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Sample records for karnataka southern india

  1. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  2. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  3. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka.

    Reddy, P H; Badari, V S

    1991-12-01

    An overview, objectives, implementation, and research and evaluation studies of 2 India Population Projects in Karnataka are presented. The India Population Project I (IPP-I) was conducted in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. India Population Project III (IPP-III) took place between 1984-92 in 6 districts of Karnataka: Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwad, Bidar, Gulbarga, and Raichur, and 4 districts in Kerala. The 6 districts in Karnataka accounted for 36% (13.2 million) of the total national population. The project cost was Rs. 713.1 million which was shared by the World Bank, and the Indian national and regional government. Due to poor past performance, these projects were undertaken to improve health and family welfare status. Specific project objectives are outlined. IPP-I included an urban component, and optimal Government of India program, and an intensive rural initiative. The urban program aimed to improved pre- and postnatal services and facilities, and the family planning (FP) in Bangalore city. The rural program was primarily to provide auxiliary nurse-midwives and hospitals and clinics, and also supplemental feeding program for pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 2 years. The government program provided FP staff and facilities. IPP-I had 3 units to oversee building construction, to recruit staff and provide supplies and equipment, and to establish a Population Center. IPP-III was concerned with service delivery; information, education, and communication efforts (IEC) and population education; research and evaluation; and project management. Both projects contributed significantly to improving the infrastructure. A brief account of the types and kinds of studies undertaken is given. Studies were grouped into longitudinal studies of fertility, mortality, and FP; management information and evaluation systems for health and family welfare programs; experimental strategies; and other studies. Research and evaluation studies in IPP-III encompassed studies in

  4. Sickness Absenteeism, Morbidity and Workplace Injuries among Iron and Steel workers – A Cross Sectional Study from Karnataka, Southern India

    Manjunatha R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study of illnesses causing absence of workers from workin industries is a practical method to study the health statusof industrial workers and to identify occupational healthhazards. The iron and steel industries are particularlyhazardous places of work. Published data from India onhealth status of iron and steel workers is limited, thereforethis study was undertaken to investigate the sicknessabsenteeism, morbidity and workplace injuries among thispopulation.MethodWorkers were selected using stratified random sampling. Astructured pre-tested interview schedule was used tocollect the data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered forstatistical significance.ResultsFrom a total of 2525 workers, 353 (mean age 55.1 yrs, male69.4% participated in the study. The overall proportion ofsickness absenteeism was 66.9% (95% CI: 0.62 – 0.71.Overall 16.4 days were lost per worker per year (male = 16.5& female = 16.2 due to sickness absence. A blue collarworker lost 21.5 days compared to 11.9 days by a whitecollar worker (p < 0.01. Among workers, health ailmentsrelated to the musculoskeletal system (31.4%,gastrointestinal system (25.8%, hypertension (24.4%,respiratory system (18.1% and other minor ailments(19.3% were found to be high.ConclusionSickness absenteeism is significantly higher among iron andsteel workers when compared to other occupations in India.Blue collar workers and shift workers loose higher numberof days due to sickness absence, and they face problemsrelated to musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal systemand hypertension in higher proportions compared to theircounterparts. Women experienced hypertension as thecommon health problem and higher proportions of injuriesoutside the work environment.

  5. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

    Shuchismita Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  6. "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India

    Chandrashekara, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb varied in the range of 4.7–42.9 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 36.1–124 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3–63.7 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 12.0–406 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. - Highlights: • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb concentrations in medicinal plants were estimated. • Concentrations are higher in leaves than in rhizome or bark. • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were in disequilibrium, but correlated very well. • Study helps to form database of radionuclides in medicinal plants.

  7. Cost of unserved power in Karnataka, India

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar; Shukla, Megha; Srivastava, Leena; Yaron, Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the cost of unserved energy (CUE) or value of lost load in agriculture and industrial sectors and provides insights that can provide useful inputs in designing effective policies for the power sector. About 500 manufacturing units and 900 farmers were surveyed in the south Indian state of Karnataka using a two-stage random sampling to provide interval estimates of CUE for the industrial and agricultural consumers. The results from the survey help in providing guidance on consumer perceptions and their willingness to pay different or higher tariffs. The estimated economic loss due to power outage in the agriculture sector varies from 1.9% to 3.6% of total State Domestic Product (SDP), i.e., Rs 950 billion at 1999/2000 prices, while in industry, the economic loss varies between 0.04% and 0.17% of total SDP depending upon the size of industry during the study period in 1999

  8. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  9. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India.

    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S

    2017-01-01

    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  10. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  11. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

    SHIVANAND BHAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.

  12. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  13. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  14. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

    K.S Vinayaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  15. Quantitative Estimation of Coastal Changes along Selected Locations of Karnataka, India: A GIS and Remote Sensing Approach

    Vinayaraj, P.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Gowthaman, R.

    Qualitative and quantitative studies on changes of coastal geomorphology and shoreline of Karnataka, India have been carried out using toposheets of Survey of India and satellite imageries (IRS-P6 and IRS-1D). Changes during 30 years period...

  16. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  17. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Mahantesh V Parande; Subarna Roy; B G Mantur; Aisha M Parande; Rupali S Shinde

    2017-01-01

    Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of dipht...

  18. Bhima Basin, Karnataka, India uranium mineralisation in the Neoproterozoic

    Achar, K.K.; Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Kumar, M.K.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the geological analogy of known uranium mineralisation in other Proterozoic basins of India, the Bhima basin in northern Karnataka, covering an area of 5200 sq km, was taken up for uranium exploration. An integrated approach involving exploration techniques such as terrain analysis using satellite imageries, jeep-borne radiation survey, regional hydrogeochemical sampling and ground radiometric surveys were used. In addition gamma-ray logging of borewells drilled for water have enabled delineation of subsurface mineralisation at Gogi. Uranium mineralisation is associated with: (1) altered phosphatic limestone along the cherty limestone-shale boundary as at Ukinal, (2) brecciated non-phosphatic limestone as at Gogi, and (3) basic enclaves in the basement granites, as at Gogi East. Uranium occurs essentially as adsorbed phase on limonite and absorbed in collophane in the phosphatic limestone as at Ukinal. Mineralisation at Gogi is characterised by intense fracturing and brecciation apparently related to E-W trending Kurlagere-Gogi fault and is essentially low temperature (c.200 deg. C) hydrothermal nature represented by coffinite (thin veins and globular aggregates) along with pitchblende, pyrite (both framboidal and euhedral), pyrrhotite, haematite and anatase. Mineralisation is both syngenetic - remobilised as in the phosphatic limestones (Ukinal) and epigenetic hydrothermal (Gogi). The spatial relation of the unconformity, basement faults, and uranium - bearing basic enclaves within the basement points to the importance of the unconformity as a surface for fluid transport and fixation in conducive hosts. Presence of labile uranium in the basement granites with significant groundwater anomalies (up to 309 ppb U) enhances such possibilities. (author)

  19. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  20. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 ... Seas; swells; wind waves; Arabian Sea; mixed sea state; wave spectrum. ..... Range and average value of the wave parameters at three locations during three different ..... fully developed seas based on the similarity theory of S A.

  1. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  2. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  3. SUFI SAINTS IN KARNATAKA

    Maruti KAMBLE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Karnataka is one of the most important southern states of India. It has gainedprominence politically, socio-economically, philosophically and in many otherways. It is a meeting place of many religious philosophies and a melting pointhelping to achieve the synthesis of the teaching ofmany religious reforms. Sufismis a mystic religion. It is an offshoot of Islam. Sufi saints are the followers ofALLAH and the practice of peace, benevolence and tolerance. They promulgateda religion based on the concept of love, the love with the fellow being and thelove with the ultimate or the creator. Sufi saintsand Sufism are an existing realityin Indian socio-religious fold and it has contributed for a healthy and amicablesocial order. It has lead to a new social set-up full of values, and discipline.Sufism as a religion of the teaming millions becamethe practicing system amongthe people of India as well as Karnataka. This study of Sufi Saints in Karnataka isthus an inspired attempt to portray this religion of the soul and heart. Muchemphasis is laid on the concepts and special aspects of Sufism, along with variouspractices found in it. I was always attracted by its spiritual significance andpractical essence and also its profound influence on the general public. Hence, mylittle attempt to explain the same through the lifestories of some of the great Sufisaints in Karnataka.

  4. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

    Schwarz Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  5. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  6. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India.

    Nair, Sreejith S; Raghunath, Pooja; Nair, Sreekanth S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India. This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software. We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196) as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170). The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%), and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group. Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for this purpose as part of our future efforts.

  7. Factors associated with sexual violence against men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals in Karnataka, India.

    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T.Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India.Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV.A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p = .104. In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2-14.3, p = .029. Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7, p = .012.These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.

  8. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  10. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  11. Public-private implementation of integrated emergency response services: Case study of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute in Karnataka, India.

    Sriram, Veena M; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Emergency medical services are important to the functioning of health systems, but these services tend to be neglected in low- and middle-income countries, such as India. In recent years, several models of pre-hospital emergency medical services have emerged in India. Research on these models holds important lessons for existing and future emergency medical service programs in low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of the organizational structure and service delivery model of a public-private partnership in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, with a particular focus on its operations in Bengaluru. A case study methodology was used to explore systematically the organizational model of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute in Karnataka. Qualitative data were collected through an in-person site visit to GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute headquarters in Bengaluru in July 2013. Three sources were used: in-depth, semistructured interviews, document review, and nonparticipant observation. Data were analyzed according to the health system "building blocks" proposed by the World Health Organization. The organization follows a standardized model across the states and union territories where they have contractual arrangements, including Karnataka. Processes for fleet maintenance, information systems/information technology and training, and deployment were well structured at the organizational level. The public-private partnership appears pro-poor in orientation; however, further demand-side research is required on the perspective of patients. Our study reveals a functional structure at the organizational level, which provides a key service at no cost to users. Detailed analyses of this nature can help inform global efforts for the development and strengthening of emergency medical services systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

    H Manjunatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  14. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  15. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study

    Darshan Devang Divakar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females (p < 0.05 (Table 5. Also, significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed in all the variables according to age (Table 6. Out of 24 variables, only ULTc predicts the gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Keywords: Discriminant function analysis, Forensic investigation, Indigenous, Lateral cephalograms, Sex determination

  16. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study.

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females ( p  gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  17. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  18. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  19. Heavy Metal Analysis of Cauvery River Water Around Krs Dam, Karnataka, India

    J. Mahadev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is an index of health and is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists, since Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have a direct impact on the water resources. Hence, the study of the reservoirs and river water quality monitoring is most essential aspect of sustainable development and river conservation. The Upstream and KRS reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Mysore city. The study area were selected the Upstream and KRS reservoir of Mysore District of Karnataka, India. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality parameter and heavy metal of upstream and KRS Dam during 2008. Ecological parameters like Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical parameters like Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and physical parameters like Temperature, pH, Turbidity and heavy metals were analyzed and the results were compared with standard permissible limits, WHO and they were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. Results revealed that in three rivers of upstream (Hemavathi, Cauvery and Laxmanatheertha carried high loads of Arsenic, Iron, Nickel in Upstream. In other word, Arsenic is a dominant risk to more than the maximum permissible standard of water quality and is a risk factor in this river

  20. Electron spin resonance dating of bones samples from recently excavated in Karnataka, India

    Ramamurthy, Ramya; Godhandabani, Velraj

    2011-01-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to paleontology and archaeology. A preliminary attempt has been made to date the bone samples from the archaeological site Gudnapur in Karnataka state, India. Each sample was divided into five sets which were given an artificial dose (AD) by using γ rays of 50 Gy, 300 Gy, 800 Gy and 1500 Gy and 3200 Gy. All the samples show similar EPR spectra having g-values 2.0026, 2.0025 and 2.0013 corresponding to CO 2 - orthorhombic and axial CO 2 - respectively. These signals have been used for the age estimation of the archaeological bone samples assuming the dose rate to be 1.12 mGy/a. The calculated ages of the samples are 199 ± 54 ka, 28 ± 23 ka and 225 ± 74 ka. The first and third correspond to the III interglacial stage whereas the second one corresponds to I glacial stage of the Pleistocene epoch respectively and in good agreement with age predicted by archaeological Department. (author)

  1. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  2. Sexual Assault in Ballari, Karnataka, India: A Four Year Retrospective Review

    Charan Kishor Shetty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%.  The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51% of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06% cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.

  3. Tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

    Patil, Vishal V; Shigli, Kamal; Hebbal, Mamata; Agrawal, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The health of industrial workers often goes uncared for due to their stressful working conditions, busy schedules and poor economic conditions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (1997). A total of 614 workers participated in the study. Information was obtained regarding their oral hygiene practice. The presence or absence of habits, and the frequency and duration since the last visit to a dentist were recorded followed by clinical examination. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between the variables and tooth loss. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of missing teeth in different age groups, methods of cleaning, smoking habits and visits to the dentist. Regarding prosthetic status, only one worker had a fixed prosthesis in the mandibular arch. The study revealed that tooth loss was associated with oral hygiene practices, habits and visits to the dentist. Poor prosthetic status and high treatment needs were observed. This study emphasized the need for improved dental health awareness and availability of dental facilities to industrial workers.

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Karnataka State, India

    K. V. V Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents oral mucosal lesions findings from a state oral health survey of Karnataka, India. A total of 46,579 subjects aged 1-4 to 65+ years were selected by using multistage-cluster-stratified random sampling method and subjects were examined by 32 dentists trained in standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for oral mucosal lesions. In the present study, 7.53% of subjects had one or more oral mucosal lesions, in which, male subjects (9.41 % had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions compared to female subjects (4.38%; urban subjects (11.61% had a significantly higher prevalence than rural subjects (5.01 % and the Christian subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions than the Hindus, Muslims and others (F=211.594, <0.001, S. The observed prevalence of oral mucosal lesions increased with age (r=0.8174, P<0.05, S, which is statistically significant. The most prevalent lesions observed were Leukoplakia (1.73%, Lichen planus (2.02% Ulceration (0.73%, Candidiasis (0.94% and Abscess (1.05%. The maximum number of lesions was seen in sulci (7.33% and the minimum number of lesions was seen in lips (0.02%. Differences in prevalence were analyzed by sex, religion, location and geographical area.

  5. Unfree markets: socially embedded informal health providers in northern Karnataka, India.

    George, Asha; Iyer, Aditi

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of informal health markets in marginalised regions are relevant to policy discourse in India, but are poorly understood. We examine how informal health markets operate from the viewpoint of informal providers (those without any government-recognised medical degrees, otherwise known as RMPs) by drawing upon data from a household survey in 2002, a provider census in 2004 and ongoing field observations from a research site in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. We find that despite their illegality, RMPs depend on government and private providers for their training and referral networks. Buffeted by unregulated market pressures, RMPs are driven to provide allopathic commodities regardless of need, but can also be circumspect in their practice. Though motivated by profit, their socially embedded practice at community level at times undermines their ability to ensure payment of fees for their services. In addition, RMPs feel that communities can threaten them via violence or malicious rumours, leading them to seek political favour and social protection from village elites and elected representatives. RMPs operate within negotiated quid pro quo bargains that lead to tenuous reciprocity or fragile trust between them and the communities in which they practise. In the context of this 'unfree' market, some RMPs reported being more embedded in health systems, more responsive to communities and more vulnerable to unregulated market pressures than others. Understanding the heterogeneity, nuanced motivations and the embedded social relations that mark informal providers in the health systems, markets and communities they work in, is critical for health system reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    Bradley Janet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters

  7. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Alary, Michel; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Ramesh, B M

    2011-12-29

    Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct

  8. Lay health workers perceptions of an anemia control intervention in Karnataka, India: a qualitative study.

    Shet, Arun S; Rao, Abha; Jebaraj, Paul; Mascarenhas, Maya; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Atkins, Salla

    2017-09-18

    Lay health workers (LHWs) are increasingly used to complement health services internationally. Their perceptions of the interventions they implement and their experiences in delivering community based interventions in India have been infrequently studied. We developed a novel LHW led intervention to improve anemia cure rates in rural community dwelling children attending village day care centers in South India. Since the intervention is delivered by the village day care center LHW, we sought to understand participating LHWs' acceptance of and perspectives regarding the intervention, particularly in relation to factors affecting daily implementation. We conducted a qualitative study alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a complex community intervention for childhood anemia control in Karnataka, South India. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with trained LHWs assigned to deliver the educational intervention. These were complemented by non-participant observations of LHWs delivering the intervention. Transcripts of the FGDs were translated and analyzed using the framework analysis method. Several factors made the intervention acceptable to the LHWs and facilitated its implementation including pre-implementation training modules, intervention simplicity, and ability to incorporate the intervention into the routine work schedule. LHWs felt that the intervention impacted negatively on their preexisting workload. Fluctuating relationships with mothers weakened the LHWs position as providers of the intervention and hampered efficient implementation, despite the LHWs' highly valued position in the community. Modifiable barriers to the successful implementation of this intervention were seen at two levels. At a broader contextual level, hindering factors included the LHW being overburdened, inadequately reimbursed, and receiving insufficient employer support. At the health system level, lack of streamlining of LHW duties, inability of LHWs to

  9. Sediment transport along the Goa-north Karnataka Coast, western India

    Kunte, P.D.

    Landsat images, aerial photographs, and topographic maps of the coast of Goa and of north Karnataka were interpreted to delineate sediment-transpoet sectors. Thirty six sediment-transpoet sectors were identified from landform indicators and patterns...

  10. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...... at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent...

  11. Preferences for infant delivery site among pregnant women and new mothers in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Bruce, Sharon G; Blanchard, Andrea K; Gurav, Kaveri; Roy, Anuradha; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2015-02-27

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of India aims to increase the uptake of safe and institutional delivery among rural communities to improve maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) outcomes. Previous studies in India have found that while there have been increasing numbers of institutional deliveries there are still considerable barriers to utilization and quality of services, particularly in rural areas, that may mitigate improvements achieved by MNCH interventions. This paper aims to explore the factors influencing preference for home, public or private hospital delivery among rural pregnant and new mothers in three northern districts of Karnataka state, South India. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers (infants born within past 3 months), their husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted in the local language (Kannada) and then translated to English for analysis. The interviews of pregnant women and new mothers were used for analysis to ultimately develop broader themes around definitions of quality care from the perspective of service users, and the influence this had on their delivery site preferences. Geographical and financial access were important barriers to accessing institutional delivery services in all districts, and among those both above and below the poverty line. Access issues of greatest concern were high costs at private institutions, continuing fees at public hospitals and the inconsistent receipt of government incentives. However, views on quality of care that shaped delivery site preferences were deeply rooted in socio-cultural expectations for comfortable, respectful and safe care that must ultimately be addressed to change negative perceptions about institutional, and particularly public hospital, care at delivery. In the literature, quality of care beyond access has largely been overlooked in favour of support for incentives on the demand side, and more trained

  12. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  13. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen N; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-12-29

    Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3). Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (plodges were at increased risk for CT/NG (AOR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.9-20.6, p=.03). Examining co-infections, clients with HSV-2 infections were at substantially higher risk of being HIV-positive (AOR: 10.4; 95%CI: 6.1-17.7, p<.0001). This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  14. Measurement of gamma natural background radiation at Chamaraja Nagar, Karnataka state, India

    Nagaraju, K.M.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive elements and their radiation are ubiquitous in the environment. The Influence of radiation on living organisms is imminent and very important to study. The ocean, the mountains, the air, and our food all expose us to small amounts of natural background radiation. Cosmic rays from outer space are another large contributor of natural background radiation. Much of the earth's natural background radiation is in the form of gamma radiation, a part of which comes from outer space. Some part of cosmic ray is filtered out by the presence of earth's atmosphere, so there are natural controls for the amount of radiation that people receive. The amount of radiation received by an individual depends on altitude, latitude type of building and the building construction materials. In the present study, measurements of natural background radiation were made in the temples, schools, dwellings, and hill stations in Chamaraja Nagar area, Karnataka state, India by using environmental dosimeter technique. The results show that, absorbed dose rate of background radiations at inside schools varies from 93.96 to 120.93 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 10.62 nGyh -1 and outside schools it varies from 60.9 to 113.1 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 15.1 nGyh -1 . In temples, the absorbed dose rate varies from 104.4 to 244.91 nGyh - 1 with a standard deviation of 48.34 nGyh -1 and outside the temples it varies from 87.9 to 176.61 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 30.896 nGyh -1 . The absorbed dose rate of background radiations at dwellings in indoor varies from 94.0 to 139.2 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 16.6 nGyh -1 and in outdoor it varies from 60.9 to 118.32 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 19.41 nGyh -1 . The measurements were also carried out in dwellings on hill stations in Chamaraja Nagar district. Indoor gamma dose rate varies from 103.53 to 236.64 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 59.8 nGyh -1 and outdoor gamma dose rate varies from 78.3 to 119

  15. Comparing conventional and organic agriculture in Karnataka, India: Where and when can organic farming be sustainable?

    Patil, S.; Reidsma, P.; Shah, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Wolf, J.

    2014-01-01

    Karnataka is one of the south-western Indian states where agrarian distress as a major problem. Crop yields have been stagnant in the last decade, and coupled with increased input costs, this has led to reduced incomes and debts. There is an urgent need to study options to improve the sustainability

  16. Design and Development of Maize Dehusker cum Sheller: A Technology for Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    Chilur, Rudragouda; Kumar, Sushilendra

    2018-06-01

    The Maize ( Zea mays L.) crop is one of the most important cereal in agricultural production systems of Northern Transition Zone (Hyderabad-Karnataka region) in India. These Hyderabad Karnataka farmers (small-medium) are lack of economic technologies with maize dehusking and shelling, which fulfils the two major needs as crops and as livestock in farming. The portable medium size (600 kg/h capacity) electric motor (2.23 kW) operated Maize Dehusker cum Sheller (MDS) was designed to resolve the issue by considering engineering properties of maize. The developed trapezium shaped MDS machine having overall dimensions (length × (top and bottom) × height) of 1200 × (500 and 610) × 810 mm. The selected operational parameters viz, cylinder peripheral speed (7.1 m/s), concave clearance (25 mm) and feed rate (600 kg/h) were studied for machine-performance and seed-quality parameters. The performance of machine under these parameters showed the dehusking efficiency of 99.56%, shelling efficiency of 98.01%, cleaning efficiency of 99.11%, total loss of 3.63% machine capacity of 527.11 kg/kW-h and germination percentage of 98.93%. Overall machine performance was found satisfactory for maize dehusking cum shelling operation as well as to produce the maize grains for seeding purpose.

  17. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Stigma as experienced by women accessing prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV services in Karnataka, India

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Banandur, Pradeep; Sreenivas, Amita; Turan, Janet; Washington, Reynold; Cohen, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    In Karnataka, India only one-third of HIV-infected pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis at delivery in 2007 through the state government’s prevention of parent-to-child HIV transmission (PPTCT) program. The current qualitative study explored the role of HIV-associated stigma as a barrier to accessing PPTCT services in the rural northern Karnataka district of Bagalkot using in depth interviews and focus group discussions with HIV-infected women who had participated in the PPTCT program, male and female family members, and HIV service providers. Participants discussed personal experiences, community perceptions of HIV, and decision-making related to accessing PPTCT services. They described stigma towards HIV-infected individuals from multiple sources: healthcare workers, community members, family and self. Stigma-related behaviors were based on fears of HIV transmission through personal contact and moral judgment. Experience and/or fears of discrimination led pregnant women to avoid using PPTCT interventions. Government, cultural and historical factors are described as the roots of much the stigma-related behavior in this setting. Based on these formative data, PPTCT program planners should consider further research and interventions aimed at diminishing institutional and interpersonal HIV-associated stigma experienced by pregnant women. PMID:20635247

  19. Design and Development of Maize Dehusker cum Sheller: A Technology for Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    Chilur, Rudragouda; Kumar, Sushilendra

    2018-02-01

    The Maize (Zea mays L.) crop is one of the most important cereal in agricultural production systems of Northern Transition Zone (Hyderabad-Karnataka region) in India. These Hyderabad Karnataka farmers (small-medium) are lack of economic technologies with maize dehusking and shelling, which fulfils the two major needs as crops and as livestock in farming. The portable medium size (600 kg/h capacity) electric motor (2.23 kW) operated Maize Dehusker cum Sheller (MDS) was designed to resolve the issue by considering engineering properties of maize. The developed trapezium shaped MDS machine having overall dimensions (length × (top and bottom) × height) of 1200 × (500 and 610) × 810 mm. The selected operational parameters viz, cylinder peripheral speed (7.1 m/s), concave clearance (25 mm) and feed rate (600 kg/h) were studied for machine-performance and seed-quality parameters. The performance of machine under these parameters showed the dehusking efficiency of 99.56%, shelling efficiency of 98.01%, cleaning efficiency of 99.11%, total loss of 3.63% machine capacity of 527.11 kg/kW-h and germination percentage of 98.93%. Overall machine performance was found satisfactory for maize dehusking cum shelling operation as well as to produce the maize grains for seeding purpose.

  20. Scaling up antiretroviral treatment services in Karnataka, India: impact on CD4 counts of HIV-infected people.

    Suresh Shastri

    Full Text Available SETTING: Twelve antiretroviral treatment centres under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP, Karnataka State, India. OBJECTIVE: For the period 2004-2011, to describe the trends in the numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV registered for care and their median baseline CD4 counts, disaggregated by age and sex. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving analysis of routinely captured data (year of registration, age, sex, baseline CD4 count under NACP. RESULTS: 34,882 (97% of total eligible PLHIV were included in analysis. The number registered for care has increased by over 12 times during 2004-11; with increasing numbers among females. The median baseline CD4 cell count rose from 125 in 2004 to 235 in 2011--the increase was greater among females as compared to males. However, about two-thirds still presented at CD4 cell counts less than 350. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend of median CD4 counts among PLHIV presenting to ART centres in Karnataka, an indicator of enhanced and early access to HIV care. Equal proportion of females and higher baseline CD4 counts among them allays any fear of differential access by gender. Despite this relative success, a substantial proportion still presented at low CD4 cell counts indicating possibly delayed HIV diagnosis and delayed linkage to HIV care. Universal HIV testing at health care facilities and strengthening early access to care are required to bridge the gap.

  1. A badger in Bannerghatta: an opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae from Karnataka, India

    Avinash Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A single observation of a Ratel Mellivora capensis has been photo-documented in Bannerghatta National Park on 2 November 2015. This record being the first contemporary evidence of badgers in this region of Karnataka, India, the paper also presents a case study of badgers being close to a highly human-dominated landscape which could be due to some ecological factors that may be conducive as a habitat within the Park. Though a resident population and distribution within the BNP could not be ascertained, it can be proposed that the region may be an extension of range of its most recently documented distribution in the Eastern Ghats landscape. 

  2. THE EVOLVING COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS IN THE RETAIL BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY OF KARNATAKA BANK

    Krishnakumar RAMANATHAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry in India is going through a unique competitive situation: on the one hand, the proliferation of new banks has increased competition multi-fold; on the other hand, given the rigid regulatory environment, banks have very little liberty to innovate products. The entry of multinational banking giants with superior service operations has further amplified the competition for customers. This paper examines the business performance of Karnataka bank during the period between 2006 and 2014 in order to bring home some of these challenges. Based on feedback from the branch managers, savings and current accounts - two classic banking products – suffered the most in the onslaught. Practicing managers as well as customers that we interviewed held that banking services in terms of customer experience ought to be improved and that various value added services could be introduced. Customers also expected reduced penalty for minimum balance and enhanced insurance cover for their accounts.

  3. Occurrence of the Madras Tree Shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse (Scandentia: Tupaiidae in the Biligirirangan Hills, Karnataka, India

    U. Srinivasan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Madras Tree Shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse 1850 is a small mammal belonging to the order Scandentia, and is endemic to peninsular India. It inhabits deciduous forests and has till date not been reported from the Biligiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (BRT WLS or the contiguous hill ranges or from anywhere else in the state of Karnataka. We provide details of nine independent sightings of this species from six locations in the BRT WLS between 2003 and 2008. Photographs of the three individuals from different locations are also presented. These records indicate an extension of the range of this species in the BRT WLS, and possibly the forests contiguous to the protected area.

  4. A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: INCREASING PREVALENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG RURAL ADULT POPULATION OF KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Tapas Brata Tripathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A community based cross-sectional study in the age group 25 years and above conducted at the field area of primary health centre Chakenahalli, Hassan district, Karnataka, India. The population was similar in characteristics regarding occupation, socio-economic status and food habits. Total of 626 subjects were included by multi-stage sampling. Information collected by the interviewers through face to face interview, after informed consent. The individuals were assessed on anthropometric parameters and screening was done by Random Blood Glucose (RBG with a standardized technique; diagnosis of type 2 diabetes done by WHO criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was found in 11.3% males and 15% females, altogether the total prevalence was 13.09% with 8.79% self reported cases of diabetes . Hypertension was associated with 25.6% diabetic subjects. It was also observed that 28.1% of study population had BMI ≥ 25.

  5. Effect of water quality on the composition of fish communities in three coastal rivers of Karnataka, India

    Arunkumar Shetty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fish assemblage and diversity in relation to water quality of three coastal rivers Sita, Swarna and Varahi of Udupi district, Karnataka, India was studied. 71 species representing 7 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded from 21 sites along the three rivers. Species composition varied longitudinally in relation to the environmental factors of the habitat. The downstream change in the three rivers indicates that fish assemblage changed with increasing loss of riparian canopy cover and increasing agricultural land-use. The richness and abundance of fishes were correlated with land-use type, canopy cover, pH and turbidity. Diversion of water, discharge of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff were prominent among the disturbances that alter the habitat quality.

  6. Status of potato husbandry and farmer's socio-economic profile in moisture and heat prone karnataka, india

    Rana, R.K.; Kadian, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)

  7. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  8. Adoption of solar home lighting systems in India: What might we learn from Karnataka?

    Harish, Santosh M.; Iychettira, Kaveri K.; Raghavan, Shuba V.; Kandlikar, Milind

    2013-01-01

    Karnataka has been among the most successful markets for solar lighting systems (SLS) among Indian states. In order to understand the dynamics of systems adoption and operation, that have fostered market based adoption of solar lighting, we interviewed rural households from six districts that had purchased solar lighting systems using loans at market rates, the rural banks that provided loans and the solar firms that marketed the technology. We found that a large proportion of households in our sample were connected to the grid but chose to install solar lighting because they considered the power supply from the grid to be unreliable. Households in our sample reported savings on electricity costs and reduced kerosene usage for lighting. In addition to providing credit, banks also play a key role in ensuring good service and maintenance; the viability of the SLS market is thus critically dependent on the role that the banks play as intermediaries between consumers and solar firms in rural areas. Government programs should be carefully designed to match the incentives of firms, banks and consumers if the successes of the ‘Karnataka model’ are to be repeated and amplified. -- Highlights: •Solar lighting system (SLS) adoption in Karnataka largely through commercial sales. •Most surveyed households adopted SLS due to grid supply unreliability. •Rural banks critical in introducing consumers to firms and financing systems. •Banks also play support role in ensuring after-sales maintenance. •Institutional structure may limit choice of firms and products

  9. Distribution of radionuclides and radiation levels in some district of Karnataka State, India - a review

    Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is a form of energy that can be travelled through the medium in the form of waves or particles. The heat, sound and light are different forms of radiations that peoples can feel or see but there are other kinds of radiations that human senses cannot detect. Indeed we are constantly receiving such invisible radiation from the sky, earth crust, air, food and even our own body. Such radiations can be divided into ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Our environment contains natural radionuclides in variable amounts. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. Karnataka state has 30 districts and having 74,051 sq m area and it is having various geological formations. The Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, these cover around 60% of the area of the state and it consists of gneisses, granite and charnockite rocks. Some of the minerals found in this region are dolomite, lime stone, gabbro, quartzite, pyroxenite, manganese and iron ore and metabasalt. In addition the proposed uranium mining region is also present in Googi region of Yadagiri district. In many places Iron and manganese mining activities, crushing and quarrying activities are continuously going on. It is expected that such mining and extraction activities can enhance the natural radiation level in the environment. Hence there is a need to estimate the environmental radiation levels in the habitats of these areas. Our research group along with many researches in the Karnataka state initiated systematic study on the dose received by the population in some district of different environmental matrixes and more data are reported in Karnataka state, which have been reviewed and compiled in this paper. (author)

  10. Epidemiological features and financial loss due to clinically diagnosed Haemorrhagic Septicemia in bovines in Karnataka, India.

