67% nurses and 29 (83% technicians. 32 (38% nurses and 10 (29% technicians received hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusion: As knowledge and practice regarding different aspects of universal precautions was not satisfactory, training was warranted urgently in the study population. Also, suggestions were made to develop and implement institutional policies on the universal precautions and ensuring supply of personal protection equipment.

  4. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Vinutha; Nanjegowda, Divyashree Kallenahalli; Viswanath, Prema

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals which have consumed feedstuffs contaminated with aflatoxin B(1). Ultra high temperature treated (UHT) milk is a product which is becoming popular in developing countries like India as there is a lack of proper cold storage or refrigeration facilities. In this study, 45 samples of UHT milk of popular brands prevalent in the market were analyzed for the presence of AFM(1) by reversed phase HPLC using fluorescent detector after cleanup of sample with immunoaffinity columns. All samples of plain UHT milk were positive for AFM(1) and 38% of these contained levels more than 0.5 μg/kg, the maximum permitted limit prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and by the mandatory regulations of the country, the FSSAI Regulations, 2011. In 62.5% of flavored UHT milk, AFM(1) was below detectable levels (0.02 μgL(-1)). However, 12.5% of these samples also contained levels exceeding the maximum permitted limits. AFM(1) was present in 61.6% of the 52 raw milk samples analyzed from the two states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu with a range of 0.1-3.8 μgL(-1). 17.3% of these samples also exceeded the regulatory limits of the country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco and potential risk of toxic optic neuropathy: A cross-sectional study among beedi rollers in selected rural areas of coastal Karnataka, India.

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    Soujanya Kaup

    Full Text Available Beedi also known as poor man's cigarette is manufactured in almost all major states of India. Beedi workers are exposed to various health risks. There is an increased risk of systemic absorption of tobacco through skin and mucous membrane. The optic nerve is susceptible to damage from several toxic substances including tobacco. This group of disorders is known as toxic optic neuropathy (TON. The association of TON with occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco in beedi rollers has not been explored.Among the beedi rollers in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India: to assess the magnitude of potential TON utilizing colour vision and contrast sensitivity as screening tools and to identify the demographic, biological and occupational factors associated with potential TON.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April-Sept 2016 in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas, of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka. Beedi rollers from twelve villages (six from each taluka were included. In each of the selected villages, the investigators identified beedi collection centres and all the eligible beedi rollers were included in the study till the required number of beedi rollers for that village was achieved. Participants were screened at the study site for visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity and those with abnormal colour and contrast sensitivity in the presence of good visual acuity were considered to have potential TON.A total of 377 beedi rollers were approached; of which 365 consented to take part in the study (response rate: 96.81%. Women constituted the majority of the participants (n = 338, 92.6%. Based on the screening criteria, the prevalence of potential TON was 17.5% (n = 64, 95% CI: 13.5-21.9. On multiple logistic regression analysis, duration of beedi rolling (Adj OR: 1.061; 95% CI 1.015-1.109, p = 0.009, advancing age (Adj OR: 1.096; 95% CI 1.058-1.136, p<0.001 and presence of

  6. Occupational radiation exposure of Kolar mining workers in Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Umesh; Prasad, Vishva Linga; Ningappa, C.; Sannappa, J.

    2011-01-01

    Radon and its short lived decay products in dwellings and in atmosphere represent the main source of public exposure from the natural radiation. Radon, thoron and their progeny present in air contribute to nearly 50% of the average effective dose received by human beings from the natural radiation environment. Radon is a radioactive noble gas produced by the decay of uranium and thorium bearing minerals in rocks, soils and building materials having half life 3.82 days. UNSCEAR reported recently indicates that there is a remarkable coherence between the risk estimates developed from epidemiological studies from miners and residential case-control radon studies. The study area is around BGML at K.G.F. The study on the natural background radiation levels from the natural sources is important to evaluate the distribution of terrestrial radionuclides and radiation doses received by the population inhabitating around the study area. The data obtained from such study may be used locally to establish it and where the controls are needed. In the present study the most accurate Solid State Track Detector (SSNTD) method is used to determine the concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny. The maximum concentration of radon of 116.4 Bq.m -3 and gamma exposure rate of 765 n Gyh -1 have been observed in the dwellings at Champion place. The low concentration of radon and gamma exposure have been observed at Robersonpet and BGML nagar. (author)

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Alcoholism among Tuberculosis Patients in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, P; Kamath, R; Shetty, B K; Monteiro, A; Sekaran, V C

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India. Several studies carried out in India have shown alcoholism as a risk factor for tuberculosis mortality, factor for default in TB and reason for non-compliance under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern and associated factors of alcohol use among tuberculosis patients in Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the complete enumeration of all the cases undergoing Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) treatment in Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre of Udupi taluk from March to April 2013. Interview was conducted to obtain the socio-demographic and health information and participants were screened using WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for alcohol use. Out of 123 participants, 78% were males, 86.2% were Hindu, 79.7% were married and 88.6% were from low socio-economic status. About 20.3% (n=25) participants were alcoholic. Among them, 44% were low risk drinkers, 32% were hazardous drinkers, 4% were harmful drinkers and 20% were alcohol dependent. Age, sex, occupation, tobacco use, perceived health status and discrimination due to tuberculosis positive status were significantly associated with alcohol use. On logistic regression sex, tobacco use, perceived health status and facing discrimination due infection with tuberculosis were found to be factors associated with alcohol use. This study found a high prevalence of alcoholism among tuberculosis patients which is of concern and has to be addressed.

  8. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

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    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  9. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  10. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  11. Consanguinity, prematurity, birth weight and pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study at four primary health center areas of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, M B; Goudar, S S; Edlavitch, S A; Mahantshetti, N S; Naik, V; Hemingway-Foday, J J; Gupta, M; Nalina, H R; Derman, R; Moss, N; Kodkany, B S

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether consanguinity adversely influences pregnancy outcome in South India, where consanguinity is a common means of family property retention. Data were collected from a prospective cohort of 647 consenting women, consecutively registered for antenatal care between 14 and 18 weeks gestation, in Belgaum district, Karnataka in 2005. Three-generation pedigree charts were drawn for consanguineous participants. χ (2)-Test and Student's t-test were used to assess categorical and continuous data, respectively, using SPSS version 14. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Overall, 24.1% of 601 women with singleton births and outcome data were consanguineous. Demographic characteristics between study groups were similar. Non-consanguineous couples had fewer stillbirths (2.6 vs 6.9% P=0.017; adjusted P=0.050), miscarriages (1.8 vs 4.1%, P=0.097; adjusted P=0.052) and lower incidence of birth weight birth (P=0.013), whereas smoking (P=0.015) and poverty (P=0.003) were associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Consanguinity significantly increases pregnancy loss and birth weight <2500 g.

  12. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

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    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Health Effects among Rural Women, Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati V; Kamath, Veena; Aswathyraj, Sushama; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers among women all over the world. The association of cervical cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Knowledge about the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer is important to make appropriate, evidence-based health care choices. In this context we conducted a community based study among women about the knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV infections and their health effects. A cross sectional interview based house to house survey was conducted with a validated data collection tool covering sociodemographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV and its health effects, among 1020 women from a rural village, Perdoor, in Udupi district, Karnataka, India in 2013-14. The mean age of participants was 38.9 years (SD=12.6). Study participants showed a high literacy rate (85.7%). Only 2.4% of sexually exposed women had undergone Pap smear testing. Partners of 4.4%women had undergone circumcision and they belonged to the Muslim community. Male condom usage was reported by 26 women (2.6%). However, none of the participants had heard of HPV and its health effects. This community based study found complete ignorance about HPV among rural South Indian women in spite of a high literacy level.

  14. Dutiful daughters: HIV/AIDS, moral pragmatics, female citizenship and structural violence among Devadasis in northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamshad; Lorway, Robert; Chevrier, Claudyne; Dutta, Sumit; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Roy, Anu; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Becker, Marissa

    2017-01-19

    Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies. In this article, drawing on critical theoretical perspectives, secondary historical sources and in-depth interviews, we unravel wider social, cultural and political economic complexities surrounding the lives of Devadasis, and specifically illuminate the moral pragmatics that shed light on their entry into sex trade and vulnerability to HIV. Findings from this research are extremely important since while much is known about Devadasis in social sciences and humanities, relatively little is known about the complexities of their lives within public health discourses related to HIV. Our work has direct implications for ongoing HIV prevention and health promotion efforts in the region and beyond.

  15. Are marginalized women being left behind? A population-based study of institutional deliveries in Karnataka, India

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    Adamson Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89 of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include

  16. Perceived sources of stress among postgraduate students of a dental college in Karnataka, India

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    M J Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentistry has for some time been viewed as a profession with high-stress, and usually this begins from the days of dental school onward. Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, some being the pressure from academics with an obligation to succeed, uncertainty regarding their future and difficulties of integrating into the system. Aim: The aim is to identify the perceived sources of stress among postgraduate students from a dental college in Coorg, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out, and the study samples included all the postgraduates of all nine specialties, including all the seventy-seven postgraduate students as samples. Results: Stress was relatively general among all the groups of the study participants, certain factors or stressors such as the amount of assigned work, competition with peers, examination and grades, lack of confidence to be a successful student and fear of facing parents after failure hamper the academic life of these students and had more significance among groups when compared to others. Conclusion: The academic life of students seemed to be hampered due to various potential stressors such as the amount of assigned work, competition with peers, examination and grades, lack of confidence to be a successful student, and fear of facing parents after failure. Such issues that arise in the educational setting need to be addressed which will help improve the academic environment of the students.

  17. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  18. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

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    Devcharan Jathanna

    Full Text Available Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2 (SE = 847 km(2 corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We

  19. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling among elderly population in urban area of Karnataka, India

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    Abhay B Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: FOF is a health problem among the elderly living in urban India needs urgent attention. It represents a significant threat to socialization, independence and morbidity or mortality. Knowledge of correlates of FOF may be useful in developing multidimensional strategies to reduce it among elderly.

  20. Mapping of wasteland of india: A case study of Bangalore district of Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, G.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Nageswara Rao, P. P.; Gupta, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, J.; Ganesharaj, K.; Padmavathy, A. S.; Yogarajan, N.

    India is the second most populous country in the world. Its economy is agrarian in nature. Increasing demand for food, fodder, fuel and fibre has necessitated adoption of scientific measures for increase in land productivity and bringing more areas under cultivation/forests. However land degradation due to desertification, soil salinity, waterlogging, floods/drought, excessive soil erosion due to deforestation, unscientific agricultural practices etc. have resulted in the creation of vast stretches of wastelands and a decrease in per capita cultivable land besides ecological imbalance. Nearly 53 Mha are wasteland and 22 Mha of land have problems of either salinity, alkalinity, soil erosion, waterlogging, shifting cultivation or presently unused because of their undulating nature. Only 11% of India's geographic area is under effective tree cover. Forest degradation has increased by 14% over last 8-10 years. The land area prone to floods has doubled from 20 Mha to about 40 Mha in last 10 years. Awareness of this fact has resulted in the formation of the "National Wasteland Development Board" (NWDB) under the aegis of National Landuse and Wasteland Development Council (NLWC) with the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister of India.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling among elderly population in urban area of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Abhay B; Sanjana, T; Patil, Prabhakar R; Sriniwas, T

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. Fear of falling (FOF) among elderly persons can compromise quality of life by limiting mobility, diminished sense of well-being and reduced social interactions. India is undergoing a demographic transitional phase with urban elderly population of 6.72% in 2001. The major challenge would be on the prevention of falls among them. Hence there is a need to highlight the problems related to fall faced by the elderly in India. To study the prevalence of FOF and its correlates among the elderly population in urban area. 250 elderly subjects above 60 years were randomly selected from urban area and interviewed for FOF using Short Fall Efficacy Scale-I (FES-I), history of falls and risk factors. The prevalence of FOF among the elderly was 33.2%. The significant correlates of FOF were educational status, family type, associated health problems, history of fall in past 6 months, worried of fall again among fallers, fearfulness of fall again among fallers, restriction of daily activities and depression among them. The insignificant correlates were gender and socio-economic status. FOF is a health problem among the elderly living in urban India needs urgent attention. It represents a significant threat to socialization, independence and morbidity or mortality. Knowledge of correlates of FOF may be useful in developing multidimensional strategies to reduce it among elderly.

  2. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  3. Occupational stress and health-related quality of life among public sector bank employees: A cross-sectional study in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamardi, Sowmya N; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Phadnis, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Occupational morbidities have been estimated to cause an economic loss up to 10-20% of the gross national product of a country. It is an important cause of occupational morbidity and decreased quality of life (QOL) for the workers. The aim of the present study is to assess the level of occupational stress and its association with the QOL among the public sector bank employees. The present study was conducted among employees of public sector banks in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Job stress was measured by using occupational stress index (OSI) scale questionnaire and health-related QOL was measured using the short form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The sample size estimated for the study was 526 and cluster random sampling technique was used. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the study variables and level of stress. Multiple linear regression model was used to find the determinants of health-related QOL among the study subjects. The total number of the study subjects was 546 out of which 57% were males and 43% were females. The proportion of study subjects reporting to be current smokers was 4.2% and almost all study subjects reported occasional alcohol consumption. The mean physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) using the original United States standardization were 47.90 and 48.30, respectively. The individuals with mild stress scored higher in both PCS and MCS than the individuals who had moderate to severe stress levels. There was significant association of health related quality of life with the age of the respondent,presence of at least one morbidity and level of stress with health-related QOL. This study has shown an association of occupational stress with the QOL. There is a need for interventions aimed at mitigating the occupational stress among employees of the banking sector.

  4. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women beneficiaries of selected rural primary health centers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.

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    Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya

    Full Text Available Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR is a strategy to promote timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care during childbirth. According to World Health Organization, BPCR should be a key component of focused antenatal care. Dakshina Kannada, a coastal district of Karnataka state, is categorized as a high-performing district (institutional delivery rate >25% under the National Rural Health Mission. However, a substantial proportion of women in the district experience complications during pregnancy (58.3%, childbirth (45.7%, and postnatal (17.4% period. There is a paucity of data on BPCR practice and the factors associated with it in the district. Exploring this would be of great use in the evidence-based fine-tuning of ongoing maternal and child health interventions.To assess BPCR practice and the factors associated with it among the beneficiaries of two rural Primary Health Centers (PHCs of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 217 pregnant (>28 weeks of gestation and recently delivered (in the last 6 months women in two randomly selected PHCs from June -September 2013. Exit interviews were conducted using a pre-designed semi-structured interview schedule. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, obstetric variables, and knowledge of key danger signs was collected. BPCR included information on five key components: identified the place of delivery, saved money to pay for expenses, mode of transport identified, identified a birth companion, and arranged a blood donor if the need arises. In this study, a woman who recalled at least two key danger signs in each of the three phases, i.e., pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (total six was considered as knowledgeable on key danger signs. Optimal BPCR practice was defined as following at least three out of five key components of BPCR.Proportion, Odds ratio, and adjusted Odds ratio (adj OR for optimal BPCR

  5. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women beneficiaries of selected rural primary health centers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshaya, Kibballi Madhukeshwar; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2017-01-01

    Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy to promote timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care during childbirth. According to World Health Organization, BPCR should be a key component of focused antenatal care. Dakshina Kannada, a coastal district of Karnataka state, is categorized as a high-performing district (institutional delivery rate >25%) under the National Rural Health Mission. However, a substantial proportion of women in the district experience complications during pregnancy (58.3%), childbirth (45.7%), and postnatal (17.4%) period. There is a paucity of data on BPCR practice and the factors associated with it in the district. Exploring this would be of great use in the evidence-based fine-tuning of ongoing maternal and child health interventions. To assess BPCR practice and the factors associated with it among the beneficiaries of two rural Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 217 pregnant (>28 weeks of gestation) and recently delivered (in the last 6 months) women in two randomly selected PHCs from June -September 2013. Exit interviews were conducted using a pre-designed semi-structured interview schedule. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, obstetric variables, and knowledge of key danger signs was collected. BPCR included information on five key components: identified the place of delivery, saved money to pay for expenses, mode of transport identified, identified a birth companion, and arranged a blood donor if the need arises. In this study, a woman who recalled at least two key danger signs in each of the three phases, i.e., pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (total six) was considered as knowledgeable on key danger signs. Optimal BPCR practice was defined as following at least three out of five key components of BPCR. Proportion, Odds ratio, and adjusted Odds ratio (adj OR) for optimal BPCR practice. A

  6. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  7. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  8. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  9. Application of self-potential method in uranium exploration - a case study from Arbail, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.B.; Narasimha Rao, B.; Sethuram, S.; Rao, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of non-radiometric geophysical methods like magnetic, electrical resistivity, induced polarisation, electromagnetic and seismic for uranium exploration has been discussed by many workers. In thispaper it has been demonstrated that the self-potential technique which is simple, fast and cheap can also be effectively and meaningfully employed. For this purpose, a case study from Arbail (Lat 14 0 , 50' 40'', Long 74 0 38' 25''), India where uranium mineralisation is known to occur in association with sulphides, is presented. The method of downward continuation is used to estimate the depth to the top of the target and the results thus obtained are correlated with the data obtained from subsequent borehole drilling. (author)

  10. Understanding the social and cultural contexts of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: implications for prevention of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, James F; O'neil, John; Ramesh, B M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Orchard, Treena; Moses, Stephen

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and sex work patterns of women involved in the traditional Devadasi form of sex work with those of women involved in other types of sex work, in the Indian state of Karnataka. Data were gathered through in-person interviews. Sampling was stratified by district and by type of sex work. Of 1588 female sex workers (FSWs) interviewed, 414 (26%) reported that they entered sex work through the Devadasi tradition. Devadasi FSWs were more likely than other FSWs to work in rural areas (47.3% vs. 8.9%, respectively) and to be illiterate (92.8% vs. 76.9%, respectively). Devadasi FSWs had initiated sex work at a much younger age (mean, 15.7 vs. 21.8 years), were more likely to be home based (68.6% vs. 14.9%), had more clients in the past week (average, 9.0 vs. 6.4), and were less likely to migrate for work within the state (4.6% vs. 18.6%) but more likely to have worked outside the state (19.6% vs. 13.1%). Devadasi FSWs were less likely to report client-initiated violence during the past year (13.3% vs. 35.8%) or police harassment (11.6% vs. 44.3%). Differences in sociobehavioral characteristics and practice patterns between Devadasi and other FSWs necessitate different individual and structural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  11. Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India

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    Ojha Vijay P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia. In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067. Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%, and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index in all villages in the one-week period (p p p = 0.063 and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067. After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03% in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05. We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47

  12. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

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    Apoorva Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile.

  13. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

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    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  14. Evaluation of health literacy status among patients in a tertiary care hospital in coastal karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U P, Rathnakar; Belman, Madhuri; Kamath, Ashwin; B, Unnikrishnan; Shenoy K, Ashok; A L, Udupa

    2013-11-01

    People with limited health literacy are more likely to make medication errors, and they have less health knowledge, worse health status, more hospitalizations, and higher healthcare costs than people with adequate literacy. The objective of this study is to assess the health literacy status among patients who are able to read and understand English attending a tertiary care hospital by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine [REALM] technique and to compare the health literacy levels to educational status and other baseline characteristics. A widely used word recognition method [REALM] was used to assess the HL status of 200 patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India. The number of correctly pronounced words was used to assign a grade-equivalent reading level. Scores 0 to 44 indicate reading skills at or below the 6th grade level, scores from 45 to 60 represent skills at the 7th or 8th grade level, and scores above 60 indicate skills at the high-school level or higher. HL status was found below adequate level in more than 50% of the patients. Younger age group showed better HL scores compared to those aged more than 25 years. General education level or the medium of education does not truly reflect HL levels as brought out in the study. Even those with postgraduate qualification had poor HL skills. The study was carried out to find out the HL levels among patients attending a tertiary care hospital. It was assumed that the general education levels may not reflect true HL status. In view of the results of this study it can be concluded that patient's HL skills should not be taken for granted and adequate attention should be paid in educating and briefing patients whenever patients are required to interpret and understand health care related documents.

  15. Morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among elderly population of Raichur district, Karnataka, India

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    Leyanna Susan George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is an “aging nation” with 7.7% of its population being above 60 years of age. It has resulted in a rise of both physical and mental health morbidities. Aims: This study aimed to gather information regarding the morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among the elderly residing in the rural villages of Raichur, to understand the need for geriatric health-care facilities. Settings and Design: This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six rural villages of Raichur District, of which 230 elderly were selected randomly. Subjects and Methods: The data were collected using a questionnaire, clinical history, examination, and cross-checking of medical records. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Epi Info version-3.5.3. Results: The prevalence of morbidity was 91.7% with an average of 3/person. Females (58.9% had more morbidities than men (41.1%. The 3 most common morbidities were orthopedic (50.5%, cataract (50.4%, and respiratory (31.3%. 26.6% suffered from gastrointestinal morbidities while 23.9% had dental problems. 20.9% had hypertension with equal prevalence among both sexes. Only 17.4% were diabetics with majority being women. Central nervous system morbidities were 14.2% while 9.6% suffered from hearing loss and varicose veins. 8.2% had genitourinary-urinary morbidities and incontinence (1.7% was common among both sexes. Depression (71.1% and dermatological morbidities (4.7% were prevalent among women. Only 3.5% suffered from cardiac morbidity and 0.4% from cancer. Significant association was found between age and morbidity and also between socioeconomic class and morbidity pattern. Conclusions: Geriatric care should become an integral part of primary health care. Regular screening and Information, Education, and Communication activities need to be provided early in life for ensuring healthy aging.

  16. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India

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    Mansoor Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. Results: The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. Conclusions: It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore.

  17. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Zama, Syed Y; Nagarajarao, Vadiraja; Khan, Mudassir A

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore).

  18. Female autonomy as a contributing factor to women's HIV-related knowledge and behaviour in three culturally contrasting States in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L

    2007-07-01

    Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.

  19. Environmental radiation hazards around some iron mines and steel plants of Karnataka state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.

    2013-01-01

    The primordial radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) are present in air, food, water, soils, rocks, mineral ores and building materials, are the sources of natural radiation. The sun, stars, rocks, and even our own body emits natural radiation. We live in a sea of natural radioactivity. Work activities involved in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are potential sources of radiation exposure to workers and members of publics. Iron, Chromite, Uranium, Phosphate and other ores contains higher activity of radionuclides. The iron ore is widely distributed in Bellary, Chitradurga, Tumkur and Chickmagalore districts of Karnataka state. The mining creates a number of environmental problems, that is destructions of important fauna and flora in this affected areas and also this leads various diseases like asthma, leukemia intestine, kidney and liver damage and lung cancer. The environmental γ-radiation levels were measured in this study area using environmental radiation dosimetry. The activity of radionuclides present in the ore samples were estimated by using Hyper Pure Germanium Detector (HPGe). The radon concentration in groundwater and indoor and outdoor concentration were measured by Emanometry and SSNTD techniques. The higher gamma equivalent effective doses were observed at the industrial operation and where the large quantity of iron ore and fines were dumped at the mining sites. The absorbed gamma dose to the workers in study area is slightly higher than the global average. The present work highlights the influence of mining activity, mineral processing and industrial operations are enhanced the fine sized particles, and radon in indoor and outdoor atmosphere is the sources of external radiation dose to the workers and publics. (author)

  20. Exploration for uranium in the Bhima basin in parts of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Dhana Raju, R.

    2002-01-01

    Bhima basin, the smallest and youngest Purana (Meso-/Neo-proterozoic) basin of India, is known for huge reserves of quality-limestone that supports a large-scale cement industry in it. But for this, it remained for long as a 'terra incognita' for mineral exploration including radioactive minerals till the discovery of notable uranium mineralisation, first in a phosphatic limestone/calcitic phosphorite near Ukinal in 1995 and later a better-grade in a non-phosphatic, brecciated limestone at Gogi in 1996. Though the former was recorded intermittently for nearly 700m near Ukinal, detailed (sub-surface) exploration was not done, since U is mostly in the adsorbed form with collophane. On the contrary, the latter is promising, since ore microscopic study on a uraniferous sample from Gogi has pointed to hydrothermal vein-type mineralisation in the form of easily leachable coffinite and pitchblende that are intimately associated with reductants of organic matter and pyrite-dominant sulphides. Semi-detailed survey at Gogi was not of much help to prove the extension of mineralisation due to constraints like very few outcrops, soil-cover, vegetation, a big village and a large lake close by. At this juncture, resort was made to a novel technique of gamma-ray logging of nearly 30 drinking water borewells in the village, Gogi, and this proved highly rewarding as the data documented the presence of U-mineralisation of medium-grade and notable thickness. Subsequent multi disciplined and multifaceted exploration, including subsurface, mostly by core-drilling since May, 1997 with an aggregate of nearly 24,000m at Gogi, has established that (a) the rocks hosting hydrothermal vein type U-mineralisation are brecciated limestone (Shahabad formation) and deformed basement granitoid within a post-sedimentary tectonised zone, (b) the mineralisation in limestone (i) occurs as hangwall and footwall bands, (ii) has a strike extension of nearly 2 km with both ends still open, (iii) extends

  1. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Badakar, Chandrashekhar; J Thakkar, Prachi; M Hugar, Shivayogi; Kukreja, Pratibha; G Assudani, Harsha; Gokhale, Niraj

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4- to 7-year-old parented and orphan children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. This study was conducted on 240 children between the ages of 4 to 7 years who were equally divided into two groups of 120 parented and 120 orphan children. These were subdivided into four groups of 30 children each. Various characteristics like egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using experiments and comparison of their prevalence between two groups was carried out. There is a statistically significant difference in the cognitive development among parented and orphan children age 4 to 7 years. There is a significantly better cognitive development among parented children as compared with orphan children in Belagavi city. A child is not a miniature adult but rather can think and perceive the world differently from an adult. Understanding a child's intellectual level can enable a pedodontist to deliver improved quality care to children. According to Jean Piaget, in the preoperational period, children think symbolically and their reasoning is based more on appearance rather than logic. It is often rightly said that a child's behavior is a reflection of his parents. However, Piaget did not consider the effect of social setting and culture on the cognitive development. This study was carried out as there is not much literature available to describe the cognitive development of children in the Indian scenario and the influence of parental presence on the same. How to cite this article: Badakar CM, Thakkar PJ, Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Assudani HG, Gokhale N. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):346-350.

  2. Impact of health insurance for tertiary care on postoperative outcomes and seeking care for symptoms: quasi-experimental evidence from Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary

    2016-01-06

    To evaluate the effects of a government insurance programme covering tertiary care for the poor in Karnataka, India--Vajpayee Arogyashree Scheme (VAS)--on treatment seeking and postoperative outcomes. Geographic regression discontinuity. 572 villages in Karnataka, India. 3478 households in 300 villages where VAS was implemented and 3486 households in 272 neighbouring matched villages ineligible for VAS. A government insurance programme that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Seeking treatment for symptoms, posthospitalisation well-being, occurrence of infections during hospitalisation and need for rehospitalisation. The prevalence of symptoms was nearly identical for households in VAS-eligible villages compared with households in VAS-ineligible villages. However, households eligible for VAS were 4.96 percentage points (95% CI 1 to 8.9; p=0.014) more likely to seek treatment for their symptoms. The increase in treatment seeking was more pronounced for symptoms of cardiac conditions, the condition most frequently covered by VAS. Respondents from VAS-eligible villages reported greater improvements in well-being after a hospitalisation in all categories assessed and they were statistically significant in 3 of the 6 categories (walking ability, pain and anxiety). Respondents eligible for VAS were 9.4 percentage points less likely to report any infection after their hospitalisation (95% CI -20.2 to 1.4; p=0.087) and 16.5 percentage points less likely to have to be rehospitalised after the initial hospitalisation (95% CI -28.7 to -4.3; p<0.01). Insurance for tertiary care increased treatment seeking among eligible households. Moreover, insured patients experienced better posthospitalisation outcomes, suggesting better quality of care received. These results suggest that there are several pathways through which tertiary care insurance could improve health, aside from

  3. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found

  4. Applying a gender lens to health policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... In India's Karnataka state, girls and women face many barriers stemming from their low social status that are exacerbated by poverty and caste. ... And given the rates of undernourishment, teen pregnancy, anemia, and ...

  5. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Mark J; Nayak, Nayanatara S; Annigeri, Vinod B; Billava, N Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5) in smoking and nonsmoking venues. The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required "No Smoking" signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5 in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m(3) and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR). The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  6. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  7. Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Campbell, Linda; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Nair, Sapna; Doddamane, Mahesh; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Isac, Shajy; Beattie, Tara S

    2018-04-01

    While traditional HIV prevention programs with female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India, have focused on reducing HIV transmission between FSWs and clients through increased condom use, these programs have not fully addressed the transmission risk between FSWs and their nonpaying intimate partners (IPs). Condom use is infrequent and violence is recurrent in these relationships: Furthermore, there is little evidence on the precise nature of FSW-IP relationships. Our study addresses this knowledge gap to inform HIV programs targeted at FSWs. A series of workshops, using participatory tools, was held to explore FSW-IP relationships; 31 FSWs and 37 IPs participated. Three aspects of FSW-IP relationships were examined: how FSWs and IPs understand and interpret their relationships, factors influencing condom use, and the role of violence and its consequences. FSWs wish to be perceived as their IPs' wives, while IPs expect their FSW partners to accept their dominance in the relationship. Nonuse of condoms signals fidelity and elevates the status of the relationship almost to that of marriage, which helps FSWs enter the category of "good" (married) women. Tolerating and accepting violence in these relationships is normative, as in other marital relationships; IPs justify violence as necessary to establish and maintain their power within the relationship. Both FSWs and IPs value their relationships despite the high degree of risk posed by low condom use and high levels of violence. Implications for program design include addressing current norms around masculinity and gender roles, and improving communication within relationships.

  8. Stigma and Discrimination faced by HIV-infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy for more than 1 Year in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Shrikanth; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Margabandu, Shanthi; Purushotaman, Shalini; Kannan, Ranjit; Mahendrakar, Sangeeta; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress and discrimination faced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than 1 year. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 170 adults on ART, reporting to the ART center of the District Civil Hospital, for more than 1 year in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Convenience sampling technique was followed. Descriptive statistics was performed (Chi-square test) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. A total of 156 (91.8%) patients' families had knowledge about their seropositive status. Seventeen (10.9%) HIV-positive patients reported of change in the attitude of their family members. The main reasons for not revealing the HIV status were the internalized stigma and fear of rejection. Women faced greater discrimination from family, friends, and neighbors than men. It is necessary to not undermine the effect of rejection due to HIV. It is the only infection that has so many associated social and psychological norms which we need to tend at the earnest. Till date, there is an existence of condescendence toward treatment approach. The presence of stigma and the fear of being discriminated could be a major hurdle in the rehabilitation of these patients into the mainstream society. Furthermore, it serves as an existing challenge to ascertain these individuals to achieve overall health.

  9. "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb varied in the range of 4.7–42.9 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 36.1–124 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3–63.7 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 12.0–406 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. - Highlights: • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb concentrations in medicinal plants were estimated. • Concentrations are higher in leaves than in rhizome or bark. • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were in disequilibrium, but correlated very well. • Study helps to form database of radionuclides in medicinal plants.

  10. Pursuing Authenticity From Process to Outcome in a Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Vulnerability in North Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Sangha, Chaitanya Aids Tadegattuva Mahila; Nair, Sapna G; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Srikantamurthy, H S; Ramanaik, Satyanaryana; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Bruce, Sharon Gail

    2017-01-01

    Community-based participatory research has been seen to hold great promise by researchers aiming to bridge research and action in global health programs and practice. However, there is still much debate around whether achieving authenticity in terms of in-depth collaboration between community and academic partners is possible while pursuing academic expectations for quality. This article describes the community-based methodology for a qualitative study to explore intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work, or female sex workers, and their male partners in Karnataka, South India. Developed through collaborative processes, the study methodology followed an interpretive approach to qualitative inquiry, with three key components including long-term partnerships, knowledge exchange, and orientation toward action. We then discuss lessons learned on how to pursue authenticity in terms of truly collaborative processes with inherent value that also contribute to, rather than hinder, the instrumental goal of enhancing the quality and relevance of the research outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Detoxifying enzyme studies on cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida, resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in field populations in Karnataka, India

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    Halappa Banakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida is considered to be an alarming insect pest causing both quantitative and qualitative loss in cotton. In situ bioassay studies were done and the role of detoxifying enzymes in conferring resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides in low (MUD, medium (DVG, high (HVR and very high (GLB pesticide usage areas of Karnataka were determined. Bioassay studies showed that imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin registered varying levels of resistance for all the locations studied. The resistance ratio was high in imidacloprid (3.35, 8.57, 9.15 and 12.27 fold respectively and the lowest in dinoferuran (1.86, 5.13, 6.71 and 9.88 fold respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme activity ratio (glutathione-S-transferase was relatively greater, and corresponded to the higher LC50 values of neonicotinoids for very high, high, medium and low pesticide usage areas. Our study suggested that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzyme in the resistance population of cotton leafhopper apparently has a significant role in endowing resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides. However, this study recommends using neonicotinoids in cotton growing areas with caution.

  12. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides.

  13. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  14. India | Page 92 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India. Inde. In India's Karnataka state, girls and women face many barriers stemming from their low social status that are exacerbated by poverty and caste. ... Ownership rates are even higher in Pakistan (65%) and Sri Lanka (71%). The survey ...

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  16. Complications related to blood donation: A multicenter study of the prevalence and influencing factors in voluntary blood donation camps in Karnataka, India

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    Rajat Kumar Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2% complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86% mild, 77 (0.25% moderate, and 5 (0.02% severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions.

  17. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  18. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  19. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  20. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Vijaykumar, Varalaxmi; Prashanth, N S; Sudarshan, H; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Black, Jim; Shet, Arun

    2009-02-17

    Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a

  1. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.

  2. Sickness Absenteeism, Morbidity and Workplace Injuries among Iron and Steel workers – A Cross Sectional Study from Karnataka, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study of illnesses causing absence of workers from workin industries is a practical method to study the health statusof industrial workers and to identify occupational healthhazards. The iron and steel industries are particularlyhazardous places of work. Published data from India onhealth status of iron and steel workers is limited, thereforethis study was undertaken to investigate the sicknessabsenteeism, morbidity and workplace injuries among thispopulation.MethodWorkers were selected using stratified random sampling. Astructured pre-tested interview schedule was used tocollect the data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered forstatistical significance.ResultsFrom a total of 2525 workers, 353 (mean age 55.1 yrs, male69.4% participated in the study. The overall proportion ofsickness absenteeism was 66.9% (95% CI: 0.62 – 0.71.Overall 16.4 days were lost per worker per year (male = 16.5& female = 16.2 due to sickness absence. A blue collarworker lost 21.5 days compared to 11.9 days by a whitecollar worker (p < 0.01. Among workers, health ailmentsrelated to the musculoskeletal system (31.4%,gastrointestinal system (25.8%, hypertension (24.4%,respiratory system (18.1% and other minor ailments(19.3% were found to be high.ConclusionSickness absenteeism is significantly higher among iron andsteel workers when compared to other occupations in India.Blue collar workers and shift workers loose higher numberof days due to sickness absence, and they face problemsrelated to musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal systemand hypertension in higher proportions compared to theircounterparts. Women experienced hypertension as thecommon health problem and higher proportions of injuriesoutside the work environment.

  3. Quality of life and probable psychological distress among male workers at a construction site, Kolar district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Geethu; Ramesh, Naveen; Shanbhag, Deepthi; Goud, Ramakrishna; Subramanian, Sharan; Lobo, Carol; Xavier, Alex; Dasari, Prudhvi

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry, which mainly consists of migrant labouers is one of the largest employers in the unorganized sector in India. These workers work in poor conditions and are often vulnerable to exploitation. These workers also do not have health care benefits and often these factors lead to poor quality of life (QOL) and psychological distress. To assess the QOL, probable psychological distress and associated factors among male construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and November 2013 among 404 male workers. These construction workers were enrolled by consecutive sampling at a construction area in Kolar district, Kaarnataka, India. The study tools used were World Health Organization (WHO) QOL-BREF and 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess QOL and probable psychological distress, respectively. The transformed scores in WHO QOL-BREF in all four domains ranged 0-100. The four domain scores are scaled in a positive direction with higher scores indicating a higher QOL. Associations were done using statistical tests such as Chi-square, correlation, regression, independent samples t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 404 male workers with a mean age of 25.6 ± 7.3 years were studied. Mean scores of various domains of QOL were 68.5 ± 13.7 (physical), 59.9 ± 13.5 (psychological), 64.3 ± 16.4 (social), and 44.1 ± 12.8 (environmental). On the self- rating scale, 59 (14.6%) workers were rated as having poor QOL. The prevalence of probable psychological distress was 27.5%. Factors such as increasing age, being currently married, and low educational status were found to be significantly associated (P psychological distress. There was a significant negative correlation (P psychological distress and a positive correlation between income and QOL. The QOL in the environmental domain, which mainly deals with living conditions, health, and recreational facilities was found to be poor and there

  4. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. Results: A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  5. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijaysimha, R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  6. From policy to practice: lessons from Karnataka about implementation of tobacco control laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati B Hebbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use accounts for eight to nine lakh adult deaths annually in India. India enacted a national legislation “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003” (COTPA to protect health of non-smokers and reduce tobacco consumption. However, even a decade after enacting this law, its implementation remains suboptimal and variable across the Indian states. Karnataka has shown leadership on this front by enacting a state law and implementing COTPA at (sub- district levels. We, therefore, aim to analyze COTPA implementation processes in Karnataka to understand how COTPA can be effectively implemented. Methods: We developed a case study of COTPA implementation in Karnataka using reports from health, police, education, and transport departments as well as government orders and media reports related to COTPA. We analyzed these data to map and understand the role played by the government agencies in COTPA implementation. We used the proportion of the districts reporting COTPA violations, the number of COTPA violations cases reported, and the proportion of schools reporting compliance with COTPA as proxy measures for COTPA implementation. Results: We found that five government agencies (police, education, health, transport, and urban development played a major role in COTPA implementation. All the police districts reported COTPA violations with 59,594 cases in a year (April 2013–March 2014. Three of the district anti-tobacco cells and two of the transport divisions reported 1130 and 14,543 cases of COTPA violations, respectively, in the same year. In addition, 84.7% of schools complied with signage requirements of COTPA. COTPA reporting was made part of the reporting systems within health, police, and education departments. The health department created awareness on tobacco harms and COTPA. Conclusions: COTPA implementation in Karnataka was made possible through integrating COTPA implementation within structure/functions of five

  7. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  8. Risk assessment of exposure to radon concentration in indoor atmosphere and drinking water of Shimoga city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of population to natural sources of radiation has become an important issue in terms of radiological protection. The major contribution of dose from natural radiation in normal background regions arises due to inhalation of alpha-emitting radon and thoron, and their progenies, which are ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor environs. The aim of the present study is to measure indoor radon, thoron and their progeny levels in the dwellings of Shimoga city and radon concentration in drinking water and to estimate the annual effective dose. The indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny was measured using Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) based twin chamber dosimeter cups. The 222 Rn concentration in drinking water was estimated by the Emanometry technique

  9. Study on seasonal variation of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny levels in Hassan District of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been measured in different types of buildings at different locations for different seasons in Hassan city using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector exposed for four seasons of 3 months each covering a period of one year from October 2012 to September 2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in summer season in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bq m -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 1447±8 Bq -3 respectively. The radon progeny concentrations varies from 0.4 to 4.1 mWL with an average value of 1.83±1 mWL, while thoron progeny concentrations vary from 0.3 to 3.2 mWL with an average value of 1.12±0.7 mWL respectively. The annual effective dose received due to radon, thoron and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which is found to vary from 0.320±0.4 to 1.860 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.9576 ± 0.8 mSv y -1 . In general, the level of radon-thoron was observed highest in winter and lowest in summer. A detail analysis of radon and thoron distribution in different houses with seasonal variation is presented in this paper. From this study it is observed that, bathrooms and kitchens have significantly higher radon concentrations as compared to other rooms in the dwellings. (author)

  10. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  11. Preliminary exploration of south Kanara coast of Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    The port along the South Kanara coast of Karnataka, India were explored. At the port Gangolli, submergence of a few houses and sea level changes at the light house have been observed which were attributed to the transgression of the sea during...

  12. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  13. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  14. Small but effective: India's targeted unconditional cash transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Puja Dutta; Stephen Howes; Rinku Murgai

    2010-01-01

    India's approach to social security stresses the provision of subsidized food and public works. Targeted, unconditional cash transfers are little used, and have been little evaluated. An evaluation of cash transfers for the elderly and widows based on national household survey data and surveys on social pension utilization in two of India's states, Karnataka and Rajasthan, reveal that these social pension schemes work reasonably well. Levels of leakage (corruption) are low, funds flow disprop...

  15. Knowledge and Perceptions Regarding Nicotine Replacement Therapy among Dental Students in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Alshahrani, Obaid Abdullah; Jhugroo, Chitra; Tashery, Hamed Mohammed; Mathews, Jacob; Chavan, Khechari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organized dentistry has recognized the role of oral health professionals in discouraging tobacco use. Unexplored level of knowledge regarding the benefits and prescription of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have aroused interest among us which initiated us to assess the knowledge and perception of dental students toward NRT among various dental colleges in Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was done among 16 selected colleges in Karnataka. It ...

  16. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an

  17. The challenge of biomass production. Analysis of Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds, Bellary District, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avornyo, F.; Ballal, F.; Husseini, R.; Mysore, A.; Nabi, S.A.; Guevara, A.L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of a field study conducted in the Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds in the Karnataka state of India, with the objective of identifying the opportunities for and constraints in efforts for enhancing biomass production. The Agricultural Research for Development (ARD) procedure which is a process of integrating different perspectives of stakeholders was used for planning strategies to combat low biomass problems

  18. The Resin and Carder bees of south India (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the Anthidiini of southern India. A study focused on the state of Karnataka found a hitherto unknown diversity of thirteen species. Though the number of species is not large, the generic diversity is noteworthy (eight genera represented): Anthidiellum (2 species), Anthidium (2 ...

  19. Orchidaceae, Chotanagpur, state of Jharkhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchids display a diversified range in terms of shape, size and colour of flowers. They have a unique floralmorphology compared to other angiospermic plants. They have minute seeds that are dispersed through air, and thatmay be why they are distributed throughout the world, except for the hot deserts and Antarctica. Though the familyOrchidaceae represents a highly advanced group of plants, they are highly susceptible to even slight changes inenvironmental conditions. In India, orchids are represented by 1,141 species belonging to 186 genera. The present studywas conducted on the Chotanagpur region of India, most of the part of which lies in the state of Jharkhand. A systematicsurvey was conducted through out the state from April 2002, on foot in different forested regions in different seasons. Achecklist of 63 species of orchids recorded from this area is provided. That includes 26 new records.

  20. Effects of Some Indigenous Plants of North Karnataka (India) on Cardiovascular and Glucose Regulatory Systems in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Chadchan, Kailash S; Reddy, R Chandramouli; Biradar, M S; Kanthe, Pallavi S; Patil, Bheemshetty S; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Bagoji, Ishwar B; Das, Swastika

    2017-11-08

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Pundi), Chick pea (Cicer arietinum Linn, Chana) and Prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn, Hattaraki) leaves are a few of indigenous plants which are routinely consumed by the people of north Karnataka in the diet. Studies on these plants showed some potential anti-diabetic efficacies. To examine the effect of leaves extracts of Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Cicer arietinum Linn and Lactuca scariola Linn on cardiovascular integrity, glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In vitro and in vivo tests on glucose regulatory systems and molecular markers such as - NOS3, HIF- 1α and VEGF were conducted in alloxan induced diabetic rats supplemented with all the three plant extracts. Electrophysiological analysis (HRV, LF: HF ratio, baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) and histopathogy of myocardial tissues and elastic artery were evaluated in diabetic rats treated with L. scariola linn. Out of these three plant extracts, Lactuca scariola Linn supplementation showed significant beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling pathways in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Furthermore, effects of sub chronic supplementation of Lactuca scariola Linn aqueous extracts showed significant improvement in sympatho-vagal balance in diabetic rats by increase of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and regaining of Baroreflex Sensitivity (BRS). These results were also corroborated with myocardial and elastic artery histopathology of Lactuca scariola Linn supplemented diabetic rats. These findings indicate an adaptive pathway for glucose homeostasis, oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms and cardio protective actions in alloxan - induced diabetic rats supplemented with Lactuca scariola Linn extracts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Souradet Y; Deering Kathleen N; Reza-Paul Sushena; Isac Shajy; Ramesh Banadakoppa M; Washington Reynold; Moses Stephen; Blanchard James F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among ...

  2. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collecti...

  3. State of newborn health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M J; Neogi, S B; Sharma, J; Chauhan, M; Srivastava, R; Prabhakar, P K; Khera, A; Kumar, R; Zodpey, S; Paul, V K

    2016-12-01

    About 0.75 million neonates die every year in India, the highest for any country in the world. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) declined from 52 per 1000 live births in 1990 to 28 per 1000 live births in 2013, but the rate of decline has been slow and lags behind that of infant and under-five child mortality rates. The slower decline has led to increasing contribution of neonatal mortality to infant and under-five mortality. Among neonatal deaths, the rate of decline in early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) is much lower than that of late NMR. The high level and slow decline in early NMR are also reflected in a high and stagnant perinatal mortality rate. The rate of decline in NMR, and to an extent ENMR, has accelerated with the introduction of National Rural Health Mission in mid-2005. Almost all states have witnessed this phenomenon, but there is still a huge disparity in NMR between and even within the states. The disparity is further compounded by rural-urban, poor-rich and gender differentials. There is an interplay of different demographic, educational, socioeconomic, biological and care-seeking factors, which are responsible for the differentials and the high burden of neonatal mortality. Addressing inequity in India is an important cross-cutting action that will reduce newborn mortality.

  4. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  5. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  6. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Mohanan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.

  7. An Empirical Investigation on Mobile Banking Service Adoption in Rural Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Krishna Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government of India (GOI initialized financial inclusion campaign to quell exclusion. The campaign did not gain expected progress. Government employed technologies to speed up the process. Among banking technologies, mobile banking appeared as a possible solution for financial exclusion with wide mobile phone coverage. Inputs on rural people’s intention toward technologies for effective financial inclusion were essential. Technology adoption factors, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, attitude, perceived risk, and behavioral intention (BI, were short listed after literature review. Factors were subjected to reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, multiple regression, and interaction analysis. Rural provinces in Karnataka state were surveyed. We used mixed sampling technique to reach 959 samples. Multiple regression–interaction analysis revealed age and gender moderated attitude’s path toward BI.

  8. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D P; Ajantha, G S; Shubhada, C; Jain, P A; Kalabhavi, A; Shetty, P C; Hosamani, M; Appannanavar, S; Kulkarni, R D

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT) using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  9. India : State of Development Evaluation Report 2010 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Anecdotal evidence from India suggests that the quantity and quality of development evaluation is declining. However, there is little if any documented evidence on the state of evaluation in India or of the factors underlying the current situation. This project will therefore document and carry out a diagnostic analysis of the ...

  10. India : State of Development Evaluation Report 2010 | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Anecdotal evidence from India suggests that the quantity and quality of development evaluation is declining. However, there is little if any documented evidence on the state of evaluation in India or of the factors underlying the current situation. This project will therefore document and carry out a diagnostic analysis of the ...

  11. Lighting Rural India : Load Segregation Eexperience in Selected States

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Ashish; Mukherjee, Mohua; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Saraswat, Kavita; Khurana, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic development of the rural populace is critical to India achieving its stated objective of inclusive growth. It is widely accepted that access to a reliable and sufficient power supply is a key enabler of rural economic growth. Traditionally, India's rural power supply has been restricted by having feeders to villages serve both agriculture and household loads. Because agric...

  12. Preparing States in India for Universal Health Coverage | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This expanded access has the potential to become a financial burden on households. This project aims to provide the evidence needed to support the rollout of universal health care in India. The Public Health Foundation of India, in collaboration with state-level institutions and decision-makers, will carry out the research.

  13. LIQUIDITY ANALYSIS OF STATE BANK OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gandhi R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern customer has a high demand for quality of service than he/she had before. There is an urgent need for improving the customer service levels currently provided in the banking industry. Banks need to understand, foresee, the needs and expected levels of customer support which the customer expects when he/she steps into the branch and strive to stand up and excel in providing the service and making banking a truly delightful experience. The banker should change his/her agenda from Customer Satisfaction to Customer delight and then march towards Customer Ecstasy. This will be possible by maintaining the financial soundness of the firm. In this connection it has been given importance through this study. Since most of the Banking slightly deviate into the other areas like insurance, financial services and modern banking services such as Advisory services, Agent for receivables, custodian, instant loan provider, Forfeiter services and factoring services. A conscious attempt has been made to analysis the liquidity of state bank of India (SBI. The present study aimed to understand the financial soundness of the bank, the ratio analysis taken as tool. In this research work the secondary data mainly used, it has been collected in the form of the company manuals, Balance sheets and other documents. The data analyzed by some of the statistical tools such as ANOVA test and Multi variate test is used to analyze the interferences about the operating efficiency.

  14. The State of Gender Inequality in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a high growth rate and plentiful Government measures to encourage gender equality, the gender gap still exists in India. Lack of gender equality not only limits women’s access to resources and opportunities, but also imperils the life prospects of the future generation. In the present article an attempt has been made to examine the problem of gender inequality in India. In this process, the article not only discusses the extent, causes and consequences of the problem, but also suggests policy measures to reduce gender inequality in India.

  15. Measurement of indoor radon-thoron and their progeny levels in dwellings and radon concentrations in ground water of Hassan city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2014-01-01

    The indoor radon and thoron concentrations in dwellings of Hassan city have been measured by using LR-115 type-Il Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were carried in summer season from March to May-2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bqm -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 14.47±8 Bqm -3 respectively. The overall average radon concentrations are found to be less than the lower reference level of 200 Bq m -3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The annual effective dose received due to radon and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which found to vary from 0.320 ±0.4 to 1.86 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.957±0.8 mSv -1 . The obtained results are much lower than the upper reference level of 10 mSv y -1 (ICRP 2007). Radon in bore well water at different locations of Hassan city was determined using the emanometry technique and exposure dose from ingestion of drinking water was estimated. The radon concentration in ground water was found to vary from 19.49 to 60.74 Bq l -1 with an average value of 47.16±14Bq l -1 . From this study it is evident that, the recorded ground water radon concentration values are higher than MCL of 11 Bq l -1 proposed by USEPA. The total dose due to inhalation and ingestion of 222 Rn in ground water ranges from 0.053 mSv y -1 to 0.165mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.127±0.038mSv y -1 . (author)

  16. The State of Gender Inequality in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Despite a high growth rate and plentiful Government measures to encourage gender equality, the gender gap still exists in India. Lack of gender equality not only limits women’s access to resources and opportunities, but also imperils the life prospects of the future generation. In the present article an attempt has been made to examine the problem of gender inequality in India. In this process, the article not only discusses the extent, causes and consequences of the problem, but also suggest...

  17. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  18. State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Bella

    1995-01-01

    Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

  19. Ethnomedicinal practices in different communities of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka for treatment of wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep; Hegde, Gurumurthi; Hegde, Ganesh R

    2012-09-28

    Uttara Kannada district is located in the heart of the Western Ghats, one of the biodiversity hotspots, in Karnataka state of India. The thick evergreen forests are home to several ethnic communities. The study was under taken for documentation and analysis of ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of wounds. Field trips were made in Uttara Kannada district to identify the key informants. The collection of information was through semi-structured open ended interviews with a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to obtain the information about their experience in the field of treatment, number of patients treated per week, knowledge about the medicinal plants, vernacular names, parts of the plants used and other ingredients added during the drug formulations. Plants mentioned for treatment were photographed in the field, cuttings of the samples were taken and voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of P.G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The information such as botanical name, status, family, vernacular name habit and habitat, statistical analysis like percentage of parts used, Use value (UV) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF) are provided. Present study resulted in recording 106 medicinal plant species of 55 families and 86 formulations to treat different types of wounds by 44 key informants. Among the 106 plants recorded four species are endemic to India and 22 species have the nativity outside India. Rest of the species have nativity both in India and elsewhere. The highest number of species belonged to Apocynaceae and Rubiaceae (6 species each). Trees are used more often (35.84%), followed by herbs (28.30%), shrubs (23.58%), climbers (11.32) and parasites (0.80%). Leaves are the major part of the plants used in the formulations (28.57%). The highest Use value is for Calycopteris floribunda (1.80), followed by Rauvolfia serpentina and Achyranthes aspera (1.67). The different types of wounds treated by traditional healers

  20. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    currently composed of the following countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia , Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam...Security,” 47. 66 Mohan, “India’s Geopolitics and Southeast Asian Security,” 50. 22 In 2005, India and Indonesia signed a framework agreement...officials accepting large bribes , and little military hardware as a result. There is also an institutional lack of risk-taking associated with

  1. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  2. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  3. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  4. Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Davey, Calum; Javalkar, Prakash; Nair, Sapna; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Sudhakar, Gautam; Collumbien, Martine; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2015-03-25

    Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will be conducted in eighty village clusters (40 intervention; 40 control) in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts in northern Karnataka. The intervention seeks to reach low caste girls and their families; adolescent boys; village communities; high school teachers and school governing committees; and local government officials. All low caste (scheduled caste/tribe) adolescent girls attending 7th standard (final year of primary school) will be recruited into the study in two consecutive waves, one year apart. Girls (n = 2100), their families (n = 2100) and school teachers (n = 650) will be interviewed at baseline and at endline. The study is designed to assess the impact of the intervention on four primary outcomes: the proportion of low caste girls who (i) enter into secondary school; (ii) complete secondary school; (iii) marry before age 15; and (iv) engage in sex before age 15. Observers assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome will be an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at follow-up. We will also conduct survival analyses for the following secondary outcomes: marriage, sexual debut, pregnancy and entry into sex work. Complementary monitoring and evaluation, qualitative and economic research will be used to explore and describe intervention implementation, the pathways through which change occurs, and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This is an innovative

  5. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  6. Population Stabilization in India: A Sub-State level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit C, Dr Brijesh

    2007-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing economic and policy factors impinging upon population stabilization measures at the district (sub-state level) in India. It reflects upon popularly debated notions, namely, that development is the best contraceptive or whether contraceptive is the best development. In order to reflect upon this notion, we hypothesize that the factors determining the success of population stabilization measures are likely to be different across rich and poor states. It is more likel...