    Govindaraj, G; Krishnamoorthy, P; Nethrayini, K R; Shalini, R; Rahman, H

    2017-09-01

    The epidemiological features and financial losses due to Haemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) in bovines were studied in Karnataka state using the primary data collected from 133 clinically diagnosed HS affected farms. The various losses due to HS and the Benefit- Cost of the vaccination programme in cattle and water buffaloes were studied using mathematical models. The number of HS outbreaks were higher during the year 2002 and peaked during 2005 and thereafter declined due to targeted vaccination against HS. The morbidity and mortality risks were lower in large farms than medium and small farms, and lower in indigenous cattle compared to high yielding crossbred cattle and water buffaloes. The disease occurrence was more in in-milk animals causing serious economic loss to the farmers. Most outbreaks were observed during monsoon season, though the disease was prevalent throughout the year. The mean milk loss per animal was $2, $11 and $50 in indigenous cattle, water buffaloes and crossbred cattle, respectively. In the case of draught animals, the average effective draught power was unavailable for 1.2days/outbreak resulting in a loss of $5 per affected oxen. The treatment and extra labor expenses incurred per animal were $24 and $7, respectively. The average loss per animal due to mortality loss was $275, $284 and $415 in case of indigenous cattle, water buffaloes and crossbred cattle, respectively. The projected loss for the state of Karnataka were $23.89, $17.92 and $11.95 million under high, medium and low HS incidence scenarios, respectively. The Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) of the vaccination against HS has been estimated at 5.97:1, 4.48:1 and 2.98:1 under high, medium and low incidence scenarios, respectively. The results highlight the important epidemiological features and financial losses to the affected households and the state of Karnataka. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

    B.R. Harish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  12. Biological indicators in relation to coastal pollution along Karnataka coast, India

    Verlecar, X.N.; Desai, S.R.; Sarkar, A.; Dalal, S.G.

    pollutants in relation to planktonic and benthic organisms were examined at two locations along Karnataka coast, one at Kulai (740 47.74? E and 120 55.16? N) receiving huge amount of industrial effluents from fertilizer, petroleum and chemical plants along... with t 0 45? E and 130 10? N) is located 20 kms away, which is a typically agricultural and fishing village having no stress of industrial discharges. Although the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), nutrients and trace metals in water and sediment...

  13. Distribution of natural radionuclides and radiation level measurements in Karnataka State, India. An overview

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. In this regard, considerable studies have been conducted by different research groups in Karnataka state and more data are reported. In this article, all the studies of natural radioactivity measurements have been combined and reviewed. The majority of the reported articles are about monitoring, distribution and assessment of the radiological health hazards of naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  14. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    D P Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is

  15. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  16. Impact of Rainfall, Land-Cover and Population Growth on Groundwater - A Case Study From Karnataka State, India

    Srivastav, R. K.; Chinnapa Reddy, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends in climate, land-use pattern and population has affected almost every portable water resources in the world. Due to depleting surface water and untimely distribution of precipitation, the demand to use groundwater has increased considerably. Further recent studies have shown that the groundwater stress is more in developing countries like India. This study focuses on understanding the impacts of three major factors (i.e., rainfall, land-cover and population growth) effecting the groundwater levels. For this purpose, the correlation between the trends in groundwater time series is compared with trends in rainfall, land-cover and population growth. To detect the trends in time series, two statistical methods namely, least square method and Mann-Kendall method, are adopted. The results were analyzed based on the measurements from 1800 observation wells in the Karnataka state, India. The data is obtained for a total of 9 year time period ranging from 2005 to 2013. A gridded precipitation data of 0.5o× 0.5o over the entire region is used. The change in land-cover and population data was approximately obtained from the local governing bodies. The early results show significant correlation between rainfall and groundwater time series trends. The outcomes will assess the vulnerability of groundwater levels under changing physical and hydroclimatic conditions, especially under climate change.

  17. Groundwater fluoride contamination and its possible health implications in Indi taluk of Vijayapura District (Karnataka State), India.

    Ugran, Vidyavati; Desai, Naveen N; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Masali, Kallappa A; Mantur, Prakash; Kulkarni, Shreepad; Deshmukh, Niranjan; Chadchan, Kailash S; Das, Swastika N; Tanksali, Anuradha S; Arwikar, Asha S; Guggarigoudar, Suresh P; Vallabha, Tejaswini; Patil, Shailaja S; Das, Kusal K

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater fluoride concentration and fluoride-related health problems were studied in twenty-two villages of Indi taluk of Vijayapura district, Karnataka, India. Present study (2015) was also used to compare groundwater fluoride concentration in same 22 villages with previous government report (2000). Groundwater fluoride concentrations of 62 bore wells of 22 villages were analyzed by using an ion-sensitive electrode. A total of 660 adults and 600 children were screened for fluorosis symptoms and signs. Sixty clinically suspected fluorosis patients' urine samples were further analyzed for fluoride. The mean value (1.22 ± 0.75 mg/L) of fluoride concentration of 62 bore wells and 54.83 % bore wells with ≥1.0 mg/L of fluoride concentrations in Indi taluk indicates higher than the permissible limit of drinking water fluoride concentration recommended for India. Clinical symptoms like arthritis, joint pains, gastrointestinal discomfort and lower limb deformities with high urinary fluoride concentrations in some subjects suggest fluorosis. Results also showed an increase in groundwater fluoride concentration of the same 22 villages between previous and present study. Preliminary arthritis symptom of the villagers could be due to drinking fluoride-contaminated water. Increase in fluoride concentration with time to the bore wells definitely indicates future danger.

  18. Compliance to Occupational Safety Measures among the Paramedical Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Karnataka, South India

    P Phukan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The guidelines for minimizing occupational health risk from exposure to highly infectious diseases is already established but little information exists on the compliance of these measures among paramedical workers in India. Objective: To study the awareness of occupational safety measures such as universal precautions, biomedical waste handling, disposal and its compliance in their daily practice. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in a tertiary private hospital in Karnataka, Bangalore, India. Data was collected using a pretested and predesigned proforma from 120 respondents: 85 nurses and 35 laboratory technicians. Results: 27 (32% nurses and 20 (57% laboratory technicians could relate universal precautions to infection prevention. Only 6 (7% nurses and 2 (6% technicians had knowledge about proper hospital waste segregation. 45 (52.9% nurses and 15 (42.8% technicians had knowledge about post-exposure prophylaxis. 3 (4% nurses and 9 (26% technicians were formally trained in following universal precautions. Adequate hand washing was practiced among 17 (20% nurses and none of the technicians. Faulty practice such as recapping of needle was prevalent among 57 (67% nurses and 29 (83% technicians. 32 (38% nurses and 10 (29% technicians received hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusion: As knowledge and practice regarding different aspects of universal precautions was not satisfactory, training was warranted urgently in the study population. Also, suggestions were made to develop and implement institutional policies on the universal precautions and ensuring supply of personal protection equipment.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Alcoholism among Tuberculosis Patients in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Thapa, P; Kamath, R; Shetty, B K; Monteiro, A; Sekaran, V C

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India. Several studies carried out in India have shown alcoholism as a risk factor for tuberculosis mortality, factor for default in TB and reason for non-compliance under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern and associated factors of alcohol use among tuberculosis patients in Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the complete enumeration of all the cases undergoing Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) treatment in Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre of Udupi taluk from March to April 2013. Interview was conducted to obtain the socio-demographic and health information and participants were screened using WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for alcohol use. Out of 123 participants, 78% were males, 86.2% were Hindu, 79.7% were married and 88.6% were from low socio-economic status. About 20.3% (n=25) participants were alcoholic. Among them, 44% were low risk drinkers, 32% were hazardous drinkers, 4% were harmful drinkers and 20% were alcohol dependent. Age, sex, occupation, tobacco use, perceived health status and discrimination due to tuberculosis positive status were significantly associated with alcohol use. On logistic regression sex, tobacco use, perceived health status and facing discrimination due infection with tuberculosis were found to be factors associated with alcohol use. This study found a high prevalence of alcoholism among tuberculosis patients which is of concern and has to be addressed.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

    Nitya Nand Deepak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. METHODS: 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais, unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists. RESULTS: Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

    Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and

  2. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  3. Evaluation of health literacy status among patients in a tertiary care hospital in coastal karnataka, India.

    U P, Rathnakar; Belman, Madhuri; Kamath, Ashwin; B, Unnikrishnan; Shenoy K, Ashok; A L, Udupa

    2013-11-01

    People with limited health literacy are more likely to make medication errors, and they have less health knowledge, worse health status, more hospitalizations, and higher healthcare costs than people with adequate literacy. The objective of this study is to assess the health literacy status among patients who are able to read and understand English attending a tertiary care hospital by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine [REALM] technique and to compare the health literacy levels to educational status and other baseline characteristics. A widely used word recognition method [REALM] was used to assess the HL status of 200 patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India. The number of correctly pronounced words was used to assign a grade-equivalent reading level. Scores 0 to 44 indicate reading skills at or below the 6th grade level, scores from 45 to 60 represent skills at the 7th or 8th grade level, and scores above 60 indicate skills at the high-school level or higher. HL status was found below adequate level in more than 50% of the patients. Younger age group showed better HL scores compared to those aged more than 25 years. General education level or the medium of education does not truly reflect HL levels as brought out in the study. Even those with postgraduate qualification had poor HL skills. The study was carried out to find out the HL levels among patients attending a tertiary care hospital. It was assumed that the general education levels may not reflect true HL status. In view of the results of this study it can be concluded that patient's HL skills should not be taken for granted and adequate attention should be paid in educating and briefing patients whenever patients are required to interpret and understand health care related documents.

  4. Analysing malaria incidence at the small area level for developing a spatial decision support system: A case study in Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India.

    Shekhar, S; Yoo, E-H; Ahmed, S A; Haining, R; Kadannolly, S

    2017-02-01

    Spatial decision support systems have already proved their value in helping to reduce infectious diseases but to be effective they need to be designed to reflect local circumstances and local data availability. We report the first stage of a project to develop a spatial decision support system for infectious diseases for Karnataka State in India. The focus of this paper is on malaria incidence and we draw on small area data on new cases of malaria analysed in two-monthly time intervals over the period February 2012 to January 2016 for Kalaburagi taluk, a small area in Karnataka. We report the results of data mapping and cluster detection (identifying areas of excess risk) including evaluating the temporal persistence of excess risk and the local conditions with which high counts are statistically associated. We comment on how this work might feed into a practical spatial decision support system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  6. Consanguinity, prematurity, birth weight and pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study at four primary health center areas of Karnataka, India.

    Bellad, M B; Goudar, S S; Edlavitch, S A; Mahantshetti, N S; Naik, V; Hemingway-Foday, J J; Gupta, M; Nalina, H R; Derman, R; Moss, N; Kodkany, B S

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether consanguinity adversely influences pregnancy outcome in South India, where consanguinity is a common means of family property retention. Data were collected from a prospective cohort of 647 consenting women, consecutively registered for antenatal care between 14 and 18 weeks gestation, in Belgaum district, Karnataka in 2005. Three-generation pedigree charts were drawn for consanguineous participants. χ (2)-Test and Student's t-test were used to assess categorical and continuous data, respectively, using SPSS version 14. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Overall, 24.1% of 601 women with singleton births and outcome data were consanguineous. Demographic characteristics between study groups were similar. Non-consanguineous couples had fewer stillbirths (2.6 vs 6.9% P=0.017; adjusted P=0.050), miscarriages (1.8 vs 4.1%, P=0.097; adjusted P=0.052) and lower incidence of birth weight birth (P=0.013), whereas smoking (P=0.015) and poverty (P=0.003) were associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Consanguinity significantly increases pregnancy loss and birth weight <2500 g.

  7. HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

    Ajay M.V. Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV [active tuberculosis (TB, pregnant women, children <5 years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB”. In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60 million, India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68% were tested for HIV and 2262 (8% were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17% had active TB. Of 1885 “presumptive TB patients without active TB”, 1100 (58% were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79% were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89% were eligible for ART. About 90% of “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about ‘test and treat’.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Health Effects among Rural Women, Karnataka, South India.

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati V; Kamath, Veena; Aswathyraj, Sushama; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers among women all over the world. The association of cervical cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Knowledge about the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer is important to make appropriate, evidence-based health care choices. In this context we conducted a community based study among women about the knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV infections and their health effects. A cross sectional interview based house to house survey was conducted with a validated data collection tool covering sociodemographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV and its health effects, among 1020 women from a rural village, Perdoor, in Udupi district, Karnataka, India in 2013-14. The mean age of participants was 38.9 years (SD=12.6). Study participants showed a high literacy rate (85.7%). Only 2.4% of sexually exposed women had undergone Pap smear testing. Partners of 4.4%women had undergone circumcision and they belonged to the Muslim community. Male condom usage was reported by 26 women (2.6%). However, none of the participants had heard of HPV and its health effects. This community based study found complete ignorance about HPV among rural South Indian women in spite of a high literacy level.

  9. Dutiful daughters: HIV/AIDS, moral pragmatics, female citizenship and structural violence among Devadasis in northern Karnataka, India.

    Khan, Shamshad; Lorway, Robert; Chevrier, Claudyne; Dutta, Sumit; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Roy, Anu; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Becker, Marissa

    2017-01-19

    Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies. In this article, drawing on critical theoretical perspectives, secondary historical sources and in-depth interviews, we unravel wider social, cultural and political economic complexities surrounding the lives of Devadasis, and specifically illuminate the moral pragmatics that shed light on their entry into sex trade and vulnerability to HIV. Findings from this research are extremely important since while much is known about Devadasis in social sciences and humanities, relatively little is known about the complexities of their lives within public health discourses related to HIV. Our work has direct implications for ongoing HIV prevention and health promotion efforts in the region and beyond.

  10. Are marginalized women being left behind? A population-based study of institutional deliveries in Karnataka, India

    Adamson Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89 of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include

  11. Perceived sources of stress among postgraduate students of a dental college in Karnataka, India

    M J Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentistry has for some time been viewed as a profession with high-stress, and usually this begins from the days of dental school onward. Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, some being the pressure from academics with an obligation to succeed, uncertainty regarding their future and difficulties of integrating into the system. Aim: The aim is to identify the perceived sources of stress among postgraduate students from a dental college in Coorg, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out, and the study samples included all the postgraduates of all nine specialties, including all the seventy-seven postgraduate students as samples. Results: Stress was relatively general among all the groups of the study participants, certain factors or stressors such as the amount of assigned work, competition with peers, examination and grades, lack of confidence to be a successful student and fear of facing parents after failure hamper the academic life of these students and had more significance among groups when compared to others. Conclusion: The academic life of students seemed to be hampered due to various potential stressors such as the amount of assigned work, competition with peers, examination and grades, lack of confidence to be a successful student, and fear of facing parents after failure. Such issues that arise in the educational setting need to be addressed which will help improve the academic environment of the students.

  12. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  13. Exploration for uranium in the Bhima basin in parts of Karnataka, India

    Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Dhana Raju, R.

    2002-01-01

    Bhima basin, the smallest and youngest Purana (Meso-/Neo-proterozoic) basin of India, is known for huge reserves of quality-limestone that supports a large-scale cement industry in it. But for this, it remained for long as a 'terra incognita' for mineral exploration including radioactive minerals till the discovery of notable uranium mineralisation, first in a phosphatic limestone/calcitic phosphorite near Ukinal in 1995 and later a better-grade in a non-phosphatic, brecciated limestone at Gogi in 1996. Though the former was recorded intermittently for nearly 700m near Ukinal, detailed (sub-surface) exploration was not done, since U is mostly in the adsorbed form with collophane. On the contrary, the latter is promising, since ore microscopic study on a uraniferous sample from Gogi has pointed to hydrothermal vein-type mineralisation in the form of easily leachable coffinite and pitchblende that are intimately associated with reductants of organic matter and pyrite-dominant sulphides. Semi-detailed survey at Gogi was not of much help to prove the extension of mineralisation due to constraints like very few outcrops, soil-cover, vegetation, a big village and a large lake close by. At this juncture, resort was made to a novel technique of gamma-ray logging of nearly 30 drinking water borewells in the village, Gogi, and this proved highly rewarding as the data documented the presence of U-mineralisation of medium-grade and notable thickness. Subsequent multi disciplined and multifaceted exploration, including subsurface, mostly by core-drilling since May, 1997 with an aggregate of nearly 24,000m at Gogi, has established that (a) the rocks hosting hydrothermal vein type U-mineralisation are brecciated limestone (Shahabad formation) and deformed basement granitoid within a post-sedimentary tectonised zone, (b) the mineralisation in limestone (i) occurs as hangwall and footwall bands, (ii) has a strike extension of nearly 2 km with both ends still open, (iii) extends

  14. Water Resource Planning Under Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainty in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Conway, Declan; Dessai, Suraje; Stainforth, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India. A water resources model is calibrated and validated satisfactorily using observed streamflow. Plausible future changes in Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation and water demand are used to drive simulations of water resources from 2021 to 2055. Two stakeholder-identified decision-critical metrics are examined: a basin-wide metric comprising legal instream flow requirements for the downstream state of Tamil Nadu, and a local metric comprising water supply reliability to Bangalore city. In model simulations, the ability to satisfy these performance metrics without adaptation is reduced under almost all scenarios. Implementing adaptation options can partially offset the negative impacts of change. Sequencing of options according to stakeholder priorities into Adaptation Pathways affects metric satisfaction. Early focus on agricultural demand management improves the robustness of pathways but trade-offs emerge between intrabasin and basin-wide water availability. We demonstrate that the fine balance between water availability and demand is vulnerable to future changes and uncertainty. Despite current and long-term planning challenges, stakeholders in developing countries may engage meaningfully in coproduction approaches for adaptation decision-making under deep uncertainty.

  15. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Devcharan Jathanna

    Full Text Available Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2 (SE = 847 km(2 corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We

  16. Adoption and Completeness of Documentation Using a Structured Delivery Record in Secondary Care, Subdistrict Government Hospitals of Karnataka State, India

    Prem K. Mony

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor medical record documentation remains a pervasive problem in hospital delivery rooms, hampering efforts aimed at improving the quality of maternal and neonatal care in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the feasibility and completeness of labor room documentation within a quasi-experimental study aimed at improving emergency preparedness for obstetric and neonatal emergencies in 8 nonteaching, subdistrict, secondary care hospitals of Karnataka state, India. Methods: We redesigned the existing open-ended case sheet into a structured, delivery record cum job aide adhering to principles of local clinical relevance, parsimony, and computerizability. Skills and emergency drills training along with supportive supervision were introduced in 4 “intervention arm” hospitals while the new delivery records were used in eight intervention and control hospitals. Results: Introduction of the new delivery record was feasible over a “run-in” period of 4 months. About 92% (6103 of 6634 of women in intervention facilities and 80% (6205 of 7756 in control facilities had their delivery records filled in during the 1-year study period. Completeness of delivery record documentation fell into one of two subsets with one set of parameters being documented with minimal inputs (in both intervention and control sites and another set of parameters requiring more intensive training efforts (and seen more in intervention than in control sites; P < .05. Conclusion: Under the stewardship of the local government, it was possible to institute a robust, reliable, and valid medical record documentation system as part of efforts to improve intrapartum and postpartum maternal and newborn care in hospitals.

  17. Sex work, syphilis, and seeking treatment: an opportunity for intervention in HIV prevention programming in Karnataka, South India.

    Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Hanumaiah, Prakash K; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Blanchard, James F

    2009-03-01

    To measure the determinants of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in the state of Karnataka, South India. During 2004-2006, cross-sectional surveys were administered to 2312 FSWs across 5 districts in the state, in the context of a large-scale HIV preventive intervention program. Demographic and behavioral information, and serum (for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV) and urine specimens (for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) were obtained. The prevalences of lifetime (TPHA positive) and active (RPR and TPHA positive) syphilis were 25.3% and 9.6%, respectively. There was considerable variation in the prevalence between districts, ranging from 10.9% to 37.4% lifetime, and 3.4% to 24.9% active infection. Factors associated with lifetime syphilis were older age, longer duration of sex work, illiteracy, client volume, practising sex work in >1 city, and sex work typology (public solicitation followed by brothel or lodge-based sex). The same typology, client volume, illiteracy, and having been widowed, divorced or deserted, were predictive of active infection. Of the 976 women who had symptoms of an STI, 78.8% had sought medical treatment, behavior that was protective for both outcomes. HIV infection was strongly associated with lifetime (OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.6) and active syphilis (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.9). Despite reasonable treatment-seeking behavior, the high prevalence of syphilis has necessitated enhanced outreach efforts for FSWs and acceleration of the implementation of syphilis screening. Mobilizing resources to enhance syphilis control will not only reduce the burden of syphilis morbidity, but should impact in reducing HIV transmission.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling among elderly population in urban area of Karnataka, India

    Abhay B Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: FOF is a health problem among the elderly living in urban India needs urgent attention. It represents a significant threat to socialization, independence and morbidity or mortality. Knowledge of correlates of FOF may be useful in developing multidimensional strategies to reduce it among elderly.

  19. Mapping of wasteland of india: A case study of Bangalore district of Karnataka

    Behera, G.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Nageswara Rao, P. P.; Gupta, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, J.; Ganesharaj, K.; Padmavathy, A. S.; Yogarajan, N.

    India is the second most populous country in the world. Its economy is agrarian in nature. Increasing demand for food, fodder, fuel and fibre has necessitated adoption of scientific measures for increase in land productivity and bringing more areas under cultivation/forests. However land degradation due to desertification, soil salinity, waterlogging, floods/drought, excessive soil erosion due to deforestation, unscientific agricultural practices etc. have resulted in the creation of vast stretches of wastelands and a decrease in per capita cultivable land besides ecological imbalance. Nearly 53 Mha are wasteland and 22 Mha of land have problems of either salinity, alkalinity, soil erosion, waterlogging, shifting cultivation or presently unused because of their undulating nature. Only 11% of India's geographic area is under effective tree cover. Forest degradation has increased by 14% over last 8-10 years. The land area prone to floods has doubled from 20 Mha to about 40 Mha in last 10 years. Awareness of this fact has resulted in the formation of the "National Wasteland Development Board" (NWDB) under the aegis of National Landuse and Wasteland Development Council (NLWC) with the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister of India.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling among elderly population in urban area of Karnataka, India.

    Mane, Abhay B; Sanjana, T; Patil, Prabhakar R; Sriniwas, T

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. Fear of falling (FOF) among elderly persons can compromise quality of life by limiting mobility, diminished sense of well-being and reduced social interactions. India is undergoing a demographic transitional phase with urban elderly population of 6.72% in 2001. The major challenge would be on the prevention of falls among them. Hence there is a need to highlight the problems related to fall faced by the elderly in India. To study the prevalence of FOF and its correlates among the elderly population in urban area. 250 elderly subjects above 60 years were randomly selected from urban area and interviewed for FOF using Short Fall Efficacy Scale-I (FES-I), history of falls and risk factors. The prevalence of FOF among the elderly was 33.2%. The significant correlates of FOF were educational status, family type, associated health problems, history of fall in past 6 months, worried of fall again among fallers, fearfulness of fall again among fallers, restriction of daily activities and depression among them. The insignificant correlates were gender and socio-economic status. FOF is a health problem among the elderly living in urban India needs urgent attention. It represents a significant threat to socialization, independence and morbidity or mortality. Knowledge of correlates of FOF may be useful in developing multidimensional strategies to reduce it among elderly.

  1. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  2. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  3. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  4. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  5. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  6. Application of self-potential method in uranium exploration - a case study from Arbail, Karnataka, India

    Anantharaman, K.B.; Narasimha Rao, B.; Sethuram, S.; Rao, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of non-radiometric geophysical methods like magnetic, electrical resistivity, induced polarisation, electromagnetic and seismic for uranium exploration has been discussed by many workers. In thispaper it has been demonstrated that the self-potential technique which is simple, fast and cheap can also be effectively and meaningfully employed. For this purpose, a case study from Arbail (Lat 14 0 , 50' 40'', Long 74 0 38' 25''), India where uranium mineralisation is known to occur in association with sulphides, is presented. The method of downward continuation is used to estimate the depth to the top of the target and the results thus obtained are correlated with the data obtained from subsequent borehole drilling. (author)

  7. Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India

    Ojha Vijay P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia. In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067. Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%, and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index in all villages in the one-week period (p p p = 0.063 and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067. After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03% in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05. We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47

  8. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

    Apoorva Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile.

  9. Biomass, energy and economic and natural resource differentiation in rural southern India

    Bhagavan, M.R.; Giriappa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rural economy in India is as yet only partially monetized and continues to retain its semi-subsistence character, while at the same time undergoing the process of becoming more monetized and market-orientated. A large field study was conducted in rural Karnataka, a state in southern India, which uncovers the relations between the energy situations of the rural social classes and their access to labour, land, cash and physical assets. Of equal significance are regional variations in ecology, rainfall and irrigation. The study's principal focus is the rural household, but it also includes some analysis of the energy dimensions in agricultural activities and small-scale rural services. Eight villages were covered by the survey, one in each district, carefully selected to reflect the geographic, climatic, biomass-resource and socio-economic features of Karnataka. In each village an average of 55 households were studied in depth, making up a total of 450 households. Clear and marked differentiations are uncovered between the rural social classes in various aspects of energy production, purchase, sale and consumption, as well as in labour and cash inputs into the energy flows. It is found that traditional forms of biomass are still the dominant type of energy for all rural strata, and that only the rural middle class can be said to have begun the transition towards modern fuels, although its consumption of modern fuels is still negligibly small in absolute terms. The study reveals that the rural middle class faces no energy crisis, while the 'intermediate' class of the small peasantry is just about managing to make ends meet in energy terms. In contrast to this, the rural wage labour class continues to remain in a state of energy crisis. (author)

  10. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  11. Morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among elderly population of Raichur district, Karnataka, India

    Leyanna Susan George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is an “aging nation” with 7.7% of its population being above 60 years of age. It has resulted in a rise of both physical and mental health morbidities. Aims: This study aimed to gather information regarding the morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among the elderly residing in the rural villages of Raichur, to understand the need for geriatric health-care facilities. Settings and Design: This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six rural villages of Raichur District, of which 230 elderly were selected randomly. Subjects and Methods: The data were collected using a questionnaire, clinical history, examination, and cross-checking of medical records. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Epi Info version-3.5.3. Results: The prevalence of morbidity was 91.7% with an average of 3/person. Females (58.9% had more morbidities than men (41.1%. The 3 most common morbidities were orthopedic (50.5%, cataract (50.4%, and respiratory (31.3%. 26.6% suffered from gastrointestinal morbidities while 23.9% had dental problems. 20.9% had hypertension with equal prevalence among both sexes. Only 17.4% were diabetics with majority being women. Central nervous system morbidities were 14.2% while 9.6% suffered from hearing loss and varicose veins. 8.2% had genitourinary-urinary morbidities and incontinence (1.7% was common among both sexes. Depression (71.1% and dermatological morbidities (4.7% were prevalent among women. Only 3.5% suffered from cardiac morbidity and 0.4% from cancer. Significant association was found between age and morbidity and also between socioeconomic class and morbidity pattern. Conclusions: Geriatric care should become an integral part of primary health care. Regular screening and Information, Education, and Communication activities need to be provided early in life for ensuring healthy aging.

  12. Pattern of seizure cases in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka state of India

    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment. Materials and Methods: Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results: Nearly half (44.4% of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years and 2/3 rd (60.7% were males. Majority (>80% cases were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7% cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%. Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032. Conclusion: Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.

  13. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India

    Mansoor Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. Results: The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. Conclusions: It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore.

  14. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India.

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Zama, Syed Y; Nagarajarao, Vadiraja; Khan, Mudassir A

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore).

  15. Adil Shahi Mosques in Karnataka

    Maruti T. Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the mosques (masjids of the period of the Adil Shahis,one of the Muslim dynasties which had Turkish origin that ruled Karnataka alongwith the other parts of the Deccan. A Mosque is primarily a religious building forthe performance of the daily prayers for five times, one of the five pillars of Islam.It is thus, the most important building for Muslims.Mosques in Karnataka have along history and tradition. The Adil Shahis constructed mosques in Maharastra,Andra Pradesh and other parts of Karnataka State.Karnataka “the priceless gift ofindulgent nature” is a unique blend of glorious past and rich present, situated onthe lower West Coast of South India.It was ruled by the Muslim dynasties fromthe middle of the 14thcentury to 18thcentury. The Adil Shahisruled Karnatakafrom 1489 A.D., to 1686 A.D., and wielded a great political power over manyparts of Karnataka.The founder Yusuf Adil Shah was the son of Ottoman SultanMurad II of Turkey.In their period many secular and religious monuments wereconstructed.The Adil Shahi mosques were not only places of worship but alsoplaces for education and social activities.The paper examines the construction ofthe mosques by the Adil Shahis, their patrons and also the construction pattern,architects, features and its role in the society. At present,seventy-five Adil Shahimosques are found in different areas of Karnataka.Almost all the state buildingsof the Adil Shahis are adorned by thecrescentmoon whichwas the emblemof theSultans of Turkey. Their mosques inspired the future generation to construct moreand more mosquesin Karnataka State.

  16. THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN KARNATAKA

    Varija BOLAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Karnataka is the sixth largest state in India. It was directly under the Muslim ruleof the Bahamani Sultans, the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, the Barid Shahis and theMughals since the middle of the 14thcentury. After the rise of Haider and TipuSultan in the 18thcentury, South Karnataka, including the old Mysorestates wasunder the Muslim rule. Thus the Muslims, though only a minority in Karnataka,wielded great political power over many parts of Karnataka since medieval times,which for our purposes in reviewing the history ofKarnataka, we may assumeended with the end of the 18thcentury i.e., the conquest of Srirangapatna by theBritish and the death of Tipu. This paper examinesthe role of Islam in Karnatakaand its influence on the life and culture of its people. Islam played an importantrole in Karnataka in the introduction of arts and crafts based on Persian models. Alarge number of Persian words belonging to the field of public administrationentered Karnataka. In the same way, in business andlegal proceedings, especiallythose of courts of justice, words of Persian originabound in Kannada language.Many words of apparel, words denoting kinds of foodentered Kannada throughPersian Language. Islamic influence can be seen inthe fields of economy,education, religion, language, art and architecture, paintings and music. In thispaper an attempt is made to highlight the role of Islamic dynasties and theircontributions to Karnataka in all fields.

  17. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study.