  7. Report on short course in educational methodology for university teachers in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines - a pilot study conducted at Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing awareness among teachers in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines that a formal training in educational methodology can improve their performance as teachers and student evaluators. The Training of Trainers programs conducted by Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, in the previous years have brought about a transformation among the teachers who attended those programs. Also the teachers were witness to a changing perception among students towards teachers who adapt innovative teaching/assessment strategies. This report illustrates an innovative training activity that was adapted to design a reference model that can be developed as an operational model for large-scale execution. Teachers who are under the affiliated CAM Institutions in Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, participated in a three-month 'Short Course in Educational Methodology'. This program was delivered on distance learning mode. The course was organised into four modules. Study material was provided for each of the module in the form of a study guide and related reference articles in electronic form. There were three contact programs - Induction and Introduction that also addressed overview of entire course and the subject matter of Module 1, and this was at the beginning of the course, first contact program to address the learner needs of Modules 2 and 3 and second contact program for the contents in Module 4. The participants were engaged during the entire course duration with interactive contact programs, self-study and application of concepts in their teaching/assessment practices, submission of assignments online, and microteaching presentation and peer review. The documentation and raw data generated during the course of training were used to generate an operational model for training of university teachers of health sciences faculty in general and teachers of CAM disciplines in particular. Establishing a model of

  8. The Evolution of India's Nuclear Program: Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creasman, David J

    2008-01-01

    Since India began developing its nuclear program it has continually encountered issues with the United States and other nuclearized countries over whether India should be able to establish a nuclear...

  9. Design and Baseline Findings of a Multi-site Non-randomized Evaluation of the Effect of a Health Programme on Microfinance Clients in India

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somen

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance is the provision of financial services for the poor. Health program through microfinance has the potential to address several access barriers to health. We report the design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health program on the members of two microfinance organizations from Karnataka and Gujarat states of India. Villages identified for roll-out of health services with microfinance were pair-matched with microfinance only villages...

  10. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R.; Kamble, Madhukar B.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Methods: Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Results: Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State. PMID:27121521

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurpbk@rediffmail.com.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University Kalaburagi – 585 106 India (India); Anilkumar, S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  12. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J

    1998-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  13. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.

    1997-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  14. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0-7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7-5·0) to 10·0% (8·7-11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10·6-11·8) than in rural areas (5·2%, 4·9-5·4; p<0·0001) and higher in mainland states (8·3%, 7·9-8·7) than in the northeast (5·9%, 5·5-6·2; p<0·0001). Overall, 1862 (47·3%) of 3938 individuals

  15. Communication dated 25 July 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of India concerning a document entitled 'Implementation of the India-United States Joint Statement of July 18, 2005: India's Separation Plan'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 25 July 2008 from the Permanent Mission of India to the Agency, attaching a document entitled 'Implementation of the India-United States Joint Statement of July 18, 2005: India's Separation Plan'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of India to the Agency, the communication and its attachment are herewith circulated for information

  16. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Harsha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The northeastern region (NER of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the blind in the NER. Materials and Methods: Blind and severely visually impaired children (best corrected visual acuity < 20/200 in the better eye, aged up to 16 years underwent visual acuity estimation, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and fundoscopy. Refraction and low vision workup was done where indicated. World Health Organization′s reporting form was used to code anatomical and etiological causes of visual loss. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel Windows software with SPSS. Results: A total of 376 students were examined of whom 258 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major anatomical causes of visual loss amongst the 258 were congenital anomalies (anophthalmos, microphthalmos 93 (36.1%; corneal conditions (scarring, vitamin A deficiency 94 (36.7%; cataract or aphakia 28 (10.9%, retinal disorders 15 (5.8% and optic atrophy 14 (5.3%. Nearly half of the children were blind from conditions which were either preventable or treatable (48.5%. Conclusion: Nearly half the childhood blindness in the NER states of India is avoidable and Vitamin A deficiency forms an important component unlike other Indian states. More research and multisectorial effort is needed to tackle congenital anomalies.

  17. Intraspecific variations in Cyt b and D-loop sequences of Testudine species, Lissemys punctata from south Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    R. Lalitha; V.R. Chandavar

    2018-01-01

    The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b and D-loop) conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region span...

  18. Internal migration, center-state grants, and economic growth in the states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, P; Sahay, R

    1996-03-01

    "This paper examines the growth experience of 20 states of India during 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evidence of absolute convergence--initially poor states grew faster than their initially rich counterparts. Also, the dispersion of real per capita state incomes widened over the period 1961-91. However, relatively more grants were transferred from the central government to the poor states than to their rich counterparts. Significant barriers to population flows also exist, as net migration from poor to rich states responded only weakly to cross-state income differentials." excerpt

  19. Social determinants of health in India: progress and inequities across states

    OpenAIRE

    Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the recognized importance of social determinants of health (SDH) in India, no compilation of the status of and inequities in SDH across India has been published. To address this gap, we assessed the levels and trends in major SDH in India from 1990 onwards and explored inequities by state, gender, caste, and urbanicity. Methods Household- and individual-level SDH indicators were extracted from national household surveys conducted between 1990 and 2011 and means were compu...

  20. State of Corporate Social Responsibility in India – Current scenario, Approach and Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Nagpal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the study is to examine the state of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)in India. The report attempts to investigate the current scenario of CSR ctivities and examine how corporations in India interpret CSR. The study also seeks to identify the reported driving forces behind implementation of CSR practices by firms in India. Methodology – CSR personnel from 3O companies that are obligated to spend on CSR activities under the Companies Act, 2013 were surveyed. To cr...

  1. Status of women in India: a comparison by state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, D R

    1993-12-01

    Reformers in India have worked since the late 19th century to abolish practices such as the patriarchal joint-family system, the structure of property ownership, early marriage, and the self-immolation of widows which have been detrimental to the development of women. As a result, independent India has taken steps to protect the rights and equality of women. In order to analyze the objective status of women, secondary data were used to make 1) interstate comparisons, 2) intrastate comparisons with the status of men, and 3) comparisons in relation to overall development. Data from the early 1980s were analyzed from the 14 states which had a population of 10 million or more. 7 variables describe educational status, 3 are employment indicators, 2 are health indicators, 3 are demographic indicators, and 13 represent various aspects of development. The taxonomic method designed by Polish mathematicians in 1952 was used to rank states on the basis of each of the indicators. This method allows the determination of homogeneous units in an n-dimensional space without using such statistical tools as regression, variance, and correlation. It was found that the status indicators resulted in similar rankings for males and females in many states, but that in some states (Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh) the health, employment, and educational status of women is low. These states also show a low ranking in overall development status, thus highlighting the direct link between the status of women and the level of development. This study leads to the question of whether women's status can be studied at the macro level using macro-level data. If this is possible, then the lack of significant differences found in the present study either indicates that the indicators chosen did not reveal the differences or that, in fact, no differences exist. The observed direct link between ranks of development and status, however, indicates that what was read as status differences

  2. Natural 3H radioactivity analysis in groundwater and estimation of committed effective dose due to groundwater ingestion in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Somashekar, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at the assessment of natural tritium radioactivity in groundwater, being used for domestic and irrigation purposes in Varahi and Markandeya river basins. The study also intended to assess human health risk by estimating committed effective dose due to groundwater ingestion in the study area, taking into consideration the obtained tritium activity concentrations and annual water consumption. Tritium concentration of groundwater samples from the Varahi and Markandeya river basins were determined by liquid scintillation counting and the results laid in the range of 1.95 ± 0.25 to 11.35 ± 0.44 TU and 1.49 ± 0.75 to 9.17 ± 1.13 TU in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, respectively. Majority of the samples from Varahi (46.67%) and Markandeya (62.5%) river basins belong to modern water category aged between 5 and 10 years, while the remaining 53.33% and 37.5% of the samples from Varahi and Markandeya river basins respectively belong to sub-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river in flowing/sea water intrusion. The effective committed dose for general public consumption considering the highest concentration value of 0.02 μSv year -1 , which is very negligible compared to EPA (0.04 mSv year -1 ), WHO (0.1 mSv year -1 ), ICRP (1.0 mSv year -1 ) and UNSCEAR (2.4 mSv year -1 ) recommended dose limits, should not mean any additional health risk for the population living nearby. (author)

  3. Determination of radon activity concentration in drinking water and evaluation of the annual effective dose in Hassan district, Karnataka state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been determined in 27 drinking water samples of Hassan district and was estimated by using emanometry technique and physicochemical parameters were estimated using standard techniques. The 222 Rn concentrations in water are varying from 0.85 ± 0.2 to 60.74 ± 2.5 Bq l -1 with an average value of 26.5 ± 1.65 Bq l -1 . This study reveals that 66 % of the drinking water samples have radon concentration level in excess of the EPA recommended maximum contamination level of 11.1 Bq l -1 . There is no significant correlation noted between radon concentration and physicochemical parameters. The mean annual effective ingestion doses received from all samples are lower than 0.1 mSv y -1 . (author)

  4. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  5. A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the first publication on vertebrates of India (Blanford 1888–1890, a huge wealth of information has been compiled on the vertebrate fauna of various biogeographic zones of the country, especially the Western Ghats.  The state of Kerala comprising of a land area of 38,863km2, 590km coastline, an intricate system of backwaters along the coast, tropical moist forests of the Western Ghats, the highly undulating terrain, and the tropical monsoon is a unique geographical and environmental entity rich in biodiversity.  A region-specific checklist that summarises and documents the current status of vertebrate diversity provides benchmark data for documentation and appreciation of biodiversity at regional level.  Further, with the current rate of global biodiversity loss and concordant conservation efforts, the taxonomic community has a greater responsibility to make scientific information available to scientists, policy makers, politicians, research students and all relevant stakeholders, an attempt that has been made in the present paper.  The State of Kerala has 1847 species of vertebrates in 330 families and 81 orders, of which 386 are endemic to the Western Ghats region (of the Western Ghats - Sri Lanka Hotspot, and 205 species as threatened. Six hundred and eighty species of vertebrates of Kerala have been listed in the various schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, while 148 are listed in the different appendices of CITES.  

  6. The Association between State Value-added Taxes and Tobacco Use in India- Evidence from GATS and TCP India Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S

    2017-08-30

    State value-added taxes (VAT) on tobacco products have been increased significantly in recent years in India. Evidence on how these VATs were associated with smoking is highly needed. State bidi and cigarette VAT rates were linked to Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010 and Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey waves 1 (2010-2011) and 2 (2012-2013), respectively. These linked data were used to analyze the associations between bidi VAT rates and bidi smoking, between cigarette VAT rates and cigarette smoking, and between the two VAT rates and dual use of bidis and cigarettes. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to examine GATS cross-sectional data, whereas Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were employed to examine longitudinal TCP data. We further stratified the analyses by gender. A 10% increase in cigarette VAT rates was associated with a 6.5% (p<0.001) decrease in dual use of cigarettes and bidis among adults and a 0.9% decrease (p<0.05) in cigarette smoking among males in TCP; and with a 21.6% decrease (p<0.05) in dual use among adults and a 17.2% decrease (p<0.001) in cigarette smoking among males in GATS. TCP analyses controlling for state fixed effects are less likely to be biased and indicate a cigarette price elasticity of - 0.44. As female smoking prevalence was extremely low, these associations were non-significant for females. Higher state cigarette VAT rates in India were significantly associated with lower cigarette smoking and lower dual use of cigarettes and bidis. Increasing state VAT rates may significantly reduce smoking in India. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods ( P large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge.

  8. Evolution of Swarna estuary and its impact on braided islands and estuarine banks, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AvinashKumar; Jayappa, K.S.; Vethamony, P.

    Qualitative and quantitative evolution of the Swarna estuary, Karnataka, India during the past 38 years (1967–2005), has been analysed by integrating the results of field surveys, satellite images, hydrodynamic modelling and topographic data in GIS...

  9. Health seeking behavior in Karnataka: Does micro-health insurance matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Results: Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Conclusion : Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  10. Health seeking behavior in karnataka: does micro-health insurance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, S; Kiran, Kb

    2013-10-01

    Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  11. Efficiency evaluation of the state owned electric utilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Tripta; Deshmukh, S.G.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for accessing comparative efficiencies of Indian State Owned Electric Utilities (SOEU), which have been mainly responsible for the generation, distribution and transmission of electricity in India. Performance of 26 utilities was evaluated using the non-parametric technique of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and the impact of scale on the efficiency scores was also evaluated. The results indicate that the performance of several SOEUs is sub-optimal, suggesting the potential for significant cost reductions. Separate benchmarks were derived for possible reductions in employees' number, and the results indicate that several utilities deploy a much larger number of employees than that required by a best practice utility, and significant savings are possible on this account. It was also found that the bigger utilities display greater inefficiencies and have distinct scale inefficiencies. Exploiting scale efficiencies by suitable restructuring and unbundling of SOEUs are therefore crucial measures that may foster efficiencies in the SOEUs. The paper discusses these results in the context of related policy issues

  12. Case law: France, Germany, India, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    France: Administrative Court of Appeal of Lyon, 19 June 2012, Judgements Nos. 12LY00233 and 12LY00290 regarding EDF's permit to construct a waste conditioning and storage facility (ICEDA) in the town of Saint-Vulbas; Conseil d'Etat decision regarding Atelier de technologie de plutonium (ATPu) located at the Cadarache site. Germany: Request for arbitration against Germany at the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) because of Germany's legislation leading to the phase-out of nuclear energy. India: Cases related to the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP). Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Inc. on the revocation of the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit vacating the NRC's 2010 Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; U.S. Supreme Court declines petition for certiorari filed by property owners on Price- Anderson Act claim for damages; Judgement of the NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board finding applicants ineligible to obtain a combined license because they are owned by a U.S. corporation that is 100% owned by a foreign corporation; Judgement of an NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Authorizing Issuance of a license for the construction and operation of a commercial laser enrichment facility

  13. Composition and physical state of phospholipids in calanoid copepods from India and Norway

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farkas, T.; Storebakken, T.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The fatty acid composition and physical state of isolated phospholipids obtained from marine copepods collected on the Southwest coast of India (Calanus spp.) and the west coast of Norway (Calanus finmarchicus) were investigated to compare...

  14. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  15. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CENTRALIZED AND STATE-WISE TOURISM CAMPAIGNS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina AHUJA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to distinguish the initiatives taken by the state authorities and Central authorities to promote tourism in India. Gaps in the centralized promotional campaign, "Incredible India" are identified in this study. The methodology includes collection of secondary data and discursive analysis. Information relevance, Promotion strategy, and Key events and places were used for the comparative analysis for the purposes of the research paper. Above mentioned three factors need to be added to the centralized campaign, to give a holistic picture of India. The paper is unique as it is the first time that identification of gaps in the centralized campaign is done.

  17. GIS analysis for the marine environmental data off Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Amit, V.S.

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to develop the Oceanographic Information System (OIS) for marine environmental data off Karnataka coast. Its goal is to provide a set of tools for oceanographic and bathymetry data assessment and products...

  18. Impact of family capital & social capital on youth entrepreneurship – a study of Uttarakhand state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    The research paper intends to interpret how the three forms of family capital viz. family's financial capital, family's man power capital and family's human capital influences the career choice intention of students of HEI's of Uttarakhand, India. Additionally the study also evaluates the impact of student's individual social capital on his career intent. This is a quantitative study conducted at Uttarakhand state of India on a large sample of students studying in various professional courses...

  19. Estimation of Unobserved Inflation Expectations in India using State-Space Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Siddhartha; Sahu, Sohini; Jha, Saakshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflation expectations is an important marker for monetary policy makers. India being a new entrant to the group of countries that pursue inflation targeting as its monetary policy objective, estimating the inflation expectation is of paramount importance. This paper estimates the unobserved inflation expectations in India between 1993:Q1 to 2016:Q1 from the Fisher equation relation using the state space approach (Kalman Filter). We find that our results match well with the inflation forecast...

  20. Indoor radon levels in coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor radon levels have been measured in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films and it is found to vary from 28.4 to 45.6 Bq m -3 with a geometric mean value of 35.7 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose equivalent to the population of the region due to inhalation of radon was estimated from the measured data on radon level and is found to be in the range 1.9 - 3.1 mSv y -1 with a mean value 2.4 mSv y -1 . The correlation between indoor radon level and radium content in the underlying soil were studied. No definite correlation was observed to exist between indoor radon level and radium content in soil. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Barriers to efficiency improvement and fuel switching in Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.

    1991-01-01

    Implementing energy efficiency changes requires a wide range measures. Improvements, therefore, require actions at the lowest level of the consumer, through the highest level of the global agencies. Due to the multiplicity of participants, however, barriers to achieving these improvements can arise at every level. The major barriers to improving energy efficiency in developing countries are defined and paths to overcome these challenges are identified. Topics of discussion include: energy consumers; end-use equipment manufacturers; end-use equipment providers; energy carrier producers and distributors; actual/potential cogenerators; financial institutions; government; and international, multilateral and industrialized country funding/aid agencies

  2. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    (Kalney et.al., 1996) was obtained for the point (12.5º N; 72.5 º E) close to the study area to know the influence of wind on sea level and currents. These data are provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colarado at http://www.cdc...

  3. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Chempalayil, S.P.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.

    generally referred to as the sum- mer monsoon, the general direction of winds north of the equator is southwesterly and its strength is significantly larger than that during the rest of the year (figure 1). During November–March, referred to as the winter...-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon period. makes the sea during this part of the year stand out from the swell. During May, swells (waves with periods larger than about 10 s) arrive in distinct trains lasting about 5 days. In addition to the trains of swells...

  4. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  5. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  6. United States Policy in India: Balancing Global and Regional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Ambassador Galbraith. Rajan Menon cites Galbraith’s diary for September 23, 1961: 31 p r ’ S.I ’- I I - uThs prcject (Bokarc) is very important. It is...388. 226. Sojka, p. 6. 227. India is treating the develop met at Pqrt Blai; in a very 4ecre tiv. mnner. Infori ation on it is aya iab~e on in bits an

  7. Poverty and the state of nutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2013-01-01

    India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious inequalities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the country level, still, a significant proportion of the world's poor live in India, as do a significant proportion of the world's malnourished children. Poverty and undernutrition coexist, and poor dietary quality is associated with poor childhood growth, as well as significant micronutrient deficiencies. Food security is particularly vulnerable to changes in the economic scenario and to inequities in wealth distribution. Migration from rural to urban settings with a large informal employment sector also ensures that migrants continue to live in food insecure situations. While food production has for the most part kept pace with the increasing population, it has been with regard to cereal rather than of pulses and millet production. Oil seeds, sugar cane and horticultural crops, along with non-food crops are also being promoted, which do not address nutrition security, and, coupled with the increase in the consumption of pre-prepared food, may indeed predispose towards the double burden of malnutrition. Access to food is also particularly susceptible to poverty and inequality. Many strategies and policies have been proposed to counter undernutrition in India, but their implementation has not been uniform, and it is still too early to assess their lasting impact at scale.

  8. State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

  9. Differential in Utilization of Maternal Care Services in Empowered Action Group States, India (1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Yadav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low use of maternal care services is one of the reasons why child mortality and maternal mortality is still considerably high in India. Most maternal deaths are preventable if mothers receive essential health care before, during, and after childbirth. In India, the eight socioeconomically backward states referred to as the Empowered Action Group (EAG states; lag behind in the demographic transition and low utilization of maternal health care services. Addressing the maternity care needs of women may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG – 5.Aims & Objectives:  To explore the prevalence, trends and factors associated with the utilization of maternal care services in Empowered Action Group States, India (1990-2006.Material Methods: Data from three rounds of the round of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, known as the National Family Health Survey (NFHS of India were analyzed. Bivariate and multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the utilization of the maternal and child health care trends over time.Result: The results from analysis indicate that the full ANC and skilled birth attendant (SBA has increased from 17% and 20% to 25% and35% respectively during the last one and half decade (1990-2006.Conclusion: Various socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with the utilization of maternal care services in EAG states, India. Promoting the use of family planning, female education, targeting vulnerable groups such as poor, illiterate, high parity women, involving media and grass root level workers and collaboration between community leaders and health care system could be some important policy level interventions to address the unmet need of maternal and child health care services among women. The study concludes that much of these differentials are social constructs that can be reduced by prioritizing the needs of the disadvantaged and adopting

  10. Differential in Utilization of Maternal Care Services in Empowered Action Group States, India (1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Yadav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low use of maternal care services is one of the reasons why child mortality and maternal mortality is still considerably high in India. Most maternal deaths are preventable if mothers receive essential health care before, during, and after childbirth. In India, the eight socioeconomically backward states referred to as the Empowered Action Group (EAG states; lag behind in the demographic transition and low utilization of maternal health care services. Addressing the maternity care needs of women may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG – 5. Aims & Objectives:  To explore the prevalence, trends and factors associated with the utilization of maternal care services in Empowered Action Group States, India (1990-2006. Material Methods: Data from three rounds of the round of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, known as the National Family Health Survey (NFHS of India were analyzed. Bivariate and multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the utilization of the maternal and child health care trends over time. Result: The results from analysis indicate that the full ANC and skilled birth attendant (SBA has increased from 17% and 20% to 25% and35% respectively during the last one and half decade (1990-2006. Conclusion: Various socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with the utilization of maternal care services in EAG states, India. Promoting the use of family planning, female education, targeting vulnerable groups such as poor, illiterate, high parity women, involving media and grass root level workers and collaboration between community leaders and health care system could be some important policy level interventions to address the unmet need of maternal and child health care services among women. The study concludes that much of these differentials are social constructs that can be reduced by prioritizing the needs of the disadvantaged and

  11. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  12. 78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Global Markets, International Trade Administration... President (or have a comparable level of responsibility) of a U.S.-owned or controlled company that is... doing business in both India and the United States. Each candidate also must be a U.S. citizen or...

  13. Comparative Study of Monsoon Rainfall Variability over India and the Odisha State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Gouda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indian summer monsoon (ISM plays an important role in the weather and climate system over India. The rainfall during monsoon season controls many sectors from agriculture, food, energy, and water, to the management of disasters. Being a coastal province on the eastern side of India, Odisha is one of the most important states affected by the monsoon rainfall and associated hydro-meteorological systems. The variability of monsoon rainfall is highly unpredictable at multiple scales both in space and time. In this study, the monsoon variability over the state of Odisha is studied using the daily gridded rainfall data from India Meteorological Department (IMD. A comparative analysis of the behaviour of monsoon rainfall at a larger scale (India, regional scale (Odisha, and sub-regional scale (zones of Odisha is carried out in terms of the seasonal cycle of monsoon rainfall and its interannual variability. It is seen that there is no synchronization in the seasonal monsoon category (normal/excess/deficit when analysed over large (India and regional (Odisha scales. The impact of El Niño, La Niña, and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD on the monsoon rainfall at both scales (large scale and regional scale is analysed and compared. The results show that the impact is much more for rainfall over India, but it has no such relation with the rainfall over Odisha. It is also observed that there is a positive (negative relation of the IOD with the seasonal monsoon rainfall variability over Odisha (India. The correlation between the IAV of monsoon rainfall between the large scale and regional scale was found to be 0.46 with a phase synchronization of 63%. IAV on a sub-regional scale is also presented.

  14. Enhancing biodiversity management and utilization to improve livelihoods – a case study of 'kokum' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, F.; Sudha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia indica, commonly known as 'kokum', is an underutilized fruit tree, native of the Western Ghats in India and Malaysia. In India it mainly grows in the western parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa. The fruit is used as a medicinal plant against obesity; the rind as souring and food

  15. Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2013-10-01

    Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India.

  16. Role of State Agricultural Universities and Directorates of Extension Education in Agricultural Extension in India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Meena, M.S.; Swanson, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    In India, the first SAU was established in 1960 at Pantnagar in Uttar Pradesh. The SAUs were given autonomous status and direct funding from the state governments. They were autonomous organizations with state-wide responsibility for agricultural research, education and training or extension education. The establishment of the SAUs, based on a pattern similar to that of the land-grant universities in the United States, was a landmark in reorganizing and strengthening the agricultural educatio...

  17. Who killed Rambhor?: The state of emergency medical services in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh H Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the healthcare delivery system starts up from the sub-center at the village level and reaches up to super specialty medical centers providing state of the art emergency medical services (EMS. These highest centers, located in big cities, are considered the last referral points for the patients from nearby cities and states. As the incidents of rail and road accidents have increased in recent years, the role of EMS becomes critical in saving precious lives. But when the facilities and management of these emergency centers succumbs before the patient, then the question arises regarding the adequate availability and quality of EMS. The death of an unknown common man, Rambhor, for want of EMS in three big hospitals in the national capital of India put a big question on the "health" of the emergency health services in India. The emergency services infrastructure seems inadequate and quality and timely provision of EMS to critical patients appears unsatisfactory. There is lack of emergency medicine (EM specialists in India and also the postgraduation courses in EM have not gained foot in our medical education system. Creation of a Centralized Medical Emergency Body, implementation of management techniques, modification of medical curriculum, and fixing accountability are some of the few steps which are required to improve the EMS in India.

  18. Mind the Gap—Is Economic Growth in India Leaving Some States Behind?

    OpenAIRE

    Catriona Purfield

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how growth has varied across India's states. It finds that (i) the income gap between rich and poor states has widened; (ii) rich and faster-growing states have been more effective in reducing poverty; (iii) poor and slower-growing states have had little success in generating private sector jobs; (iv) labor and capital flows do little to close income gaps; and (v) the volatility in economic growth is greatest in poor states. Differences in states' policies affect the cross...

  19. Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

  20. Teachers' Perspective on Institutional Barriers to Academic Entrepreneurship--A Case of Uttarakhand State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lalit

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the institutional factors which influence the impact of education in building academic entrepreneurship in higher educational institutes of Uttarakhand state, India. In order to understand the institutional barriers, the author interviewed 68 senior-level educationists, who were working in the capacity of Director General,…

  1. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  2. Fission track dating and uranium estimation in pegmatitic minerals of Rajasthan state (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S; Virk, H S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-12-01

    Fission track geochronology of muscovite samples collected from some pegmatitic mines of Bhilwara and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan state (India) has been discussed. The ages obtained suggest the occurrence of Delhi Orogenic Cycle as the last major metamorphic activity in the region. The atomic fraction of uranium in muscovite samples is less than 1 p.p.b.

  3. Wind energy centre at Gujarat State, India. Business plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hulle, F.; Jansen, J.C.; Prasad, N.S.; Suresh, R.

    1997-07-01

    The report describes the business plan for the establishment of a Wind Energy Centre in Gujarat. This Wind Energy Center has to provide a reliable delivery of a range of development and technical quality assurance services to the wind energy industry in northern India on the basis of sustained operations and recovery of all operating costs and - contingent on the way the Centre is financed - at least part of the initial investment costs. Core activities of the Wind Energy Centre are: Research and development supporting activities for the wind energy sector; Testing and certification of wind energy equipment; Consultancy, monitoring and information services; and Training courses on wind energy technology and implementation. The wind energy centre aims with its services at a number of customers: the manufacturing industry, wind farm developers and governmental authorities. An exploration of the market for the services of the envisaged wind energy centre shows that the concept is financially viable. A set of assumptions has been made about the growth rate of the installed wind power capacity in Northern India and about the number of wind turbine manufacturing companies in the target area of the centre. From these assumptions the total number of new wind turbine types coming on the Indian market annually is derived for a period of ten years. These figures have served as a basis for the determination of the required manpower and facilities of the centre for design and development support activities, feasibility and siting studies, testing and certification. Furthermore a projection has been made for providing expert manpower capacity for carrying out R and D, consultancy and other services. 14 tabs., 1 ref

  4. Southwest monsoon influences the water quality and waste assimilative capacity in the Mandovi estuary (Goa state, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishnuRadhan, R.; Sagayadoss, J.; Seelan, E.; Vethamony, P.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zainudin, Z.; Shirodkar, S.

    The monsoon-dominated Mandovi estuary is located in Goa state – a global tourist destination along the centralwest coast of India. In addition to factor analyses of water quality data, the water quality index (WQI), trophic state index (TSI...

  5. Comparison of the potential for producing energy from agriculture in Brazil, India, and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, W E

    1980-04-01

    The energy supply and demand conditions and factor conditions are examined for Brazil, India, and the United States to compare energy development from agricultural programs. Each country is seen to be concentrating on an energy from biomass that is particularly suited: biogas from cow dung and crop residues in India; gasohol from corn or sugar cane in Brazil; and gasohol from grains in the US. Economic rationality, when viewed from a social perspective, appears to have prevailed in the policy decision in each of the countries. 6 references, 2 tables.

  6. SWOT Analysis of Dental Health Workforce in India: A Dental alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halappa, Mythri; B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa

    2014-11-01

    India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm.

  7. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  9. Hindu-Muslim Violence in India: A National and State-Level Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    clubs, sports clubs, festival organizations, trade unions, and cadre-based political parties.”25 Varshney argues that it is these groups that... tourism sectors by offering subsidies as well as fiscal and policy incentives to attract businesses to the state.37 Likewise, in 2007, Kerala also...Kerala’s tourism sector and agricultural sectors have become near equal contributors of 9% to the state’s GDP. India Brand Equity Foundation, Kerala State

  10. Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labour in a Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Picherit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, Indian Telephone Industries (ITI, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, became India’s first State-run enterprise. In 2009, the company was privatized. Dilip Subramanian’s book provides a remarkable in-depth history of the journey of this Indian State-owned factory in post-colonial India, from the birth of the Nehruvian model of industrialization to the contemporary deregulation of the telecommunications industry. In a context of global neoliberal policies and discourses agai...

  11. Labour productivity, energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises: A study of brick enterprises cluster in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Subrahmanya, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper probes the role of labour efficiency in promoting energy efficiency and economic performance with reference to small scale brick enterprises' cluster in Malur, Karnataka State, India. In the bricks industry, the technology in use being similar, labour efficiency has a negative influence on energy cost. Therefore, those enterprises that exhibited higher labour productivities had lower average energy intensity and higher returns to scale as compared to those that had lower labour productivities. Considering this, improvement of labour efficiency can be an alternative approach for energy efficiency improvement in energy intensive small scale industries in developing countries like India, which face the obstacle of financial constraints in up-grading technology as a means of energy efficiency improvement

  12. Ancient ports of Karnataka and their contacts with Arab countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    , Udyavara and Mangalore played an active role in establishing the trade contacts with outside countries. The sea trade of Karnataka constituted a significant part of her economic activities and secured for her a niche in the oceanic trade of the western...

  13. Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahesh, P. A.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Ogorodova, L.; Potts, J.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; Versteeg, S. A.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2016-01-01

    Data are lacking regarding the prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among general population in India. We report the prevalence of sensitization and probable food allergy to 24 common foods among adults from general population in Karnataka, South India. The study was conducted

  14. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Patra, Shraboni

    2014-01-01

    Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR = 7.99, P children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR = 15.97, P children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children. PMID:25140250

  15. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  16. Normative Trimester-Specific Thyroid Function Data from India: The State of the Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Kannan; Sanjay Kalra

    2018-01-01

    Background: International guidelines recommend using local trimester-specific normative data for TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). However, there are no unified Indian data for the same. Material and Methods: This review collates recently published data from various Indian centres and discusses the state of trimester-specific TSH ranges in the country. Results: The authors describe the strengths and limitations of available data, and support the need for pan-India data. Conclusion: To ensure...

  17. Efficiency of Health Care Sector at Sub-State Level in India: A Case of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, WHO and other individual researchers have advocated estimation of health system performance through stochastic frontier models. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate economic performance of health system. So far attempts in India have remained focused at state level analysis. This paper attempts a sub-state level analysis for an affluent Indian state, namely Punjab, by using stochastic frontier technique. Our results provide pertinent insight into state health system and facilitate health facility planning at the sub-state level. Carried out in two stages of estimation, our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing the sub-state level health system efficiency. A higher budgetary allocation for health manpower is recommended by us to improve efficiency in poorly performing districts. This may be supported by policy initiatives outside the health system by empowering women through better education and work participation.

  18. Social determinants of health in India: progress and inequities across states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

    2014-10-08

    Despite the recognized importance of social determinants of health (SDH) in India, no compilation of the status of and inequities in SDH across India has been published. To address this gap, we assessed the levels and trends in major SDH in India from 1990 onwards and explored inequities by state, gender, caste, and urbanicity. Household- and individual-level SDH indicators were extracted from national household surveys conducted between 1990 and 2011 and means were computed across population subgroups and over time. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI), a composite measure of health, education, and standard of living, was calculated for all three rounds of the National Family Health Survey, adjusting the methodology to generate comparable findings from the three datasets. Data from government agencies were analyzed to assess voting patterns, political participation, and air and water pollution. Changes in the MPI demonstrate progress in each domain over time, but high rates persist in important areas: the majority of households in India use indoor biomass fuel and have unimproved sanitation, and over one-third of households with a child under the age of 3 years have undernourished children. There are large, but narrowing, gender gaps in education indicators, but no measurable change in women's participation in governance or the labor force. Less than 25% of workers have job security and fewer than 15% have any social security benefit. Alarming rates of air pollution are observed, with particulate matter concentrations persistently above the critical level at over 50% of monitoring stations. This assessment indicates that air pollution (indoor and outdoor), child undernutrition, unimproved sanitation, employment conditions, and gender inequality are priority areas for public policy related to SDH in India.

  19. Nuclear deterrence in second tier nuclear weapon states: a case study of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear deterrence today anchors the national security of all states that possess nuclear weapons. Certain principles or requirements of nuclear deterrence are the same for all such countries. For instance, the ability to threaten with unacceptable damage, or the ability to raise the costs of an action that an adversary might want to take by threatening punishment that would make the act seem meaningless and even regrettable. But must every nuclear nation indulge in an exercise of large-scale warhead accumulation or yield refinements through nuclear testing, or creation of elaborate nuclear war fighting plans in order to claim credible deterrence? Can the practice of deterrence in the second tier states follow a different course? The study examines the manner in which India is engaged in constructing a credible and stable deterrence relationship with two of its nuclear armed adversaries, Pakistan and China with an arsenal much smaller, and command and control structures far simpler than in any of the P-5 nations. Does this difference impact the nature of its nuclear deterrence? In its efforts at creating and sustaining credible nuclear deterrence should India necessarily be expected to follow the same path and rules as those of the P-5? Would it be compelled to build hundreds of warheads and a huge weapons infrastructure? Would a deterrence based on anything less not be credible or stable? The study concludes that even countries with small nuclear arsenals behave no differently from states that possess several thousands of such weapons. The assumption that small nuclear arsenals and rudimentary command and control lend themselves to temptations of easy nuclear use is misplaced. Credible nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan or India and China would hold on the same bases it has held elsewhere - fear of nuclear destruction, imposition of unacceptable damage, and the ability to rationally calculate and weigh the benefits against the costs of use of nuclear

  20. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies.

  1. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Srinivas Gosla; Reddy, Rajgopal R.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Ettema, Anke M.; Sailer, Hermann F.; Bergé, Stefaan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies. PMID:21217978

  2. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). Results During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001). The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from 26.8% to 22.4% (P<0.001). The incidence of treatment-requiring ROP reduced from 20.7% to 16% (P=0.06), and of the treated disease, aggressive posterior ROP reduced from 20.8% to 13.1% (P=0.23) following introduction of the guidelines. Discussion Rural neonatal centers in middle-income countries have a large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge. PMID:28539801

  3. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  4. Philanthropy and the nation-state in global health: The Gates Foundation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Manjari

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, philanthropic actors such as the Gates Foundation have been understood as commanding sweeping influence in global health. They have been associated with the outsourcing of public health services, shifting of policy priorities, and the eventual sidelining of national governments. This article makes a different argument about the impact of global philanthropic actors. It focuses on the work of the Gates Foundation in India over the last decade and a half, tracing how the foundation initially circumvented the national government but then moved on to a discourse of partnership. Ironically, after an early discounting of the role of the government, the foundation later sought to transition its programmes to the state. The foundation's evolving trajectory reflects its experiences on the ground and also the difficulties of realising its original ambitions. While the foundation's work in India is marked by ebbs and flows, the state's institutions remain constant. The article argues that there is not always a straightforward marginalisation of the government vis-à-vis global philanthropic actors. Actors such as the Gates Foundation, perceived as enormously powerful in global health institutions in Geneva and New York, may have a far more qualified impact in large developing countries such as India.

  5. The One Laptop School: Equipping Rural Elementary Schools in South India Through Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jon Byker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.

  6. Exploring Heritage of a Hill State - Himachal Pradesh, in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a powerful economic development tool which creates jobs, provides new business opportunities and strengthens local economies. Starting with the local culture and already existing communities and geographies, tourism developments can enhance the interesting and unique aspects of a location. Using local traditions, beliefs, and resources reinforces the cultural heritage of a location, making these new areas thriving cultural hubs. These communities hold the social values of the residents that connect them to their culture and history, and they also promote the education of these values, which attracts tourists and visitors who are interested in understanding local culture. This increased flow of people boosts local businesses, which in turn supports the community by building a strong economic foundation, allowing the local culture to flourish and create an even more vibrant community. It is now well admired worldwide that development and management of tourism at any destination or place, requires a multi-dimensional approach (strengthen the institutional capacity, engage with multiple stakeholders, establish appropriate protocols and systems. When cultural heritage tourism development is done right, it also helps to protect our nation’s natural and cultural treasures and improve the quality of life for residents and visitors. Linking tourism with heritage and culture can do more for local economies than promoting them separately. This article explores the ethnic heritage and emphasizes on the holistic tourism development approach after considering the various heritage tourism resources available in the state.

  7. Model galena ages from Karnataka and surrounding ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, V S [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Dept. of Physics; Radhakrishna, B P [Geological Society of India, Bangalore; Jayaram, S [Department of Mines and Geology, Bangalore

    1977-02-01

    Lead isotope ratios have been measured for selected samples from the Chitradurga and Kolar schist belts, the high-grade gneisses E of Karnataka (in Tamil Nadu) and Agnigundala of Cuddapah. Most of the isotope data approximately fit a single-stage model and yield model age at 3000 m.y., 2500 m.y., 1400 m.y. and 1100 m.y. The relations with other available age data are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Karnal district, Haryana state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little work has been done on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in north India. This paper reports the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district of Haryana state, India. Materials and methods Prevalence of type 1 diabetes was assessed by a hospital-based registry and by analysis of data contributed by chemists and other physicians. Results The overall prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district is 10.20/100,000 population, with a higher prevalence in urban (26.6/100,000 as compared to rural areas (4.27/100,000. Karnal city, with a population of 222017, has a relatively high prevalence of type 1 diabetes (31.9/100,000. The prevalence in men is higher (11.56/100,000 than in women (8.6/100,000. In the 5 to 16 years age group, the prevalence is 22.22/100,000, while in the 0-5 years age group, prevalence is 3.82/100,000. Conclusions This report highlights the urban-rural and male-female gradient in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal, north India.

  9. Developing a dynamic growth model for teak plantations in India

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    Vindhya Prasad Tewari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tectona grandis (teak is one of the most important tropical timber speciesoccurring naturally in India. Appropriate growth models, based on advanced modeling techniques,are not available but are necessary for the successful management of teak stands in the country.Long-term forest planning requires mathematical models, and the principles of Dynamical SystemTheory provide a solid foundation for these. Methods The state-space approach makes it possible to accommodate disturbances and avarying environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a dynamic growthmodel based on the limited data, consisting of three annual measurements, collected from 22 teak sample plots in Karnataka, Southern India. Results A biologically consistent whole-stand growth model has been presented which uses thestate-space approach for modelling rates of change of three state-variables viz., dominant height,stems per hectare and stand basal area. Moreover, the model includes a stand volume equationas an output function to estimate this variable at any point in time. Transition functions werefitted separately and simultaneously. Moreover, a continuous autoregressive error structure isalso included in the modelling process. For fitting volume equation, generalized method of moments was used to get efficient parameter estimates under heteroscedastic conditions. Conclusions A simple model containing few free parameters performed well and is particularlywell suited to situations where available data is scarce.

  10. Restructuring the State Electricity Boards (SEB'S) in India: the case of HSEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanika, T.Bhal [Haryana State Electricity Board, HSEB, Dept. of Management (India); Abhishek, Kalra; Madhuri, Agarwal [Haryana State Electricity Board, HSEB, B. Tech, Mechanical Engineering (India)

    2001-11-01

    In India, power generation and distribution is the responsibility of the different States that have their own electricity boards through which this is done. Of late, in the wake of liberalization, many attempts have been made to reform the power sector, in the light of the poor performance of these boards. The Haryana State Electricity Board (HSEB) is the primary supplier of power in one of the States called Haryana. For quite some years, it was facing problems with revenues, low PLF etc. A review was done and counselling help sought from prominent Consultancy firms. As a result a large scale restructuring was planned. The present paper looks at the attempts of HSEB at restructuring and the consequences of the restructuring efforts. (authors)

  11. Biomass, energy and economic and natural resource differentiation in rural southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.; Giriappa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rural economy in India is as yet only partially monetized and continues to retain its semi-subsistence character, while at the same time undergoing the process of becoming more monetized and market-orientated. A large field study was conducted in rural Karnataka, a state in southern India, which uncovers the relations between the energy situations of the rural social classes and their access to labour, land, cash and physical assets. Of equal significance are regional variations in ecology, rainfall and irrigation. The study's principal focus is the rural household, but it also includes some analysis of the energy dimensions in agricultural activities and small-scale rural services. Eight villages were covered by the survey, one in each district, carefully selected to reflect the geographic, climatic, biomass-resource and socio-economic features of Karnataka. In each village an average of 55 households were studied in depth, making up a total of 450 households. Clear and marked differentiations are uncovered between the rural social classes in various aspects of energy production, purchase, sale and consumption, as well as in labour and cash inputs into the energy flows. It is found that traditional forms of biomass are still the dominant type of energy for all rural strata, and that only the rural middle class can be said to have begun the transition towards modern fuels, although its consumption of modern fuels is still negligibly small in absolute terms. The study reveals that the rural middle class faces no energy crisis, while the 'intermediate' class of the small peasantry is just about managing to make ends meet in energy terms. In contrast to this, the rural wage labour class continues to remain in a state of energy crisis. (author)

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of marine environments along the southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.; Yeats, P.A.; Smith, J.N.; Shankar, R.; Narayana, A.C.; Prakash, T.N.

    1999-01-01

    In order to estimate the rate of excessive sediment accumulation that causes navigational problems and the impacts of urban and industrial development on sediment quality, concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ca, and radioactivity levels of 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been measured in nineteen sediment cores from estuarine, lagoonal, marsh, backwater and inner shelf areas along the southwest coast of India. Sediment accumulation rates in estuarine, lagoonal, marshy areas of the Karnataka coast (ELMKC) and Cochin Backwaters (CBw) are three to six times higher than those in the adjacent inner shelf areas, consistent with the deposition of terrigenous sediments in the river-sea interaction zones. Hydrogen sulphide was detected in most of the samples; sediment colour varied from shades of gray to dark green. Sediments have lower elemental concentrations and element enrichment factors (EFs) particularly for redox sensitive elements such as Mn due to prevalence of reducing conditions in the sedimentary column. Sediments of ELMKC and CBw have a predominantly terrigenous source. They contain low Ca contents, characteristic of tropical river sediments. In contrast, a higher Ca content of inner shelf sediments off both Karnataka State (ISKS-1) and Kerala State (ISKS-2) implies the importance of additional sediment (CaCO 3 ) flux from the marine biota. Measured Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are generally low, perhaps reflecting the pristine nature of sediments. However, higher concentrations of Cr at all stations and of Zn at CBw indicate the input of Cr enriched minerals like amphibole and pyroxene from the catchment as well as Zn from anthropogenic sources. Heavy metal accumulation rates are high in estuarine, lagoonal, marsh and backwater areas along the southwest coast of India. This is not only due to the proximity of sources, but also due to high sediment accumulation rates because of the reduction of river flow in river-sea interaction zones owing to particle

  13. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

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    Ramani KV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems

  14. Most probable mixing state of aerosols in Delhi NCR, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Unknown mixing state is one of the major sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). Aerosol DRF in India is usually reported for external mixing and any deviation from this would lead to high bias and error. Limited information on aerosol composition hinders in resolving this issue in India. Here we use two years of aerosol chemical composition data measured at megacity Delhi to examine the most probable aerosol mixing state by comparing the simulated clear-sky downward surface flux with the measured flux. We consider external, internal, and four combinations of core-shell (black carbon, BC over dust; water-soluble, WS over dust; WS over water-insoluble, WINS and BC over WINS) mixing. Our analysis reveals that choice of external mixing (usually considered in satellite retrievals and climate models) seems reasonable in Delhi only in the pre-monsoon (Mar-Jun) season. During the winter (Dec-Feb) and monsoon (Jul-Sep) seasons, 'WS coating over dust' externally mixed with BC and WINS appears to be the most probable mixing state; while 'WS coating over WINS' externally mixed with BC and dust seems to be the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. Mean seasonal TOA (surface) aerosol DRF for the most probable mixing states are 4.4 ± 3.9 (- 25.9 ± 3.9), - 16.3 ± 5.7 (- 42.4 ± 10.5), 13.6 ± 11.4 (- 76.6 ± 16.6) and - 5.4 ± 7.7 (- 80.0 ± 7.2) W m- 2 respectively in the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Our results highlight the importance of realistic mixing state treatment in estimating aerosol DRF to aid in policy making to combat climate change.

  15. Oral Health Status and Normative Needs of College Students in Mangalore, Karnataka

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    Lalithambigai G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-oriented oral health promotion programmes can be efficiently targeted by assessing the oral health status comprehensively. Aim: To investigate oral health status and normative needs of college students in Mangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was done among 720, 18–20-year-old students attending degree colleges in Mangalore using multi-stage random sampling. Oral health status was recorded as per World Health Organization oral health assessment form. The data were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11.5 version software. Results: Overall dental caries prevalence accounted to 68.1%, with a mean Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (DMFT of 1.94 [males had higher DMFT score (2.06 than females (1.82], and majority of the students required one surface restoration. Periodontal status of the students as measured by Community Periodontal Index (CPI showed that majority of the study participants (34.9% had calculus necessitating the need for oral prophylaxis. Conclusion: Oral health status of the age groups not traditionally studied gives the complete picture of the oral disease burden, indicating the need of oral heath preventive measures among college students in India.

  16. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18-30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  17. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  18. The challenges of a good use of electricity: China, United States, India and the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    2011-01-01

    After a discussion of the peculiar characteristics of electricity as energy vector (electricity production, transport and distribution, usages, the issue of load curves and power), this report identifies and discusses criteria corresponding to a 'good use' of electricity. These criteria are related to several issues: greenhouse gas emissions, availability and costs of natural resources, safety, local and global environment, economical and social issues. These issues are addressed through the examination of electricity consumption in China and India, of its evolution in comparison with two other regions (United States and Europe). A third part discusses opportunities and perspectives of a good use of electricity in China and India, in the main socio-economic sectors, and their consequences for the environment, for the preservation of natural resources, and for the Indian and Chinese economy. These aspects are also addressed in comparison with the United States and Europe. Thus, the authors highlight the contrast between the electricity consumption curves for some sectors depending on strategic choices by the Chinese and Indian governments

  19. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

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    Siraj A. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP state. Serum samples (n = 164 collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas.

  20. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

  1. An assessment of the impact of energy insecurity on state stability in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varigonda, Kesava Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relation between energy insecurity and state stability in India. Primarily it looks at the ways in which specific aspects of energy insecurity impact the stability of the Indian state. The paper contends that energy insecurity in the form of fuel supply and electricity supply insecurities gives rise to social and political instability, which in extreme forms could lead to state destabilisation. A combination of inadequate and unreasonably priced fuel supply gives rise to instability in the social and political spheres; if the fuel supply is also unreliable, it could lead to chronic socio-political instability. Likewise, a combination of inadequate and unreliable electricity supply could, in certain instances, cause limited social instability; if this is also accompanied by an electricity price hike, it could lead to chronic socio-political instability. Chronic socio-political instability in an already weakened state could facilitate state destabilisation. - Highlights: • Studies the impact of energy insecurity on the stability of the Indian state. • Secondary sources from press releases of the last three decades are examined. • Fuel supply and electricity supply insecurities cause socio-political instability. • Chronic socio-political instability may lead to destabilisation of a week state

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

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    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  3. Studies on indoor radon concentrations in Karimanagar district of Telangana State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas Reddy, G.; Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Ch Gopal Reddy, P.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Karimnagar district of Telangana state in India falls geologically under the Karimnagar Granulite Terrain (KGT) and, is well known for several types of granites. Studies revealed that the radiation levels are elevated with these granitic rocks. The indoor radon concentrations are estimated in about 80 dwellings, selected randomly in Karimnagar district, using LR-115 Type-II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors based Twin Chamber Cup dosimeters for a period of one year on quarterly basis. The dose rates due to the radon concentrations are calculated. The seasonal variations of the indoor radon concentrations have been studied. Further, the dependency of indoor radon concentrations on different types of dwellings is also discussed in the present paper. (author)

  4. Development and Implementation of a Novel Prehospital Care System in the State of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather A; Douglass, Katherine A; Ejas, Shafi; Poovathumparambil, Venugopalan

    2016-12-01

    Most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have struggled to find a system for prehospital care that can provide adequate patient care and geographical coverage while maintaining a feasible price tag. The emergency medical systems of the Western world are not necessarily relevant in developing economic systems, given the lack of strict legislation, the scarcity of resources, and the limited number of trained personnel. Meanwhile, most efforts to provide prehospital care in India have taken the form of adapting Western models to the Indian context with limited success. Described here is a novel approach to prehospital care designed for and implemented in the State of Kerala, India. The Active Network Group of Emergency Life Savers (ANGELS) was launched in 2011 in Calicut City, the third largest city in the Indian State of Kerala. The ANGELS integrated an existing fleet of private and state-owned ambulances into a single network utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and a single statewide call number. A total of 85 volunteer emergency medical certified technicians (EMCTs) were trained in basic first aid and trauma care principles. Public awareness campaigns accompanied all activities to raise awareness amongst community members. Funding was provided via public-private partnership, aimed to minimize costs to patients for service utilization. Over a two-year period from March 2011 to April 2013, 8,336 calls were recorded, of which 54.8% (4,569) were converted into actual ambulance run sheets. The majority of calls were for medical emergencies and most patients were transported to Medical College Hospital in Calicut. This unique public-private partnership has been responsive to the needs of the population while sustaining low operational costs. This system may provide a relevant template for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) development in other resource-limited settings. Brown HA , Douglass KA , Ejas S , Poovathumparambil V . Development and

  5. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  6. Indigenous perspectives on depression in rural regions of India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Pepper, Carolyn M; Maack, Danielle J; Birgenheir, Denis G

    2011-11-01

    Depression is a major health concern in India, yet indigenous Indian perspectives on depression have often been disregarded in favor of Western conceptualizations. The present study used quantitative and qualitative measures modeled on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to elicit beliefs about the symptoms, causes, treatments, and stigma associated with depression. Data were collected from 92 students at a university in the Himalayan region of Northern India and from 97 students at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. U.S. participants in this study were included primarily to approximate a "Western baseline" (in which professional conceptions of depression are predominantly rooted) from which to elucidate Indian perspectives. Compared to U.S. participants, Indian participants were more likely to view restive symptoms (e.g., irritation, anxiety, difficulty thinking) as common features of depression, to view depression as the result of personally controllable causes (e.g., failure), to endorse social support and spiritual reflection or relaxation (e.g., yoga, meditation) as useful means for dealing with depression, and to associate stigma with depression. Efforts aimed at reducing depression among Indians should focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as yoga, meditation, and increasing social support.

  7. The Impact of General Strike on Government Healthcare Delivery in Kerala State in India

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    Aasems Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General strike (also known as hartal is used as a mode of protest by organizations and political parties in India. It is generally thought that hartals negatively impact the healthcare delivery in a society. We used the Right to Information Act to obtain data from government health centers in Kerala state in India for four hartal days (H-day and two control days (A-day and B-day for each H-day, from sixteen health centers including 6 Community Health Center (CHC, 6 Secondary Health Center (SHC, and 4 Tertiary Health Center (THC. Data on emergency room visits was available for six HCs. 15 HCs had a statistically significant decrease in the number of outpatient visits on H-day. There was no difference in the number of outpatient visits between the two control days (A and B in 15 HCs, suggesting the lack of a posthartal surge in visits. Median decrease in outpatient visits in CHCs, SHCs, and THCs was 50.4%, 59.5%, and 47.4%, respectively. Hartal did not impact the number of emergency room visits in 6 out of 7 health centers assessed. Our study identified a significant harmful impact on government healthcare delivery due to hartals in Kerala. These findings have major public health implications.

  8. Serological Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection among Bats in Nagaland, a North-Eastern State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, R S; Dovih, D P; Ashwini, M A; Chattopadhyay, B; Harsha, P K; Garg, K M; Sudarshan, S; Puttaswamaiah, R; Ramakrishnan, U; Madhusudana, S N

    2017-06-01

    Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.