    M Badakar, Chandrashekhar; J Thakkar, Prachi; M Hugar, Shivayogi; Kukreja, Pratibha; G Assudani, Harsha; Gokhale, Niraj

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4- to 7-year-old parented and orphan children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. This study was conducted on 240 children between the ages of 4 to 7 years who were equally divided into two groups of 120 parented and 120 orphan children. These were subdivided into four groups of 30 children each. Various characteristics like egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using experiments and comparison of their prevalence between two groups was carried out. There is a statistically significant difference in the cognitive development among parented and orphan children age 4 to 7 years. There is a significantly better cognitive development among parented children as compared with orphan children in Belagavi city. A child is not a miniature adult but rather can think and perceive the world differently from an adult. Understanding a child's intellectual level can enable a pedodontist to deliver improved quality care to children. According to Jean Piaget, in the preoperational period, children think symbolically and their reasoning is based more on appearance rather than logic. It is often rightly said that a child's behavior is a reflection of his parents. However, Piaget did not consider the effect of social setting and culture on the cognitive development. This study was carried out as there is not much literature available to describe the cognitive development of children in the Indian scenario and the influence of parental presence on the same. How to cite this article: Badakar CM, Thakkar PJ, Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Assudani HG, Gokhale N. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):346-350.

  18. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI =  2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  19. Impact of health insurance for tertiary care on postoperative outcomes and seeking care for symptoms: quasi-experimental evidence from Karnataka, India.

    Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary

    2016-01-06

    To evaluate the effects of a government insurance programme covering tertiary care for the poor in Karnataka, India--Vajpayee Arogyashree Scheme (VAS)--on treatment seeking and postoperative outcomes. Geographic regression discontinuity. 572 villages in Karnataka, India. 3478 households in 300 villages where VAS was implemented and 3486 households in 272 neighbouring matched villages ineligible for VAS. A government insurance programme that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Seeking treatment for symptoms, posthospitalisation well-being, occurrence of infections during hospitalisation and need for rehospitalisation. The prevalence of symptoms was nearly identical for households in VAS-eligible villages compared with households in VAS-ineligible villages. However, households eligible for VAS were 4.96 percentage points (95% CI 1 to 8.9; p=0.014) more likely to seek treatment for their symptoms. The increase in treatment seeking was more pronounced for symptoms of cardiac conditions, the condition most frequently covered by VAS. Respondents from VAS-eligible villages reported greater improvements in well-being after a hospitalisation in all categories assessed and they were statistically significant in 3 of the 6 categories (walking ability, pain and anxiety). Respondents eligible for VAS were 9.4 percentage points less likely to report any infection after their hospitalisation (95% CI -20.2 to 1.4; p=0.087) and 16.5 percentage points less likely to have to be rehospitalised after the initial hospitalisation (95% CI -28.7 to -4.3; p<0.01). Insurance for tertiary care increased treatment seeking among eligible households. Moreover, insured patients experienced better posthospitalisation outcomes, suggesting better quality of care received. These results suggest that there are several pathways through which tertiary care insurance could improve health, aside from

  20. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India.

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found

  1. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  2. Species and acoustic diversity of bats in a palaeotropical wet evergreen forest in southern India

    Raghuram, H; Jain, M; Balakrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India is among the top 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. About 43% of the reported 117 bat species in India are found in this region, but few quantitative studies of bat echolocation calls and diversity have been carried out here thus far. A quantitative study of bat diversity was therefore conducted using standard techniques, including mist-netting, acoustical and roost surveys in the wet evergreen forests of Kudremukh National Park in the Western Ghats of Karnataka...

  3. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  4. Intraspecific variations in Cyt b and D-loop sequences of Testudine species, Lissemys punctata from south Karnataka

    R. Lalitha; V.R. Chandavar

    2018-01-01

    The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b and D-loop) conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region span...

  5. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India.

    Travers, Mark J; Nayak, Nayanatara S; Annigeri, Vinod B; Billava, N Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5) in smoking and nonsmoking venues. The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required "No Smoking" signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5 in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m(3) and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR). The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  6. Occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco and potential risk of toxic optic neuropathy: A cross-sectional study among beedi rollers in selected rural areas of coastal Karnataka, India.

    Soujanya Kaup

    Full Text Available Beedi also known as poor man's cigarette is manufactured in almost all major states of India. Beedi workers are exposed to various health risks. There is an increased risk of systemic absorption of tobacco through skin and mucous membrane. The optic nerve is susceptible to damage from several toxic substances including tobacco. This group of disorders is known as toxic optic neuropathy (TON. The association of TON with occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco in beedi rollers has not been explored.Among the beedi rollers in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India: to assess the magnitude of potential TON utilizing colour vision and contrast sensitivity as screening tools and to identify the demographic, biological and occupational factors associated with potential TON.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April-Sept 2016 in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas, of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka. Beedi rollers from twelve villages (six from each taluka were included. In each of the selected villages, the investigators identified beedi collection centres and all the eligible beedi rollers were included in the study till the required number of beedi rollers for that village was achieved. Participants were screened at the study site for visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity and those with abnormal colour and contrast sensitivity in the presence of good visual acuity were considered to have potential TON.A total of 377 beedi rollers were approached; of which 365 consented to take part in the study (response rate: 96.81%. Women constituted the majority of the participants (n = 338, 92.6%. Based on the screening criteria, the prevalence of potential TON was 17.5% (n = 64, 95% CI: 13.5-21.9. On multiple logistic regression analysis, duration of beedi rolling (Adj OR: 1.061; 95% CI 1.015-1.109, p = 0.009, advancing age (Adj OR: 1.096; 95% CI 1.058-1.136, p<0.001 and presence of

  7. STUDY ON NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN INDIA VARIATIONS OF HUMAN SKULL- A SECONDARY RESEARCH

    Jameskutty Baby Jacob Kaithackal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Identity of a human being with regard to sex, race, age etc. can be revealed if the skull is suitably examined. The general concept of ethnic and geographic variations being reflected in the body as variations in size, shape, etc. can be checked for in the case of skeleton also. This article is formed out of a term paper study submitted by myself in 2016 to the Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, as part of the postgraduate diploma course in Forensic Anthropology. The research was based on a question whether there is a significant difference between human skulls from North and South India. The aims/objectives were bi-fold: to analyse the difference in male and female skull from North Indian and South Indian regions from review of scholarly literature and to explore the possibility identification of individuals from cranial features unique to North and South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The original articles available on this type of work were extensively reviewed to recognise any traits that differentiated the skulls with regard to their regional variation. RESULTS At the end of the scrutiny of such papers, a summary of the features that distinguished skulls as belonging to northern or southern parts of India was tried. The Indian cranial series, though varied widely in shape, the absence of any statistically significant difference between them made it unreliable to predict skull as male or female by morphometric estimation. The studies by different scholars did not propose for a uniform distinctiveness between north and south Indian skulls. CONCLUSION It was concluded that analysing a single specimen to be of a distinct geographic origin should be done more cautiously when compared to a setting of series analysis where variability might be there of course.

  8. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  9. Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India.

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Campbell, Linda; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Nair, Sapna; Doddamane, Mahesh; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Isac, Shajy; Beattie, Tara S

    2018-04-01

    While traditional HIV prevention programs with female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India, have focused on reducing HIV transmission between FSWs and clients through increased condom use, these programs have not fully addressed the transmission risk between FSWs and their nonpaying intimate partners (IPs). Condom use is infrequent and violence is recurrent in these relationships: Furthermore, there is little evidence on the precise nature of FSW-IP relationships. Our study addresses this knowledge gap to inform HIV programs targeted at FSWs. A series of workshops, using participatory tools, was held to explore FSW-IP relationships; 31 FSWs and 37 IPs participated. Three aspects of FSW-IP relationships were examined: how FSWs and IPs understand and interpret their relationships, factors influencing condom use, and the role of violence and its consequences. FSWs wish to be perceived as their IPs' wives, while IPs expect their FSW partners to accept their dominance in the relationship. Nonuse of condoms signals fidelity and elevates the status of the relationship almost to that of marriage, which helps FSWs enter the category of "good" (married) women. Tolerating and accepting violence in these relationships is normative, as in other marital relationships; IPs justify violence as necessary to establish and maintain their power within the relationship. Both FSWs and IPs value their relationships despite the high degree of risk posed by low condom use and high levels of violence. Implications for program design include addressing current norms around masculinity and gender roles, and improving communication within relationships.

  10. Stigma and Discrimination faced by HIV-infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy for more than 1 Year in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India.

    Muralidharan, Shrikanth; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Margabandu, Shanthi; Purushotaman, Shalini; Kannan, Ranjit; Mahendrakar, Sangeeta; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress and discrimination faced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than 1 year. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 170 adults on ART, reporting to the ART center of the District Civil Hospital, for more than 1 year in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Convenience sampling technique was followed. Descriptive statistics was performed (Chi-square test) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. A total of 156 (91.8%) patients' families had knowledge about their seropositive status. Seventeen (10.9%) HIV-positive patients reported of change in the attitude of their family members. The main reasons for not revealing the HIV status were the internalized stigma and fear of rejection. Women faced greater discrimination from family, friends, and neighbors than men. It is necessary to not undermine the effect of rejection due to HIV. It is the only infection that has so many associated social and psychological norms which we need to tend at the earnest. Till date, there is an existence of condescendence toward treatment approach. The presence of stigma and the fear of being discriminated could be a major hurdle in the rehabilitation of these patients into the mainstream society. Furthermore, it serves as an existing challenge to ascertain these individuals to achieve overall health.

  11. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  12. Pursuing Authenticity From Process to Outcome in a Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Vulnerability in North Karnataka, India.

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Sangha, Chaitanya Aids Tadegattuva Mahila; Nair, Sapna G; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Srikantamurthy, H S; Ramanaik, Satyanaryana; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Bruce, Sharon Gail

    2017-01-01

    Community-based participatory research has been seen to hold great promise by researchers aiming to bridge research and action in global health programs and practice. However, there is still much debate around whether achieving authenticity in terms of in-depth collaboration between community and academic partners is possible while pursuing academic expectations for quality. This article describes the community-based methodology for a qualitative study to explore intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work, or female sex workers, and their male partners in Karnataka, South India. Developed through collaborative processes, the study methodology followed an interpretive approach to qualitative inquiry, with three key components including long-term partnerships, knowledge exchange, and orientation toward action. We then discuss lessons learned on how to pursue authenticity in terms of truly collaborative processes with inherent value that also contribute to, rather than hinder, the instrumental goal of enhancing the quality and relevance of the research outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India

    Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of

  14. Detoxifying enzyme studies on cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida, resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in field populations in Karnataka, India

    Halappa Banakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida is considered to be an alarming insect pest causing both quantitative and qualitative loss in cotton. In situ bioassay studies were done and the role of detoxifying enzymes in conferring resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides in low (MUD, medium (DVG, high (HVR and very high (GLB pesticide usage areas of Karnataka were determined. Bioassay studies showed that imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin registered varying levels of resistance for all the locations studied. The resistance ratio was high in imidacloprid (3.35, 8.57, 9.15 and 12.27 fold respectively and the lowest in dinoferuran (1.86, 5.13, 6.71 and 9.88 fold respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme activity ratio (glutathione-S-transferase was relatively greater, and corresponded to the higher LC50 values of neonicotinoids for very high, high, medium and low pesticide usage areas. Our study suggested that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzyme in the resistance population of cotton leafhopper apparently has a significant role in endowing resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides. However, this study recommends using neonicotinoids in cotton growing areas with caution.

  15. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides.

  16. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  17. Understanding the social and cultural contexts of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: implications for prevention of HIV infection.

    Blanchard, James F; O'neil, John; Ramesh, B M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Orchard, Treena; Moses, Stephen

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and sex work patterns of women involved in the traditional Devadasi form of sex work with those of women involved in other types of sex work, in the Indian state of Karnataka. Data were gathered through in-person interviews. Sampling was stratified by district and by type of sex work. Of 1588 female sex workers (FSWs) interviewed, 414 (26%) reported that they entered sex work through the Devadasi tradition. Devadasi FSWs were more likely than other FSWs to work in rural areas (47.3% vs. 8.9%, respectively) and to be illiterate (92.8% vs. 76.9%, respectively). Devadasi FSWs had initiated sex work at a much younger age (mean, 15.7 vs. 21.8 years), were more likely to be home based (68.6% vs. 14.9%), had more clients in the past week (average, 9.0 vs. 6.4), and were less likely to migrate for work within the state (4.6% vs. 18.6%) but more likely to have worked outside the state (19.6% vs. 13.1%). Devadasi FSWs were less likely to report client-initiated violence during the past year (13.3% vs. 35.8%) or police harassment (11.6% vs. 44.3%). Differences in sociobehavioral characteristics and practice patterns between Devadasi and other FSWs necessitate different individual and structural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  18. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    I. R. Calder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to

  19. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

    Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i) whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii) farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to penetrate raises the

  20. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women beneficiaries of selected rural primary health centers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.

    Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya

    Full Text Available Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR is a strategy to promote timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care during childbirth. According to World Health Organization, BPCR should be a key component of focused antenatal care. Dakshina Kannada, a coastal district of Karnataka state, is categorized as a high-performing district (institutional delivery rate >25% under the National Rural Health Mission. However, a substantial proportion of women in the district experience complications during pregnancy (58.3%, childbirth (45.7%, and postnatal (17.4% period. There is a paucity of data on BPCR practice and the factors associated with it in the district. Exploring this would be of great use in the evidence-based fine-tuning of ongoing maternal and child health interventions.To assess BPCR practice and the factors associated with it among the beneficiaries of two rural Primary Health Centers (PHCs of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 217 pregnant (>28 weeks of gestation and recently delivered (in the last 6 months women in two randomly selected PHCs from June -September 2013. Exit interviews were conducted using a pre-designed semi-structured interview schedule. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, obstetric variables, and knowledge of key danger signs was collected. BPCR included information on five key components: identified the place of delivery, saved money to pay for expenses, mode of transport identified, identified a birth companion, and arranged a blood donor if the need arises. In this study, a woman who recalled at least two key danger signs in each of the three phases, i.e., pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (total six was considered as knowledgeable on key danger signs. Optimal BPCR practice was defined as following at least three out of five key components of BPCR.Proportion, Odds ratio, and adjusted Odds ratio (adj OR for optimal BPCR

  1. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women beneficiaries of selected rural primary health centers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.

    Akshaya, Kibballi Madhukeshwar; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2017-01-01

    Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy to promote timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care during childbirth. According to World Health Organization, BPCR should be a key component of focused antenatal care. Dakshina Kannada, a coastal district of Karnataka state, is categorized as a high-performing district (institutional delivery rate >25%) under the National Rural Health Mission. However, a substantial proportion of women in the district experience complications during pregnancy (58.3%), childbirth (45.7%), and postnatal (17.4%) period. There is a paucity of data on BPCR practice and the factors associated with it in the district. Exploring this would be of great use in the evidence-based fine-tuning of ongoing maternal and child health interventions. To assess BPCR practice and the factors associated with it among the beneficiaries of two rural Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 217 pregnant (>28 weeks of gestation) and recently delivered (in the last 6 months) women in two randomly selected PHCs from June -September 2013. Exit interviews were conducted using a pre-designed semi-structured interview schedule. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, obstetric variables, and knowledge of key danger signs was collected. BPCR included information on five key components: identified the place of delivery, saved money to pay for expenses, mode of transport identified, identified a birth companion, and arranged a blood donor if the need arises. In this study, a woman who recalled at least two key danger signs in each of the three phases, i.e., pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (total six) was considered as knowledgeable on key danger signs. Optimal BPCR practice was defined as following at least three out of five key components of BPCR. Proportion, Odds ratio, and adjusted Odds ratio (adj OR) for optimal BPCR practice. A

  2. Capparis Cleghornii Dunn, a species from Southern India (Capparaceae)

    Rao, Rolla S.; Raghavan, R. Sundara

    1964-01-01

    Among recent collections from the evergreen forests of Mysore State in southern India, material was found of Capparis cleghornii Dunn which had only been known from the original collection made by Cleghorn in 1846 and from a Stocks specimen from “Kanara”. Further scrutiny of fresh collections from

  3. Occupational stress and health-related quality of life among public sector bank employees: A cross-sectional study in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    Malamardi, Sowmya N; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Phadnis, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Occupational morbidities have been estimated to cause an economic loss up to 10-20% of the gross national product of a country. It is an important cause of occupational morbidity and decreased quality of life (QOL) for the workers. The aim of the present study is to assess the level of occupational stress and its association with the QOL among the public sector bank employees. The present study was conducted among employees of public sector banks in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Job stress was measured by using occupational stress index (OSI) scale questionnaire and health-related QOL was measured using the short form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The sample size estimated for the study was 526 and cluster random sampling technique was used. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the study variables and level of stress. Multiple linear regression model was used to find the determinants of health-related QOL among the study subjects. The total number of the study subjects was 546 out of which 57% were males and 43% were females. The proportion of study subjects reporting to be current smokers was 4.2% and almost all study subjects reported occasional alcohol consumption. The mean physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) using the original United States standardization were 47.90 and 48.30, respectively. The individuals with mild stress scored higher in both PCS and MCS than the individuals who had moderate to severe stress levels. There was significant association of health related quality of life with the age of the respondent,presence of at least one morbidity and level of stress with health-related QOL. This study has shown an association of occupational stress with the QOL. There is a need for interventions aimed at mitigating the occupational stress among employees of the banking sector.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  5. Complications related to blood donation: A multicenter study of the prevalence and influencing factors in voluntary blood donation camps in Karnataka, India

    Rajat Kumar Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2% complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86% mild, 77 (0.25% moderate, and 5 (0.02% severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions.

  6. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  7. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  8. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Vijaykumar, Varalaxmi; Prashanth, N S; Sudarshan, H; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Black, Jim; Shet, Arun

    2009-02-17

    Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a

  9. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an

  10. The Resin and Carder bees of south India (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini)

    Little is known about the Anthidiini of southern India. A study focused on the state of Karnataka found a hitherto unknown diversity of thirteen species. Though the number of species is not large, the generic diversity is noteworthy (eight genera represented): Anthidiellum (2 species), Anthidium (2 ...

  11. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.

  12. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India.

    Gurnani, Vandana; Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Maddur, Srinath; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-10-02

    Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are

  13. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma

  14. Quality of life and probable psychological distress among male workers at a construction site, Kolar district, Karnataka, India.

    Mathew, Geethu; Ramesh, Naveen; Shanbhag, Deepthi; Goud, Ramakrishna; Subramanian, Sharan; Lobo, Carol; Xavier, Alex; Dasari, Prudhvi

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry, which mainly consists of migrant labouers is one of the largest employers in the unorganized sector in India. These workers work in poor conditions and are often vulnerable to exploitation. These workers also do not have health care benefits and often these factors lead to poor quality of life (QOL) and psychological distress. To assess the QOL, probable psychological distress and associated factors among male construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and November 2013 among 404 male workers. These construction workers were enrolled by consecutive sampling at a construction area in Kolar district, Kaarnataka, India. The study tools used were World Health Organization (WHO) QOL-BREF and 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess QOL and probable psychological distress, respectively. The transformed scores in WHO QOL-BREF in all four domains ranged 0-100. The four domain scores are scaled in a positive direction with higher scores indicating a higher QOL. Associations were done using statistical tests such as Chi-square, correlation, regression, independent samples t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 404 male workers with a mean age of 25.6 ± 7.3 years were studied. Mean scores of various domains of QOL were 68.5 ± 13.7 (physical), 59.9 ± 13.5 (psychological), 64.3 ± 16.4 (social), and 44.1 ± 12.8 (environmental). On the self- rating scale, 59 (14.6%) workers were rated as having poor QOL. The prevalence of probable psychological distress was 27.5%. Factors such as increasing age, being currently married, and low educational status were found to be significantly associated (P psychological distress. There was a significant negative correlation (P psychological distress and a positive correlation between income and QOL. The QOL in the environmental domain, which mainly deals with living conditions, health, and recreational facilities was found to be poor and there

  15. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India)

    Vouillamoz, J.-M.; Hoareau, J.; Grammare, M.; Caron, D.; Nandagiri, L.; Legchenko, A.

    2012-11-01

    Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements. We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m-2 of surface area (± 50%). We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  16. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  17. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India

    P A Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. Results: A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  18. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India.

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijaysimha, R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  19. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.

  20. The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling

    Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L.; Swaminath, M.H.; Murthy, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested

  1. Plant utilization against digestive system disorder in Southern Assam, India.

    Choudhury, Prakash Roy; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Mitra, Abhijit; Nath, Deepa; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2015-12-04

    Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases. The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area. The study was based on ethnomedicinal field survey covering a period of 1 year from 2014-2015. The ethnomedicinal information was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires from different traditional Bengali people having knowledge on medicinal plants. Collected data were analyzed by calculating DCI. During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD. This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary exploration of south Kanara coast of Karnataka

    Sundaresh

    The port along the South Kanara coast of Karnataka, India were explored. At the port Gangolli, submergence of a few houses and sea level changes at the light house have been observed which were attributed to the transgression of the sea during...

  3. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka

    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...

  4. Future specialization interests among medical students in southern India.

    Subba, S H; Binu, V S; Kotian, M S; Joseph, N; Mahamood, A B; Dixit, N; George, A; Kumar, P; Acharya, S; Reddy, P

    2012-01-01

    A consideration of the future specialization interests of undergraduate medical students might help to understand the needs of higher medical education and future manpower availability for healthcare. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 373 undergraduate students of a medical college in southern India using a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 373 students, 188 (50.4%) were men. Almost all of them (370 [99.2%]) wanted to pursue postgraduation. Of these, 267 (72.4%) wanted to pursue postgraduation in India. Overall, the first choice subject was surgery (120 [32.2%]) followed by internal medicine (85 [22.8%]) and paediatrics (43 [11.5%]). The third preference for men and women differed, with men choosing orthopaedics and women choosing obstetrics and gynaecology. The factors that influenced the choice of specialization were interest in the speciality (Likert scale score 4.7), job satisfaction (4.6), employment opportunities (4.0), job security (4) and high income potential (3.9). It was evident from the proportion of students desiring to do postgraduation and their choice of specialties that most of them will end up working at hospitals instead of at primary healthcare centres. The deficiencies of certain specialists such as ophthalmologists are likely to persist. This is a cause for concern as the majority of our population lives in rural areas and there is already a maldistribution of doctors. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  5. Nuclear deterrence in Southern Asia: China,India and Pakistan

    Rajain, Arpit

    2005-01-01

    Deterrence includes a mix of reassurance and accommodation, and should not focus exclusively on nuclear capabilities. It is premised on the notion that decision makers are rational individuals. The question of armed conflict, the risk of war and the issue of deterrence in Southern Asia are complicated by the fact that India has a nuclear adversarial relationship with Pakistan and China. Historically, this is an unprecedented situation where a triangular nuclear competition has been constructed, since it is geo-strategically different and more complicated than the bilateral nuclear rivalry that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Should India and Pakistan continue creeping along towards weaponisation and deployment, and China proceed with its nuclear modernisation plans, also partially resulting from the US's national missile defence programme, the three could easily enter into a triad that would be more competitive and conflictual in nature than cooperating with each other in the medium and long term. This book seeks to investigate the nuances of the oft-repeated mantra of credible minimum deterrent, study decision making in crisis and the drivers of various processes and structures in the domestic environment that influence the existence of the bomb in these countries. It seeks to explicate the prevailing attitudes towards issues of arms control, doctrines, strategy, weaponisation and deployment. The fundamental objective here is to highlight issues and prepare decision makers and policy elites in these countries

  6. Diabetic self care practices in rural Mysuru, Southern Karnataka, India - A need for Diabetes Self Management Educational (DSME) program.

    Srinath, K M; Basavegowda, Madhu; Tharuni, Nandarula Sai

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes and its complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Self care has emerged as a crucial element in the management of diabetes and a key factor associated with the quality of diabetic care. The purpose of the study was to assess the self care activities of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in a rural area of Mysuru district. A community based cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 400 diabetic patients in rural Mysore. Self care Activities (Diet, exercise, self blood glucose monitoring, medication, foot care, smoking) were assessed using a pre designed and tested questionnaire. Relevant descriptive analysis like percentages is carried out using SPSS version 22.0. Most of the diabetic patients had good compliance for medication (92.5%), followed by 72% for diabetic diet. Only 27.75% of the diabetic patients participated in walking, 24.25% practised foot care, blood glucose monitoring by 24.75% and only 25.5% of them were current smokers. The rural diabetic patients are more adherent and compliant to medication and diabetic diet and less compliant to physical activity, foot care and self glucose monitoring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Study on indoor radon concentration and gamma radiation dose rate in different rooms in some dwellings around Bharath Gold Mines Limited, Karnataka State, India

    Umesha Reddy, K.; Jayasheelan, A.; Sannappa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. The indoor concentration of radon in different rooms in the same type of dwellings around Bharath Gold Mines Limited (BGML), Karnataka State (12°57' min N and 78°16' min E) were measured by using LR-115 (type-Il) Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). The maximum indoor radon concentration is observed in the bathroom and minimum in the hall. The maximum average indoor radon concentration is observed in the Champion and minimum in the BEML nagar. The indoor gamma radiation dose rate is also measured in these locations using scintillometer. The geology of this part forms predominantly Hornblende Schist, Granite gneiss, Champion gneiss, Quartzite etc. The indoor radon concentration shows good correlation with the indoor gamma radiation dose. (author)

  8. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  9. Knowledge and Perceptions Regarding Nicotine Replacement Therapy among Dental Students in Karnataka

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Alshahrani, Obaid Abdullah; Jhugroo, Chitra; Tashery, Hamed Mohammed; Mathews, Jacob; Chavan, Khechari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organized dentistry has recognized the role of oral health professionals in discouraging tobacco use. Unexplored level of knowledge regarding the benefits and prescription of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have aroused interest among us which initiated us to assess the knowledge and perception of dental students toward NRT among various dental colleges in Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was done among 16 selected colleges in Karnataka. It ...

  10. Natural radionuclide concentration in Hassan District of Southern India

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The soil samples were collected from Hassan district of Southern India. The analysis was carried out using NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. The 232 Th activity was found to vary from 20.4±1.3 Bq kg -1 to 136.3±3.3 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 56.9±2.0 Bq kg -1 and 226 Ra activity was found to vary from 22.5±1.4 Bq kg -1 to 90.6±3.4 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 41.4±2.1 Bq kg -1 . The activity of 40 K was ranged from 278.2±4.0 Bq kg -1 to 650.7±6.7 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 388.4±5.1 Bq kg -1 . Relatively higher levels of thorium were observed in soil. The radium equivalent activity and other radiological parameters were also determined. (author)

  11. Analysis of Small ruminant market system in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India

    D Ramesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the marketing system of small ruminants in three different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka in India. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 small ruminant farmers from three viz. Bijapur (Arid zone, Gulbarga (Semi-arid zone and Udupi (Coastal zone district of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire which had earlier been subject to face validity and has a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used to collect data from the samples respondents. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS.The results of the study revealed that marketing of small ruminants is haphazard in the study areas. Majority of the respondents (85% sold their animal when they needed cash for home consumption followed by to pay off loan (28.3% was the main reason to sell their animals. Important marketing channels were relatives and friends, local markets and village collectors. Farmers gave different reasons for selling their animals through different channels. Majority of the farmers used relatives and friends as one of the marketing channels. Most of farmers also felt that there was a difference in the price offered by village collectors and the price they were getting in the livestock markets. And a few of them were of the opinion that village collectors were not reliable in marketing. Price of the animals was establishing based on the body confirmation of the animal. Study also revealed that injured animals fetch less value than the healthy animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 288-293

  12. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme.

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, H L; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, B M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, pViolence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), pviolence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs.

  13. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Beattie Tara SH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media, and primary stakeholders (FSWs, as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face. Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.3 to 0.5, p Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  14. Effects of Some Indigenous Plants of North Karnataka (India) on Cardiovascular and Glucose Regulatory Systems in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Das, Kusal K; Chadchan, Kailash S; Reddy, R Chandramouli; Biradar, M S; Kanthe, Pallavi S; Patil, Bheemshetty S; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Bagoji, Ishwar B; Das, Swastika

    2017-11-08

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Pundi), Chick pea (Cicer arietinum Linn, Chana) and Prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn, Hattaraki) leaves are a few of indigenous plants which are routinely consumed by the people of north Karnataka in the diet. Studies on these plants showed some potential anti-diabetic efficacies. To examine the effect of leaves extracts of Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Cicer arietinum Linn and Lactuca scariola Linn on cardiovascular integrity, glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In vitro and in vivo tests on glucose regulatory systems and molecular markers such as - NOS3, HIF- 1α and VEGF were conducted in alloxan induced diabetic rats supplemented with all the three plant extracts. Electrophysiological analysis (HRV, LF: HF ratio, baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) and histopathogy of myocardial tissues and elastic artery were evaluated in diabetic rats treated with L. scariola linn. Out of these three plant extracts, Lactuca scariola Linn supplementation showed significant beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling pathways in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Furthermore, effects of sub chronic supplementation of Lactuca scariola Linn aqueous extracts showed significant improvement in sympatho-vagal balance in diabetic rats by increase of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and regaining of Baroreflex Sensitivity (BRS). These results were also corroborated with myocardial and elastic artery histopathology of Lactuca scariola Linn supplemented diabetic rats. These findings indicate an adaptive pathway for glucose homeostasis, oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms and cardio protective actions in alloxan - induced diabetic rats supplemented with Lactuca scariola Linn extracts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  16. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

    Shaw Souradet Y; Deering Kathleen N; Reza-Paul Sushena; Isac Shajy; Ramesh Banadakoppa M; Washington Reynold; Moses Stephen; Blanchard James F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among ...

  17. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collecti...

  18. How Does Sex Trafficking Increase the Risk of HIV Infection? An Observational Study From Southern India

    Wirth, Kathleen E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Murray, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  19. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  20. A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.

    Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita

    2018-05-11

    Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study

  1. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    Padma Mohanan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.

  2. Evaluation of a community-based HIV preventive intervention for female sex workers in rural areas of Karnataka State, south India.

    Washington, Reynold G; Nath, Anita; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To examine changes in behavioral outcomes among rural female sex workers (FSWs) involved in a community-based comprehensive HIV preventive intervention program in south India. A total of 14, 284 rural FSWs were reached by means of a community-based model for delivering outreach, medical, and referral services. Changes in behavior were assessed using 2 rounds of polling booth surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. In all, 95% of the mapped FSWs were reached at least once, 80.3% received condoms as per need, and 71% received health services for sexually transmitted infections. There was a significant increase in condom use (from 60.4% to 72.4%, P = .001) and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (from 63.9% to 92.4%; P = .000) between the 2 time periods. This model for a community-based rural outreach and HIV care was effective and could also be applied to many other health problems. © 2014 APJPH.

  3. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  4. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka.

    Patil, D P; Ajantha, G S; Shubhada, C; Jain, P A; Kalabhavi, A; Shetty, P C; Hosamani, M; Appannanavar, S; Kulkarni, R D

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT) using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  5. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    Sulekha Rao, N.; Sengupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 μSv h -1 and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  6. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    Sulekha Rao, N [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)], E-mail: dsgg@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2010-01-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and thoron ({sup 220}Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  7. Bullying among trainee doctors in Southern India: A questionnaire study

    Bairy K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace bullying is an important and serious issue in a healthcare setting because of its potential impact on the welfare of care-providers as well as the consumers. Aims: To gauge the extent of bullying among the medical community in India; as a subsidiary objective, to assess the personality trait of the bullying victims. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire survey was undertaken among a convenient sample of all the trainee doctors at a Government Medical College in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, in English with standard written explanation of bullying was used. Basic information like age, sex, job grade and the specialty in case of Postgraduates (PGs were also collected. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square test for comparison of frequencies. Results: A total of 174 doctors (115 PGs and 59 junior doctors, took part in the study with a cent percent response. Nearly half of the surveyed population reported being subjected to bullying. Nearly 54 (53% of the men and 35 (48% of women were subjected to bullying. Significant proportions ( P < 0.0001 of medical personnel and paramedical staff bullied the PGs and junior doctors, respectively. More than 85 (90% of bullying incidents went unreported. A significant ( P < 0.0001 percentage of PGs and junior doctors revealed a personality trait towards bully. Conclusions: Workplace bullying is common among trainee doctors and usually goes unreported.