  9. Ecological context of infant mortality in high-focus states of India

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    Laishram Ladusingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This goal of this study was to shed light on the ecological context as a potential determinant of the infant mortality rate in nine high-focus states in India. METHODS: Data from the Annual Health Survey (2010-2011, the Census of India (2011, and the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08 were used in this study. In multiple regression analysis explanatory variable such as underdevelopment is measured by the non-working population, and income inequality, quantified as the proportion of households in the bottom wealth quintile. While, the trickle-down effect of education is measured by female literacy, and investment in health, as reflected by neonatal care facilities in primary health centres. RESULTS: A high spatial autocorrelation of district infant mortality rates was observed, and ecological factors were found to have a significant impact on district infant mortality rates. The result also revealed that non-working population and income inequality were found to have a negative effect on the district infant mortality rate. Additionally, female literacy and new-born care facilities were found to have an inverse association with the infant mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions at the community level can reduce district infant mortality rates.

  10. How Culture Influences the "Social" in Social Media: Socializing and Advertising on Smartphones in India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; La Ferle, Carrie; Sung, Yongjun

    2015-06-01

    The importance of the mobile phone is evidenced by predictions that there will be 1.76 billion smartphone users worldwide at the start of 2015. A country that is spearheading this movement toward the digital era is India. To illustrate this, India is expected to surpass the United States in 2015 and record the second highest smartphone sales globally. Despite the rising penetration and adoption of smartphones, there is limited advertising research that sheds light on the Indian smartphone user. The current study aims to fill that void by cross-culturally comparing a national online panel of smartphone users from India (n=158) with users from the United States (n=114). Findings reveal that entertainment impacts Indians' attitudes toward smartphone advertising while informativeness is stronger for the American sample. Collectivism was found to be the driving force behind socializing activities on social networking sites for Indian consumers. Implications are discussed.

  11. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  12. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Clayton H; Lau, Elsa; Miller, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of 40 spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education was directly

  13. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Hoi-Yun McClintock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of forty spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education

  14. Species and acoustic diversity of bats in a palaeotropical wet evergreen forest in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuram, H; Jain, M; Balakrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India is among the top 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. About 43% of the reported 117 bat species in India are found in this region, but few quantitative studies of bat echolocation calls and diversity have been carried out here thus far. A quantitative study of bat diversity was therefore conducted using standard techniques, including mist-netting, acoustical and roost surveys in the wet evergreen forests of Kudremukh National Park in the Western Ghats of Karnataka...

  15. Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

    2013-01-01

    To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers.

  16. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  17. A methodology for the electrical energy system planning of Tamil Nadu state (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.; Dicorato, M.; Forte, G.; Iniyan, S.; Trovato, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an energy planning optimisation procedure of a selected territory is illustrated and applied using an energy flow optimisation model. The developed approach takes into account various electricity generating options to meet the energy needs of various demand sectors. Energy saving techniques and hybrid technologies are considered and various scenarios are developed by assessing the contribution of renewable energy technologies over the planning period. The procedure aims to reduce the total actualised cost of energy generation over selected time horizon and predicts the additional installations required along with the existing facilities to meet the energy demand. At the same time the role of renewable energy technologies and of energy saving measures is evaluated by imposing suitable constraints on CO 2 emissions and primary energy sources exploitation. The procedure is applied to the territory of Tamil Nadu state (India) by considering different energy planning scenarios

  18. Biogovernance Beyond the State: The Shaping of Stem Cell Therapy by Patient Organizations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmeyer, Carolyn

    2017-04-01

    Public engagement through government-sponsored "public consultations" in biomedical innovation, specifically stem cell research and therapy, has been relatively limited in India. However, patient groups are drawing upon collaborations with medical practitioners to gain leverage in promoting biomedical research and the conditions under which patients can access experimental treatments. Based on qualitative fieldwork conducted between 2012 and 2015, I examine the ways in which two patient groups engaged with debates around how experimental stem cell therapy should be regulated, given the current lack of legally binding research guidelines. Such processes of engagement can be seen as an alternative form of biomedical governance which responds to the priorities and exigencies of Indian patients, contrasting with the current measures taken by the Indian state which, instead, are primarily directed at the global scientific and corporate world.

  19. Plant wealth of a sacred grove: Mallur Gutta, Telangana state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthari S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sateesh Suthari,1 Ramesh Kandagalta,2 Ajmeera Ragan,2 Vatsavaya S Raju,2 1Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, 2Plant Systematics Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India Abstract: The Mallur Gutta (Hill of Warangal district in Telangana state, India, reputed as a habitat for medicinal plants, was inventoried from 2009 to 2015 for its plant wealth through the traditional knowledge of the local people. The Hindu temples of Lord Sri Laxminarasimha Swamy and Lord Hanuman, and the ethnic worship of mahua trees indicated it was a sacred grove which was selected as a Medicinal Plants Conservation Area. The exploration of Mallur Gutta resulted in the enumeration and documentation of plant wealth representing 470 species of 318 genera pertaining to 95 families of vascular plants. The importance of the grove as the residence for many rare or medicinal species in the state of Telangana is documented. The plant diversity is analyzed in terms of growth and life forms which indicate the prevailing microclimate, ecological opportunities and the species richness. The ecological services rendered by the Mallur Gutta forest ecosystem are documented to study how the great majority of the species are used by the ethnic and nonethnic people, and also the pilgrims who visit the shrine for its serenity. The study also identified two major threats to the conservation of hill ecosystem and the archeological site: 1 biotic pressure (the ever-increasing pilgrims, grazing by cattle, goat and sheep, the development activities taken up for the pilgrims, nondegradable litter thrown, collection of medicinal plants and widening of the pathway to the Chintamani perennial stream – the trampling and alien plant invasions of the marsh sustaining the stream; and 2 the potential for fire spreading from burning the litter. The study suggests the need to initiate remedial measures toward ecosystem

  20. State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare changes in gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. Around 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. They adopted very different paths of development, which are well known to have profoundly affected development outcomes....

  1. A review of the potential of renewable energy sources for the State of Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, Arsalan; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with expected shortages. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy-conservation and energy-efficiency can make an important contribution in the national energy strategy, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are likely to play an increasingly important role for the growth of grid power, providing energy access, reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and helping India pursue its low carbon progressive pathway. However, most of the states in India, like the northernmost State of Jammu and Kashmir (J and K), have experienced an energy crisis over a sustained period of time. As India intends to be one of the emerging powers of the 21st century, it has to embark upon with these pressing issues in a more sustainable manner and accordingly initiate various renewable energy projects within these states. This paper will provide a broad-spectrum view about the energy situation within J and K and will highlight the current policies along with future strategies for the optimal utilization of renewable energy resources. - Highlights: → To present an overview of the current energy situation in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, India. → To analyze the potential of the various renewable energy resources available in the State given the existing constraints. → To state the challenges of the administration to incentivize the participation of private initiative in energy development.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India

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    Kumar G Anil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.

  3. Instilling fear makes good business sense: unwarranted hysterectomies in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Teena; Vasan, Akhila; S, Vijayakumar

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses data from two fact-finding exercises in two districts of Karnataka to trace how government and private doctors alike pushed women to undergo hysterectomies. The doctors provided grossly unscientific information to poor Dalit women to instil a fear of "cancer" in their minds to wilfully mislead them to undergo hysterectomies, following which many suffered complications and died. The paper examines a review, made by two separate panels of experts, of women's medical records from private hospitals to illustrate that a large proportion of the hysterectomies performed were medically unwarranted; that private doctors were using highly suspect diagnostic criteria, based on a single ultrasound scan, to perform the hysterectomies and had not sent even a single sample for histopathology; and that the medical records were incomplete, erroneous and, in several instances, manipulated. The paper describes how a combination of patriarchal bias, professional unscrupulousness and pro-private healthcare policies posed a serious threat to the survival and well-being of women in Karnataka.

  4. Awareness regarding risk factors, symptoms and treatment facilities for cancer in selected states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sherin; Piang, Lam Khan; Nair, K S; Tiwari, V K; Kaur, H; Singh, Bacchu

    2012-01-01

    To study the level of awareness and knowledge about cancers and associated risk factors among households in selected states of India. In the study 3070 households were interviewed from six states viz, West Bengal, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Mizoram. Knowledge of cancers other than those related to tobacco was very low (prostate 8%, colon 11% ) among the communities, with a poor awareness of warning signs and symptoms. The knowledge varied from state to state. It is found that the major source of information related to cancers was television (38%) followed by friends and relatives (36%). Only about 15 % of respondents had knowledge about cancer awareness camps organized in their districts but they did not have knowledge about the organizers of the camp. Findings suggested a strong need for strengthening of DCCP. It is important to create awareness among community through educational programs on cancer prevention, preventable cancer risk factors, benefits of early diagnosis, and availability of screening facilities. Integration of District Cancer Control activities with NRHM could be the most cost-effective strategy to prevent cancers and rural population.

  5. Strengthening diabetes retinopathy services in India: Qualitative insights into providers' perspectives: The India 11-city 9-state study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Kishore Kannuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a lack of evidence on the subjective aspects of the provider perspective regarding diabetes and its complications in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to understand the providers' perspective on the delivery of health services for diabetes and its complications, specifically the eye complications in India. Settings and Design: Hospitals providing diabetic services in government and private sectors were selected in 11 of the largest cities in India, based on geographical distribution and size. Methods: Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews conducted with physicians providing diabetes care were analyzed all interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Nvivo 10 software was used to code the transcripts. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Results: The results are presented as key themes: “Challenges in managing diabetes patients,” “Current patient management practices,” and “Strengthening diabetic retinopathy (DR services at the health systems level.” Diabetes affects people early across the social classes. Self-management was identified as an important prerequisite in controlling diabetes and its complications. Awareness level of hospital staff on DR was low. Advances in medical technology have an important role in effective management of DR. A team approach is required to provide comprehensive diabetic care. Conclusions: Sight-threatening DR is an impending public health challenge that needs a concerted effort to tackle it. A streamlined, multi-dimensional approach where all the stakeholders cooperate is important to strengthening services dealing with DR in the existing health care setup.

  6. Prevalence of β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in India: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, D; Colah, R B; Gorakshakar, A C; Patel, R Z; Master, D C; Mahanta, J; Sharma, S K; Chaudhari, U; Ghosh, M; Das, S; Britt, R P; Singh, S; Ross, C; Jagannathan, L; Kaul, R; Shukla, D K; Muthuswamy, V

    2013-01-01

    The population of India is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of β-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of India is scarce. Therefore the present multicentre study was undertaken in six cities of six states of India (Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka and Punjab) to determine the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups using uniform methodology. Fifty-six thousand seven hundred eighty individuals (college students and pregnant women) from different caste/ethnic groups were screened. RBC indices were measured on an automated haematology counter while the percentage of HbA(2), HbF and other abnormal Hb variants were estimated by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System. The overall prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was 2.78 % and varied from 1.48 to 3.64 % in different states, while the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait in 59 ethnic groups varied from 0 to 9.3 %. HbE trait was mainly seen in Dibrugarh in Assam (23.9 %) and Kolkata in West Bengal (3.92 %). In six ethnic groups from Assam, the prevalence of HbE trait varied from 41.1 to 66.7 %. Few subjects with δβ-thalassemia, HPFH, HbS trait, HbD trait, HbE homozygous and HbE β-thalassemia as well as HbS homozygous and HbS-β-thalassemia (India.

  7. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  8. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the

  9. Characteristics of suicidal attempts among farmers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, farming as an industry is considered a high-risk occupation for suicides. Certain states in India like Karnataka have a suicide rate higher than the national average, and this is generally attributed to the farmers' suicide. Aims: The aim is to study the characteristics of suicidal attempts among the farmer community in South India, with special emphasis on gender differences, modes used, and the immediate precipitant causes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, case register-based, explorative-descriptive study of 426 consecutive medicolegal case files of patients whose stated occupation was farming and who were admitted as cases of deliberate self-harm or suicide attempt to a rural tertiary care hospital in rural South India. Results: Out of the 426 farmers who attempted suicide, majority were male (355, 83.3%, in the age group of 21–40 years (318, 75%, married (358, 84%, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status (268, 62.9%. About 54% of them had attempted suicide by consuming pesticides (230. Surprisingly, 183 (43% and 86 (20.2% reported the immediate precipitant as being relationship issues and marital conflict, respectively, and only 100 (23.5% attributed it to financial reasons. Females were significantly associated with a past history of suicidal attempt while males tended to abuse alcohol before an attempt more frequently. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning was the most common mode for attempting suicide among the farmers. Contrary to public perception and other studies, relationship, and marital issues, not financial reasons were found to be the most common immediate precipitant for the attempters in our study.

  10. Capacity Building for collecting primary data through Crowdsourcing - An Example of Disaster affected Uttarakhand State (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Raju, P. L. N.; Srivastav, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Mitra, D.; Karnatak, H.; Saran, S.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Shiva Reddy, K.; Gupta, K.; Swamy, M.; Deshmukh, A.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Bothale, V.; Diwakar, P. G.; Ravikumar, M. V.; Leisely, A.; Arulraj, M.; Kumar, S.; Rao, S. S.; Singh Rawat, R.; Pathak, D. M.; Dutt, V.; Negi, D.; Singh, J.; Shukla, K. K.; Tomar, A.; Ahmed, N.; Singh, B.; Singh, A. K.; Shiva Kumar, R.

    2014-11-01

    Uttarakhand State of India suffered a widespread devastation in June 2013 due to floods caused by excessive rain in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and landslides. Restoration process in this mountainous State calls for scientifically sound planning so that the vulnerabilities and risks to such natural hazards are minimised and developmental processes are sustainable in long run. Towards this, an understanding of the patterns and major controls of damage of the recent disaster is a key requirement which can be achieved only if the primary data on locations and types of damage along with other local site conditions are available. Considering widespread damage, tough nature of terrain and the need for collecting the primary data on damage in shortest possible time, crowdsourcing approach was considered to be the most viable solution. Accordingly, a multiinstitutional initiative called "Map the Neighbourhood in Uttarakhand" (MANU) was conceptualised with the main objective of collecting primary data on damage through participation of local people (mainly students) using state-of-art tools and technologies of data collection and a mechanism to integrate the same with Bhuvan geo-portal (www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in) in near real-time. Geospatial analysis of crowd-sourced points with different themes has been carried out subsequently for providing inputs to restoration planning and for future developmental activities. The present paper highlights the capacity building aspect in enabling the data collection process using crowdsourcing technology.

  11. Sowing the Seeds of Soft Power: The United States and India in the Next Great Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Popular Cinema , Nation, and Diaspora (New York: Anthem Press, 2010). 5 Figure 2. Indian Global Perceptions Source: Bruce Stokes, “How Indians See...East India Army won a decisive battle against the Mughals and their French allies. As a result of the battle, the English East India Company assumed...influences as a source of soft power, but actually serves to further this point. In examining India, one see’s that the Indians’ love of cinema can

  12. Impact of community-based mitanin programme on undernutrition in rural Chhattisgarh State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C; Kalita, Anuska; Mondal, Shinjini; Malik, Richa

    2014-03-01

    Community health workers known as mitanins undertook family-level counseling and mobilized the community to improve coverage of maternal and child health services in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The Nutrition Security Innovation (NSI) project was launched in selected blocks with additional inputs for promoting appropriate complementary feeding practices and disseminating information on Public Distribution System (PDS) entitlement. Within 3 years of project implementation, all NSI inputs in the project group (PG) were scaled up in the entire state. To study the impact of interventions on nutritional status in PG and non-NSI comparison group (CG) blocks. Quasi-experimental mixed methods were used. The sample consisted of 3,626 households with children under 3 years of age and 268 mitanins. A ratio of 1 mitanin per 250 to 500 population was effective. The coverage of exclusive breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding, DPT immunization, and antenatal care services was more than 70%. The PDS reached almost 90% of beneficiaries. In both the PG and the CG, one-third of children were undernourished, with one-quarter of children undernourished by 6 months of age. The prevalence of low birthweight was over 40%, and half of all women were undernourished. The estimated annual average reduction rate (AARR) for the entire state was estimated to be 4.22% for underweight and 5.64% for stunting. The strategy of Mitanin Programme in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh was unique with the implementation of direct nutrition actions being spearheaded by the health sector and community health volunteers in coordination with the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and the Public Distribution System (PDS). The highest priority was given to interventions in the first 92 weeks of life. This implied ensuring frequent counseling and delivery of services through the entire pregnancy period and continued follow up till the children were at least one year of age. An

  13. Do clinical trials conducted in India match its healthcare needs? An audit of the Clinical Trials Registry of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Chaturvedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India continues to contribute disproportionately to the global burden of disease and public health research output from India is also known to be not commensurate with her healthcare needs. We carried out the present study to assess if clinical trials were in line with the health care needs of the country by auditing the clinical trials registry of India. Materials and Methods: All the clinical studies registered in CTRI between July 20, 2007 and December 31, 2015 were searched in the “Trial Search” section. The total number of studies, their phases of development, and therapeutic areas were assessed. Trials in each therapeutic area was compared with the disease burden (DALYs in that area taken from Global Health Estimates [2014] Summary Tables of the WHO. The number of trials conducted per state in India was also compared with the population of that state [Census 2011]. Results: A total of 6474 studies were registered of which 3325 (51.4% were clinical trials. The state of Maharashtra had the highest number trials [16.4%] followed by Karnataka ( 11.6% and Tamil Nadu (10%. Populous states like Uttar Pradesh (5.3% and Bihar (1.4% had far fewer trials. The largest number of trials was in the area of cancer (16.4%, followed by diabetes (12.1% and cardiovascular diseases (10.1%. Infectious and parasitic diseases had the highest DALYs (82,681 and ranked first in disease burden but accounted for only 5% of the total trials and ranked 7th according to number of trials. Cancer ranked first in the number of trials (16.4%, but ranked 6th based on DALYs. Conclusion: Clinical trials conducted in India are not in consonance with her health care needs. Strengthening the capacity for conducting trials in the populous states and the north-eastern part of the country is necessary to allow a more equitable selection of participants. The government should introduce policies to encourage new drug development in areas where needed the most.

  14. The zone of social abandonment in cultural geography: on the street in the United States, inside the family in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrow, Jocelyn; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie

    2012-09-01

    This essay examines the spaces across societies in which persons with severe mental illness lose meaningful social roles and are reduced to "bare life." Comparing ethnographic and interview data from the United States and India, we suggest that these processes of exclusion take place differently: on the street in the United States, and in the family household in India. We argue that cultural, historical, and economic factors determine which spaces become zones of social abandonment across societies. We compare strategies for managing and treating persons with psychosis across the United States and India, and demonstrate that the relative efficiency of state surveillance of populations and availability of public social and psychiatric services, the relative importance of family honor, the extent to which a culture of psychopharmaceutical use has penetrated social life, and other historical features, contribute to circumstances in which disordered Indian persons are more likely to be forcefully "hidden" in domestic space, whereas mentally ill persons in the United States are more likely to be expelled to the street. However, in all locations, social marginalization takes place by stripping away the subject's efficacy in social communication. That is, the socially "dead" lose communicative efficacy, a predicament, following Agamben, we describe as "bare voice."

  15. Pattern of fractures and dislocations in a tertiary care hospital, north east Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara K, Padmanabha T S, Nandini T, Sindhu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma including accidents are today’s world concern forming a major non-communicable epidemic accounting for mortality and morbidity. The aim of the study was to determine and account the types of fractures and dislocations presented to Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences (BRIMS, Bidar, Karnataka, India. Methods and Material: This study is of retrospective in nature with a review of hospital inpatient case sheets of orthopaedic department in our hospital presented between July 2011 to Dec 2011. The data gathered was analysed by percentages. Results: Out of 132 cases analysed males (82.56%, outnumbered female (17.42%; 67.42 % of cases were between 18-45 years age group; femur (22.17 % was the most commonly involved bone followed by tibia (13.21%, foot (10.85%; tibia & fibular (8.96% involvement. Less common were spine (0.47%, vertebra (0.94% and scapula (0.94%. Fracture-dislocation was more common in lower limb (59.91% – ankle joint was most common-50% compared to upper limb (30.66%- shoulder joint: 12.5%. Conclusions: Among of 132 cases admitted 212 fractures & dislocation was noted. Male (82.56% was more common than females (17.42%. Age group most commonly involved was between 18-45 years (67.42%. Fracture was more common in femur (22.17% & dislocation was common in hip (42.86% because of high velocity injury. Approach towards the prevention of accidents by effective safety education, good roads and early intervention which is the need of the hour. Effective drugs should be made available in the casuality so that crush injuries are managed without complications like septicemia and tetanus.

  16. Three new species of tube-dwelling spider genus Ariadna Audouin, 1826 (Araneae: Segestriidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliwal, Manju; Yadav, Archana; Kumar, Dolly

    2017-12-05

    The tube-dwelling spider family Segestriidae is represented in India by only two species, Ariadna nebulosa Simon, 1906 and Segestria inda Simon, 1906. Both species are known only from their type localities. For about 96 years, there has been no report of these spiders from the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe three new species based on female specimens from India. Ariadna vansda sp. nov. from Gujarat; A. molur sp. nov., and A. chhotae sp. nov. from Karnataka.

  17. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  18. Spending to save? State health expenditure and infant mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2007-09-01

    There are severe inequalities in health in the world, poor health being concentrated amongst poor people in poor countries. Poor countries spend a much smaller share of national income on health expenditure than do richer countries. What potential lies in political or growth processes that raise this share? This depends upon how effective government health spending in developing countries is. Existing research presents little evidence of an impact on childhood mortality. Using specifications similar to those in the existing literature, this paper finds a similar result for India, which is that state health spending saves no lives. However, upon allowing lagged effects, controlling in a flexible way for trended unobservables and restricting the sample to rural households, a significant effect of health expenditure on infant mortality emerges, the long run elasticity being about -0.24. There are striking differences in the impact by social group. Slicing the data by gender, birth order, religion, maternal and paternal education and maternal age at birth, I find the weakest effects in the most vulnerable groups (with the exception of a large effect for scheduled tribes). Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Burden of anaemia in rural and urban jat women in haryana state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninder, Kaur; Kochar, G K

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 600 Jat women (rural=300, urban=300), aged 40 to 70 years from Haryana state in North India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the dietary intake of rural and urban middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60 and above) Jat women. The findings indicated that all the subjects exhibited a decline in the mean values of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration with advancement in age. The mean blood Hb concentration of urban middle-aged and older women was 10.1±1.3g/dl and 9.91.4g/dl respectively, which was higher than their rural counterparts at all age groups, although the differences were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The overall prevalence of anaemia reached 88.7% (rural women= 91.3%, urban women =86%). Daily dietary intake of rural and urban subjects was below the recommended dietary allowances. Physical performance of both groups of the women showed a decline with a decrease in Hb concentration. A significant and positive correlation of Hb status was observed with grip strength and vital capacity while a negative association was witnessed with blood pressure and pulse rate in both the rural and urban women. Anaemia among these women may be attributed to inadequate dietary intake, illiteracy, and poor access to health services.

  1. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management.

  2. Determination of Phosphate in Water Samples of Nashik District (Maharashtra State, India Rivers by UV-Visible Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevan J. Kharat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of Nashik District (Maharashtra State, India are Godavari, Kadawa, Girna, Punad and Mosam. The major water pollutant of Nashik District Rivers is Phosphate. The amount of phosphate has been determined by the molybdenum blue phosphorous method in conjugation with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The data has been analyzed by least square method. The more phosphate polluted river in Nashik district is Godavari. The least phosphate polluted river in Nashik District is Punad.

  3. Determination of Phosphate in Water Samples of Nashik District (Maharashtra State, India) Rivers by UV-Visible Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kharat, Sanjeevan J.; Pagar, Sanjay D.

    2009-01-01

    The major rivers of Nashik District (Maharashtra State, India) are Godavari, Kadawa, Girna, Punad and Mosam. The major water pollutant of Nashik District Rivers is Phosphate. The amount of phosphate has been determined by the molybdenum blue phosphorous method in conjugation with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The data has been analyzed by least square method. The more phosphate polluted river in Nashik district is Godavari. The least phosphate polluted river in Nashik District is Punad.

  4. Differences in dermatology training abroad: A comparative analysis of dermatology training in the United States and in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jhorar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dermatology residency training is not standardized internationally, and each country dictates how training is conducted within its own borders. This article highlights the types of variability in training that can occur from country to country by comparing dermatology residency training programs in the United States and India. This article specifically analyzes the differences that pertain to application and selection, residency program structure, and post-residency opportunities.

  5. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Biswal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ, crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test, milk (Ross test, and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760 entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0% in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8% in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6% in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management

  6. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Sangram; Nayak, Dhruba Charan; Sardar, Kautuk Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ), crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF) cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test), milk (Ross test), and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L) in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760) entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0%) in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8%) in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6%) in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management, and control

  7. Factors influencing women's preference for health facility deliveries in Jharkhand state, India: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Srivastava, Aradhana; Roy, Reetabrata; Avan, Bilal I

    2016-03-07

    Expanding institutional deliveries is a policy priority to achieve MDG5. India adopted a policy to encourage facility births through a conditional cash incentive scheme, yet 28% of deliveries still occur at home. In this context, it is important to understand the care experience of women who have delivered at home, and also at health facilities, analyzing any differences, so that services can be improved to promote facility births. This study aims to understand women's experience of delivery care during home and facility births, and the factors that influence women's decisions regarding their next place of delivery. A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in a district of Jharkhand state in India. Interviews with 500 recently delivered women (210 delivered at facility and 290 delivered at home) included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of their recent delivery, and preference of future delivery site. Data analysis included frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regressions. There is no major difference in the experience of care between home and facility births, the only difference in care being with regard to pain relief through massage, injection and low cost of delivery for those having home births. 75% women wanted to deliver their next child at a facility, main reasons being availability of medicine (29.4%) and perceived health benefits for mother and baby (15%). Women with higher education (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.04-3.07), women who were above 25 years (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.26-3.64), who currently delivered at facility (AOR = 5.19, 95% CI = 2.97-9.08) and had health problem post-delivery (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.08-3.19) were significant predictors of future facility-based delivery. The predictors for facility deliveries include, availability of medicines and supplies, potential health benefits for the mother and newborn and the perception of good care from the providers. There is a growing

  8. Postnatal depression among rural women in South India: do socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome have a role to play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Gururaj, Nandihal

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is one of the most common psychopathology and is considered as a serious public health issue because of its devastating effects on mother, family, and infant or the child. To elicit socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome predictors of Postnatal Depression (PND) among rural postnatal women in Karnataka state, India. Hospital based analytical cross sectional study. A rural tertiary care hospital of Mandya District, Karnataka state, India. PND prevalence based estimated sample of 102 women who came for postnatal follow up from 4th to 10th week of lactation. Study participants were interviewed using validated kannada version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Cut-off score of ≥ 13 was used as high risk of PND. The percentage of women at risk of PND was estimated, and differences according to socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome were described. Logistic regression was applied to identify the independent predictors of PND risk. Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR of PND. Prevalence of PND was 31.4% (95% CI 22.7-41.4%). PND showed significant (P women, non-farmer husbands, poverty, female baby and pregnancy complications or known medical illness. In binomial logistic regression poverty (adjOR: 11.95, 95% CI:1.36-105), birth of female baby (adjOR: 3.6, 95% CI:1.26-10.23) and pregnancy complications or known medical illness (adjOR: 17.4, 95% CI:2.5-121.2) remained as independent predictors of PND. Risk of PND among rural postnatal women was high (31.4%). Birth of female baby, poverty and complications in pregnancy or known medical illness could predict the high risk of PND. PND screening should be an integral part of postnatal care. Capacity building of grass root level workers and feasibility trials for screening PND by them are needed.