  8. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. © 2015 APJPH.

  9. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Observational Study from Southern India.

    Sridhar, Mathrubootham; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Vishwanathan, Latha; Subbarayan, Anbezhil

    2018-03-15

    To assess the natural history and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism and to study factors which help predict evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism into overt hypothyroidism. Longitudinal study in 40 children (2-16 yrs) presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism in a tertiary care unit in Chennai, India. Patients showing evidence of overt hypothyroidism or thyroid stimulating hormone ≥15 mIU/mL during follow-up were started on thyroxine. Others were followed up with 3-monthly thyroid function tests up to one year. At the end of our study period 3 (7.5%) were overtly hypothyroid, 16 (40%) remained as subclinical hypothyroid, and 21 (52.5%) became euthyroid. Evidence of auto- immunity at baseline was a significant (Phypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children, with thyroid stimulating hormone upto 15 mIU/L and irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity, needs only periodic clinical and biochemical follow up. Thyroid autoimmunity may point to an increased probability of progression to overt hypothyroidism.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in mobile phone users in Tamilnadu, southern India

    Balachandar, V.; Lakshman Kumar, B.; Suresh, K.; Sangeetha, R.; Manikantan, P.; Sasikala, K.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves-wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony. Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. In the present study chromosomal damage investigations were carried out on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones, being exposed to MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz. The aim of this study is to establish whether mobile phone use (n = 27) increases the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes compared with controls (n = 27) in Tamilnadu, India. After signing a consent form, volunteers provided blood samples (5 ml) to establish cell cultures at 52 hrs. For CA analysis, 100 complete metaphase cells from each subject were evaluated. In the present study, in mobile phone users highly significant results were obtained when compared to control groups. These results highlight a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to RFR) and genetic damage and require interim public health actions in the wake of widespread use of mobile telephony.

  11. Community Mobilisation and Empowerment Interventions as Part of HIV Prevention for Female Sex Workers in Southern India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Pickles, Michael; Beattie, Tara S.; Shetty, Govindraj; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. Methods An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004–2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An ‘exposure analysis’ explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW’s empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. Findings The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004–2011). Over a 7-year period (2004–2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary - well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are

  12. Community mobilisation and empowerment interventions as part of HIV prevention for female sex workers in Southern India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Pickles, Michael; Beattie, Tara S; Shetty, Govindraj; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004-2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An 'exposure analysis' explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW's empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004-2011). Over a 7-year period (2004-2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary--well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are cost saving. Our findings suggest that CM

  13. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from Southern India: implication for Pan-African metallogeny

    Santosh, M.; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Akimasa

    1994-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) dating of two molybdenite samples from the alkali granite and pegmatite of Ambalavayal in northern Kerala (S. India) yielded ages of 567 ±28 Ma and 566±77 Ma, respectively. These ages closely compare with the previously determined Rb-Sr whole rock age of 595±20 Ma Rb-Sr for granite, and K-Ar biotite age of 560±30 Ma for the pegmatite. Our study provides the first direct determination of the timing of ore mineralization associated with felsic magmatism in southern India, and reveals the fingerprints of a prominent Pan-African metallogenic event. This timing coincides with the formation of rare metal and gemstone-bearing pegmatites in different parts of southern India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar and East Antarctica. In most cases, the mineralizations are genetically related to felsic magmas emplaced along structural conduits, suggesting that the magmatism and metallogeny are related to deep-seated extension in the cratonized crustal segments of the Gondwana assembly. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Hunting or habitat? Drivers of waterbird abundance and community structure in agricultural wetlands of southern India.

    Ramachandran, Ramesh; Kumar, Ajith; Gopi Sundar, Kolla S; Bhalla, Ravinder Singh

    2017-09-01

    The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure. Species richness, density of piscivorous species, and medium-sized species (31-65 cm) were most affected by hunting. Out of 53 species recorded, 47 were hunted, with a preference for larger birds. Although illegal, hunting has increased in recent years and is driven by market demand. This challenges the widely held belief that waterbird hunting in India is a low intensity, subsistence activity, and undermines the importance of agricultural wetlands in waterbird conservation.

  15. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Chorei tribes of Southern Assam, North Eastern India

    Shuvasish Choudhury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.

  16. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Sangram Kishor Patel

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India.Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400 in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics.Most FSWs (87% reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5 and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3 as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt.This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  17. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-01-01

    Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  18. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  19. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a southern district of India.

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the 'fear of legal complications' (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons.

  1. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  2. Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Davey, Calum; Javalkar, Prakash; Nair, Sapna; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Sudhakar, Gautam; Collumbien, Martine; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2015-03-25

    Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will be conducted in eighty village clusters (40 intervention; 40 control) in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts in northern Karnataka. The intervention seeks to reach low caste girls and their families; adolescent boys; village communities; high school teachers and school governing committees; and local government officials. All low caste (scheduled caste/tribe) adolescent girls attending 7th standard (final year of primary school) will be recruited into the study in two consecutive waves, one year apart. Girls (n = 2100), their families (n = 2100) and school teachers (n = 650) will be interviewed at baseline and at endline. The study is designed to assess the impact of the intervention on four primary outcomes: the proportion of low caste girls who (i) enter into secondary school; (ii) complete secondary school; (iii) marry before age 15; and (iv) engage in sex before age 15. Observers assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome will be an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at follow-up. We will also conduct survival analyses for the following secondary outcomes: marriage, sexual debut, pregnancy and entry into sex work. Complementary monitoring and evaluation, qualitative and economic research will be used to explore and describe intervention implementation, the pathways through which change occurs, and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This is an innovative

  3. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  4. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  5. Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study.

    Priyadarshini Brinda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. Methods: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. Results: 257 participants (50.69% were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105. Only 22 (4.34% participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50% participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. Conclusion: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.

  6. Evidence of late Palaeocene-early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats, India.

    Prasad, V; Farooqui, A; Tripathi, S K M; Garg, R; Thakur, B

    2009-11-01

    Equatorial rain forests that maintain a balance between speciation and extinction are hot-spots for studies of biodiversity. Western Ghats in southern India have gained attention due to high tropical biodiversity and endemism in their southern most area. We attempted to track the affinities of the pollen fl ora of the endemic plants of Western Ghat area within the fossil palynoflora of late Palaeocene-early Eocene (approximately 55-50 Ma) sedimentary deposits of western and northeastern Indian region. The study shows striking similarity of extant pollen with twenty eight most common fossil pollen taxa of the early Palaeogene. Widespread occurrences of coal and lignite deposits during early Palaeogene provide evidence of existence of well diversified rain forest community and swampy vegetation in the coastal low lying areas all along the western and northeastern margins of the Indian subcontinent. Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversifi ed equatorial rain forest vegetation once widespread in the Indian subcontinent during early Palaeogene times, are now restricted in a small area as a refugia in the southernmost part of the Western Ghat area. High precipitation and shorter periods of dry months seem to have provided suitable environment to sustain lineages of ancient tropical vegetation in this area of Western Ghats in spite of dramatic climatic changes subsequent to the post India-Asia collision and during the Quaternary and Recent times.

  7. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India

    Sarkar Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.

  8. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Deepthi Kattula

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India.A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL, the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting.The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%. Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%.There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  9. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Mammals of the Meghamalai landscape, southern Western Ghats, India - a review

    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the concurrence of mammals in the Meghamalai landscape were collated from published literature and also the data obtained from a recent study spanning over 18 months (June 2011-December 2012. Sixty-three species belonging to 24 families occur in the landscape, which include 24 globally threatened (one Critically Endangered; seven Endangered; 11 Vulnerable and five Near Threatened species. Of the recorded species, four species are endemic to India and nine are endemic to the Western Ghats. The present study added five species, viz., Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus, Malabar Spiny Tree Mouse Platacanthomys lasiurus, Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphrodites and the Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii to the six decade old mammal list. But, 13 species reported by Hutton were not recorded during the study. Among them, occurrence of Malabar Civet Viverra civettina and Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in southern India remains unresolved. During our study, anthropogenic pressures such as conversion of natural habitats, encroachment, hunting, cattle grazing and tourism were observed to affect the distribution of mammals in the landscape.

  10. Antimicrobials for the treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy: practices in southern India.

    Mathai, Elizabeth; Thomas, Raja John; Chandy, Sujith; Mathai, Matthews; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-09-01

    Although urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy is a common medical problem, very little is known about the susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing UTI and the prescription practices for UTI in pregnancy in low-income countries. Studies were, therefore, carried out in southern India to document the susceptibility patterns and to compare these with prescription practices. Data on susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated in significant counts from urine of pregnant women suspected to have urinary infection were collected. Prescribing patterns for these infections were ascertained using a questionnaire. About 90% of E. coli causing UTI is still susceptible to nitrofurantoin, a relatively inexpensive and safe drug. However, less than 25% of doctors used it for treatment of cystitis. Cephalosporins were most commonly used in hospital practice for the treatment of UTI. Amoxycillin was being used widely to treat UTI in pregnancy in spite of high prevalence of resistance. There were wide variations in the duration of therapy and use of prophylaxis. Our findings indicate an urgent need for proper guidelines, dissemination of information to practitioners and supervision of antimicrobial usage in low income countries like India. Irrational and unnecessary drug use can be expensive and harmful.

  11. Ethnomedicinal assessment of Irula tribes of Walayar valley of Southern Western Ghats, India

    Arjunan Venkatachalapathi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the traditional knowledge of Irula tribal people who are practicing herbal medicine in Walayar valley, the Southern Western Ghats, India. A total number of 146 species of plants distributed in 122 genera belonging to 58 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by them. Interestingly, 26 new claims were also made in the present study. Through the data obtained from Irula tribal healers, the herbs were mostly used for medicine (40.4% followed by trees (26.7% and climbers (18.5%. In addition leaves were highly used for medicinal purposes, collected from 55 species (38% followed by multiple parts from 18 species (12%. Acorus calamus is the species of higher use value (1.80 assessed to be prescribed most commonly for the treatment of cough. High informant consensus factor (1.0 obtained for insecticidal uses and cooling agent indicates that the usage of Canarium strictum and Melia dubia, and Mimosa pudica and Sesamum indicum respectively for that purposes had obtained high degree of agreement among the healers in using these species for the respective purposes. The most commonly used method of preparation was decoction (63% followed by raw form (23%, paste (12% and powder (2%. Therefore, it is suggested to take-up pharmacological and phytochemical studies to evaluate the species to confirm the traditional knowledge of Irulas on medicinal plants. Keywords: Ethnobotanical surveys, Irula tribes, India

  12. Community and conservation reserves in southern India: status, challenges and opportunities

    A. Kanagavel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community Reserves and Conservation Reserves illustrate a community-based co-management model, a first of its kind within the protected area (PA network of India. Such reserves mark a shift towards an inclusive and decentralised approach within PAs in the country. Three such reserves in southern India: the Aghanashini Lion-tailed Macaque Conservation Reserve, Kadalundi-Vallikunnu Community Reserve and Thirupaddaimaradur Conservation Reserve, were selected to examine the reasons for their creation, management and stakeholder dynamics, with an aim to review their productivity and potential replicability. The study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with Forest Department officials, local community members and researchers working in the three reserves. Insufficient interaction between the stakeholders appeared to be a common issue in two reserves. The functioning of the reserves was also influenced, and in some cases negatively affected, by local politics. Financial stability was crucial in the functioning of reserves, as was consistency in interaction and appropriate monitoring of management plans. These elements are recommended for sustaining such reserves and creating community-based management systems for conservation, to support an inclusive approach to PA management.

  13. Productivity dynamics of Livestock in southern peninsular India: A Compound growth rate analysis

    G. Kathiravan 1 and S. Selvam 2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although India possesses the large volume of livestock, their productivity is abysmally low at global level. India, with its wide variation in geo-ecological parameters, elucidates a high variation in the productivity of its livestock, among regions. The compound growth rate of livestock productivity was worked out for the Southern Peninsular state of India, Tamil Nadu. The average productivity of milk in cross bred cows and buffaloes in Tamil Nadu was less than the national average, while the productivity desi cows was a bit a more. The annual compound growth rate of milk productivity among crossbred cows of Tamil Nadu was at meager 0.54 per cent during the period between 1998-1999 and 2006- 2007, whereas the productivity of milk in desi cows had improved from at an annual compound growth rate of 1.29 per cent. Notably, the milk productivity in buffaloes had declined at a rate of 0.29 per cent during the period under study. The annual compound growth of egg productivity in improved hens of Tamil Nadu was 20.87 per cent. The average annual productivity was 109.531 eggs, which improved from 70.623 in 1998-1999 to 197.084 in 2004-2005. Correspondingly, the productivity of desi hens also had a positive swing from the year 2003-2004 onwards. The results implied that the simulation of increased productivity, better farm financing and improved milk marketing could result in enhanced livestock production that would meet the future demands. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 68-74

  14. Report on short course in educational methodology for university teachers in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines - a pilot study conducted at Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India.

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing awareness among teachers in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines that a formal training in educational methodology can improve their performance as teachers and student evaluators. The Training of Trainers programs conducted by Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, in the previous years have brought about a transformation among the teachers who attended those programs. Also the teachers were witness to a changing perception among students towards teachers who adapt innovative teaching/assessment strategies. This report illustrates an innovative training activity that was adapted to design a reference model that can be developed as an operational model for large-scale execution. Teachers who are under the affiliated CAM Institutions in Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, participated in a three-month 'Short Course in Educational Methodology'. This program was delivered on distance learning mode. The course was organised into four modules. Study material was provided for each of the module in the form of a study guide and related reference articles in electronic form. There were three contact programs - Induction and Introduction that also addressed overview of entire course and the subject matter of Module 1, and this was at the beginning of the course, first contact program to address the learner needs of Modules 2 and 3 and second contact program for the contents in Module 4. The participants were engaged during the entire course duration with interactive contact programs, self-study and application of concepts in their teaching/assessment practices, submission of assignments online, and microteaching presentation and peer review. The documentation and raw data generated during the course of training were used to generate an operational model for training of university teachers of health sciences faculty in general and teachers of CAM disciplines in particular. Establishing a model of

  15. Intraspecific variations in Cyt b and D-loop sequences of Testudine species, Lissemys punctata from south Karnataka

    R. Lalitha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b and D-loop conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region spanning 1.14 kb and ∼1 kb was amplified by HotStart PCR and sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The Cyt b sequence revealed 85 substitution sites, no indels and 17 parsimony informative sites, whereas D-loop showed 189 variable sites, 51 parsimony informative sites with 5′ functional domains TAS, CSB-F, CSBs (1, 2, 3 preceding tandem repeat at 3′ end. Current data highlights the intraspecific variations in these target regions and variations validated using suitable evolutionary models points out that the overall point mutations observed in the region are transitions leading to no structural and functional alterations. The mitochondrial data generated uncover the genetic diversity within species and conservationist can utilize the data to estimate the effective population size or for forensic identification of animal or its seizures during unlawful trade activities.

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurpbk@rediffmail.com.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University Kalaburagi – 585 106 India (India); Anilkumar, S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  17. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India

    Mukhopadhyay Shiladitya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. Ardeidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882. Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%, followed by carnivorous (24.4%, omnivorous (18.5%, granivorous (7.6%, frugivorous (3.4%, nectarivorous (3.4% and herbivorous species (1.7%. Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.

  18. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Kattula, Deepthi; Jeyavelu, Nithya; Prabhakaran, Ashok D; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Geetha, Jayanthi C; Lazarus, Robin P; Das, Princey; Nithyanandhan, Karthick; Gunasekaran, Chandrabose; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Wanke, Christine; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Babji, Sudhir; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples obtained every 6 months were evaluated for seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold increase in immunoglobulin G directed against Cryptosporidium gp15 and/or Cp23 antigens between consecutive sera. Of 410 children completing follow-up, 397 (97%) acquired cryptosporidiosis by 3 years of age. PCR identified 1053 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, with an overall incidence of 0.86 infections per child-year by stool and serology. The median age for the first infection was 9 (interquartile range, 4-17) months, indicating early exposure. Although infections were mainly asymptomatic (693 [66%]), Cryptosporidium was identified in 9.4% of diarrheal episodes. The proportion of reinfected children was high (81%) and there was clustering of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections (P < .0001 for both). Protection against infection increased with the order of infection but was only 69% after 4 infections. Cryptosporidium hominis (73.3%) was the predominant Cryptosporidium species, and there was no species-specific protection. There is a high burden of endemic cryptosporidiosis in southern India. Clustering of infection is suggestive of host susceptibility. Multiple reinfections conferred some protection against subsequent infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. From policy to practice: lessons from Karnataka about implementation of tobacco control laws

    Pragati B Hebbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use accounts for eight to nine lakh adult deaths annually in India. India enacted a national legislation “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003” (COTPA to protect health of non-smokers and reduce tobacco consumption. However, even a decade after enacting this law, its implementation remains suboptimal and variable across the Indian states. Karnataka has shown leadership on this front by enacting a state law and implementing COTPA at (sub- district levels. We, therefore, aim to analyze COTPA implementation processes in Karnataka to understand how COTPA can be effectively implemented. Methods: We developed a case study of COTPA implementation in Karnataka using reports from health, police, education, and transport departments as well as government orders and media reports related to COTPA. We analyzed these data to map and understand the role played by the government agencies in COTPA implementation. We used the proportion of the districts reporting COTPA violations, the number of COTPA violations cases reported, and the proportion of schools reporting compliance with COTPA as proxy measures for COTPA implementation. Results: We found that five government agencies (police, education, health, transport, and urban development played a major role in COTPA implementation. All the police districts reported COTPA violations with 59,594 cases in a year (April 2013–March 2014. Three of the district anti-tobacco cells and two of the transport divisions reported 1130 and 14,543 cases of COTPA violations, respectively, in the same year. In addition, 84.7% of schools complied with signage requirements of COTPA. COTPA reporting was made part of the reporting systems within health, police, and education departments. The health department created awareness on tobacco harms and COTPA. Conclusions: COTPA implementation in Karnataka was made possible through integrating COTPA implementation within structure/functions of five

  20. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its risk factors in a community-based population in southern India.

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Leena, Kondarapassery Balakumaran; Plymoth, Amelie; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Yin, Li; Shenoy, Kotacherry Trivikrama; Ye, Weimin

    2016-03-15

    The prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) varies widely around the world. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of GERD in a general population of southern India. An interview-based observational study was carried out in southern India during 2010 and early 2011 using a GERD questionnaire (GerdQ). In total 1072 participants were enrolled using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Presence of GERD was defined as a score of ≥ 8. Logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of GERD was 22.2 % (238/1072) in southern India, and was more common among older subjects and men. Overweight and obese subjects had a dose-dependent increased risk of GERD, compared to those with body mass index less than 25 (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.0-2.0; OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.1, respectively). People residing in urban community were more vulnerable to GERD than those in rural community (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5). Similarly, those with a lower educational level appeared to have an increased risk of GERD. Further, those with a habit of pan masala chewing were more likely to develop GERD compared with those abstained from the habit (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.2-3.2). GERD is highly prevalent in southern India. Increasing age and BMI, an urban environment, lower educational level, and pan masala chewing appear to be risk factors of GERD symptoms for the studied population.

  1. Garnet pyroxenite from Nilgiri Block, southern India: Vestiges of a Neoarchean volcanic arc

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.; Sajeev, K.

    2018-06-01

    Southern peninsular India preserves records of Late Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic continental building and cratonization. A transect from the Paleoarchean Dharwar Craton to the Neoarchean arc magmatic complex in the Nilgiri Block across the intervening Moyar Suture Zone reveals an arc-accretionary complex composed of banded iron formation (BIF), amphibolite, metatuff, garnet-kyanite schist, metagabbro, pyroxenite and charnockite. Here we investigate the petrology, geochronology and petrogenesis of the pyroxenite and garnet-clinopyroxenite. The pyroxenite is mainly composed of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with local domains/pockets enriched in a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich domains formed at 900-1000 °C, 1-1.2 GPa whereas the garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich domains record higher pressure of about 1.8-2 GPa at similar temperature conditions (900-1000 °C). Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating show weighted mean 207Pb-206Pb age of 2532 ± 22 Ma, with metamorphic overgrowth at 2520 ± 27 Ma and 2478 ± 27 Ma. We propose a tectonic model involving decoupling and break-off of the oceanic plate along the southern flanks of the Dharwar Craton, which initiated oceanic plate subduction. Slab melting eventually built the Nilgiri volcanic arc on top of the over-riding plate along the flanks of the Dharwar Craton. Our study supports an active plate tectonic regime at the end of the Archean Era, aiding in the growth of paleo-continents and their assembly into stable cratons.

  2. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopic Characteristics of the Kaveri River Surface Waters, Southern Peninsular India

    Achyuthan, Hema; Michelini, Marzia; Sengupta, Somasis D.; Kale, Vishwas S.; Stenni, Barbara; Flora, Onelio

    2010-12-01

    We present in this paper the spatial distribution of stable isotopic composition (δ 18 O and δD) of Kaveri River surface waters to understand how the evaporation and precipitation affect the isotopic signature and dynamics of surface river waters. In the southern peninsular India, Kaveri River is one of the longest tropical river. Our stable isotope data indicate that the upper Kaveri region is influenced strongly by the SW monsoon. There is a narrow range between the δ 18 O values found from the origin of the Kaveri River to its delta, and there is no significant orographic impact of the Western Ghats. A decreasing trend of d values is found along the course of the river. This is attributed to evaporation effects, which nevertheless are not very strong. This difference in deuterium excess due to evaporation is also an indication of the moisture recycling in the lower Kaveri area, which is primarily controlled by evaporation from the wetlands in the delta plain but also from the surface waters and as such from the rivers. (author)

  3. Food and foraging preferences of three pteropodid bats in southern India

    M.R Sudhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the food, foraging and flight height in three species of pteropodid bats, namely Cynopterus sphinx, Rousettus leschenaultii and Pteropus giganteus was conducted in Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of southern Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 37 species of plants were identified as potential food plants of the pteropodid bats. The preference for fruits by pteropodids varied according to the developmental stages of fruits namely, immature, unripe and ripe. There is a relationship between the foraging activities of bats and the moon phase. Bats exhibit a varied foraging pattern and flight height. A variation in the foraging flight height was observed in C. sphinx and R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultii was observed to have a higher foraging echelon than that of the C. sphinx. In our study we found that the C. sphinx forages normally at canopy level (up to 3.5m, R. leschenaultii forages at upper canopy levels (up to 9m and P. giganteus at a height above the canopy area (>9m.

  4. Tree diversity in the tropical dry forest of Bannerghatta National Park in Eastern Ghats, Southern India

    Gopalakrishna S. Puttakame

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species inventories, particularly of poorly known dry deciduous forests, are needed to protect and restore forests in degraded landscapes. A study of forest stand structure, and species diversity and density of trees with girth at breast height (GBH ≥10 cm was conducted in four management zones of Bannerghatta National Park (BNP in the Eastern Ghats of Southern India. We identified 128 tree species belonging to 45 families in 7.9 hectares. However, 44 species were represented by ≤ 2 individuals. Mean diversity values per site for the dry forest of BNP were: tree composition (23.8 ±7.6, plant density (100.69 ± 40.02, species diversity (2.56 ± 0.44 and species richness (10.48 ± 4.05. Tree diversity was not significantly different (P>0.05 across the four management zones in the park. However, the number of tree species identified significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing number of sampling sites, but majority of the species were captured. Similarly, there were significant variations (p<0.05 between tree diameter class distributions. Juveniles accounted for 87% of the tree population. The structure of the forest was not homogeneous, with sections ranging from poorly structured to highly stratified configurations. The study suggests that there was moderate tree diversity in the tropical dry thorn forest of Bannerghatta National Park, but the forest was relatively young.

  5. Impact of biogas interventions on forest biomass and regeneration in southern India

    M. Agarwala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Programs to provide alternative energy sources such as biogas improve indoor air quality and potentially reduce pressure on forests from fuelwood collection. This study tests whether biogas intervention is associated with higher forest biomass and forest regeneration in degraded forests in Chikkaballapur district in Southern India. Using propensity score matching, we find that forest plots in proximity to villages with biogas interventions (treatment had greater forest biomass than comparable plots around villages without biogas (control. We also found significantly higher sapling abundance and diversity in treatment than control plots despite no significant difference in seedling abundances and diversity in treatment forests, suggesting that plants have a higher probability of reaching sapling stage. These results indicate the potential for alternative energy sources that reduce dependence on fuelwood to promote regeneration of degraded forests. However, forest regrowth is not uniform across treatments and is limited by soil nutrients and biased towards species that are light demanding, fire-resistant and can thrive in poor soil conditions.

  6. Biogas cook stoves for healthy and sustainable diets? A case study in Southern India

    Tal Lee Anderman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cook stoves that replace solid fuels with cleaner energy sources, such as biogas, are gaining popularity in low-income settings across Asia, Africa and South America. Published research on these technologies focuses on their potential to reduce indoor air pollution and improve respiratory health. Effects on other cooking related aspects, such as diets and women’s time management, are less understood. In this study in southern India, we investigate if using biogas cook stoves alters household diets and women’s time management. We compare treatment households who are supplied with a biogas cook stove with comparison households who do not have access to these stoves, while controlling for several socio-economic factors. We find that diets of treatment households are more diverse than diets of comparison households. In addition, women from treatment households spend on average 40 minutes less cooking and 70 minutes less collecting firewood per day than women in comparison households. This study illustrates that alongside known benefits for respiratory health, using alternative cook stoves may benefit household diets and free up women’s time. To inform development investments and ensure these co-benefits, we argue that multiple dimensions of sustainability should be considered in evaluating the impact of alternative cook stoves.

  7. From intent to action: A case study for the expansion of tiger conservation from southern India

    Sanjay Gubbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To conserve a large, wide-ranging carnivore like the tiger, it is critical not only to maintain populations at key habitat sites, but also to enable the persistence of the species across much larger landscapes. To do this, it is important to establish well-linked habitat networks where sites for survival and reproduction of tigers are complemented by opportunities for dispersal and colonization. On the ground, expanding protection to areas with a potential for tiger recovery still remains the means of operationalizing the landscape approach. Yet, while the gazetting of protected areas is necessary to enable this, it is not sufficient. It is essential to benchmark and monitor the process by which establishment of protected areas must necessarily be followed by management changes that enable a recovery of tigers, their prey and their habitats. In this paper, we report a case study from the Cauvery and Malai Mahadeshwara Hills Wildlife Sanctuaries of southern India, where we document the infrastructural and institutional changes that ensued after an unprecedented expansion of protected areas in this landscape. Further, we establish ecological benchmarks of the abundance and distribution of tigers, the relative abundance of their prey, and the status of their habitats, against which the recovery of tigers in this area of vast conservation potential may be assessed over time.

  8. Occupational Heat Stress Impacts on Health and Productivity in a Steel Industry in Southern India.

    Krishnamurthy, Manikandan; Ramalingam, Paramesh; Perumal, Kumaravel; Kamalakannan, Latha Perumal; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah; Shanmugam, Rekha; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2017-03-01

    Workers laboring in steel industries in tropical settings with high ambient temperatures are subjected to thermally stressful environments that can create well-known risks of heat-related illnesses and limit workers' productivity. A cross-sectional study undertaken in a steel industry in a city nicknamed "Steel City" in Southern India assessed thermal stress by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and level of dehydration from urine color and urine specific gravity. A structured questionnaire captured self-reported heat-related health symptoms of workers. Some 90% WBGT measurements were higher than recommended threshold limit values (27.2-41.7°C) for heavy and moderate workloads and radiational heat from processes were very high in blooming-mill/coke-oven (67.6°C globe temperature). Widespread heat-related health concerns were prevalent among workers, including excessive sweating, fatigue, and tiredness reported by 50% workers. Productivity loss was significantly reported high in workers with direct heat exposures compared to those with indirect heat exposures (χ 2  = 26.1258, degrees of freedom = 1, p  industries enhancing welfare facilities and designing control interventions, further physiological studies with a seasonal approach and interventional studies are needed to strengthen evidence for developing comprehensive policies to protect workers employed in high heat industries.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from Southern Granulite Terrain, India: Implications for Gondwana

    Yellappa, T.; Rao, J. Mallikharjuna

    2018-03-01

    Granitoid intrusions occur widely in the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of India, particularly within the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), which is considered as the trace of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean closure. Here we present the petrological and geochemical features of 19 granite plutons across the three major tectonic blocks of the terrain. Our data show a wide variation in the compositions of these intrusions from alkali feldspathic syenite to granite. The whole rock geochemistry of these intrusions displays higher concentrations of SiO2, FeO*, K2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and low MgO, Na2O, Ti, P, Nb, Y and HREE's. The granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous in nature revealing both I-type and A-type origin. In tectonic discrimination plots, the plutons dominantly show volcanic arc and syn-collisional as well as post-collisional affinity. Based on the available age data together with geochemical constrains, we demonstrate that the granitic magmatism in the centre and south of the terrain is mostly associated with the Neoproterozoic subduction-collision-accretion-orogeny, followed by extensional mechanism of Gondwana tectonics events. Similar widespread granitic activity has also been documented in the Arabian Nubian shield, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Antarctica, providing similarities for the reconstruction of the crustal fragments of Gondwana supercontinent followed by Pan-African orogeny.

  10. Reducing violence and increasing condom use in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers: study protocol for Samvedana Plus, a cluster randomised controlled trial in Karnataka state, south India

    Tara S. Beattie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are at increased risk of HIV and STIs compared to women in the general population, and frequently experience violence in their working and domestic lives from a variety of perpetrators, which can enhance this risk. While progress has been made in addressing violence by police and clients, little work has been done to understand and prevent violence by intimate partners (IPs among FSW populations. Methods Samvedana Plus is a multi-level intervention programme that works with FSWs, their IPs, the sex worker community, and the general population, and aims to reduce violence and increase consistent condom use within these ‘intimate’ relationships. The programme involves shifting norms around the acceptability of beating as a form of discipline, challenging gender roles that give men authority over women, and working with men and women to encourage new relationship models based on gender equity and respect. The programme will aim to cover 800 FSWs and their IPs living in 47 villages in Bagalkot district, northern Karnataka. The study is designed to assess two primary outcomes: the proportion of FSWs who report: (i physical or sexual partner violence; and (ii consistent condom use in their intimate relationship, within the past 6 months. The evaluation will employ a cluster-randomised controlled trial design, with 50 % of the village clusters (n = 24 randomly selected to receive the intervention for the first 24 months and the remaining 50 % (n = 23 receiving the intervention thereafter. Statisticians will be blinded to treatment arm allocation. The evaluation will use an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at midline (12 months and endline (24 months. The evaluation design will involve quantitative and qualitative assessments with (i all FSWs who report an IP (ii IPs; and process/ implementation monitoring. Baseline

  11. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Southern India: a latent class analysis.

    Shalu Verma-Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of chronic tuberculosis disease, is widespread among some animal species too. There is paucity of information on the distribution, prevalence and true disease status of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in southern India while simultaneously estimating sero-prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Health assessment of 600 elephants was carried out and their sera screened with a commercially available rapid serum test. Trunk wash culture of select rapid serum test positive animals yielded no animal positive for M. tuberculosis isolation. Under Indian field conditions where the true disease status is unknown, we used a latent class model to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of an existing (rapid serum test and new (four in-house ELISA tests. One hundred and seventy nine sera were randomly selected for screening in the five tests. Diagnostic sensitivities of the four ELISAs were 91.3-97.6% (95% Credible Interval (CI: 74.8-99.9 and diagnostic specificity were 89.6-98.5% (95% CI: 79.4-99.9 based on the model we assumed. We estimate that 53.6% (95% CI: 44.6-62.8 of the samples tested were free from infection with M. tuberculosis and 15.9% (97.5% CI: 9.8 - to 24.0 tested positive on all five tests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for high prevalence of asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants in a captive Indian setting. Further validation of these tests would be important in formulating area-specific effective surveillance and control measures.

  13. Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India: Managed Aquifer Recharge for mitigation.

    Brindha, K; Jagadeshan, G; Kalpana, L; Elango, L

    2016-05-01

    Climatic condition, geology, and geochemical processes in an area play a major role on groundwater quality. Impact of these on the fluoride content of groundwater was studied in three regions-part of Nalgonda district in Telangana, Pambar River basin, and Vaniyar River basin in Tamil Nadu, southern India, which experience semi-arid climate and are predominantly made of Precambrian rocks. High concentration of fluoride in groundwater above 4 mg/l was recorded. Human exposure dose for fluoride through groundwater was higher in Nalgonda than the other areas. With evaporation and rainfall being one of the major contributors for high fluoride apart from the weathering of fluoride rich minerals from rocks, the effect of increase in groundwater level on fluoride concentration was studied. This study reveals that groundwater in shallow environment of all three regions shows dilution effect due to rainfall recharge. Suitable managed aquifer recharge (MAR) methods can be adopted to dilute the fluoride rich groundwater in such regions which is explained with two case studies. However, in deep groundwater, increase in fluoride concentration with increase in groundwater level due to leaching of fluoride rich salts from the unsaturated zone was observed. Occurrence of fluoride above 1.5 mg/l was more in areas with deeper groundwater environment. Hence, practicing MAR in these regions will increase the fluoride content in groundwater and so physical or chemical treatment has to be adopted. This study brought out the fact that MAR cannot be practiced in all regions for dilution of ions in groundwater and that it is essential to analyze the fluctuation in groundwater level and the fluoride content before suggesting it as a suitable solution. Also, this study emphasizes that long-term monitoring of these factors is an important criterion for choosing the recharge areas.

  14. Applying a gender lens to health policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... In India's Karnataka state, girls and women face many barriers stemming from their low social status that are exacerbated by poverty and caste. ... And given the rates of undernourishment, teen pregnancy, anemia, and ...

  15. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  16. India.

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  17. Diversity, habitat preferences, and conservation of the primates of Southern Assam, India: The story of a primate paradise

    Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district and a few reserve forests (RFs, there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region – a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from field observations of the author are also presented.

  18. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    Sanjay Kini

    Full Text Available According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7 guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal.To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages, Udupi District, Karnataka state, India.Community based cross sectional study.6 (out of total 14 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR and adjusted (adj OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05, white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85 and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42, students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95, using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99, salty food

  19. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    Kini, Sanjay; Kamath, Veena G; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Community based cross sectional study. 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. 1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95), using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95), extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99), salty

  20. Spatial and temporal estimation of runoff in a semi-arid microwatershed of Southern India.

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Reddy, K Sammi; Rao, Ch Srinivasa

    2015-08-01

    In a semi-arid microwatershed of Warangal district in Southern India, daily runoff was estimated spatially using Soil Conservation Service (SCS)-curve number (CN) method coupled with GIS. The groundwater status in this region is over-exploited, and precise estimation of runoff is very essential to plan interventions for this ungauged microwatershed. Rainfall is the most important factor governing runoff, and 75.8% of the daily rainfall and 92.1% of the rainy days which occurred were below 25 mm/day. The declines in rainfall and rainy days observed in recent years were 9.8 and 8.4%, respectively. The surface runoff estimated from crop land for a period of 57 years varied from 0 to 365 mm with a mean annual runoff of 103.7 mm or 14.1% of the mean annual rainfall. The mean annual runoff showed a significant reduction from 108.7 to 82.9 mm in recent years. The decadal variation of annual runoff from crop land over the years varied from 49.2 to 89.0% which showed the caution needed while planning watershed management works in this microwatershed. Among the four land use land cover conditions prevailing in the area, the higher runoff (20% of the mean annual rainfall) was observed from current fallow in clayey soil and lower runoff of 8.7% from crop land in loamy soil due to the increased canopy coverage. The drought years which occurred during recent years (1991-2007) in crop land have increased by 3.5%, normal years have increased by 15.6%, and the above normal years have decreased by 19.1%. This methodology can be adopted for estimating the runoff potential from similar ungauged watersheds with deficient data. It is concluded that in order to ensure long-term and sustainable groundwater utilization in the region, proper estimation of runoff and implementation of suitable water harvesting measures are the need of the hour.

  1. Accuracy of vision technicians in screening ocular pathology at rural vision centres of southern India.

    Suram, Vasantha; Addepalli, Uday Kumar; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Kovai, Vilas; Khanna, Rohit C

    2016-03-01

    There is paucity of data on the inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy between a primary-care technician (vision technician) and an ophthalmologist. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the accuracy of vision technicians, to screen potentially sight-threatening ocular conditions at rural vision centres of southern India and their agreement with an ophthalmologist. In July to August 2010, patients presenting to seven vision centres in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh) were selected and screened in a masked manner by seven vision technicians followed by an examination by a consultant ophthalmologist. Agreement was assessed between vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening of potential sight-threatening ocular conditions and decisions for referral. The ophthalmologist's findings were considered as the reference standard. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were enrolled at seven vision centres with a mean age of 32.9 ± 21.8 years. Agreement for screening of ocular pathology was 0.82 (95 per cent CI, 0.8-0.83). There was excellent agreement for cataract (0.97; 95 per cent CI, 0.93-1), refractive error (0.98; 95 per cent CI, 0.96-1), corneal pathology (1.0; 95 per cent CI, 1.0-1.0) and other anterior segment pathology (0.95; 95 per cent CI, 0.9-1); the agreement was moderate to fair for detection of glaucoma suspects (0.43; 95 per cent CI, 0.28-0.60) and retinal pathology (0.39; 95 per cent CI, 0.14-0.63). Sensitivity for screening of anterior segment pathology was 94.6-100 per cent. There was a fair to moderate sensitivity for glaucoma suspect; 35.6 per cent (95 per cent CI, 21.9-51.2) and retinal pathology 26.3 per cent (95 per cent CI, 9.2-51.2). Specificity for screening of ocular pathology was 98.2 to 100 per cent. The kappa (κ) agreement for referral for any pathology was 0.82 (0.8-0.83) CONCLUSION: As there is good agreement between the vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening and referral of

  2. ECTOPIC CUSHING SYNDROME: A 10-YEAR EXPERIENCE FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN SOUTHERN INDIA.

    Sathyakumar, Samantha; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Gnanamuthu, Birla Roy; Paul, M J; Abraham, Deepak Thomas; Rajaratnam, Simon; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-08-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion is a less common cause of Cushing syndrome and is seen in 5 to 10% of cases with endogenous hypercortisolemia. We hereby describe our experience of patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome, who have been managed over the past 10 years at a tertiary care center in Southern India. The inpatient and outpatient records of patients from 2006 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical features, clinical history, biochemical values, imaging features, including radiologic findings and positron emission tomography scans, management, details of follow-up, and outcomes, were documented. We compared the biochemical findings in these patients with 20 consecutive patients with Cushing disease (Cushing syndrome of pituitary origin). A total of 21 patients were studied. The median age at presentation was 34 years (range, 19 to 55 years). Seven patients had thymic carcinoid, 7 had bronchial carcinoid, 3 had lung malignancies, 2 had medullary carcinoma thyroid, 1 patient had a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and 1 patient had an occult source of ACTH. The most common clinical features at presentation were muscle weakness (95%), hyperpigmentation (90%), facial puffiness (76%), easy bruising (61%), edema (57%), and striae (52%). Extensive acne was seen in a large number of patients (43%). Only 3 patients (14%) had central obesity. The median 8 am cortisol was 55.5 μg/dL (range, 3.8 to 131 μg/dL), median 8 am ACTH was 207 pg/mL (range, 31.1 to 703 pg/mL), and the median 24-hour urinary free cortisol was 2,484 μg (range, 248 to 25,438 μg). Basal cortisol and ACTH, as well as midnight cortisol and ACTH level, were markedly higher in patients with ectopic Cushing syndrome as compared to patients with Cushing disease. Twelve of 21 patients had developed life-threatening infections by follow-up. Nine patients had undergone surgical intervention to address the primary tumor. However, only 1 patient exhibited a complete cure on

  3. Village-scale (Phase III) evaluation of the efficacy and residual activity of SumiShield® 50 WG (Clothianidin 50%, w/w) for indoor spraying for the control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies Giles in Karnataka state, India.

    Uragayala, S; Kamaraju, R; Tiwari, S N; Sreedharan, S; Ghosh, S K; Valecha, N

    2018-03-30

    There is an urgent need to test and incorporate new molecules with promising efficacy and novel mode of action to control insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors for disease control. We tested a new compound, clothianidin (SumiShield 50 WG), for its efficacy as an indoor residual spray (IRS) for the control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in comparison with pirimiphos methyl (Actellic CS) as a positive control. Ten villages were selected, five each for IRS with clothianidin (300 mg AI/m 2 ) and pirimiphos methyl (1000 mg AI/m 2 ) in Almatti Dam catchment area in Karnataka state, India. Entomological parameters were monitored in these sprayed villages using standard methods. Assessment of quality of spray was performed by analysing the insecticide content in the filter paper samples collected from sprayed houses. Perceptions of spray men and inhabitants were recorded post-spray on safety of these molecules. The mean applied to target ratio of content was 1.7 (n = 29) for clothianidin and 1.8 (n = 50) for pirimiphos methyl on filter paper samples analysed. Residual activity (≥80% mortality in exposed mosquitoes) after 24 h post-exposure of SumiShield WG was 5 months and increased to 6 months when the holding period was extended to 120 h and that of Actellic CS was 3 months at 24-h holding period and extended to 4 months at 120-h extended holding period. The mean densities of An. culicifacies in both arms fell drastically post-spray. In light trap collections, density of mosquitoes collected indoors was lower than outdoors in both arms indicating effectiveness of IRS. SumiShield WG was more efficacious in reducing the per-structure density than Actellic CS. The proportion of nulliparous mosquitoes was higher than that of parous mosquitoes during post-spray collections in both arms. The majority of adverse events reported were transitory and subsided without medication. Indoor residual spraying with SumiShield WG was found effective

  4. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  5. Evolution of Swarna estuary and its impact on braided islands and estuarine banks, Southwest coast of India

    AvinashKumar; Jayappa, K.S.; Vethamony, P.

    Qualitative and quantitative evolution of the Swarna estuary, Karnataka, India during the past 38 years (1967–2005), has been analysed by integrating the results of field surveys, satellite images, hydrodynamic modelling and topographic data in GIS...

  6. Health seeking behavior in Karnataka: Does micro-health insurance matter?

    S Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Results: Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Conclusion : Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  7. Health seeking behavior in karnataka: does micro-health insurance matter?

    Savitha, S; Kiran, Kb

    2013-10-01

    Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  8. India | Page 92 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    India. Inde. In India's Karnataka state, girls and women face many barriers stemming from their low social status that are exacerbated by poverty and caste. ... Ownership rates are even higher in Pakistan (65%) and Sri Lanka (71%). The survey ...

  9. India

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  10. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods.

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Moolah, misfortune or spinsterhood? The plight of Slender Loris Loris lydekkerianus in southern India

    A. Kanagavel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we document the local knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of slender lorises among the indigenous Kani community in the southern Western Ghats; document new records of Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus in the Agasthyamalai Hills; and discuss in detail a poorly known threat to these primates. Although not kept as pets due to their physical appearance, and belief that they would bring bad luck, the Kani community however captured slender lorises for wildlife photographers. Similar instances of loris abuse in various parts of south India were revealed upon analyzing photographs from a popular internet-based wildlife photography site. We recommend that strict guidelines be formulated for photographing lorises, and suggest that novel and ethical tourism initiatives be set up involving local communities to cater to wildlife photographers and tourists.

  12. Infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome during pregnancy: a case series of preventable maternal deaths from southern India.

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Bhat, Rajeshwari G; Ramachandran, Amar; Kumar, Pratap

    2013-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among women admitted to obstetric intensive care units, and it contributes significantly, both directly and indirectly, to maternal deaths. We present a case series of ARDS in pregnant women caused by non-obstetric causes. The women were treated at a tertiary hospital in southern India. The striking features were delayed referral from the primary care unit and the lack of a primary diagnosis or treatment. Undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease, anemia, and malaria and H1N1 epidemics contributed to these cases of ARDS and maternal death. It is necessary to increase the awareness of evidence-based uniform protocols to tackle common medical complaints during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India

    N. Baskaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Highways passing through natural reserves have adverse impact on wild animals. We evaluated the road kill of vertebrate fauna by vehicular traffic on highways at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India. In a fortnight’s survey over 248km across three public roads and opportunistic sampling method, a minimum of 180 road kills belonging to 40 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were recorded between December 1998 and March 1999. Amphibians were the most affected taxa (53% of road kills followed by reptiles (22%, mammals (18%; including a leopard (Panthera pardus and birds (7%. Amphibians and reptiles are slow to react to vehicles and this along with the drivers’ ignorance probably leads to higher mortality among these species. Road kills are significantly higher on highway stretches along rivers than those without water bodies nearby. We suggest the construction of flyovers, speed limits, speed breakers and signposts along the highways to reduce vehicle-caused wildlife mortalities.

  14. Examining the Determinants of Sexual Violence among Young, Married Women in Southern India

    Chibber, Karuna S.; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A…

  15. Two additions to the flora of the Palni Hills, southern India

    S. Soosairaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiptage parvifolia Wight & Arn. (Malpighiaceae and Kalanchoe olivacea Dalz. & Gibs. (Crassulaceae are collected and reported for the first time from the Palni hills of Western Ghats from Tamil Nadu, India. This paper provided a detailed taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and photographs for their easy identification.

  16. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India.

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. RESULTS indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services.

  17. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  18. Mobile Phone Usage and its Health Effects Among Adults in a Semi-Urban Area of Southern India.

    Stalin, P; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Kanimozhy, K; Prasad, R Vishnu; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, mobile phone usage has been increased dramatically which could affect the health of the people. India has the second largest number of mobile phone users. However there are only few studies conducted in India to assess its effects on health. To determine the prevalence and pattern of mobile phone usage and to assess the relationship between certain selected health problems and mobile phone usage among adults. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kottakuppam, a town panchayat in Villupuram district of Coastal Tamil Nadu, Southern India. It is a semi-urban area with a population of about 16,000. Majority of the residents are Muslim by religion and belong to different socio economic status. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 2121 study participants were interviewed by the pre-final medical students through house-to-house survey using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included the variables such as socio demographic profile, mobile phone usage and pattern, selected health problems, perceived benefits and threats and blood pressure. Selected health problems included headache, earache, neck pain, tinnitus, painful fingers, restlessness, morning tiredness, tingling fingers, fatigue, eye symptoms, sleep disturbance and hypertension. Only 2054 were included for data analysis using SPSS 17 version. Proportions were calculated. Chi-square test was used to measure the p-value. The p-value phone usage was 70%. Calling facility (94.2%) was used more than the SMS (67.6%). Health problems like headache, earache, tinnitus, painful fingers and restlessness etc., were found to be positively associated with mobile phone usage. There was negative association between hypertension and mobile phone usage. The prevalence of mobile phone usage was high. There was significant association between selected health problems and mobile phone usage. In future, higher studies are required to confirm our

  19. Impact of sub-horizontal discontinuities and vertical heterogeneities on recharge processes in a weathered crystalline aquifer in southern India

    Nicolas, Madeleine; Selles, Adrien; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Crenner, Marion; Wajiduddin, Mohammed; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2017-04-01

    In the face of increasing demands for irrigated agriculture, many states in India are facing water scarcity issues, leading to severe groundwater depletion. Because perennial water resources in southern India consist mainly of crystalline aquifers, understanding how recharge takes place and the role of preferential flow zones in such heterogeneous media is of prime importance for successful and sustainable aquifer management. Here we investigate how vertical heterogeneities and highly transmissive sub-horizontal discontinuities may control groundwater flows and recharge dynamics. Recharge processes in the vadose zone were examined by analysing the propagation of an infiltration front and mass transfers resulting from the implementation of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structure. Said structure was set up in the Experimental Hydrogeological Park in Telangana (Southern India), a well-equipped and continuously monitored site, which is periodically supplied with surface water deviated from the nearby Musi river, downstream of Hyderabad. An initial volume balance equation was applied to quantify the overall inputs from the MAR structure into the groundwater system, which was confirmed using a chloride mass balance approach. To understand how this incoming mass is then distributed within the aquifer, we monitored the evolution of water volumes in the tank, and the resulting lateral propagation front observed in the surrounding borehole network. Borehole logs of temperature and conductivity were regularly performed to identify preferential flow paths. As a result we observed that mass transfers take place in the way of preferential lateral flow through the most transmissive zones of the profile. These include the interface between the lower portion of the upper weathered horizon (the saprolite) and the upper part of the underlying fissured granite, as well as the first flowing fractures. This leads to a rapid lateral transfer of recharge, which allows quick

  20. Relationship between mobility, violence and major depression among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in southern India.

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Ganju, Deepika; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-09-09

    The relationship between mobility, violence and mental health has largely been unexplored in developing countries. This study screens for signs of major depression, and assesses its association with mobility and violence among female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India. Data (N=2400) for this study were used from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey (BTS-2014) conducted among FSWs from a southern state of India as part of the Avahan programme. Major depression of FSWs was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale. Descriptive statistics, frequency, bivariate, interaction effect and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used for the analysis. More than one-fourth of FSWs (29%) screened positive for major depression. The likelihood of screening positive for major depression was 6 times higher among FSWs who were both mobile for sex work outside their district of residence and had experienced any violence (combined association) during the past 1 year (62% vs 19%, adjusted OR 6.1, 95% CI 4.4 to 8.6) compared with those who reported neither. The individual association results show that FSWs who reported being mobile outside the district, and FSWs who were beaten or raped in the past 1 year, were 3 times more likely to screen positive for major depression. The findings indicate that violence and mobility are independently associated with major depression among FSWs. The combined association of mobility and violence poses a greater risk to the mental health of FSWs than their independent association. These results point to the need for creating an enabling environment for FSWs to enhance existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV and mental health problems. The study highlights that HIV prevention efforts among FSWs in India require evidence-based research and integrated programme approaches to address mental health issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  1. GIS analysis for the marine environmental data off Karnataka coast

    Suryanarayana, A.; Amit, V.S.

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to develop the Oceanographic Information System (OIS) for marine environmental data off Karnataka coast. Its goal is to provide a set of tools for oceanographic and bathymetry data assessment and products...

  2. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the metapelitic granulites from NW of Madurai, Southern India

    Prakash, D.

    2010-01-01

    Zircon cathodoluminescent imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating were carried out for metapelitic rocks (sapphirine-hearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses) from the NW of Madurai, Southern India. The cathodoluminescence images reveal the complex, inhomogeneous internal structure having irregular-shaped core and overgrowths. Zircon grains have obliterated oscillatory zoning. SHRIMP U-Pb chronological results yield ages of 550 ± 15 Ma and 530 ± 50 Ma as a time of metamorphic overprint, and the age of 2509 ± 12 Ma and 2509 ± 30 Ma corresponding to a timing of protolith formation for sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses respectively. Zircon ages reflect that continental crust in the NW of Madurai region resulted from the recycling of Archaean protolith of an igneous origin similar to the preserved crust in the southern part of Dharwar craton. The present SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are in close agreement with earlier published Nd isotopic data which suggest an extended precrustal history of their protoliths. The abraded zircon grains indicate multiple recycling and repeated metamorphism that has ultimately resulted in present day continental crust exposed in Madurai region. These SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages from metapelitic UHT granulites are also significant to understanding the architecture of the SGT during the amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic time. (author)

  3. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed.

  4. An evaluation of major placer minerals along the Valinokkam - Tuticorin coast, southern Tamil Nadu, India

    Cherian, A.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    scientific advancements. The recent liberalisations of economic measures by the government of India and the exemption of certain minerals from the purview of mineral act have greatly enhanced the market potential of natural resources. Many private... of its resistive nature to rutile conversion. If the ilmenite along the study area is susceptible to rutile conversion, this material can be exploited and put up for sale in the market in the form of synthetic rutile. The separation of ilmenite...

  5. Rediscovery of Berberis nilghiriensis Ahrendt (Berberidaceae from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, Southern India

    V. S. Ramachandran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Berberis nilghiriensis Ahrendt, endemic to the Nilgiri hills in South India is rediscovered after 140 years, with three extant populations of ca. 25 individuals in the Nilgiri hills. Taxonomic treatment along with threat status, ecology, and economic uses are provided and urgent conservation is suggested to prevent its local extinction as the species is exposed to continued anthropogenic disturbances.

  6. Indoor radon levels in coastal Karnataka

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor radon levels have been measured in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films and it is found to vary from 28.4 to 45.6 Bq m -3 with a geometric mean value of 35.7 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose equivalent to the population of the region due to inhalation of radon was estimated from the measured data on radon level and is found to be in the range 1.9 - 3.1 mSv y -1 with a mean value 2.4 mSv y -1 . The correlation between indoor radon level and radium content in the underlying soil were studied. No definite correlation was observed to exist between indoor radon level and radium content in soil. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Barriers to efficiency improvement and fuel switching in Karnataka, India

    Reddy, A.

    1991-01-01

    Implementing energy efficiency changes requires a wide range measures. Improvements, therefore, require actions at the lowest level of the consumer, through the highest level of the global agencies. Due to the multiplicity of participants, however, barriers to achieving these improvements can arise at every level. The major barriers to improving energy efficiency in developing countries are defined and paths to overcome these challenges are identified. Topics of discussion include: energy consumers; end-use equipment manufacturers; end-use equipment providers; energy carrier producers and distributors; actual/potential cogenerators; financial institutions; government; and international, multilateral and industrialized country funding/aid agencies

  8. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    (Kalney et.al., 1996) was obtained for the point (12.5º N; 72.5 º E) close to the study area to know the influence of wind on sea level and currents. These data are provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colarado at http://www.cdc...

  9. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Chempalayil, S.P.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.

    generally referred to as the sum- mer monsoon, the general direction of winds north of the equator is southwesterly and its strength is significantly larger than that during the rest of the year (figure 1). During November–March, referred to as the winter...-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon period. makes the sea during this part of the year stand out from the swell. During May, swells (waves with periods larger than about 10 s) arrive in distinct trains lasting about 5 days. In addition to the trains of swells...

  10. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  11. Cefotaximase and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri in case of dysentery from southern India

    S Oommen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and dysentery caused by Shigella spp. are major public health concerns. Emerging multidrug resistance (MDR in this pathogen further complicates this disease. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs have been described in this pathogen, which significantly compromises the treatment options for shigellosis. The usual ESBLs seen are sulfhydryl variable (SHV-type; cefotaximases (CTX-M are very uncommonly detected. Here, we report a CTX-M type and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri from a three-year-old boy residing in Central Kerala, South India.

  12. India.

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  13. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and

  14. Composition and Redox Potential of High-Grade Fluids: An Example from the Nilgiri Block, Southern India

    Samuel, V. O.; Harlov, D. E.; Kwon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Composition and redox potential of fluids present during high-grade metamorphism exert an enormous influence on mineral textures and their regional trends within metamorphic complexes. We examine silicate, oxide, and sulfide trends in the Nilgiri Block, southern India. This terrain formed through subduction-related arc magmatic processes in the Neoarchean (ca. 2500 Ma). The Nilgiri highlands are characterized by granulite-facies metagabbro in the north, a two-pyroxene granulite transition zone, and tonalitic-granodioritic charnockites in the central and southern part. Garnet-orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene thermometry and garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometric results indicate a regional trend both in temperature ( 650 to 800 °C) and in pressure (700 to 1100 MPa) from SW to NE across the Nilgiri highlands. Regional trends are also seen in the oxide-sulfide mineralogy. The main oxide assemblage in the charnockites is rutile-ilmenite, whereas in the two-pyroxene granulites and metagabbros, hemo-ilmenite-magnetite dominates. The key sulfide mineral in the charnockites is pyrrhotite, with minor chalcopyrite. In the two-pyroxene granulites and metagabbros, the principle sulfide assemblage is pyrite +/- minor pyrrhotite. This reveals a regional oxidation trend. The metagabbros and two-pyroxene granulites are highly oxidized compared to the charnockites. Their higher oxidation state is proposed to be the result of highly oxidizing agents (probably as SO2) in low H2O activity fluids (most likely concentrated NaCl brines) during granulite-facies metamorphism of the metagabbros and two-pyroxene granulites. These agents were considerably more reducing (possibly as H2S) during granulite-facies metamorphism of the charnockites. This study emphasizes the potential role of oxidizing and reducing, low H2O activity fluids during granulite-facies metamorphism.

  15. An Empirical Investigation on Mobile Banking Service Adoption in Rural Karnataka

    S. V. Krishna Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government of India (GOI initialized financial inclusion campaign to quell exclusion. The campaign did not gain expected progress. Government employed technologies to speed up the process. Among banking technologies, mobile banking appeared as a possible solution for financial exclusion with wide mobile phone coverage. Inputs on rural people’s intention toward technologies for effective financial inclusion were essential. Technology adoption factors, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, attitude, perceived risk, and behavioral intention (BI, were short listed after literature review. Factors were subjected to reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, multiple regression, and interaction analysis. Rural provinces in Karnataka state were surveyed. We used mixed sampling technique to reach 959 samples. Multiple regression–interaction analysis revealed age and gender moderated attitude’s path toward BI.

  16. Support Networks among micro entrepreneurial women: comparison between Bangladesh, India and the Southern Mexico

    Georgina Sato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit has been seen as a way of helping low-income people, primarily women, to survive, by giving them independence and the resources to create their own businesses. Low-income people have the support of social networks that allow their members to assist each other morally, economically and by sharing information. They also share experiences that make it easier to obtain the income needed for survival. Through their social networks and social capital the poor can use the tools provided by microcredits to improve their living conditions. This document compares the ways in which women in three countries associate, and use microcredits. The countries involved are India, Bangladesh and the South of Mexico.

  17. Assessment of sedimentation rate and hydrodynamics of Vembanad lagoon, Southern India, using isotope techniques

    Jacob, Noble; Joseph, T.B.; Hari Kumar, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are natural ecosystems that contribute to flood mitigation, fish and wildlife habitat protection and natural retention of pollutants and nutrients. Despite the importance, wetlands all over the world are undergoing severe degradation in the recent years, because of pollution and human interventions. Hydrology and water quality are the important factors controlling the ecological processes of wetlands and their understanding is essential for the wetlands restoration and management. Vembanad Lagoon, a major component of the Vembanad wetland system, is one of the largest coastal ecosystems in the southwestern part of India. Currently, it is facing numerous problems such as water quality deterioration due to ingression of saltwater, heavy metal contamination, weed infestation etc. and sedimentation due to large scale reclamation, intensive agriculture practices together with deforestation in its catchments. Hence, an isotope investigation was carried out to assess the sedimentation rate, pollution levels in sediments and hydrodynamics of Vembanad Lagoon

  18. Management practices followed for draught cattle in the southern part of India.

    Akila, Natarajan; Chander, Mahesh

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the management practices followed by the farmers for draught cattle in Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods of procurement of animals, use of female animals, breeds preferred, housing, health, disposal of animals, feeding, shoeing, purchase of animal-drawn implements and their maintenance were all assessed with 210 farmers from seven districts across different agro-climatic zones in Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that 86 % of the respondents purchased the draught cattle from the livestock markets, most were bullocks but 20 small farmers and 5 medium farmers used female animals for ploughing. Among the indigenous breeds, Kangeyam (33 %) and Hallikar (30 %) breeds were the most popular for work. Most farmers (69 %) provided a mixed type of housing (provision of housing only during the night time and the rainy season) for their draught cattle. The major health problem reported by 63 % of respondents was pyrexia. Almost all farmers sold their animals at the age of 8-10 years. The feeding practices for draught cattle were poor especially with the small farmers. The cattle were fed with mainly paddy straw and rice bran. Oilcakes and cotton seeds were given to the animals which work throughout the year mainly for ploughing and carting. The draught cattle were first shod at around 2.5 years of age. The majority of the farmers (71 %) used the traditional animal-drawn implements made by local artisans, and the farmers were not aware of the new implements to reduce the drudgery of work cattle, designed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Centre and Agricultural Engineering Departments located in India.

  19. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

    Cleland John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  20. Enhancing biodiversity management and utilization to improve livelihoods – a case study of 'kokum' in India

    Kruijssen, F.; Sudha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia indica, commonly known as 'kokum', is an underutilized fruit tree, native of the Western Ghats in India and Malaysia. In India it mainly grows in the western parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa. The fruit is used as a medicinal plant against obesity; the rind as souring and food

  1. Isotopic signature of Pan-African rejuvenation in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southern India: implications for east Gondwana reassembly

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotope systematics on mineral separates from sillimanite-and cordierite-bearing metapelite (khondalite), and garnet-and biotite-bearing gneiss (leptynite) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, yielded mineral isochron ages (wr-feld-bio-gar) of 537±27 Ma (MSWD=0.9) and 534±26 Ma (MSWD=1.23) respectively. Rb-Sr systematics in the same samples gave wr-feld-bio mineral isochron ages of 437±9 Ma (MSWD=0.67) and 467±9 Ma (MSWD=0.76). These results provide the first mineral isochron ages for the regional metasedimentaries in the KKB. The ε (Nd T) values at 550 Ma for khondalite and leptynite are -22.7 and -21.8 respectively. These results demonstrate a complete rejuvenation of the crust during Pan-African times. Coeval alkaline plutons emplaced along fault-lineaments in this area suggest an extensional tectonic regime. Geochronologic correlations with the Lutzow-Holm bay complexes in east Antarctica, and the highland and southwestern complex of Sri Lanka show that a similar Pan-African tectono-thermal event manifested in all the east Gondwana crustal fragments. (author)

  2. On the Behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica in southern West Bengal, India

    Mahua Roy Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ganga River Dolphin Platanista gangetica Roxburgh, 1801 is a globally endangered cetacean found in the River system of Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna in Bangladesh and India.  A survey and research were conducted from 2012–2014 to explore the behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Dolphin in the lower, middle and upper stretches of the river Ganga and its tributaries in southern West Bengal.  The study recorded different types of surfacing patterns with respect to their age class as well as on diurnal activity pattern of the individual. The adults and sub-adults were found to have different types of surfacing during different hours of the day.  The morning and afternoon were observed to be feeding hours of the Dolphin.  Multiple potential threats were encountered during the present study such as destructive fishing gears, dumping of solid and municipal waste, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, construction of water structures, water extraction and reduction of river depth attributed to siltation.  These factors contributed to the present study of the river dolphins in the Ganga, which are localised at certain pockets in good number.  

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF Paracalyx scariosus (ROXB. ALI A WILD RELATIVE OF CAJANUS FROM SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA

    Kondragunta Sri Rama Murthy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Paracalyx scariosus (Roxb. Ali locally known as ";;adavi tellakandulu";; in Telugu, used as food by local tribes people in the Rollapenta forest, Kurnool district, Nallamalais of Andhra Pradesh of southern Peninsular India. The mature seed samples were analysed for proximate composition, total (true seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids profile, mineral and antinutritional factors. They contained higher amount of crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 20.56, 5.19, 5.12 and 56.25 % respectively of the seed weight. The calorific value of 100g dry matter of seed material was 1680.92 kJ DM. The essential amino acids, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were present in relatively large quantities.  The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of palmitic and linoleic acids. The seeds are rich in sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, manganese and iron. Anti-nutritional factors such as total free phenols, (5.56% tannins (2.78%, L -DOPA (0.63%, hydrogen cyanide (0.065% and phytic acid (0.85% are present in variable quantities. From the results these plant have a good potential as food crops in Andhra Pradesh.  This paper presents the chemical composition and nutritional potential of Paracalyx scariosus seeds with regard to its suitability as a regular component in human diet.