  9. Status of domestic wastewater management in relation to drinking-water supply in two states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R A; Kaul, S N

    2000-01-01

    In India, supply of drinking water, treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater including faecal matter are managed by local bodies. The existing status of water supply, characteristics of domestic wastewater, modes of collection, treatment and disposal system for sewage and faecal matter in 82 municipalities and 4 municipal corporations were assessed in the States of Bihar and West Bengal in India. Domestic wastewater in the municipal areas is collected and discharged through open kachha (earthen), pucca (cement-concrete) and natural drains and discharged into water courses or disposed on land. Scavenger carriage system for night soil disposal is in-vogue at several places in the surveyed States. Open defecation by the inhabitants in some of the municipalities also occurs. The existing methods of collection, treatment and disposal of sewage impairs the water quality of different water sources. Techno-economically viable remedial measures for providing basic amenities, namely safe drinking-water supply and proper sanitation to the communities of these two States of India are suggested and discussed.

  10. Sustained progress, but no room for complacency: Results of 2015 HIV estimations in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind; Dhingra, Neeraj; Kumar, Pradeep; Sahu, Damodar; Reddy, D.C.S.; Narayan, Padum; Raj, Yujwal; Sangal, Bhavna; Chandra, Nalini; Nair, Saritha; Singh, Jitenkumar; Chavan, Laxmikant; Srivastava, Deepika Joshi; Jha, Ugra Mohan; Verma, Vinita; Kant, Shashi; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Swain, Pushpanjali; Haldar, Partha; Singh, Lucky; Bakkali, Taoufik; Stover, John; Ammassari, Savina

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Evidence-based planning has been the cornerstone of India's response to HIV/AIDS. Here we describe the process, method and tools used for generating the 2015 HIV estimates and provide a summary of the main results. Methods: Spectrum software supported by the UNAIDS was used to produce HIV estimates for India as a whole and its States/Union Territories. This tool takes into consideration the size and HIV prevalence of defined population groups and programme data to estimate HIV prevalence, incidence and mortality over time as well as treatment needs. Results: India's national adult prevalence of HIV was 0.26 per cent in 2015. Of the 2.1 million people living with HIV/AIDS, the largest numbers were in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. New HIV infections were an estimated 86,000 in 2015, reflecting a decline by around 32 per cent from 2007. The declining trend in incidence was mirrored in most States, though an increasing trend was detected in Assam, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh. AIDS-related deaths were estimated to be 67,600 in 2015, reflecting a 54 per cent decline from 2007. There were variations in the rate and trend of decline across India for this indicator also. Interpretation & conclusions: While key indicators measured through Spectrum modelling confirm success of the National AIDS Control Programme, there is no room for complacency as rising incidence trends in some geographical areas and population pockets remain the cause of concern. Progress achieved so far in responding to HIV/AIDS needs to be sustained to end the HIV epidemic. PMID:29168464

  11. The United States and Rising Regional Powers a Case Study of India, 1991-2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunmire, Brian

    2004-01-01

    ...? Countries such as India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Turkey, Nigeria, Brazil, Mexico, and a host of others have grown rapidly in economic terms over the last ten years and desire to remain members in good...

  12. Public health system readiness to treat malaria in Odisha State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammad A; Dandona, Lalit; Schellenberg, David

    2013-10-02

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. In India, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) became the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria and rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) kits were recommended for use at the grass-root level in the new malaria treatment policy (2010). Odisha State contributes about one-fourth of the total Indian malaria burden and 40% of falciparum infection. The present study assessed the health system readiness to deploy RDTs and ACT for malaria control across the State. Data collection was carried out from February to July 2012. Five of Odisha's 30 districts were selected through stratified random sampling, with stratification based on the phased roll-out of ACT and RDT. Two administrative 'blocks' were selected randomly in each district and data collected through health facility, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activist (ASHAs) assessments. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the implementation of the malaria control programme. Of the 220 ANMs interviewed, 51.4% had been trained in malaria case management, including the use of ACT and RDT. A high proportion of ANM (80%) and AHSA (77%) had the necessary level of knowledge to be able to use RDT for malaria diagnosis. The proportion of ASHAs trained on malaria case management was 88.9% (209/235). However, 71% of ANM and 55% of ASHAs usually referred falciparum-positive patients to the health facility for treatment, the major reason for referral being the non-availability of drugs at the ANM and ASHA level. The relatively high level of knowledge about how to diagnose and treat malaria at the grass-root level was undermined by the poor availability of RDTs, ACT and primaquine tablets. This was associated with an unnecessarily high referral rate and potential delays in the treatment of this potentially life-threatening infection. Improvements in the supply chain for RDTs and ACT could dramatically

  13. The Evolution of India’s Nuclear Program: Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    India and Pakistan. (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1997), 11. 21 Bernard Baruch. “The Baruch Plan: Presented to the United Nations...Uneasy Neighbors: India, Pakistan and U.S. Foreign Policy. ( Cornwell Great Britain: Ashgate, 2005), 142-143. 70 Garver, 313. 33 sustain this...Internet: Baruch, Bernard . “The Baruch Plan: Presented to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, June 14, 1946,” http

  14. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  15. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  16. Analysis of Small ruminant market system in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ramesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the marketing system of small ruminants in three different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka in India. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 small ruminant farmers from three viz. Bijapur (Arid zone, Gulbarga (Semi-arid zone and Udupi (Coastal zone district of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire which had earlier been subject to face validity and has a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used to collect data from the samples respondents. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS.The results of the study revealed that marketing of small ruminants is haphazard in the study areas. Majority of the respondents (85% sold their animal when they needed cash for home consumption followed by to pay off loan (28.3% was the main reason to sell their animals. Important marketing channels were relatives and friends, local markets and village collectors. Farmers gave different reasons for selling their animals through different channels. Majority of the farmers used relatives and friends as one of the marketing channels. Most of farmers also felt that there was a difference in the price offered by village collectors and the price they were getting in the livestock markets. And a few of them were of the opinion that village collectors were not reliable in marketing. Price of the animals was establishing based on the body confirmation of the animal. Study also revealed that injured animals fetch less value than the healthy animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 288-293

  17. Health inequalities among urban children in India: a comparative assessment of Empowered Action Group (EAG) and South Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, P; Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2013-03-01

    As India rapidly urbanizes, within urban areas socioeconomic disparities are rising and health inequality among urban children is an emerging challenge. This paper assesses the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the less developed Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and more developed South Indian states in urban India using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey. Focusing on urban health from varying regional and developmental contexts, socioeconomic inequalities in child health are examined first using Concentration Indices (CIs) and then the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the CIs of health variables are derived. The results reveal, in order of importance, pronounced contributions of household economic status, parent's illiteracy and caste to urban child health inequalities in the South Indian states. In contrast, parent's illiteracy, poor economic status, being Muslim and child birth order 3 or more are major contributors to health inequalities among urban children in the EAG states. The results suggest the need to adopt different health policy interventions in accordance with the pattern of varying contributions of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the more developed South Indian states and less developed EAG states.

  18. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wardell, Bob [Infosys Technologies Limited; Deshpande, Manoj [Infosys Technologies Limited; Ugarkar, Jayraj [Infosys Technologies Limited

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of a collaborative research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) project that aims to address energy efficiency of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads (MELs) (referred to as plug loads interchangeably in this report) using load monitoring and control devices. The goal s of this project are to identify and provide energy efficiency and building technologies to exemplary information technology (IT) office buildings, and to assist in transforming markets via technical assistance and engagement of Indian and U.S. stakeholders. This report describes the results of technology evaluation and United StatesIndia collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Infosys Technologies Limited (India), and Smartenit, Inc. (U.S.) to address plug - load efficiency. The conclusions and recommendations focus on the larger benefits of such technologies and their impacts on both U.S. and Indian stakeholders.

  19. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ≥2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region.

  20. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R.P.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system

  1. Obesity and Associated Cardiometabolic Risk among Women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Purnajita; Das, Sandeep; Hore, Samrat; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Choudhuri, Dipayan

    2017-01-01

    Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25-65 years) from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh

    2013-12-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana.

  3. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in India is mainly confined to the deserts of Rajasthan; some cases have been reported from the dry north-western half of the Indo-Gangetic plain, including Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Varanasi. Aims: To highlight a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, previously a non-endemic area. This report presents the clinico-epidemiological and investigative results of 120 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis detected between November 2012 and October 2013. Methods: The clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made using criteria proposed by Bari and Rahman. It was further confirmed by the demonstration of Leishman-Donovan bodies in Leishman stained slit skin smears and skin biopsy specimens, and/or by a satisfactory response to intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate given weekly for 4 weeks. Serial clinical photographs were taken before giving injections and at the end of the 6 th week. Results: There were 67 females and 53 males with an age range of 8 months to 80 years. The most frequently affected site was the face. Lesions were most commonly of the nodulo-ulcerative type. The number of lesions ranged from 1 to 4. Farmers (28.1%, homemakers (27.2% and students (27.2% were significantly over-represented among the occupations (P < 0.001. Skin smears and biopsies were positive for Leishman-Donovan bodies in 50.8% and 44.2% cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division which deserves urgent attention from the public health angle. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to establish the identity of the vector and the strain of Leishmania involved.

  4. Obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk among women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnajita Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25–65 years from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. Results: The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. Conclusion: The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  5. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  6. Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. S. Murthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. Results: A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. Conclusions: The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India.

  7. Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G V S; Gilbert, Clare E; Shukla, Rajan; Vashist, Praveen; Shamanna, B R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams) and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India.

  8. Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana, Mahanadi (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cazcarro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA. The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana, Mahanadi Delta (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh. Hybrid methods of input-output (IO construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture. The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%.

  9. Intraspecific variations in Cyt b and D-loop sequences of Testudine species, Lissemys punctata from south Karnataka

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    R. Lalitha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b and D-loop conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region spanning 1.14 kb and ∼1 kb was amplified by HotStart PCR and sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The Cyt b sequence revealed 85 substitution sites, no indels and 17 parsimony informative sites, whereas D-loop showed 189 variable sites, 51 parsimony informative sites with 5′ functional domains TAS, CSB-F, CSBs (1, 2, 3 preceding tandem repeat at 3′ end. Current data highlights the intraspecific variations in these target regions and variations validated using suitable evolutionary models points out that the overall point mutations observed in the region are transitions leading to no structural and functional alterations. The mitochondrial data generated uncover the genetic diversity within species and conservationist can utilize the data to estimate the effective population size or for forensic identification of animal or its seizures during unlawful trade activities.

  10. Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Bagga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled "Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review", is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the

  11. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  12. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

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    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  13. Implications of private sector participation in power generation-a case study from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs

  14. Implications of private sector participation in power generation - a case study from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs. (author)

  15. Aquaculture in mangrove ecosystems of India: State of art and prospects

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    The mangrove vegetation spread over 0.35 million hactares accounts for less than 1/10th of the extensive coastal ecosystems of India. It's an experience that the coastal ecosystems which are intricately diverse are equally high productive biotopes...

  16. From Research to Policy to Programme: Success Story of Seven State Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD Survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. In India the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. Of these, an estimated 350 million people are at higher risk of IDDs as they consume salt with inadequate iodine. Every year nine million pregnant women and eight million newborns are at risk of IDD in India.On September 13, 2000, the Government of India lifted the ban at the national level on the sale of non-iodized salt (India Gazette 2000. Scientists, civil society, international agencies and other stakeholders joined ranks to fight against this retrograde step by the government of India. The four pronged approach to fight the removal of ban on non- iodized salt comprised of writing advocacy documents, meeting with stakeholders, media campaign and tracking of Universal Salt Iodization (USI in states by state iodine status surveys.But effective advocacy and media campaign were hampered by lack of scientific data substantiating the magnitude of Iodine Deficiency disorders (IDD in India. To address this lacuna, state level Iodine status surveys were planned in seven states of India and were executed over next five years in collaboration with various national and international stakeholders.State level IDD surveys were carried out in seven states (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Goa and Jharkhand from 2000 to 2006 by International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD in collaboration with state medical colleges, Micronutrient Initiative (MI and UNICEF. The surveys were carried as per the recommended guidelines of WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD and used 30 cluster into 40 children sampling methodology. Children in the age group of 6-12 years, women in the household, retail shop keepers and other community stakeholders constituted the study population. All three indicators

  17. Contraceptive behavior of couples undergoing sterilization in an Eastern State of India

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    Venkatarao Epari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a part of a larger study for evaluating the effectiveness of a community-based family welfare program, this study assessed the contraceptive behavior of couples preceding sterilization and termination of pregnancies, if any during the interim period. Methods: During May–June 2013, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in three districts of Odisha, an eastern state of India with poor maternal health indicators. Using a 15 × 14 cluster design with probability proportionate to size sampling 15 village clusters from each district were selected. Seven beneficiaries from the catchment area of two Accredited Social Health Activist of the selected villages were interviewed (14 respondents from each village using a pretested predesigned questionnaire. Results: A total of 630 clients with either of the partner having undergone sterilization were interviewed. Male partner having undergone vasectomy was < 1% (n = 3. The mean age (standard error mean [SEM] of the respondent women was 34.54 ± 0.26 years. The mean age of the women at the time of sterilization was 27.12 (standard deviation [SD], 3.8, SEM 0.15 and median 26.83 years years. Women as young as 22 years had undergone sterilization. Average family size was 2.81 with about 29 respondents (4.5% having 5 or more children. The average duration between the last childbirth (LCB to the date of sterilization was 18.37 months (range: 1–142 months, SD: 24 months, SE: 10 months. Seventy-two percent of the respondents did not use any method of contraception during this period. Methods adopted for contraception among the users was pill (20% followed by condom (7%, and intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD was least used (0.2%. Ten percent of the women had undergone abortion before sterilization either once (7.9% or more than once (2.1%. Conclusion: There was a gross delay in sterilization after LCB. Postpartum sterilization or IUCD were also not used frequently.

  18. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9% in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1% grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2% in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5% in conservation

  19. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between India and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America providing for the Agency to apply safeguards in relation to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy, is reproduced in part I of this document for the information of all Members. The text of the co-operation agreement is reproduced in part II. The Safeguards Agreement entered into force on 27 January 1971

  20. Impact of improving vehicle front design on the burden of pedestrian injuries in Germany, the United States, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dane; Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi

    2017-11-17

    European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and 2 countries (the United States and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and nonfatal injuries in each country in 2013. The effect of improved passenger car star ratings on probability of pedestrian injury was based on recent evaluations of pedestrian crash data from Germany. The effect of improved heavy motor vehicle (HMV) front end design on pedestrian injuries was based on estimates reported by simulation studies. We used burden of disease methods to estimate population health loss by combining the burden of morbidity and mortality in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Extrapolating from evaluations in Germany suggests that improving front end design of cars can potentially reduce the burden of pedestrian injuries due to cars by up to 24% in the United States and 41% in India. In Germany, where cars comply with the United Nations regulation on pedestrian safety, additional improvements would have led to a 1% reduction. Similarly, improved HMV design would reduce DALYs lost by pedestrian victims hit by HMVs by 20% in each country. Overall, improved vehicle design would reduce DALYs lost to road traffic injuries (RTIs) by 0.8% in Germany, 4.1% in the United States, and 6.7% in India. Recent evaluations show a strong correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian scores and real-life pedestrian injuries, suggesting that improved car front end design in Europe has led to substantial reductions in pedestrian injuries. Although the United States has fewer pedestrian crashes, it would

  1. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between India and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-09-03

    The text of the Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America providing for the Agency to apply safeguards in relation to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy, is reproduced in part I of this document for the information of all Members. The text of the co-operation agreement is reproduced in part II. The Safeguards Agreement entered into force on 27 January 1971.

  2. Clinical Profile of Malaria in and around Hubballi-Dharwad: A Region of North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyavathi B Chitharagi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malaria is an endemic vector borne parasitic infection. Plasmodium vivax has been associated with severe malaria while P. falciparum is traditionally associated with severe course. Of late, P. vivax is increasingly reported to cause severe and life threatening disease. However, majority of P. vivax are sensitive to antimalarials and therefore, it is important to speculate this pathogen. Aim: To study the clinical profile of confirmed malaria cases. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken at SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India, between the period of 2010 to 2012 for the duration of two years. A total of 124 clinically suspected malaria cases aged from 8 years to 65 years were included in the study. Laboratory identification was done by Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC. A comparative analysis of clinical presentations in 62 QBC positive samples and an equal number of age and sex matched QBC negative was done. Results: Out of 62 QBC positive samples, Plasmodium vivax was seen in 40/62 (64.52% patients while P. falciparum in 10/40 (16.13% cases. Mixed infection by P. vivax and P. falciparum was seen in 12/40 (19.35% cases. Fever, chills and headache were common symptoms. Pallor was seen in 23/40 (37.1% cases and icterus, splenomegaly and vomiting were seen in 14/62 (22.6% cases followed by hepatosplenomegaly in 11 (17.7% cases. Among QBC negative controls, fever (100%, chills 51/62 (82.3%, rigors 21/62 (33.9% and pain abdomen (24.2 % were the common symptoms. Pallor and hepatomegaly was seen in 19.4 % and 11.3% respectively among the QBC negatives. Ten out of 11 (90.9% of females and 37/51 (72.5% of males suffering from malaria had anaemia. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 59/62 (95.2% cases of which 33 cases had moderate thrombocytopenia (53.2% while 17 cases had severe thrombocytopenia. In QBC negative controls, severe thrombocytopenia was noted in 4 (6.5% samples, mild and moderate

  3. Occupational Dermatoses Among the Cashew Nut Workers in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five female workers employed in the cashew nut industry in Karnataka to slice off the outer hard shells from the nuts and thus exposed to the chashew nut shell oil had a characteristic cauterization type of reaction manifesting as brownish-black, thickened sheets of dead skin covering the dorsal as well as the palmar aspects of hands including the fingers and feet. Smaller but similer lesions were also seen on these parts of the forearms, abdomen, neck and face which were not covered with clothes. The fingers were thinned and tapering and several nails of the hands and feet were thickened, discolored and eaten away. The other changes included loss of the dermatoglyphic patterns, maceration of the hands, small pits on the finger tips and pitted keratolysis seen in some cases only. Similar changes were also seen on the feet of both the male workers exposed to the same oil, in the section which extracts the oil from the sliced shells. In contrast 29, feamle wokers engaged to peel off the thin reddish covering on the cashew nut had normal hands and feet, except for the two callosities on the flexural aspect of the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger and proximal interphalangeal joint of the right index finger respectively, caused by the friction of the peeling knife. An open patch test with the cashew nut shell oil used as such in 17 workers produced a cauterization type of reaction in 32 workers irrespective of the nature of their duties, while the standard occluded patch test with 10% cashew nut shell oil in polyethylene glycol showed a mild cauterization type of reaction in only 6 workers. Patch tests with 1% and 0.1% concentrations of the shell oil were negative in all the workers. Two barrier creams tested to protect the workers from the cashew nut shell oil produced reasonably effective results within a week.

  4. State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

    This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

  5. India’s Military Aviation Market: Opportunities for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    slowly dismantle a Victorian - era bureaucracy and a Soviet- style com­ mand economy. Politically, India has moved towards a more positive relationship with...becoming a central part of the transformed relationship. • India’s economy is shifting from a Soviet- style command economy to a modern economy, and this...tary doctrines, moving to an American- style force structure, doctrine, and maintenance method will prove to be a difficult but not impossible jump

  6. Building a Partnership between the United States and India: Exploring Airpower’s Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    unlikely and where the citizenry of many potential partners is sceptical of American intentions in the region. This article explains why a joint US...an increasingly compelling choice.  Notes 1. “Remarks by the President to U.S.-India Business Council and Entrepreneurship Summit” (Washington, DC...business-council -and- entrepreneurship -summit. 2. “Prime Minister’s Statement to the Media at the Joint Press Conference with the U.S. President” (New

  7. Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990-2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-02

    18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016. Using all available data sources, the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative estimated burden (metrics were deaths, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs], prevalence, incidence, and life expectancy) from 333 disease conditions and injuries and 84 risk factors for each state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of GBD 2016. We divided the states of India into four epidemiological transition level (ETL) groups on the basis of the ratio of DALYs from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) to those from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries combined in 2016. We assessed variations in the burden of diseases and risk factors between ETL state groups and between states to inform a more specific health-system response in the states and for India as a whole. DALYs due to NCDs and injuries exceeded those due to CMNNDs in 2003 for India, but this transition had a range of 24 years for the four ETL state groups. The age-standardised DALY rate dropped by 36·2% in India from 1990 to 2016. The numbers of DALYs and DALY rates dropped substantially for most CMNNDs between 1990 and 2016 across all ETL groups, but rates of reduction for CMNNDs were slowest in the low ETL state group. By contrast, numbers of DALYs increased substantially for NCDs in all ETL state groups, and increased significantly for injuries in all ETL state groups except the highest. The all-age prevalence of most leading NCDs

  8. Breeding Biology of Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus at a Unique Site in Telangana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manchiryala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine species of vultures, the population of three Gyps species, White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris and Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus has declined drastically by 99% over the past decade (Prakash, 1999. The Gyps vultures' population declined in India by 97% and by 92% in Pakistan (Virani, 2006, Prakash et al., 2012. Possibly the widespread usage of Diclofenac drug in the animal led to the rapid population decline for these Vultures (Green et al., 2004. The Long-billed Vulture G. indicus is a bald headed vulture with very broad wings and short tail feathers, having no sexual dimorphism. In Malabar hills region of India the breeding season of Long-billed Vultures was noted to be November to May where it breed mainly on cliffs (Edward, 1915. Presently, it is in the most critical category of endangerment, listed in Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act-1972 followed by IUCN, 2015 (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729731/0. The Andhra Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Hyderabad announced that vultures are already 'Extinct' in the state (Medicheti, 2013.

  9. Study of Mastoid Canals and Grooves in North Karnataka Human Skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Hadimani, Gavishiddappa Andanappa; Bagoji, Ishwar Basavantappa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to observe the frequency of mastoid canals and grooves in north Karnataka dry human skulls. 100 dry human skulls of unknown age and sex from the department of Anatomy were selected and observed for the present study.

  10. Social sector expenditure and child mortality in India: a state-level analysis from 1997 to 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M Makela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1-4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold, but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1-4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2-6.9% in 1-4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5-10.0% and girls (4.1%, 0.8-7.5% aged 1-4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409-214,662 averted deaths in boys aged 1-4 years and 94,037 (14,725-206,684 in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. CONCLUSIONS: Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country's 5-year plan for 2012-2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality.

  11. Social sector expenditure and child mortality in India: a state-level analysis from 1997 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, Susanna M; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T R; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1-4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1-4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2-6.9%) in 1-4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5-10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8-7.5%) aged 1-4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409-214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1-4 years and 94,037 (14,725-206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country's 5-year plan for 2012-2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality.

  12. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Vishal Dogra; Khushbu Rani; Kanti Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models...

  13. Relative roles of weather variables and change in human population in malaria: comparison over different states of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Goswami

    Full Text Available Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance and change in host (human population, in the change in disease load.We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases.For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence.The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India. Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria.

  14. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pesticide poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Objectives: To assess the oxidative damage, hemoglobin level and leukocyte count in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: Plasma cholinesterase was assessed as a toxicity marker. Oxidative damage was ...

  15. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaratnam, Annie; Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas .S.; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload.

  16. Distribution of radionuclide in Cauvery River Basin, South Interior Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, E.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2015-01-01

    Radium, radon and polonium are the most important isotopes from the radiological point of view in the uranium decay series. The concentrations of radium, radon and polonium were studied in water samples of Kodagu, Mandya, Mysuru, Hassan and Chamarajanagara districts. The study area lies between 10°05'N to 13°30' N latitudes and 75°30' E to 79°45' E longitudes. Polonium in water was estimated using radiochemical analysis. Higher concentration of polonium in water was observed at Kushalnagara region (3.35 mBqL -1 ), lower value was found near Mysuru (1.54 mBqL -1 ) -and the average polonium concentration in the study region was (2.49 mBqL -1 ). The radium-226 was analysed using Emanometry method. Higher concentration of radium-226 was found near Abbi falls of Kodagu district (73.0 mBqL -1 ), lower value was found in Srirangapatna of Mandya district (2.20 mBqL -1 ) and the average was 36.12 mBqL -1 . W.H.O and UNSCEAR have given the tolerable dose range for different radioactive elements. If the estimated value crosses this range then it would cause certain health hazards. The values obtained in the present study are comparable to the value of polonium, radium and radon in water reported in literature. (author)

  17. Diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among pregnant women in mangalore, karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Annie; Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-09-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload. To determine the prevalence of AB among pregnant women in a tertiary care set-up and analyse the contributory risk factors, its effects on pregnancy and the role of chromogenic media in the laboratory diagnosis of these cases. Urine samples of all pregnant women attending pre-natal check-ups with no genitourinary complaints, history of fever or antibiotic intake were collected for Gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. A second urine specimen for culture and sensitivity testing was obtained from those with significant bacteriuria. The results were compared with patients showing negative urine cultures. The overall prevalence of this clinical condition in our study was 13.2%. The significant isolates were Klebsiella pneumonia and E.coli and the most common risk factor was a previous history of urinary tract infection. The isolates were easily identified by using chromogenic agar ( HiCrome ) but colonies of uncommon pathogens like Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species appeared white and needed further identification. Screening of pregnant women for AB at first prenatal checkup helps analyse the associated factors and prevents its effects on pregnancy. The use of a chromogenic media can enhance reporting accuracy and will be an effective tool to monitor these cases routinely.

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  19. Spit evolution and shore drift direction along south Karnataka coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Giornale_Geol_53_71.pdf.txt stream_source_info Giornale_Geol_53_71.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Anemia among hospitalized children at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdos Saba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the limited availability of data related to anemia in hospitalized children, this research was conducted to study the occurrence, morphological patterns, distribution in different age groups, sex, and severity of anemia among children aged 6 months-12 years. Setting: Inpatients in department of pediatrics at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study from Oct, 2011 to Sep, 2012. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital as per 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Unrestricted random sampling method was used to select the study group consisting of 882 children between the age of 6 months and 12 years. After obtaining the consent, data were obtained and statistically analyzed using statistical tools like mean, median, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 882 children selected, 642 (72.79% were anemic, out of which a majority of 629 (98% children suffered from nonhemoglobinopathies and a meagre 13 (2% suffered from hemoglobinopathies. Children in the age group of 6 months-1 year were most affected with nonhemoglobinopathies (33%. Moderate degree of anemia (hemoglobin = 7-9.9 g/dL was the commonest grade of anemia (80%, while microcytic hypochromic anemia was commonest morphological type of anemia (48%. Among hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia major was the most common (69%, that is 9 out of 13 patients. Conclusion: The occurrence of anemia among children aged between 6 months and 12 years is high and nonhemoglobinopathies predominate over the hemoglobinopathies.