  4. Effectiveness of Membrane Filtration to Improve Drinking Water: A Quasi-Experimental Study from Rural Southern India.

    Francis, Mark Rohit; Sarkar, Rajiv; Roy, Sheela; Jaffar, Shabbar; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar

    2016-11-02

    Since point-of-use methods of water filtration have shown limited acceptance in Vellore, southern India, this study evaluated the effectiveness of decentralized membrane filtration 1) with safe storage, 2) without safe storage, versus 3) no intervention, consisting of central chlorination as per government guidelines, in improving the microbiological quality of drinking water and preventing childhood diarrhea. Periodic testing of water sources, pre-/postfiltration samples, and household water, and a biweekly follow up of children less than 2 years of age was done for 1 year. The membrane filters achieved a log reduction of 0.86 (0.69-1.06), 1.14 (0.99-1.30), and 0.79 (0.67-0.94) for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli, respectively, in field conditions. A 24% (incidence rate ratio, IRR [95% confidence interval, CI] = 0.76 [0.51-1.13]; P = 0.178) reduction in diarrheal incidence in the intervention village with safe storage and a 14% (IRR [95% CI] = 1.14 [0.75-1.77]; P = 0.530) increase in incidence for the intervention village without safe storage versus no intervention village was observed, although not statistically significant. Microbiologically, the membrane filters decreased fecal contamination; however, provision of decentralized membrane-filtered water with or without safe storage was not protective against childhood diarrhea. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  6. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  7. Environmental radiation and potential ecological risk levels in the intertidal zone of southern region of Tamil Nadu coast (HBRAs), India.

    Punniyakotti, J; Ponnusamy, V

    2018-02-01

    Natural radioactivity content and heavy metal concentration in the intertidal zone sand samples from the southern region of Tamil Nadu coast, India, have been analyzed using gamma ray spectrometer and ICP-OES, respectively. From gamma spectral analysis, the average radioactivity contents of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in the intertidal zone sand samples are 12.13±4.21, 59.03±4.26, and 197.03±26.24Bq/kg, respectively. The average radioactivity content of 232 Th alone is higher than the world average value. From the heavy metal analysis, the average Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations are 3.1, 80.24, 82.84, 23.66, 91.67, and 137.07ppm, respectively. The average Cr and Ni concentrations are lower, whereas other four metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations are higher than world surface rock average values. From pollution assessment parameter values, the pollution level is "uncontaminated to moderately contaminated" in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A three year retrospective study on the increasing trend in seroprevalence of dengue infection from southern Odisha, India

    Sanghamitra Padhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In Odisha, several cases of dengue virus infection were detected for the first time in 2010, the importance of dengue as a serious mosquito-borne viral infection was felt only in 2011 with the reporting of many more positive cases. This retrospective three year study was done to find out the seroprevalence of dengue Ig m0 antibody and to know the predominant serotype of dengue virus among the patients suspected to have dengue virus infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern Odisha, India. Methods: Blood samples from clinically suspected dengue cases admitted in the Medicine and Paediatrics departments of a tertiary care hospital were collected. These were processed for detection of dengue specific IgM antibody, carried out by the ELISA method. Dengue IgM antibody positive serum samples were tested for serotypic identification. Results: o0 f the 5102 samples tested, 1074 (21.05 % were positive for dengue IgM. Maximum numbers of cases were found in 2012. Majority (47.86 % of cases were detected in the month of September. The most common affected age group was 11 to 20 yr. DENV1 and DENV2 were the detected serotypes. Interpretation & conclusions: Rapid increase in the dengue cases in 2012 became a public health concern as majority of cases were affecting the young adolescents. Most of the cases were reported in post-monsoon period indicating a need for acceleration of vector control programmes prior to arrival of monsoon.

  9. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on chayote (Sechium edule) in southern India.

    Nagendran, K; Mohankumar, S; Mohammed Faisal, P; Bagewadi, B; Karthikeyan, G

    2017-12-01

    During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as ToLCNDV from Pakistan infecting tomato. Thus the present finding confirms expansion of new geographical region and host for ToLCNDV causing mosaic disease on chayote from Tamil Nadu. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report for the occurrence of ToLCNDV on chayote in southern India.

  10. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India.

    John, Deepa; Philip, Swetha Sara; Mittal, Rashmi; John, Sheeja Susan; Paul, Padma

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2-13%). Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of protective eyewear should be considered.

  11. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India

    Deepa John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Results: Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2-13%. Conclusion: Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of  protective eyewear should be considered.

  12. Odonata (Insecta diversity of Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, the southern Western Ghats, India

    C.K. Adarsh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki District, Kerala, the southern Western Ghats, to assess the diversity of odonates. We report 48 species of odonates, which include 31 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies and 17 species of Zygoptera (damselflies. Among the dragonflies, the family Libellulidae dominated with 25 species, while Coenagrionidae with seven species was the dominant family among the damselflies. The odonate diversity of Chinnar WS accounted for 31.16 % of the odonates in Kerala and 27.58% of the odonates of the Western Ghats. Chinnar also recorded two species of odonates that are endemic to the Western Ghats, which are, the Pied Reed Tail Protosticta gravelyi and the Travancore Bamboo Tail Esme mudiensis.

  13. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  14. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  15. Cervical cytological abnormalities and human papilloma virus infection in women infected with HIV in Southern India.

    Thunga, Suchitra; Andrews, Anusmitha; Ramapuram, John; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kini, Hema; Unnikrishnan, B; Adhikari, Prabha; Singh, Prakhar; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Kadam, Anagha; Shetty, Avinash K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between CD4 count, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 104 HIV-infected women attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic. They underwent Pap smear and cervical HPV DNA testing. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 57.7%. HPV 16 was the commonest genotype found (38.5%); HPV 16 and 18 put together contributed to 73.3% of HPV infection; 27.5% of HIV-infected women had squamous cell abnormalities. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was less likely among women with CD4 count > 500/mm 3 (12%) and in those without opportunistic infections (17.8%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was higher in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater lesions (85.7%) as compared to women with normal cytology (52.1%). The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women warrants the need for regular Pap smear screening in these women and routine HPV vaccination for adolescents to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in India. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Postnatal quality of life, depressive symptoms, and social support among women in southern India.

    Bodhare, Trupti N; Sethi, Pruthwiraj; Bele, Samir D; Gayatri, Dasari; Vivekanand, Achanta

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of postnatal quality of life (QOL) has remained a poorly researched area in India. The present cross-sectional study assessed postnatal QOL, using the Mother Generated Index (MGI) and its associated risk factors, and was conducted during January-March 2013 among 274 mothers, 6-8 weeks postnatally. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and social support. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and QOL using the MGI. The vast majority (90.1 percent) of respondents in our study had a primary MGI score <5, those with significantly higher prevalence of physical problems and psychological distress. A total of 39.8 percent of respondents were screened as having other (not major) depressive symptoms and 4.7 percent as having major depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.033, p = .018) and socioeconomic status (β = 0.156, p < .001) were significantly positively associated with QOL, while increased depressive symptom scores (β = -0.075, p < .001) were significantly negatively associated with QOL. A wide spectrum of QOL aspects were reported, including physical, emotional, social, and economic concerns by the mothers. Prevention, evaluation, and treatment of postnatal depressive symptoms and impaired QOL are warranted, taking into account the role of various biopsychosocial risk factors and specific concerns raised by the mothers.

  17. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of Meghamalai Landscape, southern Western Ghats, India

    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Species composition of birds in the Meghamalai landscape with respect to threat status, foraging guild and biome-restricted assemblage were assessed based on data collected opportunistically during two research projects: first one spanned 36 months (2006-2009 the other for 18 months (June 2011-December 2012 and from literature published during mid 1940s. A total of 254 species belonging to 55 families and 18 orders were recorded, which include 11% (18 of 159 species of globally threatened birds reported from India, 88% (14 of 16 species of endemic birds of the Western Ghats and a higher proportion of biome-restricted species (56% of Indo-Malayan tropical dry zone and 80% of Indian Peninsula inhabited by tropical moist forest birds. Among the foraging guilds, insectivorous birds (51% dominated the bird composition followed by frugivores and carnivores. The present data shows that Meghamalai deserves to be recognized as an Important Bird Area of International Bird Conservation Network. This would enhance the conservation prospects of the landscape in a long run. The present study also highlights the importance of the area for conserving the birds of the Western Ghats.

  18. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India

    Doniparthi Venkata Pavan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Neonates (0–28 days admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Results: Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2% had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4% were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28 and Klebsiella (6/28. 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity (P = 0.007 was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. Conclusion: The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension in a semi-rural population of Southern India.

    Singh, Mandeep; Kotwal, Atul; Mittal, Chetan; Babu, S Ram; Bharti, Sahul; Ram, C Venkata S

    2017-12-01

    While elevated blood pressure is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of hypertension still remains unclear for most populations. A door-to-door survey was conducted using modified WHO STEPS questionnaire in a group of villages under the Thavanampalle Mandal of Chittoor District in the state of Andhra Pradesh of South India. Data were collated and analyzed for 16,636 individuals (62.3% females and 37.7% males) above 15 years of age. Overall, prevalence of hypertension (as per JNC-7 classification) was found to be 27.0% (95% CI, 26.3, 27.7) in the surveyed community with 56.7% of the total hypertensives being diagnosed for the first time during the survey. An additional 39.1% had their blood pressure readings in the prehypertensive range. Among the known Hypertensives on treatment only 46.2% had a blood pressure recording within acceptable limits, with 31.2% in the prehypertensive range and only 15.0% in the normal range. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the surveyed population showed a continuous linear increase with age, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) peaked and started reducing in early fifth decade in males. Male gender, increasing age, higher body mass index (BMI), increased waist-hip ratio, increased body weight, family history of hypertension, death of spouse, and diabetes were found to be positively correlated with hypertension. Risk factors of alcohol intake, use of ground nut/palm oil, and family history of diabetes lost their independent predictive ability for hypertension on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of physical activity was also not found to be a significant predictor of hypertension in the study population.

  20. Subsurface profiling of granite pluton using microtremor method: southern Aravalli, Gujarat, India

    Joshi, Aditya U.; Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Limaye, Manoj A.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Charola, Mitesh J.; Bhatt, Meghnath N.; Mistry, Sagar P.

    2018-01-01

    We report, using the microtremor method, a subsurface granitic pluton underneath the Narukot Dome and in its western extension along a WNW profile, in proximity of eastern fringe of Cambay Rift, India. The dome and its extension is a part of the Champaner Group of rocks belonging to the Mesoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. The present finding elucidates development of an asymmetric double plunge along Narukot Dome. Microtremor measurements at 32 sites were carried out along the axial trace (N95°) of the dome. Fourier amplitude spectral studies were applied to obtain the ratio between the horizontal and vertical components of persisting Rayleigh waves as local ambient noise. Fundamental resonant frequencies with amplitude ≥1-sigma for each site are considered to distinguish rheological boundary. Two distinct rheological boundaries are identified based on frequency ranges determined in the terrain: (1) 0.2219-10.364 Hz recorded at 31 stations identified as the Champaner metasediment and granite boundary, and (2) 10.902-27.1119 Hz recorded at 22 stations identified as the phyllite and quartzite boundary. The proposed equation describing frequency-depth relationship between granite and overlaying regolith matches with those already published in the literature. The morphology of granite pluton highlights the rootless character of Champaner Group showing sharp discordance with granitic pluton. The findings of manifestation of pluton at a shallower depth imply a steep easterly plunge within the Champaner metasediments, whereas signature of pluton at a deeper level implies a gentle westerly plunge. The present method enables to assess how granite emplacement influences the surface structure.

  1. Nutritional status and intellectual development in children: A community-based study from rural Southern India.

    Jacob, Amita; Thomas, Leah; Stephen, Kezia; Marconi, Sam; Noel, J; Jacob, K S; Prasad, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of recent data on the relationship between nutritional status and intellectual development among children in India. To determine whether such a relationship exists, we studied children in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. We stratified villages in Kaniyambadi block, Tamil Nadu, and recruited consecutive children who satisfied the study criteria. We assessed nutritional status by measuring height and weight and recording chronological age, and calculated indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-forheight and their Z scores. We assessed intellectual development using the Indian adaptation of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. We used a case-control framework to determine the relationship and logistic regression to adjust for common confounders. We recruited 114 children between the ages of 12 and 72 months. Z score means (weight-for-age -1.36; height-for-age -1.42; weight-for-height -0.78) were much less than 0 and indicate undernutrition. Z score standard deviations (weight-for-age 1.04; height-for-age 1.18; weightfor- height 1.06) were within the WHO recommended range for good quality of nutrition data suggesting reduced measurement errors and incorrect reporting of age. The frequency distributions of population Z scores suggest high undernutrition, wasting and medium stunting. A tenth of the population (9.6%) had values to suggest borderline/below average intelligence (social quotient social quotient. These relationships remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status using logistic regression. Chronic undernutrition, wasting and stunting and their association with lower intellectual development demand an urgent re-assessment of national food policies and programmes.

  2. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    Pavan Kumar, Doniparthi Venkata; Mohan, Jesinth; Rakesh, P S; Prasad, Jasmine; Joseph, Lenikumar

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Neonates (0-28 days) admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2%) had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4%) were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28) and Klebsiella (6/28). 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity ( P = 0.007) was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  3. Prevalence and clinical profile of metabolic syndrome among type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in southern India.

    Billow, Amy; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ngai, Michelle; Amutha, Anandakumar; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Jebarani, Saravanan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Michael, Edwin; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM) and to look at prevalence of diabetes complications in T1DM with and without MetS. We studied 451 T1DM patients attending a tertiary diabetes centre in Chennai, South India. T1DM was diagnosed based on absence of beta cell reserve and requirement of insulin from the time of diagnosis. Data on clinical and biochemical characteristics as well as complications details to study the prevalence were also extracted from electronic records. T1DM patients were divided into those with and without MetS[diagnosed according to the harmonizing the metabolic syndrome criteria(IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO)]. The overall prevalence of MetS among T1DM was 22.2%(100/451). Patients with MetS were older, had longer diabetes duration, acanthosis nigricans, and increased serum cholesterol. In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were associated with MetS. However after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes duration, HbA1C and BMI significant association was seen only between MetS and retinopathy [odds ratio (OR) 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.74, p = 0.020] and nephropathy [OR 4.92, 95% CI 2.59-9.33, p < 0.001]. Prevalence of MetS is high among Asian Indian T1DM patients, and its presence is associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  5. Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic implications toward south of Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), India

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2011-09-01

    The crustal structure toward southern part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.

  6. Impact of Dams on Riparian Frog Communities in the Southern Western Ghats, India

    Rohit Naniwadekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and home to diverse and unique assemblages of amphibians. Several rivers originate from these mountains and hydropower is being tapped from them. The impacts of hydrological regulation of riparian ecosystems to wildlife and its habitat are poorly documented, and in particular the fate of frog populations is unknown. We examined the effects of dams on riparian frog communities in the Thamirabarani catchment in southern Western Ghats. We used nocturnal visual encounter surveys constrained for time, to document the species richness of frogs below and above the dam, and also at control sites in the same catchment. While we did not find differences in species richness below and above the dams, the frog community composition was significantly altered as a likely consequence of altered flow regime. The frog species compositions in control sites were similar to above-dam sites. Below-dam sites had a distinctly different species composition. Select endemic frog species appeared to be adversely impacted due to the dams. Below-dam sites had a greater proportion of generalist and widely distributed species. Dams in the Western Ghats appeared to adversely impact population of endemic species, particularly those belonging to the genus Nyctibatrachus that shows specialization for intact streams.

  7. Developing a dynamic growth model for teak plantations in India

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tectona grandis (teak is one of the most important tropical timber speciesoccurring naturally in India. Appropriate growth models, based on advanced modeling techniques,are not available but are necessary for the successful management of teak stands in the country.Long-term forest planning requires mathematical models, and the principles of Dynamical SystemTheory provide a solid foundation for these. Methods The state-space approach makes it possible to accommodate disturbances and avarying environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a dynamic growthmodel based on the limited data, consisting of three annual measurements, collected from 22 teak sample plots in Karnataka, Southern India. Results A biologically consistent whole-stand growth model has been presented which uses thestate-space approach for modelling rates of change of three state-variables viz., dominant height,stems per hectare and stand basal area. Moreover, the model includes a stand volume equationas an output function to estimate this variable at any point in time. Transition functions werefitted separately and simultaneously. Moreover, a continuous autoregressive error structure isalso included in the modelling process. For fitting volume equation, generalized method of moments was used to get efficient parameter estimates under heteroscedastic conditions. Conclusions A simple model containing few free parameters performed well and is particularlywell suited to situations where available data is scarce.

  8. Ethnomedicinal practices in different communities of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka for treatment of wounds.

    Bhat, Pradeep; Hegde, Gurumurthi; Hegde, Ganesh R

    2012-09-28

    Uttara Kannada district is located in the heart of the Western Ghats, one of the biodiversity hotspots, in Karnataka state of India. The thick evergreen forests are home to several ethnic communities. The study was under taken for documentation and analysis of ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of wounds. Field trips were made in Uttara Kannada district to identify the key informants. The collection of information was through semi-structured open ended interviews with a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to obtain the information about their experience in the field of treatment, number of patients treated per week, knowledge about the medicinal plants, vernacular names, parts of the plants used and other ingredients added during the drug formulations. Plants mentioned for treatment were photographed in the field, cuttings of the samples were taken and voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of P.G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The information such as botanical name, status, family, vernacular name habit and habitat, statistical analysis like percentage of parts used, Use value (UV) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF) are provided. Present study resulted in recording 106 medicinal plant species of 55 families and 86 formulations to treat different types of wounds by 44 key informants. Among the 106 plants recorded four species are endemic to India and 22 species have the nativity outside India. Rest of the species have nativity both in India and elsewhere. The highest number of species belonged to Apocynaceae and Rubiaceae (6 species each). Trees are used more often (35.84%), followed by herbs (28.30%), shrubs (23.58%), climbers (11.32) and parasites (0.80%). Leaves are the major part of the plants used in the formulations (28.57%). The highest Use value is for Calycopteris floribunda (1.80), followed by Rauvolfia serpentina and Achyranthes aspera (1.67). The different types of wounds treated by traditional healers

  9. Geochemistry of Calcretes (Calcic Palaeosols and Hardpan), Coimbatore, Southern India: Formation and Paleoenvironment

    Achyuthan, Hema; Shankar, Navin; Braida, Martina; Ahmed, S. Masood

    2010-12-01

    This paper deals with the late Quaternary calcic nodules formed within vertisols in the foot-hill regions, and hardpan calcretes (greater than 200 ka) formed over the Precambrian substrate that occur as duricrust horizons in the plains around Coimbatore region, Tamil Nadu, India. The bulk chemistry of calcic nodules and the hardpan calcretes show very little variability in CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Fe 2 O 3 content. The trend of trace metal content in calcic nodules and in the hardpan calcrete is Mn>Zn>Ni>Cr>Pb>Co>Cu and Zn>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cu>Cr respectively. PAAS- normalised REE data of the calcretes (calcic nodules and the hardpan) demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly. This could be attributed to feldspar, apatite mineral alteration and soil digenetic processes, differential weathering leaving behind plagioclase phenocrysts and apatite grains which are enriched in Eu. The stable isotope values of the calcic nodules do not exhibit a wide range (δ 18 O -3.39 to -5.84 per mille and δ 13 C -3.01 to -6.64 per mille), compared to the hardpan calcretes (δ 18 O -2.91 to -12.98 per mille ) and δ 13 C (-0.05 to -7.4 per mille). The palaeoenvironment during the formation of the calcretes nodules was dominated by the C 4 plants with sparse vegetation cover and that the parent material/bedrock supported a thin veneer of soil column as present day. Calcic nodule accumulations in the soils has resulted from differential weathering and chemical histories within the soil profiles while the hardpan calcretes formed by complex pedogenic and chemical - groundwater processes in arid - semi arid conditions over a long geological period. During the late MIS3 to the LGM period the south west monsoon was weak with mean annual rainfall (MAR) between 300- 500 mm/yr., the sea level was low and the rainfall at the time of carbonate formation would have remained damp enough to allow silicate weathering of the soil sediments. (author)

  10. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India.

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-11-29

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries

  11. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    Kalpana Balakrishnan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative

  12. Epidemiology and patterns of care for invasive breast carcinoma at a community hospital in Southern India

    Venkata Phanindra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer incidence in India is on rise. We report epidemiological, clinical and survival patterns of breast cancer patients from community perspective. Methods All breast cancer patients treated at this hospital from July 2000 to July 2005 were included. All had cytological or histological confirmation of breast cancer. TNM guidelines for staging and Immunohistochemistry to assess the receptor status were used. Either lumpectomy with axillary lymph node dissection or Modified radical mastectomy (MRM was done for operable breast cancer, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with FAC or CMF regimens to patients with pT >1 cm or lymph node positive or estrogen receptor negative and radiotherapy to patients after breast conservation surgery, pT size > 5 cm, 4 or more positive nodes and stage IIIB disease. Patients with positive Estrogen receptor or Progesterone receptor were advised Tamoxifene 20 mg per day for 3 years. Descriptive analysis was performed. Independent T test and Chi-square test were used. Overall survival time was computed by Kaplan – Meier method. Results Of 1488 cancer patients, 122 (8.2% had breast cancer. Of 122 patients, 96.7% had invasive breast carcinoma and 3.3% had sarcoma. 94% came from the rural and semi urban areas. Premenopausal women were 27%. The median age was 50 years. Stage I-6.8%, II-45.8%, III-22%, IV-6.8%, Bilateral breast cancer – 2.5%. The mean pT size was 3.9 cm. ER and PR were positive in 31.6% and 28.1% respectively. MRM was done in 93.8%, while 6.3% patients underwent breast conservation surgery. The mean of the lymph nodes dissected were 3. CMF and FAC regimens were used in 48.8% and 51.2% of patients respectively. FAC group were younger than the CMF group (43.6 yr vs. 54 yrs, P = 0.000. Toxicities were more in FAC than CMF group, alopecia (100% vs. 26.2%, grade2 or more emesis (31.8% vs. 9.2%, grade2 or more fatigue (40.9% vs.19%, anemia (43.1% vs. 16.6%. Median

  13. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  14. North-East monsoon rainfall extremes over the southern peninsular India and their association with El Niño

    Singh, Prem; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between extreme north-east (NE) monsoon rainfall (NEMR) over the Indian peninsula region and El Niño forcing. This turns out to be a critical science issue especially after the 2015 Chennai flood. The puzzle being while most El Niños favour good NE monsoon, some don't. In fact some El Niño years witnessed deficit NE monsoon. Therefore two different cases (or classes) of El Niños are considered for analysis based on standardized NEMR index and Niño 3.4 index with case-1 being both Niño-3.4 and NEMR indices greater than +1 and case-2 being Niño-3.4 index greater than +1 and NEMR index less than -1. Composite analysis suggests that SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific are strong in both cases but large differences are noted in the spatial distribution of SST over the Indo-western Pacific region. This questions our understanding of NEMR as mirror image of El Niño conditions in the Pacific. It is noted that the favourable excess NEMR in case-1 is due to anomalous moisture transport from Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean to southern peninsular India. Strong SST gradient between warm western Indian Ocean (and Bay of Bengal) and cool western Pacific induced strong easterly wind anomalies during NE monsoon season favour moisture transport towards the core NE monsoon region. Further anomalous moisture convergence and convection over the core NE monsoon region supported positive rainfall anomalies in case-1. While in case-2, weak SST gradients over the Indo-western Pacific and absence of local low level convergence over NE monsoon region are mainly responsible for deficit rainfall. The ocean dynamics in the Indian Ocean displayed large differences during case-1 and case-2, suggesting the key role of Rossby wave dynamics in the Indian Ocean on NE monsoon extremes. Apart from the large scale circulation differences the number of cyclonic systems land fall for case-1 and case-2 have also contributed for

  15. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae in India.

    Roshmi Rekha Sarma

    Full Text Available The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  16. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  17. Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India

    P S Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66–12.22]. More than half of the study participants (56.3% reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Higher Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India.

    Rakesh, P S; Lalu, Jishnu Satheesh; Leelamoni, K

    2017-01-01

    The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66-12.22]). More than half of the study participants (56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  19. Faecal microbiota composition in vegetarians: comparison with omnivores in a cohort of young women in southern India.

    Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Devi, R Shobana; Mary, R Regina; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2012-09-28

    The effect of vegetarian diets on faecal microbiota has been explored largely through culture-based techniques. The present study compared the faecal microbiota of vegetarian and omnivorous young women in southern India. Faecal samples were obtained from thirty-two lacto-vegetarian and twenty-four omnivorous young adult women from a similar social and economic background. Macronutrient intake and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal microbiota of interest was quantified by real-time PCR with SYBR Green using primers targeting 16S rRNA genes of groups, including: Clostridium coccoides group (Clostridium cluster XIVa), Roseburia spp.-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides--Prevotella group, Bifidobacterium genus, Lactobacillus group, Clostridium leptum group (Clostridium cluster IV), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus productus--C. coccoides, Butyrivibrio, Enterococcus species and Enterobacteriaceae. The groups were matched for age, socio-economic score and anthropometric indices. Intake of energy, complex carbohydrates and Ca were significantly higher in the omnivorous group. The faecal microbiota of the omnivorous group was enriched with Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria, specifically Roseburia-E. rectale. The relative proportions of other microbial communities were similar in both groups. The butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene, associated with microbial butyrate production, was present in greater amounts in the faeces of omnivores, and the levels were highly correlated with Clostridium cluster XIVa and Roseburia-E. rectale abundance and to a lesser extent with Clostridium leptum and F. prausnitzii abundance and with crude fibre intake. Omnivores had an increased relative abundance of Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria and butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene compared with vegetarians, but we were unable to identify the components of the diet responsible for this difference.

  20. Ancient ports of Karnataka and their contacts with Arab countries

    Sundaresh

    , Udyavara and Mangalore played an active role in establishing the trade contacts with outside countries. The sea trade of Karnataka constituted a significant part of her economic activities and secured for her a niche in the oceanic trade of the western...

  1. Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study

    Mahesh, P. A.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Ogorodova, L.; Potts, J.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; Versteeg, S. A.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2016-01-01

    Data are lacking regarding the prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among general population in India. We report the prevalence of sensitization and probable food allergy to 24 common foods among adults from general population in Karnataka, South India. The study was conducted

  2. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  3. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  4. Mineralogical sources of groundwater fluoride in Archaen bedrock/regolith aquifers: Mass balances from southern India and north-central Sri Lanka

    B.M. Hallett

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: An estimate of weathering duration for the in situ regolith in Andhra Pradesh, 250–380 Ka, is close to a previous estimate for southern India. Partial or total destruction of the primary F-bearing bedrock minerals and consistent depletion of F in the remnant minerals result in a much reduced total F content in the regolith. Leaching experiments and field relationships, however, indicate a greater potential for F mobilisation to groundwater from the regolith than the bedrock. Schemes for managed aquifer recharge should beware the risk of mobilising additional F to groundwater.

  5. Small but effective: India's targeted unconditional cash transfers

    Puja Dutta; Stephen Howes; Rinku Murgai

    2010-01-01

    India's approach to social security stresses the provision of subsidized food and public works. Targeted, unconditional cash transfers are little used, and have been little evaluated. An evaluation of cash transfers for the elderly and widows based on national household survey data and surveys on social pension utilization in two of India's states, Karnataka and Rajasthan, reveal that these social pension schemes work reasonably well. Levels of leakage (corruption) are low, funds flow disprop...

  6. Do pregnant women know about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth? – A study of the level of knowledge and its associated factors from a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    R Nithya; Gowri Dorairajan; Palanivel Chinnakali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Awareness about danger signs during pregnancy is essential for a woman to seek prompt care. This can avert long-term morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to find the level of knowledge and its related factors about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in South India. Systematic rando...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in an adult population in southern India.

    Joseph, Sanil; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Chakravarthy, Usha; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Hutchings, Andrew; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2018-05-01

    To investigate prevalence and risk factors for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in southern India. Randomly sampled villages were enumerated to identify people aged ≥40 years. Participants were interviewed for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended a hospital-based ophthalmic examination including visual acuity measurement and objective and subjective measurement of refractive status. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) worse than -0.75 dioptres (D), hyperopia as SE ≥+1D and astigmatism as cylinder <-0.5. The age-standardised prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 35.6% (95% CI: 34.7-36.6), 17.0% (95% CI: 16.3-17.8) and 32.6 (29.3-36.1), respectively. Of those with myopia (n = 1490), 70% had advanced cataract. Of these, 79% had presenting visual acuity (VA) less than 6/18 and after best correction, 44% of these improved to 6/12 or better and 27% remained with VA less than 6/18. In multivariable analyses (excluding patients with advanced cataract), increasing nuclear opacity score, current tobacco use, and increasing height were associated with higher odds of myopia. Higher levels of education were associated with increased odds of myopia in younger people and decreased odds in older people. Increasing time outdoors was associated with myopia only in older people. Increasing age and female gender were associated with hyperopia, and nuclear opacity score, increasing time outdoors, rural residence and current tobacco use with lower odds of hyperopia. After controlling for myopia, factors associated with higher odds of astigmatism were age, rural residence, and increasing nuclear opacity score and increasing education with lower odds. In contrast to high-income settings and in agreement with studies from low-income settings, we found a rise in myopia with increasing age reflecting the high prevalence of advanced cataract. © 2018 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  8. Mixed method approach for determining factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in southern India

    U N Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV is not only beneficial for the people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLHA but for the public and society as well. The study was aimed to identify the factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care. Materials and Methods: A facility-based unmatched case-control (1:1 study along with in-depth qualitative assessment was conducted at an ART Plus center at a district hospital, Udupi, southern India. A sample of 320 HIV patients (160 cases and 160 controls was selected randomly between February and July 2014. Information regarding the patients were collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The qualitative component was assessed by in-depth interviews of 4 health professionals and 12 HIV-positive patients who were late for HIV care. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0. The technique of thematic analysis was adopted for the analysis of qualitative data. Results: HIV-positive individuals who lived with families [odds ratio (OR = 5.11], the patients having non-AIDS comorbidities [OR= 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09-4.40], the patients who perceived fear of losing family [OR = 5.00, 95% CI: 2.17-11.49], the patients who perceived fear that their status will be ruined in the community [OR= 2.00, 95% CI: 1.01-3.97], the patients who perceived fear of side effects of ART medications [OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.65-11.33], the patients who perceived fear of losing confidentiality [OR = 4.94, 95% CI: 2.54-9.59], the patients those who lack information available on government services [OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.127-8.005], and the patients who consumed alcohol [OR= 3.52, 95% CI: 1.83-6.77] were found to be independently associated with the late presentation to HIV/AIDS care after adjusting for all known confounders in a multivariable analysis. The

  9. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  10. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageIlliteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  11. Model galena ages from Karnataka and surrounding ages

    Venkatasubramanian, V S [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Dept. of Physics; Radhakrishna, B P [Geological Society of India, Bangalore; Jayaram, S [Department of Mines and Geology, Bangalore

    1977-02-01

    Lead isotope ratios have been measured for selected samples from the Chitradurga and Kolar schist belts, the high-grade gneisses E of Karnataka (in Tamil Nadu) and Agnigundala of Cuddapah. Most of the isotope data approximately fit a single-stage model and yield model age at 3000 m.y., 2500 m.y., 1400 m.y. and 1100 m.y. The relations with other available age data are discussed.