  1. Quality of life among the geriatric population in a rural area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahul Hameed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is an inevitable developmental phenomenon bringing along a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. These changes are expected to affect the quality of life of the elderly. Methods: In the rural area, cross‐sectional community‐based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above. WHO Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Results: Among the study population, the mean perceived overall quality of life scores were 62.1}16.4 and the mean perceived overall health status scores were 59.8}17.4. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Among <70 years better physical domain scores were seen compared to ≥70 years. Among the literates and currently married elderly, all the domain scores were higher compared to illiterates and those without partners respectively. Conclusion: All the domains of quality of life were significantly affected for those who were illiterate or were single. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Such perceived quality of life study helps to highlight the inequalities among the elderly, which can be targeted to improve the quality of life.

  2. Coastal changes along the coast of Tadri River, Karnataka West coast of India and its implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tirodkar, G.M.; Pathak, K.C; Vaz, S.C

    embankments results in breaching and due to this flood are occurring in the adjacent area, and an accretion is noticed at the mouth result in narrowing the shape, due to sediments brought from upper reaches of Tadri river The present studies give a scenario...

  3. Primary productivity in the Karwar Bay, Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, U.G.; Naik, R.K.; Nayak, V.N.

    The measurement of primary production is of great importance because of its significance to the problems of aquatic ecology and fishery management. The interaction of light intensity, temperature and nutrient levels determines the photosynthetic...

  4. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deepa, N.; Kunte, P.D.

    (GIS) as the location of the shoreline and its historical rate of change can provide important information for the design of coastal protection, plans for coastal development, coastal and social vulnerability study, and the calibration...

  5. Textural characteristics of foreshore sediments along Karnataka shoreline, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.; Vinayaraj, P.; Gowthaman, R.

    skewed to coarse skewed with platykurtic, mesokurtic and leptokurtic characters. Grain characteristics varied spatially and temporally along with beach orientation, foreshore slope and wave action. A negative correlation between mean and sorting...

  6. Violence against educated women by intimate partners in Urban Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. Objectives: To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. Materials and Methods: A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Statistical Methods: Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30–50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10–20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in <5 years of married life to 35% and 47.6% in 10–20 years duration of marriage, which was statistically significant. Sexual and psychological assault showed a bimodal presentation. Less educated women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  7. Coverage and compliance MDA programme for lymphatic filariasis in Bidar district, Karnataka, India

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    Dharukaswami. Mallayya. Koradhanyamath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the socio demographic characteristics of beneficiaries of the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme, to assess the coverage, compliance and causes for noncompliance towards MDA in the district, to assess the awareness regarding elephantiasis among beneficiaries and to assess the knowledge of drug distributors towards the filariasis and MDA programme. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 3 rural and 1 urban clusters in Bidar district for the period of 1 week. 50 houses were selected in each cluster by systematic random sampling method and data was collected in a structured proforma by interview technique. Results: Majority of beneficiaries were at the age group of 15-60 years (72.3% and male (53%. The overall coverage of MDA in Bidar district was 62.3%. Compliance among those who had received the tablets was 60.4%. Coverage and compliance was more in rural areas compared to urban. The most common reason quoted for not consuming drugs was fear of adverse effects (72.2% The incidence of adverse events was 0.2%. Even though 75% of them were aware of the disease elephantiasis, only 45.4% had knowledge regarding MDA programme. The knowledge of drug distributors towards MDA and filariasis was found to be adequate. Conclusions: Coverage and compliance towards MDA in Bidar district was poor. The coverage and compliance in rural areas was higher compared to the urban areas.

  8. Determinants of Post - partum contraception practices in urban slums of central Karnataka, India

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    Shubha Davalagi B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of post – partum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended post – partum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of post – partum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for post – partum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on post – partum contraception usage among mothers.

  9. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Suresh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Significant portion of the background radiation is coming from the primordial nuclides such as 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K which are present in the soil, rock and building material. These radionuclides are sources of the external and the internal radiation exposures in dwellings. The specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building raw materials and products mainly depend on geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. Knowledge of radioactivity present in building materials enables one to assess any possible radiological risk to human health

  10. Measurement of radon concentration in drinking water in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2018-01-01

    Water is absolutely needed for most life on this earth. Quality of drinking water is the need of the hour for person's health and environmental studies rather it is consumed and transported pollutant in the environment. The most commonly occurring radionuclides in natural water Rn, that cause risk to human health are 222 Rn, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. They emit alpha particles and their inhalation and ingestion may results in high radioactive dose to sensitive cells of lungs, digestive tract and other organs of the human bodies. Radon enriched drinking water poses a potential health risk in two ways: first, transfer of radon from water to indoor air and its inhalation and secondly, through ingestion. Radon monitoring has been increasingly conducted worldwide because of the hazardous effects of radon on the health of human beings. The aim of the present study is to measure radon concentration and to estimate the annual effective dose in drinking water samples in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada district

  11. Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Chronic Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Karnataka, India

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    Suttur Malini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several studies have reported the toxicological implications of inhalation of petroleum hydrocarbon fumes in animal models. But, there is certainly little or no documentation of the exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fuel on oxidative stress levels in humans, unlike the pulmonary physiology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of constituents of the hydrocarbon fuels on oxidative stress levels of the petrol fillers and tanker drivers. Methods: The study involved 165 males divided into three groups were the petrol fillers, tanker drivers and the controls. Case control data set was established wherein the control subjects are not exposed to hydrocarbon fuels with similar age. Serum samples of the subjects were collected and subjected for various biochemical assays. The enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde a byproduct of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of the individuals along with non-enzymatic antioxidant Vitamin A was estimated. Results: The results showed a no significant differences for age, body mass index, superoxide dismutase and levels of Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. But on the other hand, there is significant changes observed for total antioxidant capacity and vitamin A when exposed group is compared with control subject. Conclusion: It is evidential from the present study that prolonged exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fumes leads to an increase in their oxidative stress in turn resulting broad spectrum of diseases. Hence, there is a raised need for public awareness about the health hazards in order to enable petrol attendants.

  12. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    to know the influence of wind on sea level. These data are provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colarado at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/. Relationship between wind forcing and residuals of sea level was studied by linear...

  13. Study on radon concentration in groundwater of Sira and Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district, Karnataka, India

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    M B Karthik Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on radon concentration in groundwater samples collected from different villages of Sira and Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district has been conducted using emanometry method, and the effective dose to the public was estimated. The geometric mean of the activity concentration of dissolved radon was found to be 39.13 ± 1.99 and 3.78 ± 0.05 Bq/L for Sira and Tiptur taluk, respectively. The total annual effective dose for adult, children, and infants was also estimated and was found to be 0.20, 0.18, and 0.31 mSv/year, respectively, in Sira taluk and 0.019, 0.017, and 0.029 mSv/year in Tiptur taluk, respectively. Water samples were also analyzed for the physicochemical parameters to assess the quality of drinking water and also to understand the influence of these parameters on dissolved radon concentration. Poor correlation was observed between dissolved radon concentration and pH in both taluks.

  14. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km2 landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.

  15. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

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    G.M. Shilpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

  16. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  17. Geochemical studies of granitic rocks of Kallur area, Manvi Taluk, Raichur district, Karnataka (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, N R; Reddy, R Purushottam; Nijagunappa, R

    2011-01-01

    The geochemical data is much widely used in establishing the overall chemical relation existing between the different rock types with their parentage. A major impetus for this shift comes not only from the need to understand and quantify better the spatial and temporal evolution, with emphasis on the younger greenstone belts (Kallur copper formations), but also from the recognition that such knowledge could form the basis for the sustainable development of our natural resources. In addition, the recurrence of natural hazards has reinforced the need to learn more about the mechanics and to develop predictive modeling with advanced technical tools. This paper is emphasizing on Granodiorites of Kallur area of Manvi Taluk, Raichur District to substantiate the classical approaches of exploration and data gathering through quantitative methods of data processing and interpretation. The trilinear diagram indicates that the granites are rich in Potash and Soda. This clearly indicates that Granites are fairly rich in K2O than Na2O.

  18. A STUDY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY AT KIMS HOSPITAL, HUBBALLI, KARNATAKA, INDIA

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    Chandrashekar K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary heart disease has become an epidemic since 20th century. Deaths due to the same are increasing of around 17.5 million deaths in year 2012. The deaths are increasing more in developing countries and metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders, which are promoting the development of coronary artery diseases. The disorders include central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Increasing prevalence, changing lifestyle and progression of the disease without obvious symptoms had led to increasing morbidity and mortality. The non-infectious epidemic of the century is posing great challenges to healthcare and research in development of more infrastructure and funds to prevent and treat the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients diagnosed with CAD and posted for Coronary Angiogram (CAG in ICCU at KIMS Hospital, Hubballi, were studied over a period of one and a half year. Cases were categorised according to ATPIII and new IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome and compared. Clinical evaluation, ECG, lipid profile and 2D-echo was done. Statistical analysis done using unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney tests, Chi-square test and Kappa statistics. RESULTS Of the total 100, 57 had metabolic syndrome by either ATP criteria or IDF criteria. Kappa=0.859 (p-value 150 mg/dL and DM or FBS >100 mg/dL (p value <0.001. The mean values of SBP (144.0 vs. 120.8, DBP (85.6 vs. 73.8 and waist circumference (95.4 vs. 87.7 was statistically significant (p value <0.01 between patients with metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome with IDF criteria (p value <0.001. It was observed LAD (28.1% was the most common vessel involved individually. There was no much significance related to metabolic syndrome. Incidence of CAD was more common in patients with metabolic syndrome than other group. CONCLUSION The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in patients with CAD. Both metabolic syndrome definitions identify subset of patients who are at high risk for CAD and are cost effective, easily practicable tools

  19. Belekeri as traditional boat building centre in the North Kanara district, Karnataka, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_4_69.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_4_69.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm & associated factors in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijayasimha, R

    2011-07-01

    Chronic cough and chronic phlegm are important indicators of respiratory morbidity, accelerated lung function decline, increased hospitalization and mortality. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm in the absence of dyspneoa and wheezing and to study its associated factors in a representative population of Mysore district. A cross-sectional survey was planned in a representative population of Mysore taluk. Eight villages were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. Trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire carried out a house-to-house survey. A total of 4333 adult subjects were enrolled in the study with 2333 males and 2000 females. The prevalence of chronic cough in the community was 2.5 per cent and that of chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent. A significant association was observed between chronic cough and age, gender, occupation and smoking and chronic phlegm with age, gender, occupation, indoor animals and smoking. A multivariate analysis confirmed independent association of age, occupation and smoking for chronic cough and age and smoking for chronic phlegm. On sub-group analysis of males, heavy smokers had higher prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm as compared to light smokers and non smokers. The prevalence of chronic cough was 2.5 per cent and chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent in the general population in Mysore which is lower than that observed in other studies. Heavy smoking was an important preventable risk factor identified in this study and efforts towards smoking cessation are crucial to achieve good respiratory health in the community.

  1. A Systematic Review of the State of Economic Evaluation for Health Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Angell, Blake; Gupta, Indrani; Jan, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Economic evaluations are one of the important tools in policy making for rational allocation of resources. Given the very low public investment in the health sector in India, it is critical that resources are used wisely on interventions proven to yield best results. Hence, we undertook this study to assess the extent and quality of evidence for economic evaluation of health-care interventions and programmes in India. A comprehensive search was conducted to search for published full economic evaluations pertaining to India and addressing a health-related intervention or programme. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ScienceDirect, and York CRD database and websites of important research agencies were identified to search for economic evaluations published from January 1980 to the middle of November 2014. Two researchers independently assessed the quality of the studies based on Drummond and modelling checklist. Out of a total of 5013 articles enlisted after literature search, a total of 104 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The majority of these papers were cost-effectiveness studies (64%), led by a clinician or public-health professional (77%), using decision analysis-based methods (59%), published in an international journal (80%) and addressing communicable diseases (58%). In addition, 42% were funded by an international funding agency or UN/bilateral aid agency, and 30% focussed on pharmaceuticals. The average quality score of these full economic evaluations was 65.1%. The major limitation was the inability to address uncertainties involved in modelling as only about one-third of the studies assessed modelling structural uncertainties (33%), or ran sub-group analyses to account for heterogeneity (36.5%) or analysed methodological uncertainty (32%). The existing literature on economic evaluations in India is inadequate to feed into sound policy making. There is an urgent need to generate awareness within the government of how economic evaluation can

  2. State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

  3. Socio-Economic Determinants of Inter-State Student Mobility in India: Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shashiranjan; Kumar, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the socio-economic determinants of student mobility in India and evaluates the factors that hinder and promote higher educational mobility. It is argued that despite the mass expansion of higher education in India in recent times, student mobility is directed towards developed educational regions. India is a unique case…

  4. Genetic affinities of the Siddis of South India: an emigrant population of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauniyal, Mansi; Chahal, S M S; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2008-06-01

    Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the African Siddis to Goa, India, as slaves about 500 years ago. Subsequently, the Siddis moved into the interior regions of the state of Karnataka, India, and have remained there ever since. Over time the Siddis have experienced considerable cultural changes because of their proximity to neighboring population groups. To understand the biological consequences of these changes, we studied the Siddis to determine the extent of genetic variation and the contributions from the African, European, and Indian ancestral populations. In the present study we typed the Siddis for 20 polymorphic serological, red cell, and Alu insertion-deletion loci. The overall pattern of phenotype (and genotype) distribution is in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Considering the ethnohistorical records and the availability of secondary-source genetic data, we used two data sets in the analysis: one comprising eight serological and red cell enzyme markers with eight population groups and another comprising six Alu insertion-deletion markers with seven tribal groups of South India. The dendrograms generated from these two data sets on the basis of genetic distance analysis between the selected populations of African, European, and Indian descent reveals that the Siddis are closer to the Africans than they are to the South Indian populations. Genetic admixture analysis using a dihybrid model (19 loci) and a trihybrid model (10 loci and 8 loci) shows that the predominant influence comes from the Africans, a lesser contribution from the South Indians, and a slight contribution from the Portuguese. Thus the original composition of the African genes among the Siddis has been diluted to some extent by the contribution from southern Indian population groups. There is no nonrandom association of alleles among a set of 10 genetic marker systems considered in the present study. The demonstration of genetic homogeneity of the Siddis

  5. Pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women in a high HIV prevalence district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halli, Shiva S; Khan, C G Hussain; Shah, Iqbal; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2015-07-02

    Bagalkot district in Karnataka state is one of the highest HIV prevalence districts in India. A large proportion of the girls also marry at early age in the district and negative pregnancy outcomes among the HIV positive women likely to have large pregnancy wastages. Therefore, this study examined the pregnancy wastages and the associated factors among HIV positive women in a high prevalent district in India. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted recently among randomly selected currently married HIV positive women, 15-29 years of age, in one of the high HIV prevalence districts in India. The study used the experience of reported pregnancy wastage as an outcome variable, and both bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to understand the factors associated with the pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women. Overall, 17% of the respondents reported pregnancy wastage, of which 81% were due to spontaneous abortions. Respondents who became pregnant since testing HIV positive reported significantly higher level of pregnancy wastage as compared to those were pregnant before they were tested for HIV. (AOR = 1.9; p = 0.00). While a positive association between duration of marriage and pregnancy wastage was noticed (AOR = 7.4; p = 0.01), there was a negative association between number of living children and pregnancy wastage (AOR = 0.24; p = 0.00). Living in a joint family was associated with increased reporting of pregnancy wastage as compared to those living in nuclear families (AOR = 1.7; p = 0.03). HIV prevention and care programs need to consider the reproductive health needs of HIV infected married women as a priority area since large proportion of these women reported negative pregnancy outcomes. There is also a need to explore ways to raise the age at marriage in order to stop women getting married before the legal age at marriage.

  6. Virological investigations of specimens from buffaloes affected by buffalopox in Maharashtra State, India between 1985 and 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbell, K; Richardson, M

    1993-01-01

    Isolates of poxviruses were made from thirteen of eighteen specimens of scabs taken from pox lesions on buffaloes in five different districts of Maharashtra State, India, between December, 1985 and February, 1987. The biological characters of twelve of the isolates resembled those of the Hissar strain of buffalopox virus; the thirteenth isolate appeared to be vaccinia. The Hin dIII restriction profiles of DNA from all 13 isolates and from the Hissar strain were typical of those given by vaccinia strains. DNA from all twelve Maharashtra buffalopox (BPV) isolates gave identical profiles with each of three additional endonucleases; these viruses appear to be repeated isolations of a single strain of BPV. The DNA profile of this strain was not the same as that of the Hissar strain of BPV and both could readily be distinguished from each of the three strains of vaccinia virus which had been used in India. The thirteenth Maharashtra isolate was indistinguishable from vaccinia in its biological properties, but the restriction profile of its DNA differed from those of three vaccinia strains and the BPV isolates. These observations, made 6-8 years after cessation of smallpox vaccination indicate that BPV is an emerging enzootic virus and is a subspecies of vaccinia virus.

  7. Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K. Jatinder; Sooch, Sarbjit Singh

    2004-01-01

    Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not harnessed, and the economic viability of biogas technology is rendered doubtful. To facilitate this decision making, the economics of family size biogas plants, i.e. with capacity from 1 to 6 m 3 , was studied, and three prevalent models, viz. KVIC, Janta and Deenbandu, were compared. Calculations for installation cost and annual operational cost were made for the state of Punjab, India, where the hydraulic retention time is 40 days, and current market prices were taken into account. Comparison of the economics revealed that the cost of installation and annual operational cost of each capacity were higher for the KVIC model, followed by the Janta and then the Deenbandhu model. Irrespective of the model, as the capacity of the biogas plant increases, the installation, as well as the annual operational cost increase proportionately. With increase in capacity, the payback period decreased exponentially with the exponential character being highest for the KVIC model, followed by the Janta and then the Deenbandhu model. However, on the basis of comparative economics, the Deenbandhu model was found to be the cheapest and most viable model of biogas plant

  8. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations among school going adolescents in a hilly state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent suicide is an important public health issue. Suicidal ideations are often the precursor of suicide and can be targeted by appropriate and timely interventions. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and to study its predictive factors among school going adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected senior secondary schools in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India. A pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using Epi info software for windows (CDC Atlanta software for windows. Results: A total of 218 study subjects (30.9%; confidence interval = 27.6–34.5% had suicide ideation. Discussing problems with parents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.5, having good relations with school teachers (AOR = 0.6 and helpful classmates (AOR = 0.6 lowered the odds of having suicidal ideations. On the contrary, adolescents having worrying issues in family (AOR = 2.5, verbally or physically abused (AOR = 2.8 and body image conscious (AOR = 1.8 had increased odds of suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideation is a common experience among adolescents residing in Shimla district of North India. The supportive environment at home and in school decrease its vulnerability.

  9. Analytical search of problems and prospects of power sector through Delphi study: case study of Kerala State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.P.; Nair, P.S. Chandramohanan; Balasubramanian, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to review and analyse the critical issues that afflict the power sector of Kerala, a developing State in India. For this purpose a Delphi study, contacting experts in the field was conducted. The paper illustrates the process followed for the conduct of Delphi survey and evaluates the responses obtained. Consensus among experts could be arrived at on various issues related to Kerala power sector in two rounds of Delphi survey. The expert-opinion concluded on various issues is discussed in the context of the present energy shortage faced by the State. The experts participated in the Delphi survey unanimously stressed on the urgent need for an integrated approach in the power sector planning process of the State. They also emphasised on the imperativeness for exploiting the demand side management potential of the State to alleviate energy crisis in future. The study fetched informative and revealing results, which may aid to formulate and review future planning strategies for the expansion of power sector of the State

  10. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal

    2018-02-01

    India is one of the fluoride-endemic countries where the maximum numbers of ground or drinking water sources are naturally fluoridated. In India, a total of 23, out of 36 states and union territories have drinking water contaminated with fluoride in varying concentration. In the present scenario, especially in rural India, besides the surface waters (perennial ponds, dams, rivers, etc.), bore wells and hand pumps are the principal drinking water sources for domestic animals such as cattle (Bos taurus), water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), horses (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus) and dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Out of 23 states, 17 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha (Orissa), Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, have fluoride beyond the maximum permissible limit of 1.0 or 1.5 ppm in drinking water. This situation is a great concern for the animal health because fluoride is a slow toxicant and causes chronic diverse serious health hazards or toxic effects. Despite the fact that domestic animals are the basic income sources in rural areas and possess a significant contributory role not only in the agriculture sector but also in the strengthening of economy as well as in sustainable development of the country, research work on chronic fluoride intoxication (hydrofluorosis) due to drinking of fluoridated water in domestic animals rearing in various fluoride-endemic states is not enough as compared to work done in humans. However, some interesting and excellent research works conducted on different aspects of hydrofluorosis in domesticated animals rearing in different states are briefly and critically reviewed in the present communication. Author believes that this review paper not only will be more useful for researchers to do some more advance research work on fluoride

  11. Impact of agriculture crop residue burning on atmospheric aerosol loading – a study over Punjab State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the impact of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties during October 2006 and 2007 over Punjab State, India using ground based measurements and multi-satellite data. Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent (α values exhibited larger day to day variation during crop residue burning period. The monthly mean Ångström exponent "α" and turbidity parameter "β" values during October 2007 were 1.31±0.31 and 0.36±0.21, respectively. The higher values of "α" and "β" suggest turbid atmospheric conditions with increase in fine mode aerosols over the region during crop residue burning period. AURA-OMI derived Aerosol Index (AI and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 showed higher values over the study region during October 2007 compared to October 2006 suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of public sector primary health care physicians of rural north karnataka towards obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath S Somannavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM, and hypertension (HTN. In an era of rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, it is important to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary care physicians. Materials and Methods: Study participants were medical officers (MOs of primary health centers in three districts of North Karnataka. The questionnaire was developed by a review of literature in the field and validated with five participants for scope, length, and clarity. Results/Discussion: Of the 102 participants, only 15% were aware about the burden of obesity in India. HTN, DM, and CVD were indicated as comorbidities by 73, 78, and 60 participants, respectively. Only 25 and 12 participants indicated appropriate body mass index (BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity diagnosis. Of the 102 participants, 54 were not aware of the guidelines for obesity management. Practices and attitudes of the participants were encouraging. Nearly all of them felt that the adults with BMI within the healthy range should be encouraged to maintain their weight and, three-fourth of them agreed that most overweight persons should be treated for weight loss and small weight loss can achieve major medical benefit. However, nearly half of the participants′ responses were stereotypical as they felt only obese and overweight with comorbidities should be treated for weight loss. Two-thirds of them use BMI to diagnose overweight/obese and nearly all of them advice their patients to increase physical activity and restrict fat. Most of the participants were advising their patients to restrict sugar intake, increase fruits and vegetable consumption, reduce red meat, and avoid alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Present study exposed the lack of knowledge regarding obesity. However, practices and attitudes of the participants were promising. There is a need of in-service training to MOs to further

  13. Evaluating the Burden of Lymphedema Due to Lymphatic Filariasis in 2005 in Khurda District, Odisha State, India.

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    Victoria Walsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF, and the global burden of LF-associated lymphedema is estimated at 16 million affected people, yet country-specific estimates are poor.A house-to-house morbidity census was conducted to assess the burden and severity of lymphedema in a population of 1,298,576 persons living in the LF-endemic district of Khurda in Odisha State, India. The burden of lymphedema in Khurda is widespread geographically, and 1.3% (17,036 of the total population report lymphedema. 51.3% of the patients reporting lymphedema were female, mean age 49.4 years (1-99. Early lymphedema (Dreyer stages 1 & 2 was reported in two-thirds of the patients. Poisson regression analysis was conducted in order to determine risk factors for advanced lymphedema (Dreyer stages 4-7. Increasing age was significantly associated with advanced lymphedema, and persons 70 years and older had a prevalence three times greater than individuals ages 15-29 (aPR: 3.21, 95% CI 2.45, 4.21. The number of adenolymphangitis (ADL episodes reported in the previous year was also significantly associated with advanced lymphedema (aPR 4.65, 95% CI 2.97-7.30. This analysis is one of the first to look at potential risk factors for advanced lymphedema using morbidity census data from an entire district in Odisha State, India.These data highlight the magnitude of lymphedema in LF-endemic areas and emphasize the need to develop robust estimates of numbers of individuals with lymphedema in order to identify the extent of lymphedema management services needed in these regions.

  14. Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge Inundation and Velocity Hazard Mapping of the State of Andhra Pradesh (India) using ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackins, J. T.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal region, including parts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka, is the largest bay in the world and is structured in such a manner as to produce the world's largest tropical cyclone (TC) storm surges (SS), with approximately five surge events greater than 5 meters in magnitude each decade. (Needham et al. 2015). Although some studies have been performed to attempt to capture the magnitude and location of historical surges (Shaji et al. 2014) and to model surges in the immediate sense, there is a notable lack of application to the effects on coastal infrastructure in these areas. Given that these areas are some of the most densely populated and least economically able to prepare and recover, it is important to consider the potential effects of storm surge to discover areas where improvements can be made with the limited resources available to these areas. To this end, an ADvanced-CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model (Luettich and Westerink 2004) was created for the Bay of Bengal, using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2014) as bathymetric and topographic data, and a combination of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) records for storm tracks. For the state of Andhra Pradesh, several major TC events ranging from 1977 to 2014 were selected to be modeled with the goal of creating hazard maps of storm surge inundation and velocity for the state. These hazard maps would be used to identify high-vulnerability areas with the goal of implementing land-use planning and coastal development practices that will aid in ameliorating both the loss of life and economic damages sustained as a result of these TCs.

  15. Management research in India: Current state and future directions

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    Naresh Khatri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerned over the lack of high quality, context specific management research in India, and the predilection of Indian researchers to follow Western models of research and publication blindly, the authors take stock of Indian management research in this round table discussion and debate some of the relevant issues. Urging Indian researchers to strive for the levels of rigour of the Western models, they make a case for confident indigenous scholarship to suit the development and educational requirements of the country, following context-relevant constructs and methodologies in research and developing curricula, materials and modes of dissemination independently. These ideas were also explored at the second Indian Academy of Management Conference held at IIM Bangalore in December 2011.

  16. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    and a dip length of more than 2 km. After establishing a large-tonnage deposit in a small sector and in spite of a resource potential of more than 500,000 t U_3O_8, exploration activities in this province were discontinued because of inherent ore beneficiation problems associated with the deposit. During the period of India's technological isolation, sustained in-house efforts made possible the development of a new beneficiation technology to process the ore and this has resulted in renewal of large-scale exploration activities in this province. An underground mine and a mill are under construction for the exploitation of this deposit. In the early nineties, discovery of unconformity-related uranium mineralization in the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin has opened up opportunities for unconformity-related mineralization in thirteen other Proterozoic basins in India. Exploration in the fringe areas in the northwestern part of the Cuddapah basin has resulted in the establishment of four low-grade, low-tonnage unconformity-related deposits in the shallower fringe parts of the basin. All the four deposits have been discovered by ground radiometric surveys. The mineralization is likely to continue in the inner parts of the basin where the sediment thickness is of the order of 300-400 m and more. Ongoing airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys are expected to provide vital clues on the localization of uranium mineralization in the deeper parts of the basin. Similarly, the Proterozoic Bhima and Kaladgi basins in the state of Karnataka, whose uranium potentials have already been established, are being rigorously explored for unconformity-related mineralization. While a medium-grade, low-tonnage deposit has already been established in Bhima basin, interesting mineralization has been intercepted in boreholes of the Kaladgi basin. Extensive airborne EM and magnetic surveys are being carried out in these basins as well for vital clues on mineralization. A 320-km belt known as the

  17. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  18. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  19. The Myths of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  20. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  1. Geographic Variation in Household and Catastrophic Health Spending in India: Assessing the Relative Importance of Villages, Districts, and States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Kim, Rockli; Khan, Pijush Kanti; Subramanian, S V

    2018-03-01

    Policy Points: Per-capita household health spending was higher in economically developed states and was associated with ability to pay, but catastrophic health spending (CHS) was equally high in both poorer and more developed states in India. Based on multilevel modeling, we found that the largest geographic variation in health spending and CHS was at the state and village levels, reflecting wide inequality in the accessibility to and cost of health care at these levels. Contextual factors at macro and micro political units are important to reduce health spending and CHS in India. In India, health care is a local good, and households are the major source of financing it. Earlier studies have examined diverse determinants of health care spending, but no attempt has been made to understand the geographical variation in household and catastrophic health spending. We used multilevel modeling to assess the relative importance of villages, districts, and states to health spending in India. We used data on the health expenditures of 101,576 households collected in the consumption expenditure schedule (68th round) carried out by the National Sample Survey in 2011-2012. We examined 4 dependent variables: per-capita health spending (PHS), per-capita institutional health spending (PIHS), per-capita noninstitutional health spending (PNHS), and catastrophic health spending (CHS). CHS was defined as household health spending exceeding 40% of its capacity to pay. We used multilevel linear regression and logistic models to decompose the variation in each outcome by state, region, district, village, and household levels. The average PHS was 1,331 Indian rupees (INR), which varied by state-level economic development. About one-fourth of Indian households incurred CHS, which was equally high in both the economically developed and poorer states. After controlling for household level factors, 77.1% of the total variation in PHS was attributable to households, 10.1% to states, 9.5% to

  2. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for adolescent girls in Punjab state: Implications for India's universal immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Faujdar, Dharmjeet Singh; Jyani, Gaurav; Srinivasan, Radhika; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Suri, Vanita; Singh, Mini P; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-09-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for adolescent girls is being considered in the Punjab state of India. However, evidence regarding cost-effectiveness is sought by policy makers when making this decision. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained with introduction of the HPV vaccine compared with a no-vaccination scenario. A static progression model, using a combination of decision tree and Markov models, was populated using epidemiological, cost, coverage, and effectiveness data to determine the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Using a societal perspective, lifetime costs and consequences (in terms of QALYs) among a cohort of 11-year-old adolescent girls in Punjab state were modeled in 2 alternate scenarios with and without vaccination. All costs and consequences were discounted at a rate of 3%. Although immunizing 1 year's cohort of 11-year-old girls in Punjab state costs Indian National Rupees (INR) 135 million (US dollars [USD] 2.08 million and International dollars [Int$] 6.25 million) on an absolute basis, its net cost after accounting for treatment savings is INR 38 million (USD 0.58 million and Int$ 1.76 million). Incremental cost per QALY gained for HPV vaccination was found to be INR 73 (USD 1.12 and Int$ 3.38). Given all the data uncertainties, there is a 90% probability for the vaccination strategy to be cost-effective in Punjab state at a willingness-to-pay threshold of INR 10,000, which is less than one-tenth of the per capita gross domestic product. HPV vaccination appears to be a very cost-effective strategy for Punjab state, and is likely to be cost-effective for other Indian states. Cancer 2017;123:3253-60. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Perception of radiation awareness among patients in Karnataka - a qualitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, Suresh; Kotian, Rahul P.; Rajagopal, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing concern has recently been expressed in the literature that the patients undergoing diagnostic Computer Tomography imaging and X-ray examinations have inadequate knowledge and awareness about radiation. The frequent use of Computed tomography and routine X-ray examinations for unnecessary indications is the most vital cause of increase in medical radiation exposure. Dose reduction techniques and radiation protection measures is a topic of public concern in which government should play a very important role. Radiologists and patients undergoing any radiological procedure involving ionizing radiation are becoming highly sensitized to the issue of radiation exposure from these diagnostic procedures. The attitudes and perceptions of these patients undergoing diagnostic imaging procedures that use ionizing radiation vary widely. Patients perception about radiation awareness strongly influence their consent or acceptance of any diagnostic imaging procedure. In this study we review the perceptions of radiation risk by laypersons i.e patients who have very little knowledge and awareness about the diagnostic procedure and X-ray examination for which they have been referred. Although the benefit vs risk ratio will outweigh the radiation risk involved in these X-ray and CT examinations but the patients awareness about radiation is a major concern in today's society. The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of radiation awareness among patients in the Karnataka population. Very less qualitative research work has been taken up in this field, as a result such study will gain impetus in the near future. The study was carried out in Karnataka. Qualitative case study was conducted based on Non-Probability purposive sampling and in-depth interview was conducted at the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal among ten patients who were referred for X-ray and CT examinations. An in-depth interview among patients in

  4. Impact of community-based lymphedema management on perceived disability among patients with lymphatic filariasis in Orissa State, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF infects approximately 120 million people worldwide. As many as 40 million have symptoms of LF disease, including lymphedema, elephantiasis, and hydrocele. India constitutes approximately 45% of the world's burden of LF. The Indian NGO Church's Auxiliary for Social Action (CASA has been conducting a community-based lymphedema management program in Orissa State since 2007 that aims to reduce the morbidity associated with lymphedema and elephantiasis. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effects of this program on lymphedema patients' perceived disability.For this prospective cohort study, 370 patients ≥14 years of age, who reported lymphedema lasting more than three months in one or both legs, were recruited from villages in the Bolagarh sub-district, Khurda District, Orissa, India. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was administered to participants at baseline (July, 2009, and then at regular intervals through 24 months (July, 2011, to assess patients' perceived disability. Disability scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001 from baseline to 24 months. Multivariable analysis using mixed effects modeling found that employment and time in the program were significantly associated with lower disability scores after two years of program involvement. Older age, female gender, the presence of other chronic health conditions, moderate (Stage 3 or advanced (Stage 4-7 lymphedema, reporting an adenolymphangitis (ADL episode during the previous 30 days, and the presence of inter-digital lesions were associated with higher disability scores. Patients with moderate or advanced lymphedema experienced greater improvements in perceived disability over time. Patients participating in the program for at least 12 months also reported losing 2.5 fewer work days per month (p<0.001 due to their lymphedema, compared to baseline.These results indicate that community-based lymphedema management programs

  5. Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine campaign to prevent clinically-significant cholera in Odisha State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Thomas F; Kar, Shantanu K; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Kerketta, Anna S; You, Young Ae; Baral, Prameela; Khuntia, Hemant K; Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Yang Hee; Rath, Shyam Bandhu; Bhattachan, Anuj; Sah, Binod

    2015-05-15

    A clinical trial conducted in India suggests that the oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol, provides 65% protection over five years against clinically-significant cholera. Although the vaccine is efficacious when tested in an experimental setting, policymakers are more likely to use this vaccine after receiving evidence demonstrating protection when delivered to communities using local health department staff, cold chain equipment, and logistics. We used a test-negative, case-control design to evaluate the effectiveness of a vaccination campaign using Shanchol and validated the results using a cohort approach that addressed disparities in healthcare seeking behavior. The campaign was conducted by the local health department using existing resources in a cholera-endemic area of Puri District, Odisha State, India. All non-pregnant residents one year of age and older were offered vaccine. Over the next two years, residents seeking care for diarrhea at one of five health facilities were asked to enroll following informed consent. Cases were patients seeking treatment for laboratory-confirmed V. cholera-associated diarrhea. Controls were patients seeking treatment for V. cholerae negative diarrhea. Of 51,488 eligible residents, 31,552 individuals received one dose and 23,751 residents received two vaccine doses. We identified 44 V. cholerae O1-associated cases and 366 non V. cholerae diarrhea controls. The adjusted protective effectiveness for persons receiving two doses was 69.0% (95% CI: 14.5% to 88.8%), which is similar to the adjusted estimates obtained from the cohort approach. A statistical trend test suggested a single dose provided a modicum of protection (33%, test for trend, p=0.0091). This vaccine was found to be as efficacious as the results reported from a clinical trial when administered to a rural population using local health personnel and resources. This study provides evidence that this vaccine should be widely deployed by public health departments in

  6. Wind Energy Development in India and a Methodology for Evaluating Performance of Wind Farm Clusters

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    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With maturity of advanced technologies and urgent requirement for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable price, India is moving towards a trend of generating electricity from renewable resources. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved from a marginal activity into a multibillion dollar industry today. Wind energy power plants, also known as wind farms, comprise multiple wind turbines. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations across the world, evaluating their performance is a complex task and is an important focus for stakeholders. In this work an attempt is made to estimate the performance of wind clusters employing a multicriteria approach. Multiple factors that affect wind farm operations are analyzed by taking experts opinions, and a performance ranking of the wind farms is generated. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by pairwise comparison matrices of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The proposed methodology evaluates wind farm performance based on technical, economic, environmental, and sociological indicators. Both qualitative and quantitative parameters were considered. Empirical data were collected through questionnaire from the selected wind farms of Belagavi district in the Indian State of Karnataka. This proposed methodology is a useful tool for cluster analysis.

  7. Study on natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples around Mandya district, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumara, B.C.; Paramesh, L.; Shashikumar, T.S.; Chandrashekara, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The soil is a complex mixture of different compounds and rocks. In the natural environment, it is an important source of exposure to radiation due to naturally occurring, gamma emitting radionuclides which include 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K present in the soil. The study of distribution of these radionuclides in soil and rock is of great importance for radiation protection and measurements. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil and rock samples collected in Mandya District, Karnataka state, India have been measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K (Bq/kg) are found to be 40.2, 62.3, and 317.5 Bq/kg, respectively, in soil samples and 30.5, 34.4, and 700.2 Bq/kg, respectively, in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples are found to higher than in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil and rock samples in the study area are slightly higher than Indian average and world average values. (author)

  8. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

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    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  9. Occupational exposure of cashew nut workers to Kyasanur Forest disease in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D Y; Yadav, P D; Shete, A M; Nuchina, J; Meti, R; Bhattad, D; Someshwar, S; Mourya, D T

    2017-08-01

    A series of suspected cases of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in subjects returning to Belgaum in Karnataka State from Goa, India, is reported herein. KFD was confirmed in 13 out of 76 cases, either by real time RT-PCR or IgM ELISA. No case fatality was recorded. KFD virus positivity was also recorded among humans and monkeys from Sattari taluk in Goa during the same period. The envelope gene sequence of positive human samples from Belgaum showed highest identity of 99.98% to 99.99% with sequences of KFD virus isolated from human cases and monkeys from Goa. KFD activity has been reported from Goa among humans and monkeys since 2015. However, it has not been reported from Belgaum to date. These findings suggest that the cases (migrant laborers) contracted infection during cashew nut harvesting from KFD-affected Keri village, Sattari taluk, Goa and became ill after or during migration from the affected area to their native residence. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: a study of three states in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Hanumantha

    2008-06-01

    The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Hospitals/nursing homes and private medical practitioners in urban as well as rural areas and those from the private as well as the government sector were covered. Information on (a) awareness of bio-medical waste management rules, (b) training undertaken and (c) practices with respect to segregation, use of colour coding, sharps management, access to common waste management facilities and disposal was collected. Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Rules was better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and awareness was marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas. Training gained momentum only after the dead-line for compliance was over. Segregation and use of colour codes revealed gaps, which need correction. About 70% of the healthcare facilities used a needle cutter/destroyer for sharps management. Access to Common Waste Management facilities was low at about 35%. Dumping biomedical waste on the roads outside the hospital is still prevalent and access to Common Waste facilities is still limited. Surveillance, monitoring and penal machinery was found to be deficient and these require strengthening to improve compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules and to safeguard the health of employees, patients and communities.

  11. A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION IN COASTAL KARNATAKA

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    Annappa Shetty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychological mood changes, depression is very common in Post-partum period ranging from mild and transient “baby blues” experienced by 50-80% of women to postpartum Psychosis which affects 1% of women. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of different factors with Post-Partum depression in coastal Karnataka region, (Karwar. MATERIAL & METHODS  A Prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, KAIMS, Karwar, Karnataka.  A total one thousand patients 4-7 Post-partum days were selected and interrogated using Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic factors (age, Parity, literacy, socio-economic status, marital status and family structure, history of psychiatric disorders and abuse, mode of delivery and the obstetric outcome were recorded. The results were analysed statistically using Chi-square chart. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: The incidence of PPD was 22%. Significant association of PPD was seen with low socio-economic status group (P<005, poor literacy (P<0.001, nuclear family structure (P<0.05, single mother (P<0.001, past history of abuse (P<0.05 and poor obstetric outcome (P<0.001. CONCLUSION This study provides useful information about the prevalence of PPD and the association of socio economic, cultural practices prevalent in coastal Karnataka with PPD.

  12. An assessment of household electricity load curves and corresponding CO2 marginal abatement cost curves for Gujarat state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P.R.; Maheshwari, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Jigeesha

    2014-01-01

    Gujarat, a large industrialized state in India, consumed 67 TWh of electricity in 2009–10, besides experiencing a 4.5% demand–supply short-fall. Residential sector accounted for 15% of the total electricity consumption. We conducted load research survey across 21 cities and towns of the state to estimate residential electricity load curves, share of appliances by type and usage patterns for all types of household appliances at utility, geographic, appliance, income and end-use levels. The results indicate that a large scope exists for penetration of energy efficient devices in residential sector. Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves for electricity and CO 2 were generated to analyze relative attractiveness of energy efficient appliance options. Results indicate that up to 7.9 TWh of electricity can be saved per year with 6.7 Mt-CO 2 emissions mitigation at negative or very low CO 2 prices of US$ 10/t-CO 2 . Despite such options existing, their penetration is not realized due to myriad barriers such as financial, institutional or awareness and therefore cannot be taken as baseline options for CO 2 emission mitigation regimes. - Highlights: • Residential sector provides focused mitigation opportunities. • Energy efficient space cooling is the main technology transition required. • Almost 26% residential load could be reduced by DSM measures. • Myriad barriers limit penetration of negative marginal cost efficient options

  13. Challenges in management of tuberculosis under programmatic conditions: Perceptions of health care providers from four states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Babu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the global estimation of 10.4 million new cases of Tuberculosis (TB in 2015, 27% of cases are contributed by India. Revised national TB control program (RNTCP started in 1993, and now heading towards for universal access. Despite its achievements, the program faces number of implementation challenges. This qualitative study explored ‘what is healthcare providers take on it?’. Material & Methods: A total of 28 in-depth interviews were conducted in Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Delhi and Maharashtra from October 2014 to January 2015, under the thematic areas of finance, human resource, and communications. Participants included senior level policy makers like principal secretaries of health, National Health Mission Directors, Director Health Services, state TB officers and district TB officers, medical officers, community volunteers and TB consultants from international agencies. Analytic induction method was used for data analysis. Results: Participants identified many barriers in the overall management and implementation of RNTCP. Convergence of RNTCP needs to be more effective. Inadequate Human resources, issues in public private partnership, insufficient budget allocation and interrupted fund flow, inefficient Information Education and Communication strategy are a few. Conclusion: This study could gather the perspectives of senior health officials, implementers and other stakeholders on challenges in implementation of TB control programme in four states. Challenges perceived by them are vital in strategic revisions of RNTCP.

  14. Challenges in management of tuberculosis under programmatic conditions: Perceptions of health care providers from four states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Babu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the global estimation of 10.4 million new cases of Tuberculosis (TB in 2015, 27% of cases are contributed by India. Revised national TB control program (RNTCP started in 1993, and now heading towards for universal access. Despite its achievements, the program faces number of implementation challenges. This qualitative study explored ‘what is healthcare providers take on it?’. Material & Methods: A total of 28 in-depth interviews were conducted in Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Delhi and Maharashtra from October 2014 to January 2015, under the thematic areas of finance, human resource, and communications. Participants included senior level policy makers like principal secretaries of health, National Health Mission Directors, Director Health Services, state TB officers and district TB officers, medical officers, community volunteers and TB consultants from international agencies. Analytic induction method was used for data analysis. Results: Participants identified many barriers in the overall management and implementation of RNTCP. Convergence of RNTCP needs to be more effective. Inadequate Human resources, issues in public private partnership, insufficient budget allocation and interrupted fund flow, inefficient Information Education and Communication strategy are a few. Conclusion: This study could gather the perspectives of senior health officials, implementers and other stakeholders on challenges in implementation of TB control programme in four states. Challenges perceived by them are vital in strategic revisions of RNTCP.

  15. Dietary mineral status of lactating buffaloes in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Sherasia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Kolhapur district is located in the Western part of India and is well known for buffalo rearing. Buffaloes are mainly fed on crop residues and local grasses and need to be supplemented with deficient minerals for proper production and reproduction functions. In view of this, area specific mineral mixture was developed for the district by testing feeds and fodders for macro and micro minerals. The average calcium (Ca content in straws of groundnut, ragi and soybean was high (0.97%, whereas, straws of sorghum and paddy had low (0.23% level. Ca content in green fodder was 0.38 percent. Concentrate ingredients were particularly low (0.22% in Ca. The phosphorus (P content in crop residues and green fodders was 0.14 and 0.19 per cent, respectively, which was low, but higher (0.67% in concentrate ingredients. The magnesium (Mg content in roughages and concentrate ingredients was 0.38 and 0.32 percent, respectively. The sulphur (S content was deficient in concentrate ingredients (0.13% and crop residues (0.12%. Cobalt (Co was deficient in the diet of animals; however, iron and manganese levels in most of the feed ingredients were adequate. The average copper (Cu content was low in dry and green fodders (7.34 ppm, whereas, concentrate ingredients were better source of Cu (15.19 ppm. Molybdenum (Mo content in feeds was within the safe limit (average level<0.31 ppm. Selenium (Se content in most of the feed and fodders was adequate (0.40 ppm. Zinc (Zn was deficient in most of the feedstuffs (average level<35.0 ppm. From the present study, it was apparent that certain minerals such as Ca, P, S, Zn, Cu and Co were deficient in the diet and needed to be supplemented.

  16. Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newmaster AF

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems, 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa, each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc., food (nutritious seeds, fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass and livestock feed (goats and sheep. Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, conservation and natural resources management, consensus

  17. Opening the black box of transfer systems in public sector health services in a Western state in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Martineau, Tim; Sheikh, Kabir

    2016-08-22

    Limited research on Posting and Transfer (P&T) policies and systems in the public sector health services and the reluctance for an open debate on the issue makes P&T as a black box. Limited research on P&T in India suggests that P&T policies and systems are either non-existent, weak, poorly implemented or characterized by corruption. Hence the current study aimed at opening the "black box" of P&T systems in public sector health services in India by assessing the implementation gaps between P&T policies and their actual implementation. This was a qualitative study carried out in Department of Health, in a Western State in India. To understand the extant P&T policies, a systems map was first developed with the help of document review and Key Informant (KI) Interviews. Next systems audit was carried out to assess the actual implementation of transfer policies by interviewing Medical Officers (MOs), the group mainly affected by the P&T policies. Job histories were constructed from the interviews to understand transfer processes like frequencies of transfers and to assess if transfer rules were adhered. The analysis is based on a synthesis of document review, 19 in-depth interviews with MOs working with state health department and five in-depth interviews with Key Informants (KIs). Framework analysis approach was used to analyze data using NVIVO. The state has a generic transfer guideline applicable to all government officers but there is no specific transfer policy or guideline for government health personnel. The generic transfer guidelines are weakly implemented indicating a significant gap between policy and actual implementation. The formal transfer guidelines are undermined by a parallel system in which desirable posts are attained, retained or sometimes given up by the use of political connections and money. MOs' experiences of transfers were marked by perceptions of unfairness and irregularities reflected through interviews as well as the job histories. The

  18. A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

    2015-03-01

    Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and

  19. Measurement and modeling of CO2 exchange over forested landscapes in India: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S.; Dadhwal, V.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its potential impact on global climate change is the subject of worldwide studies, political debates and international discussions. The concern led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol to curtail emissions and mitigate the possible global warming. The studies so far suggest that terrestrial biological sinks might be the low cost options for carbon sequestration, which can be used to partially offset the industrial CO2 emissions globally. In past, the effectiveness of terrestrial sink and the quantitative estimates of their sink strengths have relied mainly on the measurements of changes in carbon stocks across the world. Recent developments in flux tower based measurement techniques such as Eddy Covariance for assessing the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes provide tools for quantifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 on a continuous basis. These near real time measurements, when integrated with remote sensing, enable the up-scaling of the carbon fluxes to regional scale. More than 470 towers exist worldwide as of now. Indian subcontinent was not having any tower-based CO2 flux measurement system so far. The Indian Space Research Organization under its Geosphere Biosphere Programme is funding five eddy covariance towers for terrestrial CO2 flux measurements in different ecological regions of the country. The tower sites already planned are: (i) a mixed forest plantation (Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia) at Haldwani in collaboration with DISAFRI, University of Tuscia, Italy and the Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, (ii) a sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Doon valley Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in northern India, (ii) a teak (Tectona grandis) mixed forest at Betul in Madhya Pradesh in central India, (iv) an old teak plantation at Dandeli, and (v) a semi-evergreen forest at Nagarhole in Karnataka state in southern India. The three towers have been

  20. Efficiency of health care system at the sub-state level in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Brijesh C

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts a sub-state-level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique. The study was carried out in two stages of estimation, and our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing sub-state-level health system efficiency. Our results indicate that main factors within the health system for discrepancy in interdistrict performance are inequitable distribution of supplies, availability of skilled attention at birth, and inadequate staffing relative to patient load of rural population at primary health centers. Overcoming these factors through additional resources in the deficient districts, mobilized partly from grants in aid and partly from patient welfare societies, may help the state to improve life expectancy speedily and more equitably. Besides the direct inputs from the health sector, a more conducive environment for gender development, reducing inequality in opportunities for women in health, education and other rights may provide the necessary impetus towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and add to overall life expectancy in the state.

  1. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

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    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS, and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n = 107 reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6% were non-injecting and 24 (22.4% were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%, active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4% and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9% compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies

  2. What Can the United States Learn from India to Counter Terrorism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latimer, William

    2004-01-01

    Terrorism is the principal threat to global and national security in the post-11 September world, Facing terrorist threats at home and abroad, the United States has declared counterterrorism its top priority...

  3. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

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    Sanjay Kini

    Full Text Available According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7 guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal.To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages, Udupi District, Karnataka state, India.Community based cross sectional study.6 (out of total 14 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR and adjusted (adj OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05, white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85 and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42, students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95, using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99, salty food

  4. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Sanjay; Kamath, Veena G; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Community based cross sectional study. 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. 1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95), using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95), extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99), salty

  5. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

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    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  6. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

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    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  7. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  8. Examining physicians’ preparedness for tobacco cessation services in India: Findings from primary care public health facilities in two Indian states

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    Rajmohan Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA total of 275 million tobacco users live throughout India and are in need of tobacco cessation services. However, the preparation of physicians to deliver this service at primary care health facilities remains unknown.AimsThe study aimed to examine the primary care physicians’ preparedness to deliver tobacco cessation services in two Indian states.MethodResearchers surveyed physicians working in primary care public health facilities, primarily in rural areas using a semistructured interview schedule. Physicians’ preparedness was defined in the study as those possessing knowledge of tobacco cessation methods and exhibiting a positive attitude towards the benefits of tobacco cessation counselling as well as being willing to be part of tobacco prevention or cessation program.ResultsOverall only 17% of physicians demonstrated adequate preparation to provide tobacco cessation services at primary care health facilities in both the States. The findings revealed minimal tobacco cessation training during formal medical education (21.3% and on-the-job training (18.9%. Factors, like sex and age of service provider, type of health facility, location of health facility and number of patients attended by the service provider, failed to show significance during bivariate and regression analysis. Preparedness was significantly predicted by state health system.ConclusionThe study highlights a lack of preparedness of primary care physicians to deliver tobacco cessation services. Both the curriculum in medical school and on-the-job training require an addition of a learning component on tobacco cessation. The addition of this component will enable existing primary care facilities to deliver tobacco cessation services.

  9. Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - A case study of the state of Maharashtra, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2001-07-01

    India's expanding economy and the strong growth expected in the next few decades (at around 10% per annum), will require additional energy. The use of fossil fuels is likely to dominate the strategy for meeting these needs in the near and medium term. However, India's own reserves are finite and will only be available for a limited period and the use of fossil fuels is not sustainable and is directly linked to environmental problems, particularly CO{sub 2} emissions and climate change. The importance of the increasing use of renewable energy sources was recognized in India in the early 1970s. During the past quarter century, a significant effort has gone into the development, trial and induction of a variety of technologies for use in different sectors. Today, India has one of the world's largest programs for renewable energy. The activities cower all the major renewable energy sources, including biogas, biomass, solar, wind and small-hydro power and other emerging technologies. By the end of 20th century nearly three million family-sized biogas plants (second in number in the world and next only to China's) and 30 million improved wood stoves have been established. These technologies could save about 15 million tons of fuel wood every year. Several other renewable energy technologies and products are now commercially available, and are economically viable in comparison to fossil fuels for some applications. However, there are many barriers to achieve the full potential of the renewable energy technologies. In order to study the potential and evaluate different RETs, we carried out a study of barriers to RETs in the state of Maharashtra, which accounts for about 16% of the Gross Domestic Product and 17% of the electricity supply in India. The study has been carried out in two parts. In the first part analysis was done on two technologies, viz., solar and wind. For doing this, information was collected from various secondary sources such as

  10. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-19

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  11. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination

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    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Methodology: Principal component analysis (PCA was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Results: Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. Discussion: The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the estimation of cognitive impairment in illiterate Indian population are temporal orientation, spatial orientation, and immediate memory.

  12. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Raina, Sujeet; Grover, Ashoo

    2016-01-01

    Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the