  12. Processes controlling silicon isotopic fractionation in a forested tropical watershed: Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory (Southern India)

    Riotte, Jean; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Zambardi, Thomas; Audry, Stéphane; Barboni, Doris; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Poitrasson, Franck; Sekhar, Muddu; Braun, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of the silica cycle in the critical zone remains challenging, particularly within the soil, where multiple processes are involved. To improve our understanding of this cycle in the Tropics, and more specifically the role played by vegetation, we combined elemental Si mass balance with the δ30Si signatures of the compartments involved in the water-plant-rock interactions of a tropical forested watershed, Mule Hole (Southern India). To accomplish this, we analysed (1) the δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths from tree leaves and grass, as well as soil amorphous silica (ASi); (2) the Si isotope fractionation induced by phytolith dissolution; (3) the silicon mass balance inferred from isotopes at the soil-plant scale; and (4) the consistency between water sources and the δ30Si signatures in the ephemeral stream. The δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths and soil ASi vary within a narrow range of 1.10-1.40‰ for all samples, but two deep vertisol samples which likely trapped phytoliths from different vegetation growing under more humid conditions, as indicated by pollen analysis. A homogeneous signature of litter is a minimum condition for using δ30Si as a proxy for the litter/phytolith source of Si. However, litter-ash dissolution experiments demonstrate that the incipient dissolution of phytoliths fractionates Si isotopes, with the preferential dissolution of 28Si over 30Si yielding δ30Si values as low as -1.41‰. Values close to the whole-sample signatures, i.e., above 1‰, were recovered in the solution after a few hours of water-ash interaction. At the soil-plant scale, the average δ30Si value of soil-infiltrating solutions is slightly lighter than the average phytolith signature, which suggests phytoliths as the source of soil dissolved Si. The isotopic budget of dissolved Si within the soil layer, which was obtained based on previous elemental fluxes, is imbalanced. Equilibrating the isotopic budget would imply

  13. Radiocarbon dates of sediment cores from inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, southwest coast of India

    Nambiar, A.R.; Rajagopalan, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of carbonized wood samples from three sediment cores from the inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, in the southwestern coast of India, indicates ages in the bracket 8400-9400 YBP. These radiometric ages correlate well with the ages of carbonized wood from inner continental shelf off Ponnani, Kerala and Karwar, Karnataka. The occurrence of carbonized wood in widely spread offshore areas probably represents a regional transgressive event in the west coast which resulted in submergence and destruction of coastal mangroves. The rate of sedimentation in the study area varies between 0.12 and 0.37 mm/yr, much lower than those reported from shelf areas north of Mangalore. The slow accumulation of sediments in the southern parts of the western continental shelf of India, as exemplified from the present study, may be due to very poor discharge and low bed load sediments of the west-flowing small rivers of this part of the peninsula and low concentration of suspended particulate matter in them. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  14. A tomographic image of upper crustal structure using P and S wave seismic refraction data in the southern granulite terrain (SGT), India

    Rajendra Prasad, B.; Behera, Laxmidhar; Rao, P. Koteswara

    2006-07-01

    We present a 2-D tomographic P and S wave velocity (Vp and Vs) image with Vp/Vs ratios along N-S trending 220 km long deep seismic profile acquired in 2005, which traverses across major shear and tectonically disturbed zones in southern granulite terrain (SGT), India. The 2-D velocity model constrained down to maximum 8 km depth shows velocity anomalies (>0.2 km/s) beneath major shear zones with good spatial resolution (>0.05 km/s). The presence of high Vp (6.3-6.5 km/s), Vs (3.5-3.8 km/s), Vp/Vs (>1.75) and Poisson's ratio (0.25-0.29) indicate significant compositional changes of rocks at shallow depths (0.5 to 8 km) reveal rapid crustal exhumation of mid to lower crustal rocks. This crustal exhumation could be responsible due to Pan-African tectonothermal activity during Neoproterozoic period.

  15. Interaction with the MAPT H1H1 Genotype Increases Dementia Risk in APOE ε4 Carriers in a Population of Southern India.

    Jairani, P S; Aswathy, P M; Gopala, Srinivas; Verghese, Joe; Mathuranath, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study delineates the role of the interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and MAPT alleles in contributing to disease risks of dementia in a southern Indian population. A sample of 419 patients comprising Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 156), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 87), frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 127), vascular dementia (VD; n = 37), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 12) was analysed in comparison with a control group (n = 138). APOE genotyping and MAPT haplotyping were performed on all study subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that variability on the APOE locus influenced the relative risk of dementia in the study population. The APOE ε4 allele increased the disease risk most significantly for AD (OR = 3.468, p India when compared to other dementia groups, while the transcriptional differences between MAPT haplotypes have a limited role in Indian dementia patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Oziotelphusa Müller, 1887 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Tamil Nadu, southern India.

    Raj, Smrithy; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju; Ng, Peter K L

    2017-12-10

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Oziotelphusa Müller, 1887, is described from stationary or slow-flowing bodies of water in Keeriparai near Nagercoil, in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. Oziotelphusa ravi, new species, is distinguished from its congeners by several distinct characters: the median tooth of the posterior margin of epistome forms a distinct bilobed tip in frontal view, the male pleonal somite 6 is narrowly trapezoidal and slightly wider than long with the lateral margins concave, the terminal segment of the male first gonopod is distinctly bent laterally (along the longitudinal axis) at an angle of about 45°, and the proximal part of the outer margin of the subterminal segment of the male first gonopod has a prominent deep concavity.

  17. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  18. The challenge of biomass production. Analysis of Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds, Bellary District, India

    Avornyo, F.; Ballal, F.; Husseini, R.; Mysore, A.; Nabi, S.A.; Guevara, A.L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of a field study conducted in the Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds in the Karnataka state of India, with the objective of identifying the opportunities for and constraints in efforts for enhancing biomass production. The Agricultural Research for Development (ARD) procedure which is a process of integrating different perspectives of stakeholders was used for planning strategies to combat low biomass problems

  19. Oral Health Status and Normative Needs of College Students in Mangalore, Karnataka

    Lalithambigai G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-oriented oral health promotion programmes can be efficiently targeted by assessing the oral health status comprehensively. Aim: To investigate oral health status and normative needs of college students in Mangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was done among 720, 18–20-year-old students attending degree colleges in Mangalore using multi-stage random sampling. Oral health status was recorded as per World Health Organization oral health assessment form. The data were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11.5 version software. Results: Overall dental caries prevalence accounted to 68.1%, with a mean Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (DMFT of 1.94 [males had higher DMFT score (2.06 than females (1.82], and majority of the students required one surface restoration. Periodontal status of the students as measured by Community Periodontal Index (CPI showed that majority of the study participants (34.9% had calculus necessitating the need for oral prophylaxis. Conclusion: Oral health status of the age groups not traditionally studied gives the complete picture of the oral disease burden, indicating the need of oral heath preventive measures among college students in India.

  20. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka.

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18-30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  1. An NGO-Implemented Community-Clinic Health Worker Approach to Providing Long-Term Care for Hypertension in a Remote Region of Southern India.

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Ravi, Prema S; Wu, Yichen Ethel; Shanabogue, Sharan; Ashok, Sangeetha; Agnew, Kaylan; Fang, Margaret C; Khanna, Raman A; Dandu, Madhavi; Harrison, James D

    2017-12-28

    Poor blood pressure control results in tremendous morbidity and mortality in India where the leading cause of death among adults is from coronary heart disease. Despite having little formal education, community health workers (CHWs) are integral to successful public health interventions in India and other low- and middle-income countries that have a shortage of trained health professionals. Training CHWs to screen for and manage chronic hypertension, with support from trained clinicians, offers an excellent opportunity for effecting systemwide change in hypertension-related burden of disease. In this article, we describe the development of a program that trained CHWs between 2014 and 2015 in the tribal region of the Sittilingi Valley in southern India, to identify hypertensive patients in the community, refer them for diagnosis and initial management in a physician-staffed clinic, and provide them with sustained lifestyle interventions and medications over multiple visits. We found that after 2 years, the CHWs had screened 7,176 people over age 18 for hypertension, 1,184 (16.5%) of whom were screened as hypertensive. Of the 1,184 patients screened as hypertensive, 898 (75.8%) had achieved blood pressure control, defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 140 and a diastolic blood pressure less than 90 sustained over 3 consecutive visits. While all of the 24 trained CHWs reported confidence in checking blood pressure with a manual blood pressure cuff, 4 of the 24 CHWs reported occasional difficulty documenting blood pressure values because they were unable to write numbers properly. They compensated by asking other CHWs or members of their community to help with documentation. Our experience and findings suggest that a CHW blood pressure screening system linked to a central clinic can be a promising avenue for improving hypertension control rates in low- and middle-income countries. © Sankaran et al.

  2. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  3. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  4. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  5. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  6. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  7. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index.

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats' total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation.

  8. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  9. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  10. Instilling fear makes good business sense: unwarranted hysterectomies in Karnataka.

    Xavier, Teena; Vasan, Akhila; S, Vijayakumar

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses data from two fact-finding exercises in two districts of Karnataka to trace how government and private doctors alike pushed women to undergo hysterectomies. The doctors provided grossly unscientific information to poor Dalit women to instil a fear of "cancer" in their minds to wilfully mislead them to undergo hysterectomies, following which many suffered complications and died. The paper examines a review, made by two separate panels of experts, of women's medical records from private hospitals to illustrate that a large proportion of the hysterectomies performed were medically unwarranted; that private doctors were using highly suspect diagnostic criteria, based on a single ultrasound scan, to perform the hysterectomies and had not sent even a single sample for histopathology; and that the medical records were incomplete, erroneous and, in several instances, manipulated. The paper describes how a combination of patriarchal bias, professional unscrupulousness and pro-private healthcare policies posed a serious threat to the survival and well-being of women in Karnataka.

  11. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  12. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  13. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision?

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin, which previously yielded data suggesting a low paleolatitude ( 10°N). New zircon U-Pb dates indicate an age of 52 Ma. Negative fold tests, however, demonstrate that the isolated characteristic remanent magnetizations, with notably varying inclinations, are not primary. Rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, and petrographic observations are consistent with variable degrees of posttilting remagnetization due to low-temperature alteration of primary magmatic titanomagnetite and the formation of secondary pigmentary hematite that unblock simultaneously. Previously reported paleomagnetic data from the Nanmulin Basin implying low paleolatitude should thus not be used to estimate the time and latitude of the India-Asia collision. We show that the paleomagnetic inclinations vary linearly with the contribution of secondary hematite to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. We tentatively propose a new method to recover a primary remanence with inclination of 38.1° (35.7°, 40.5°) (95% significance) and a secondary remanence with inclination of 42.9° (41.5°,44.4°) (95% significance). The paleolatitude defined by the modeled primary remanence—21°N (19.8°N, 23.1°N)—is consistent with the regional compilation of published results from pristine volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group corrected for inclination shallowing. The start of the Tibetan Himalaya-Asia collision was situated at 20°N and took place by 50 Ma.

  14. Mortality records (1979–2011 shed light on threats to Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae in Nilgiris, southern India

    Priya Davidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We compiled records of 291 elephant deaths over a 33-year period (1979–2011 from the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and the reserved forests of Nilgiri North and South divisions of southern India from the databases of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, the Wildlife Protection Society of India and the Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association.  We tested the null hypothesis that the causes of elephant deaths would not differ with time, by gender and with level of protection.  We classified records by gender and age: adults (≥15 years, sub adults (5–15 years, juveniles (>1–<5 and calves (≤ 1. We organised records over 3-decade periods. The database consisted of 209 adults (≥15 years, 27 sub adults (5–15 years, 33 juveniles (>1–<5 and 22 calves (≤ 1. MTR had the maximum records (148 followed by NND (138 and NSD (4.  The median age of death was 20 years for adult males and 30 years for adult females.  Mean survival time for adult males was 22.45 years, and 31.84 for females.  Poaching was responsible for the majority of deaths (40%, particularly of male elephants (82%, and unknown causes (31% for the majority of female deaths (66%.  Human-caused deaths, which included poaching and some accidents, averaged 72% between 1979 and 2000 and decreased to 22% during 2001–2011. Deaths due to unknown causes and diseases increased from 28% in 1979-1989 to 69% in 2001–2011.  Relative to estimated population size, deaths attributed to poaching was higher in NND (47% than in MTR (34%.  The causes of death differed by region. In conclusion, the elephant population in the Nilgiris is at risk and needs stringent protection; the mortality database should be systematised; forensic capabilities upgraded, and detection of carcasses improved.  

  15. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives

    Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the

  16. Association between treatment for gonorrhoea and chlamydia and lower condom use in a cross-sectional study of female sex workers in southern India.

    Legendre-Dugal, Marianne; Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Lowndes, Catherine M; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-18

    To assess whether having received grey packets containing treatment for gonorrhoea and chlamydia was associated with condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in 5 districts of southern India covered by the Avahan programme where both periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) and syndromic management were used to control these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among FSWs. Cross-sectional study of FSWs recruited in the field in 5 districts of southern India (Bangalore, Belgaum, Bellary, Guntur and Mumbai) in 2006-2007. 1378 self-identified FSWs out of 1442 were approached to participate in the study (participation rate: 95.6%). The only exclusion criterion was to be aged <18 years. Consistent condom use (CCU) with new or occasional clients, and with the most recent repeat client as assessed using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews. Using the Poisson regression to model the association between the number of grey packets received in the past 3-12 months and reported CCU, adjusting for factors associated with condom use and other potential confounders in our data, CCU was lowest among FSWs who had received ≥3 grey packets in the past 3-12 months with their new or occasional clients (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR): 0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.84, p<0.001) and with the most recent repeat client (APR 0.63, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.78, p<0.001). Tests for trends showed that CCU with both types of clients decreased with the number of grey packets received (p<0.001). Since we could not distinguish grey packets used for PPT from those given for syndromic management, these results could be either due to a perception of protection conferred by PPT or by the fact that inconsistent condom users are more at risk for STIs. Further research on the potential disinhibiting effect of PPT is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Constraining the India-Asia collision by retrieving the paleolatitude from partially remagnetized Paleogene volcanics in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Lippert, Peter; Dekkers, Mark; Guo, Zhaojie; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2014-05-01

    Determining paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) using paleomagnetic inclinations is key to constraining the paleogeography and timing of the collision between India and Asia. However, paleolatitude estimates vary widely from 5°N to 30°N due to unrecognized rock magnetic biases such as inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks or poor averaging of secular variation in volcanic rocks. Here, we investigated Paleogene volcanics of the Linzizong Group from southern Tibet in the Nanmulin Basin that had previously yielded low paleomagnetic inclinations ca. 10°N. Using proper paleomagnetic sampling and measurement protocols we observe similar shallow inclinations. However, sampled sections with different bedding attitudes yield a negative fold test indicating that the isolated remanent magnetizations do not have a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analysis, end-member modeling, and petrographic investigation reveal that most of the section has been variably remagnetized due to low-temperature alteration of magmatic titanomagnetite and formation of secondary hematite, which occurred after tilting of the strata. We show that the observed paleomagnetic inclinations vary according to a linear trend with the degree of remagnetization. Accordingly, we can estimate that the primary pre-tilting thermoremanent magnetization has an inclination of 38.1° ([35.7°, 40.5°] within 95% confidence limit), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 21.4° ([19.8°, 23.1°] within 95% confidence limit). This is consistent with results from pristine volcanic units and inclination-shallowing corrected sediments of the upper Linzizong Group ~200 km to the east [Dupont-Nivet et al., Geophysical Journal International, 182, 1189-1198; Huang et al., Geophysical Journal International, 194, 1390-1411]. Our results demonstrate that previously reported low paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane can be an artifact of unrecognized remagnetization. Furthermore, we show that original

  18. Women living with AIDS in rural Southern India: Perspectives on mental health and lay health care worker support

    Srivastava, Neha; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Carpenter, Catherine; Satyanarayana, Veena; Ramakrishna, Padma; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this study, focus groups were conducted with 16 rural Women Living with AIDS (WLA) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had previously participated in a clinical trial wherein 68 WLA were randomized into either an Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) – Life (AL) intervention or a Usual Care program. Findings are discussed in terms of: a) mental health issues, b) perceived stressors, c) individual resources for coping with mental health issues, and d) role of Asha support in coping with mental health issues. These findings highlight the salience of mental health issues in the lives of WLA and the role played by Asha in addressing some of these issues. The discussion section makes a case for increased emphasis on mental health care in future community-based interventions for this population. PMID:29056879

  19. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X’s contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  20. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X's contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  1. Pornography, Sexual Enhancement Products, and Sexual Risk of Female Sex Workers and their Clients in Southern India.

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.

  2. Prograde and retrograde growth of monazite in migmatites: An example from the Nagercoil Block, southern India

    Tim E. Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a migmatised metapelite raft enclosed within charnockite provide quantitative constraints on the pressure–temperature–time (P–T–t evolution of the Nagercoil Block at the southernmost tip of peninsular India. An inferred peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet, K-feldspar, sillimanite, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, spinel and melt is consistent with peak metamorphic pressures of 6–8 kbar and temperatures in excess of 900 °C. Subsequent growth of cordierite and biotite record high-temperature retrograde decompression to around 5 kbar and 800 °C. SHRIMP U–Pb dating of magmatic zircon cores suggests that the sedimentary protoliths were in part derived from felsic igneous rocks with Palaeoproterozoic crystallisation ages. New growth of metamorphic zircon on the rims of detrital grains constrains the onset of melt crystallisation, and the minimum age of the metamorphic peak, to around 560 Ma. The data suggest two stages of monazite growth. The first generation of REE-enriched monazite grew during partial melting along the prograde path at around 570 Ma via the incongruent breakdown of apatite. Relatively REE-depleted rims, which have a pronounced negative europium anomaly, grew during melt crystallisation along the retrograde path at around 535 Ma. Our data show the rocks remained at suprasolidus temperatures for at least 35 million years and probably much longer, supporting a long-lived high-grade metamorphic history. The metamorphic conditions, timing and duration of the implied clockwise P–T–t path are similar to that previously established for other regions in peninsular India during the Ediacaran to Cambrian assembly of that part of the Gondwanan supercontinent.

  3. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae associated with semi-urban fragmented agricultural land in the Malabar coast in southern India

    K.S. Venugopal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the diversity and community structure of dung beetles associated with semiurban agricultural land in the Malabar coast of southern India revealed that urbanization has led to decreased diversity compared to regional forests, and has affected the community status of dung beetles. However, contrary to expectations, species richness was observed to be equivalent to rural agricultural fields in the region. Low abundance of prominent agricultural habitat species indicates that the study area has changed as a result of habitat modification/urbanization, and the prevailing conditions are not ideal for the establishment of the most common species in agriculture belts. Prominence of two less common species, Tiniocellus spinipes and Caccobius vulcanus, indicates these generalist urban adaptable (synanthropic species have become increasingly widespread and locally abundant. The low abundance of tunnelers and rollers is attributed to fragmentation of the urban agricultural belt, low mammalian diversity and dung availability, and the hard nature of the laterite soil in the Malabar coast region.

  4. Root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-dravidian population based in Southern India: An In vitro study

    J V Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci. The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. Results: The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%, rectangular (8.5%, C-shaped (3.0%, and two orifice pattern (0.6%. About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%, followed by type II (35%. Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5% and IV (12.4%. The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Conclusion: Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  5. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  6. Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular First Molars of an Indo-Dravidian Population Based in Southern India: An In vitro Study.

    Karunakaran, J V; Samuel, Leo Sujith; Rishal, Yousef; Joseph, M Derick; Suresh, K Rahul; Varghese, Sam T

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci). The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%), rectangular (8.5%), C-shaped (3.0%), and two orifice pattern (0.6%). About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%), followed by type II (35%). Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5%) and IV (12.4%). The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  7. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  8. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of neoarchaean granitoids from Karimnagar, Eastern Dharwar craton, Southern India: LA-ICPMS results

    Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Sreenivas, B.; Khadke, Namrata; Vijaya Gopal, B.; Bhaskar Rao, Y.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Archaean Dharwar and Bastar cratons of Peninsular India are separated by the NE-SW trending Godavari Graben. This zone is involved in recurrent rifting. It is generally believed that earlier phase of rifting dates back to Mesoproterozoic and the younger phase is related to the deposition of Permo-carboniferous coal-bearing sediments. A belt of high-grade rocks (∼ 150 x 45 km) - the Karimnagar granulite terrane (KGT) along the southern flank of the graben. The KGT comprises high-grade lithologies such as orthopyroxene-bearing quarto-feldspathic gneiss, amphibolite-granulite facies supracrustal belts that include metamorphosed quartz-arenites, pelites, carbonates, iron formation and mafic rocks as well as several zones of migmatite and younger granitoid intrusives. The study presented new LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb age data for five granitoid (charnockite and granite) samples (KRN-90-24, KRN-90-30, KRN-13-02, KRN-13-03 and KRN-13-05; a closer constraint of the age crystallization of protoliths and high-grade metamorphism of felsic granulites and orthogneisses from the KGT. Hf isotopic compositions were also obtained for selected zircons from two samples (KRN-90-24 and KRN-90-30) using New Wave UP-213 Laser Ablation system coupled to Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS to constraint the nature of the felsic protoliths of the charnockite and granite gneisses in the KGT

  9. Inclination shallowing in Eocene Linzizong sedimentary rocks from Southern Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Hallot, Erwan

    2013-09-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic reconstructions, particularly those used in climate models and to date collisional events in convergent orogenic systems, such as those surrounding the Neotethys. Here we report palaeomagnetic inclinations from the sedimentary Eocene upper Linzizong Group of Southern Tibet that are ˜20° lower than conformable underlying volcanic units. At face value, the palaeomagnetic results from these sedimentary rocks suggest the southern margin of Asia was located ˜10°N, which is inconsistent with recent reviews of the palaeolatitude of Southern Tibet. We apply two different correction methods to estimate the magnitude of inclination shallowing independently from the volcanics. The mean inclination is corrected from 20.5° to 40.0° within 95 per cent confidence limits between 33.1° and 49.5° by the elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method; an anisotropy-based inclination correction method steepens the mean inclination to 41.3 ± 3.3° after a curve fitting- determined particle anisotropy of 1.39 is applied. These corrected inclinations are statistically indistinguishable from the well-determined 40.3 ± 4.5º mean inclination of the underlying volcanic rocks that provides an independent check on the validity of these correction methods. Our results show that inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks can be corrected. Careful inspection of stratigraphic variations of rock magnetic properties and remanence anisotropy suggests shallowing was caused mainly by a combination of syn- and post-depositional processes such as particle imbrication and sedimentary compaction that vary in importance throughout the section. Palaeolatitudes calculated from palaeomagnetic directions from Eocene sedimentary

  10. Genetic affinities of the Siddis of South India: an emigrant population of East Africa.

    Gauniyal, Mansi; Chahal, S M S; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2008-06-01

    Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the African Siddis to Goa, India, as slaves about 500 years ago. Subsequently, the Siddis moved into the interior regions of the state of Karnataka, India, and have remained there ever since. Over time the Siddis have experienced considerable cultural changes because of their proximity to neighboring population groups. To understand the biological consequences of these changes, we studied the Siddis to determine the extent of genetic variation and the contributions from the African, European, and Indian ancestral populations. In the present study we typed the Siddis for 20 polymorphic serological, red cell, and Alu insertion-deletion loci. The overall pattern of phenotype (and genotype) distribution is in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Considering the ethnohistorical records and the availability of secondary-source genetic data, we used two data sets in the analysis: one comprising eight serological and red cell enzyme markers with eight population groups and another comprising six Alu insertion-deletion markers with seven tribal groups of South India. The dendrograms generated from these two data sets on the basis of genetic distance analysis between the selected populations of African, European, and Indian descent reveals that the Siddis are closer to the Africans than they are to the South Indian populations. Genetic admixture analysis using a dihybrid model (19 loci) and a trihybrid model (10 loci and 8 loci) shows that the predominant influence comes from the Africans, a lesser contribution from the South Indians, and a slight contribution from the Portuguese. Thus the original composition of the African genes among the Siddis has been diluted to some extent by the contribution from southern Indian population groups. There is no nonrandom association of alleles among a set of 10 genetic marker systems considered in the present study. The demonstration of genetic homogeneity of the Siddis

  11. Implications of private sector participation in power generation-a case study from India

    Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs

  12. Implications of private sector participation in power generation - a case study from India

    Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs. (author)

  13. Pattern of fractures and dislocations in a tertiary care hospital, north east Karnataka

    Bhaskara K, Padmanabha T S, Nandini T, Sindhu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma including accidents are today’s world concern forming a major non-communicable epidemic accounting for mortality and morbidity. The aim of the study was to determine and account the types of fractures and dislocations presented to Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences (BRIMS, Bidar, Karnataka, India. Methods and Material: This study is of retrospective in nature with a review of hospital inpatient case sheets of orthopaedic department in our hospital presented between July 2011 to Dec 2011. The data gathered was analysed by percentages. Results: Out of 132 cases analysed males (82.56%, outnumbered female (17.42%; 67.42 % of cases were between 18-45 years age group; femur (22.17 % was the most commonly involved bone followed by tibia (13.21%, foot (10.85%; tibia & fibular (8.96% involvement. Less common were spine (0.47%, vertebra (0.94% and scapula (0.94%. Fracture-dislocation was more common in lower limb (59.91% – ankle joint was most common-50% compared to upper limb (30.66%- shoulder joint: 12.5%. Conclusions: Among of 132 cases admitted 212 fractures & dislocation was noted. Male (82.56% was more common than females (17.42%. Age group most commonly involved was between 18-45 years (67.42%. Fracture was more common in femur (22.17% & dislocation was common in hip (42.86% because of high velocity injury. Approach towards the prevention of accidents by effective safety education, good roads and early intervention which is the need of the hour. Effective drugs should be made available in the casuality so that crush injuries are managed without complications like septicemia and tetanus.

  14. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  15. Three new species of tube-dwelling spider genus Ariadna Audouin, 1826 (Araneae: Segestriidae) from India.

    Siliwal, Manju; Yadav, Archana; Kumar, Dolly

    2017-12-05

    The tube-dwelling spider family Segestriidae is represented in India by only two species, Ariadna nebulosa Simon, 1906 and Segestria inda Simon, 1906. Both species are known only from their type localities. For about 96 years, there has been no report of these spiders from the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe three new species based on female specimens from India. Ariadna vansda sp. nov. from Gujarat; A. molur sp. nov., and A. chhotae sp. nov. from Karnataka.

  16. Assessing intake of spices by pattern of spice use, frequency of consumption and portion size of spices consumed from routinely prepared dishes in southern India.

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bhat, Ramesh V

    2015-01-11

    Measurement of dietary intake of spices is gaining significance because of recognition of their health promoting benefits as well as its use for risk assessment of contaminant exposures. Estimating intake of spices at the individual level, presents several challenges since various spices are used as an integrated part of a prepared food and consumed in amounts much smaller than other dietary components. The objective of the present study is to assess intake of spices at the household and individual level on the basis of pattern of spice use and portion size of spice consumed from routinely prepared dishes in Hyderabad city in Southern India. The study was conducted in 100 households in urban areas of Hyderabad city in India with the help of a spice intake questionnaire that was prepared to collect information on the pattern of spice use, frequency, and quantity of spice consumption of 17 spices routinely used in Indian cuisine. The quantity of spice intake was assessed by measuring portion size of spice consumed from the quantity of i) spices added in routinely prepared dishes and ii) the prepared dish consumed by an individual. Based on the type of dish prepared and frequency of preparing the dishes, 11 out of 17 spices were found to be consumed by more than 50% of the households. Maximum number of spices was consumed at weekly frequencies. Red chillies and turmeric were the most frequently consumed spices by 100% of the households. The mean total intake of spices was observed to be higher through dishes consumed daily (10.4 g/portion) than from those consumed at weekly or monthly frequencies. Highest portion size intake was observed for chillies (mean 3.0 g; range 0.05-20.2 g) and lowest for nutmeg (mean 0.14 g; range 0.02-0.64 g) and mace (mean 0.21 g; range: 0.02-0.6 g). The study suggested that assessment of intake of spices varies with frequency of use of spices and type of dish consumed. Portion size estimations of spices consumed and the frequency of

  17. New paleomagnetic results on ˜ ˜2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for Paleoproterozoic continental reconstruction

    Babu, N. Ramesh; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Shankar, Ravi; Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.

    2018-02-01

    Here we report new paleomagnetic results and precise paleopole position of the extensional study on ˜ 2367 Ma mafic giant radiating dyke swarm in the Dharwar craton, southern India. We have sampled 29 sites on 12 dykes from NE-SW Karimnagar-Hyderabad dykes and Dhone-Gooty sector dykes, eastern Dharwar craton to provide unambiguous paleomagnetism evidence on the spectacular radiating dyke swarm and thereby strengthening the presence of single magmatic event at ˜ 2367 Ma. A total of 158 samples were subjected to detailed alternating field and thermal demagnetization techniques and the results are presented here along with previously reported data on the same dyke swarm. The remanent magnetic directions are showing two components, viz., seven sites representing four dykes show component (A) with mean declination of 94{{}°} and mean inclination of - 70{{}°} (k=87, α_{95}=10{{}°}) and corresponding paleopole at 16{{}°}N, 41{{}°}E (dp=15{{}°} and dm=17{{}°}) and 22 sites representing 8 dykes yielded a component (B) with mean declination of 41{{}°} and mean inclination of - 21{{}°} (k=41, α_{95}=9{{}°}) with a paleopole at 41{{}°}N, 200{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°} and dm=10{{}°}). Component (A) results are similar to the previously reported directions from the ˜ 2367 Ma dyke swarm, which have been confirmed fairly reliably to be of primary origin. The component (B) directions appear to be strongly overprinted by the 2080 Ma event. The grand mean for the primary component (A) combined with earlier reported studies gives mean declination of 97{{}°} and mean inclination of - 79{{}°} (k=55, α_{95}=3{{}°}) with a paleopole at 15{{}°}N, 57{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°}, dm=6{{}°}). Paleogeographical position for the Dharwar craton at ˜ 2367 Ma suggests that there may be a chance to possible spatial link between Dharwar dykes of Dharwar craton (India), Widgemooltha and Erayinia dykes of Yilgarn craton (Australia), Sebanga Poort Dykes of Zimbabwe craton (Africa) and Karelian

  18. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2017-03-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  19. Regional gravity and magnetic surveys along southern margin of Indravati basin, Central India - a guide to unconformity related uranium mineralisation

    Patra, I.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Sreenivas, R.; Chari, M.N.; Dash, J.K.; Roy, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical methods play vital role at various stages in mineral exploration programme particularly in case of buried deposits. The unconformity related uranium deposits owing to their concealed nature are explored by geophysical methods as an indirect tool. Regional ground gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted to decipher the basin configuration, presence of fault/ fractures and basic activity. These structural features may form favorable criteria for mineralisation. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data along the southern margin of Mesoproterozoic Indravati basin has been correlated with ground follow up geological investigation. There exists a good correlation between interpreted faults, fracture zones and mafic activity from the magnetic and gravity surveys with available borehole data in the area. Further, 2D models generated from magnetic data have paved the way for planning boreholes and thereby reorienting the sub-surface exploration programme. Evidence of alteration and fracturing intercepted from the borehole correlates well with the low gravity and magnetic. Hence, gravity and magnetic surveys can be effectively utilized in delineating basement configuration and to estimate sediment thickness besides deciphering post sedimentary fault/fractures which are favorable factors for unconformity related uranium mineralisation. (author)

  20. Female autonomy as a contributing factor to women's HIV-related knowledge and behaviour in three culturally contrasting States in India.

    Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L

    2007-07-01

    Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.

  1. Zircon and ilmenite from the beach placers of southern coast of Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

    Angusamy, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Loveson, V.J.

    2004-01-01

    Zircons were studied from the two different zones of enrichment of placer deposits namely, Kanyakumari-Kuttankuli (KK) and Kallar-Vaippar (VP) along the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. The average heavy mineral contents were 67 wt % for KK and 64 wt % in VP region. The heavy mineral assemblage of the two zones were akin to each other. However, monazite was present in the KK region. In KK, zircons were rounded (44.5 - 63.2 %), overgrown (4.1-16 %), and euhedral (9-4.9 %) while in VP, they are largely broken (47.8-59.6 %), rounded (22.2-38.9 %), and euhedral (7.3-8.1 %). Mean length and breadth of zircons of KK and VP ranged from 0.22-0.26 mm and 0.07-0.13 mm and, 0.06 - 0.16 mm and 0.07-0.11 mm, respectively. Zircons of VP are more fine-grained and well-rounded than KK. The northerly currents, in the Gulf of Mannar, must have transported and deposited the heavy minerals due to the inflection of coastline, and downwarped basinal structure. REE pattern of zircons exhibit Eu and Ce anomalies which could be explained only in terms of crystallochemical factors and the bulk compositional differences of the melt. In the study area, abundance of rounded zircons, length/breadth (L/B) ratios, reduced major axis (RMA) angles, indicated that the source rock for zircons must have been primarily of charnockites. The distribution, composition and REE content of zircons compare well with that of other countries where it is currently under exploitation. (author)

  2. Outcome of Prevention of Parent-to-Child Transmission of HIV in an Urban Population in Southern India.

    Seenivasan, Subramani; Vaitheeswaran, Natarajan; Seetha, Viswanathan; Anbalagan, Selvaraj; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the outcomes of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV program in an urban Southern Indian setting. Observational study. Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) Centers/ Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers (ICTC) at four government Obstetrics Institutes in an urban area. 100 HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants delivered in the study centers. Triple drug ART to HIV-positive pregnant women was started for maternal indications only. Rest of the pregnant women were given single dose Nevirapine (200 mg) at the onset of labor. All infants were given single dose Nevirapine (2 mg/kg) prophylaxis, according to National AIDS Control Organization guidelines. Mothers were counseled regarding breastfeeding and artificial feeding, and the choice was left to them. Whole blood HIV 1 DNA PCR was done for all infants at 6 weeks of life. A second PCR was done at 6 months or 6 weeks after stopping breastfeeds. PCR-positive infants were started on ART, and were followed-up till18 months of life. Four infants were PCR-positive for HIV. All of them were breastfed. They were born to mothers of HIV stage 1 or 2 who were not on ART as CD4 counts were >350 cells/mm3. Among the mothers in Stage 3 or 4 or CD4 count ART, none of the infants was HIV-positive. The cumulative HIV-free survival at 18 months was 94%. Parent-to-child transmission rate in HIV was low with the currently used strategies. Triple drug ART to mother reduces mother-to-child transmission despite advanced maternal stage or low CD4 counts.

  3. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  4. LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGES IN SEMI-ARID MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPE IN SOUTHERN INDIA: A GEOINFORMATICS BASED MARKOV CHAIN APPROACH

    S. A. Rahaman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays land use/ land cover in mountain landscape is in critical condition; it leads to high risky and uncertain environments. These areas are facing multiple stresses including degradation of land resources; vagaries of climate and depletion of water resources continuously affect land use practices and livelihoods. To understand the Land use/Land cover (Lu/Lc changes in a semi-arid mountain landscape, Kallar watershed of Bhavani basin, in southern India has been chosen. Most of the hilly part in the study area covers with forest, plantation, orchards and vegetables and which are highly affected by severe soil erosion, landslide, frequent rainfall failures and associated drought. The foothill regions are mainly utilized for agriculture practices; due to water scarcity and meagre income, the productive agriculture lands are converted into settlement plots and wasteland. Hence, land use/land cover change deduction; a stochastic processed based method is indispensable for future prediction. For identification of land use/land cover, and vegetation changes, Landsat TM, ETM (1995, 2005 and IRS P6- LISS IV (2015 images were used. Through CAMarkov chain analysis, Lu/Lc changes in past three decades (1995, 2005, and 2015 were identified and projected for (2020 and 2025; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were used to find the vegetation changes. The result shows that, maximum changes occur in the plantation and slight changes found in forest cover in the hilly terrain. In foothill areas, agriculture lands were decreased while wastelands and settlement plots were increased. The outcome of the results helps to farmer and policy makers to draw optimal lands use planning and better management strategies for sustainable development of natural resources.

  5. Assessment of diversity among populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India, based on chemical profiling, horticultural traits and RAPD analysis.

    Nair, Vadakkemuriyil Divya; Raj, Rajan Pillai Dinesh; Panneerselvam, Rajaram; Gopi, Ragupathi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic, morphological and chemical variations of ten natural populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India were assessed using RAPD markers reserpine content and morphological traits. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Populations were collected from different geographical regions. Data obtained through three different methods were compared and the correlation among them was estimated. Statistical analysis showed significant differences for all horticultural characteristics among the accessions suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. Variation in the content of Reserpine ranges from 0.192 g/100 g (population from Tusharagiri) to 1.312 g/100 g (population from Aryankavu). A high diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them based on RAPDs were revealed caused both by habitat fragmentation of the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on reserpine content yielded higher separation among populations indicated specific adaptation of populations into clusters each of them including populations closed to their geographical origin. Genetic, chemical and morphological data were correlated based on Mantel test. Given the high differentiation among populations conservation strategies should take into account genetic diversity and chemical variation levels in relation to bioclimatic and geographic location of populations. Our results also indicate that RAPD approach along with horticultural analysis seemed to be best suited for assessing with high accuracy the genetic relationships among distinct R. serpentina accessions. © 2013.

  6. An assessment of human-elephant conflict and associated ecological and demographic factors in Nilambur, Western Ghats of Kerala, southern India

    C. K. Rohini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elephant conservation carries cost in the form of human-elephant conflict and affects the wellbeing of people living near ecologically important areas.  Conflicts impart serious challenges towards the survival of Asian Elephants, which are categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Issues of wildlife conservation are least addressed in areas with less restricted categories of protection.  Hence an attempt was made to evaluate the intensity of elephant conflict and factors associated with its occurrence in villages with forest fringes of North and South Forest Divisions of Nilambur, Kerala, southern India.  It was hypothesized that variables such as number of houses, area of village, livestock population, forest frontage, and presence of water source along the forest boundary abutting the village to be the underlying correlates of conflict.  Field studies were conducted fortnightly from June 2014 to May 2015, by visiting farms and households of 17 selected forest fringe villages.  Observational methods, questionnaire surveys and secondary data collection were employed for this purpose.  A total of 277 incidents of crop depredation, 12 incidents of property damage, three human injuries, and one human death due to conflict were recorded during this period.  Crop raiding was highest during post monsoon season and it was low during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.  Multiple linear regression results suggest that forest frontage and livestock population were significant predictors of conflict incidence.  Information regarding the prime causes of conflict will be helpful for planning strategies for the establishment of appropriate mitigation methods.  The present study serves as baseline information which will be helpful for formulating prospective management plans.

  7. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Robin, V V; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-10-13

    Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies. We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp) obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species. Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of this region.

  8. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  9. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    V V Robin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies.We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species.Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of

  10. Relationship between exposure to the Avahan intervention and levels of reported condom use among men who have sex with men in southern India.

    Mitchell, Kate M; Foss, Anna M; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Prudden, Holly J; Deering, Kathleen N; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Vickerman, Peter

    2014-12-04

    The Avahan intervention promotes consistent (100%) condom use amongst men who have sex with men in southern India. We assessed how condom use varies with intervention exposure for men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Self-reported condom use and intervention exposure data were derived from a cross-sectional survey. Consistent condom use and condom use at last sex act with all, main, and casual male sex partners were assessed. Binary and continuous variables reflecting intervention exposure (including contact(s) with intervention staff, receiving condoms and seeing condom demonstrations) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between condom use with each type of partner and each exposure variable independently, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use or intervention exposure. Condom use with all partners was higher among those who had ever been contacted by, received condoms from, or seen a condom demonstration by intervention staff (adjusted odds ratio >2, p condom use with all types of partner increased with the number of condom demonstrations seen in the last month (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1 per demonstration, p condom use at last sex act with a casual (but not main) partner increased with the number of condoms received from the intervention (adjusted odds ratio = 1.4 per condom, p = 0.04). Direct contact with Avahan program staff is associated with increased reported condom use among men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Reported consistent condom use and condom use at last sex act are associated with contacts involving demonstrations of correct condom use, and with receiving condoms, respectively.

  11. Land Use/land Cover Changes in Semi-Arid Mountain Landscape in Southern India: a Geoinformatics Based Markov Chain Approach

    Rahaman, S. A.; Aruchamy, S.; Balasubramani, K.; Jegankumar, R.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays land use/ land cover in mountain landscape is in critical condition; it leads to high risky and uncertain environments. These areas are facing multiple stresses including degradation of land resources; vagaries of climate and depletion of water resources continuously affect land use practices and livelihoods. To understand the Land use/Land cover (Lu/Lc) changes in a semi-arid mountain landscape, Kallar watershed of Bhavani basin, in southern India has been chosen. Most of the hilly part in the study area covers with forest, plantation, orchards and vegetables and which are highly affected by severe soil erosion, landslide, frequent rainfall failures and associated drought. The foothill regions are mainly utilized for agriculture practices; due to water scarcity and meagre income, the productive agriculture lands are converted into settlement plots and wasteland. Hence, land use/land cover change deduction; a stochastic processed based method is indispensable for future prediction. For identification of land use/land cover, and vegetation changes, Landsat TM, ETM (1995, 2005) and IRS P6- LISS IV (2015) images were used. Through CAMarkov chain analysis, Lu/Lc changes in past three decades (1995, 2005, and 2015) were identified and projected for (2020 and 2025); Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used to find the vegetation changes. The result shows that, maximum changes occur in the plantation and slight changes found in forest cover in the hilly terrain. In foothill areas, agriculture lands were decreased while wastelands and settlement plots were increased. The outcome of the results helps to farmer and policy makers to draw optimal lands use planning and better management strategies for sustainable development of natural resources.

  12. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    Chaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    As per the Indian Government laws, minerals containing uranium are classified as strategic and uranium exploration and mining is an exclusive subject of the Central Government. Exploration for atomic minerals began in India in the year 1949 and, over a period of sixty years, India has created a large pool of uranium scientists and, at present, more than 500 scientists are employed by the Government of India for exploration of atomic minerals in India. In line with other countries, India's efforts in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were focused in the exploration for vein-type mineralization and succeeded in the discovery in three provinces, viz. Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), Jharkhand; Umra, Rajasthan and Lesser Himalayas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Of these, the SSZ has emerged as a major uranium province with 17 low-grade, low- to medium-tonnage deposits. Presently, the only uranium producing mines are situated in this province. Simultaneously, many uranium occurrences and deposits of QPC, vein and metasomatite types, essentially of low grade, low tonnage, were located all over the country. In the early eighties, the Cretaceous Mahadek basin in the northeastern state of Meghalaya was recognized as a potential province for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and, within a span of fifteen years, five low- to medium-grade, low-tonnage deposits were established. The 180-km long belt of Cretaceous fluviatile felspathic sandstones along the southern fringe of Shillong plateau below a moderate cover of tertiary sediments holds potential for more resources. Ground and airborne geophysical techniques are being looked at to provide vital clues on depositional controls for future sub-surface exploration. In the mean time, a major uranium province in the southern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin was discovered, where uranium mineralization is hosted in dolomitic limestone. The mineralization is stratabound and occurs intermittently over a strike length of nearly 160 km

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

    Siddappa, Vinutha; Nanjegowda, Divyashree Kallenahalli; Viswanath, Prema

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals which have consumed feedstuffs contaminated with aflatoxin B(1). Ultra high temperature treated (UHT) milk is a product which is becoming popular in developing countries like India as there is a lack of proper cold storage or refrigeration facilities. In this study, 45 samples of UHT milk of popular brands prevalent in the market were analyzed for the presence of AFM(1) by reversed phase HPLC using fluorescent detector after cleanup of sample with immunoaffinity columns. All samples of plain UHT milk were positive for AFM(1) and 38% of these contained levels more than 0.5 μg/kg, the maximum permitted limit prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and by the mandatory regulations of the country, the FSSAI Regulations, 2011. In 62.5% of flavored UHT milk, AFM(1) was below detectable levels (0.02 μgL(-1)). However, 12.5% of these samples also contained levels exceeding the maximum permitted limits. AFM(1) was present in 61.6% of the 52 raw milk samples analyzed from the two states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu with a range of 0.1-3.8 μgL(-1). 17.3% of these samples also exceeded the regulatory limits of the country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of land-use and soil properties on groundwater quality in the hard rock aquifer of an irrigated catchment: the Berambadi (Southern India)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, Muddu; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Braun, Jean Jacques; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri S.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has large impacts on groundwater resources, both in terms of quantity and quality: when combined with intensive chemical fertilizer application, it can lead to progressive groundwater salinization. Mapping the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater quality is not only essential for assessing the impacts of different types of agricultural systems but also for identifying hotspots of water quality degradation that are posing a risk to human and ecosystem health. In peninsular India the development of minor irrigation led to high density of borewells which constitute an ideal situation for studying the heterogeneity of groundwater quality. The annual groundwater abstraction reaches 400 km3, which leads to depletion of the resource and degradation of water quality. In the agricultural Berambadi catchment (84km2, Southern India, part of the environmental observatory BVET/ Kabini CZO) the groundwater table level and chemistry are monitored in 200 tube wells. We recently demonstrated that in this watershed, irrigation history and groundwater depletion can lead to hot spots of NO3 concentration in groundwater, up to 360 ppm (Buvaneshwari et al., 2017). Here we focus on the respective roles of evapotranspiration, groundwater recycling and chemical fertilizer application on chlorine concentration [Cl] in groundwater. Groundwater [Cl] in Berambadi spans over two orders of magnitude with hotspots up to 380 ppm. Increase in groundwater [Cl] results from evapotranspiration and recycling, that concentrates the rain Cl inputs ("Natural [Cl]") and/or from KCl fertilization ("Anthropogenic [Cl]"). To quantify the origin of Cl in each tube well, we used a novel method based on (1) a reference element, sodium, originating only from atmosphere and Na-plagioclase weathering and (2) data from a nearby pristine site, the Mule Hole forested watershed (Riotte et al., 2014). In the forested watershed, the ranges of Cl concentration and Na/Cl molar ratio are 9-23 ppm and 2

  15. UTILITY OF THE DECAF SCORE IN PREDICTING IN HOSPITAL OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF SOUTHERN INDIA

    Ravi Chethan Kumar A. N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being an all too common cause for hospital admissions Worldwide poses a logistical stress for the treating physicians and hospital administration with regards to morbidity and mortality rates. Identifying upon admission those at higher risk of dying in-hospital could be useful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care, determining the aggressiveness of therapies and timing safe discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of the DECAF score in predicting in hospital outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients admitted with COPD exacerbations in K.R. Hospital, Mysore Medical College And Research Institute, Mysuru in between the May 2017 and July 2017 were taken has study subjects. A total of 80 patients were taken into the study. The duration of hospital stay, ICU admission and deaths were noted. DECAF score is applied to all study subjects and the severity of AECOPD is graded at the time of admission. The data collected and complied were then analysed for the correlation between score and subsequent management and overall outcome. RESULTS Total of 80 patients were recruited in the study. Mean age for male was 66.47, female was 70.86. Length of hospital stay was more in patients with decaf score more than 3 (average hospital stay 10 days. Patients with DECAF score of 2, 70.4% required inhalations oxygen, remaining 29.6% were managed with only bronchodilators whereas patients with DECAF score of 5 (max score in our study group there was a 100% initiation of assisted ventilation 33.3% received NIV ventilation while 66.6% required endotracheal intubation with ventilator support. In present study, 85 percent patients were survived. Total 6 patients (7.5% had died, belonging to high risk DECAF group (score 3 to 6

  16. Brittle deformation in Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT): A study of pseudotachylyte bearing fractures along Gangavalli Shear Zone (GSZ), Tamil Nadu, India.

    mohan Behera, Bhuban; Thirukumaran, Venugopal; Biswal, Tapas kumar

    2016-04-01

    High grade metamorphism and intense deformation have given a well recognition to the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India. TTG-Charnockite and basic granulites constitute the dominant lithoassociation of the area. Dunite-peridotite-anorthosite-shonkinite and syenites are the intrusives. TTG-charnockite-basic granulite have undergone F1 (isoclinal recumbent), F2 (NE-SW) and F3 (NW-SE) folds producing several interference pattern. E-W trending Neoarchean and Palaeoproterozoic Salem-Attur Shear Zone exhibits a low angle ductile thrust as well as some foot print of late stage brittle deformation near Gangavalli area of Tamil Nadu. The thrust causes exhumation of basic granulites to upper crust. Thrusting along the decollement has retrograded the granulite into amphibolite rock. Subsequently, deformation pattern of Gangavalli area has distinctly marked by numerous vertical to sub-vertical fractures mostly dominating along 0-15 and 270-300 degree within charnockite hills that creates a maximum stress (σ1) along NNW and minimum stress (σ3) along ENE. However, emplacement of pseudotachylyte vein along N-S dominating fracture indicates a post deformational seismic event. Extensive fractures produce anastomose vein with varying thickness from few millimeters to 10 centimeters on the outcrop. ICP-AES study results an isochemical composition of pseudotachylyte vein that derived from the host charnockitic rock where it occurs. But still some noticeable variation in FeO-MgO and Na2O-CaO are obtained from different parts within the single vein showing heterogeneity melt. Electron probe micro analysis of thin sections reveals the existence of melt immiscibility during its solidification. Under dry melting condition, albitic rich melts are considered to be the most favorable composition for microlites (e.g. sheaf and acicular micro crystal) re-crystallization. Especially, acicular microlites preserved tachylite texture that suggest its formation before the final coagulation

  17. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  18. Clinical Profile of Malaria in and around Hubballi-Dharwad: A Region of North Karnataka

    Vidyavathi B Chitharagi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malaria is an endemic vector borne parasitic infection. Plasmodium vivax has been associated with severe malaria while P. falciparum is traditionally associated with severe course. Of late, P. vivax is increasingly reported to cause severe and life threatening disease. However, majority of P. vivax are sensitive to antimalarials and therefore, it is important to speculate this pathogen. Aim: To study the clinical profile of confirmed malaria cases. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken at SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India, between the period of 2010 to 2012 for the duration of two years. A total of 124 clinically suspected malaria cases aged from 8 years to 65 years were included in the study. Laboratory identification was done by Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC. A comparative analysis of clinical presentations in 62 QBC positive samples and an equal number of age and sex matched QBC negative was done. Results: Out of 62 QBC positive samples, Plasmodium vivax was seen in 40/62 (64.52% patients while P. falciparum in 10/40 (16.13% cases. Mixed infection by P. vivax and P. falciparum was seen in 12/40 (19.35% cases. Fever, chills and headache were common symptoms. Pallor was seen in 23/40 (37.1% cases and icterus, splenomegaly and vomiting were seen in 14/62 (22.6% cases followed by hepatosplenomegaly in 11 (17.7% cases. Among QBC negative controls, fever (100%, chills 51/62 (82.3%, rigors 21/62 (33.9% and pain abdomen (24.2 % were the common symptoms. Pallor and hepatomegaly was seen in 19.4 % and 11.3% respectively among the QBC negatives. Ten out of 11 (90.9% of females and 37/51 (72.5% of males suffering from malaria had anaemia. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 59/62 (95.2% cases of which 33 cases had moderate thrombocytopenia (53.2% while 17 cases had severe thrombocytopenia. In QBC negative controls, severe thrombocytopenia was noted in 4 (6.5% samples, mild and moderate

  19. Occupational Dermatoses Among the Cashew Nut Workers in Karnataka

    J S Pasricha

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five female workers employed in the cashew nut industry in Karnataka to slice off the outer hard shells from the nuts and thus exposed to the chashew nut shell oil had a characteristic cauterization type of reaction manifesting as brownish-black, thickened sheets of dead skin covering the dorsal as well as the palmar aspects of hands including the fingers and feet. Smaller but similer lesions were also seen on these parts of the forearms, abdomen, neck and face which were not covered with clothes. The fingers were thinned and tapering and several nails of the hands and feet were thickened, discolored and eaten away. The other changes included loss of the dermatoglyphic patterns, maceration of the hands, small pits on the finger tips and pitted keratolysis seen in some cases only. Similar changes were also seen on the feet of both the male workers exposed to the same oil, in the section which extracts the oil from the sliced shells. In contrast 29, feamle wokers engaged to peel off the thin reddish covering on the cashew nut had normal hands and feet, except for the two callosities on the flexural aspect of the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger and proximal interphalangeal joint of the right index finger respectively, caused by the friction of the peeling knife. An open patch test with the cashew nut shell oil used as such in 17 workers produced a cauterization type of reaction in 32 workers irrespective of the nature of their duties, while the standard occluded patch test with 10% cashew nut shell oil in polyethylene glycol showed a mild cauterization type of reaction in only 6 workers. Patch tests with 1% and 0.1% concentrations of the shell oil were negative in all the workers. Two barrier creams tested to protect the workers from the cashew nut shell oil produced reasonably effective results within a week.

  20. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    phosed under medium-high pressure (6–10kbar;. Harris et al ..... material has been thrust into deeper levels of the crust or ..... variation range of the particular charnockite mas- sif can be .... Andersen D J, Lindsley D H and Davidson P M 1993.

  1. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK

    2004-01-01

    Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern

  2. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Rajkumar Revathi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was

  3. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups.

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, V K

    2004-08-19

    A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them

  4. Study of Mastoid Canals and Grooves in North Karnataka Human Skulls

    Hadimani, Gavishiddappa Andanappa; Bagoji, Ishwar Basavantappa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to observe the frequency of mastoid canals and grooves in north Karnataka dry human skulls. 100 dry human skulls of unknown age and sex from the department of Anatomy were selected and observed for the present study.

  5. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka ...

    Background: Pesticide poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Objectives: To assess the oxidative damage, hemoglobin level and leukocyte count in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: Plasma cholinesterase was assessed as a toxicity marker. Oxidative damage was ...

  6. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    Rajaratnam, Annie; Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas .S.; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload.

  7. Distribution of radionuclide in Cauvery River Basin, South Interior Karnataka, India

    Kavitha, E.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2015-01-01

    Radium, radon and polonium are the most important isotopes from the radiological point of view in the uranium decay series. The concentrations of radium, radon and polonium were studied in water samples of Kodagu, Mandya, Mysuru, Hassan and Chamarajanagara districts. The study area lies between 10°05'N to 13°30' N latitudes and 75°30' E to 79°45' E longitudes. Polonium in water was estimated using radiochemical analysis. Higher concentration of polonium in water was observed at Kushalnagara region (3.35 mBqL -1 ), lower value was found near Mysuru (1.54 mBqL -1 ) -and the average polonium concentration in the study region was (2.49 mBqL -1 ). The radium-226 was analysed using Emanometry method. Higher concentration of radium-226 was found near Abbi falls of Kodagu district (73.0 mBqL -1 ), lower value was found in Srirangapatna of Mandya district (2.20 mBqL -1 ) and the average was 36.12 mBqL -1 . W.H.O and UNSCEAR have given the tolerable dose range for different radioactive elements. If the estimated value crosses this range then it would cause certain health hazards. The values obtained in the present study are comparable to the value of polonium, radium and radon in water reported in literature. (author)

  8. Diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among pregnant women in mangalore, karnataka, India.

    Rajaratnam, Annie; Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-09-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload. To determine the prevalence of AB among pregnant women in a tertiary care set-up and analyse the contributory risk factors, its effects on pregnancy and the role of chromogenic media in the laboratory diagnosis of these cases. Urine samples of all pregnant women attending pre-natal check-ups with no genitourinary complaints, history of fever or antibiotic intake were collected for Gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. A second urine specimen for culture and sensitivity testing was obtained from those with significant bacteriuria. The results were compared with patients showing negative urine cultures. The overall prevalence of this clinical condition in our study was 13.2%. The significant isolates were Klebsiella pneumonia and E.coli and the most common risk factor was a previous history of urinary tract infection. The isolates were easily identified by using chromogenic agar ( HiCrome ) but colonies of uncommon pathogens like Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species appeared white and needed further identification. Screening of pregnant women for AB at first prenatal checkup helps analyse the associated factors and prevents its effects on pregnancy. The use of a chromogenic media can enhance reporting accuracy and will be an effective tool to monitor these cases routinely.

  9. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  10. Spit evolution and shore drift direction along south Karnataka coast, India

    Kunte, P; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Giornale_Geol_53_71.pdf.txt stream_source_info Giornale_Geol_53_71.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Anemia among hospitalized children at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka, India

    Firdos Saba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the limited availability of data related to anemia in hospitalized children, this research was conducted to study the occurrence, morphological patterns, distribution in different age groups, sex, and severity of anemia among children aged 6 months-12 years. Setting: Inpatients in department of pediatrics at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study from Oct, 2011 to Sep, 2012. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital as per 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Unrestricted random sampling method was used to select the study group consisting of 882 children between the age of 6 months and 12 years. After obtaining the consent, data were obtained and statistically analyzed using statistical tools like mean, median, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 882 children selected, 642 (72.79% were anemic, out of which a majority of 629 (98% children suffered from nonhemoglobinopathies and a meagre 13 (2% suffered from hemoglobinopathies. Children in the age group of 6 months-1 year were most affected with nonhemoglobinopathies (33%. Moderate degree of anemia (hemoglobin = 7-9.9 g/dL was the commonest grade of anemia (80%, while microcytic hypochromic anemia was commonest morphological type of anemia (48%. Among hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia major was the most common (69%, that is 9 out of 13 patients. Conclusion: The occurrence of anemia among children aged between 6 months and 12 years is high and nonhemoglobinopathies predominate over the hemoglobinopathies.

  12. Quality of life among the geriatric population in a rural area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India

    Shahul Hameed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is an inevitable developmental phenomenon bringing along a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. These changes are expected to affect the quality of life of the elderly. Methods: In the rural area, cross‐sectional community‐based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above. WHO Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Results: Among the study population, the mean perceived overall quality of life scores were 62.1}16.4 and the mean perceived overall health status scores were 59.8}17.4. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Among <70 years better physical domain scores were seen compared to ≥70 years. Among the literates and currently married elderly, all the domain scores were higher compared to illiterates and those without partners respectively. Conclusion: All the domains of quality of life were significantly affected for those who were illiterate or were single. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Such perceived quality of life study helps to highlight the inequalities among the elderly, which can be targeted to improve the quality of life.

  13. Coastal changes along the coast of Tadri River, Karnataka West coast of India and its implication

    Tirodkar, G.M.; Pathak, K.C; Vaz, S.C

    embankments results in breaching and due to this flood are occurring in the adjacent area, and an accretion is noticed at the mouth result in narrowing the shape, due to sediments brought from upper reaches of Tadri river The present studies give a scenario...

  14. Primary productivity in the Karwar Bay, Karnataka, west coast of India

    Naik, U.G.; Naik, R.K.; Nayak, V.N.

    The measurement of primary production is of great importance because of its significance to the problems of aquatic ecology and fishery management. The interaction of light intensity, temperature and nutrient levels determines the photosynthetic...

  15. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Deepa, N.; Kunte, P.D.

    (GIS) as the location of the shoreline and its historical rate of change can provide important information for the design of coastal protection, plans for coastal development, coastal and social vulnerability study, and the calibration...

  16. Textural characteristics of foreshore sediments along Karnataka shoreline, west coast of India

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.; Vinayaraj, P.; Gowthaman, R.

    skewed to coarse skewed with platykurtic, mesokurtic and leptokurtic characters. Grain characteristics varied spatially and temporally along with beach orientation, foreshore slope and wave action. A negative correlation between mean and sorting...

  17. Violence against educated women by intimate partners in Urban Karnataka, India

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. Objectives: To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. Materials and Methods: A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Statistical Methods: Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30–50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10–20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in <5 years of married life to 35% and 47.6% in 10–20 years duration of marriage, which was statistically significant. Sexual and psychological assault showed a bimodal presentation. Less educated women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  18. Coverage and compliance MDA programme for lymphatic filariasis in Bidar district, Karnataka, India

    Dharukaswami. Mallayya. Koradhanyamath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the socio demographic characteristics of beneficiaries of the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme, to assess the coverage, compliance and causes for noncompliance towards MDA in the district, to assess the awareness regarding elephantiasis among beneficiaries and to assess the knowledge of drug distributors towards the filariasis and MDA programme. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 3 rural and 1 urban clusters in Bidar district for the period of 1 week. 50 houses were selected in each cluster by systematic random sampling method and data was collected in a structured proforma by interview technique. Results: Majority of beneficiaries were at the age group of 15-60 years (72.3% and male (53%. The overall coverage of MDA in Bidar district was 62.3%. Compliance among those who had received the tablets was 60.4%. Coverage and compliance was more in rural areas compared to urban. The most common reason quoted for not consuming drugs was fear of adverse effects (72.2% The incidence of adverse events was 0.2%. Even though 75% of them were aware of the disease elephantiasis, only 45.4% had knowledge regarding MDA programme. The knowledge of drug distributors towards MDA and filariasis was found to be adequate. Conclusions: Coverage and compliance towards MDA in Bidar district was poor. The coverage and compliance in rural areas was higher compared to the urban areas.

  19. Determinants of Post - partum contraception practices in urban slums of central Karnataka, India

    Shubha Davalagi B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of post – partum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended post – partum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of post – partum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for post – partum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on post – partum contraception usage among mothers.

  20. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Suresh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Significant portion of the background radiation is coming from the primordial nuclides such as 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K which are present in the soil, rock and building material. These radionuclides are sources of the external and the internal radiation exposures in dwellings. The specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building raw materials and products mainly depend on geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. Knowledge of radioactivity present in building materials enables one to assess any possible radiological risk to human health

  1. Measurement of radon concentration in drinking water in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Suresh, S.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2018-01-01

    Water is absolutely needed for most life on this earth. Quality of drinking water is the need of the hour for person's health and environmental studies rather it is consumed and transported pollutant in the environment. The most commonly occurring radionuclides in natural water Rn, that cause risk to human health are 222 Rn, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. They emit alpha particles and their inhalation and ingestion may results in high radioactive dose to sensitive cells of lungs, digestive tract and other organs of the human bodies. Radon enriched drinking water poses a potential health risk in two ways: first, transfer of radon from water to indoor air and its inhalation and secondly, through ingestion. Radon monitoring has been increasingly conducted worldwide because of the hazardous effects of radon on the health of human beings. The aim of the present study is to measure radon concentration and to estimate the annual effective dose in drinking water samples in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada district

  2. Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Chronic Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Karnataka, India

    Suttur Malini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several studies have reported the toxicological implications of inhalation of petroleum hydrocarbon fumes in animal models. But, there is certainly little or no documentation of the exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fuel on oxidative stress levels in humans, unlike the pulmonary physiology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of constituents of the hydrocarbon fuels on oxidative stress levels of the petrol fillers and tanker drivers. Methods: The study involved 165 males divided into three groups were the petrol fillers, tanker drivers and the controls. Case control data set was established wherein the control subjects are not exposed to hydrocarbon fuels with similar age. Serum samples of the subjects were collected and subjected for various biochemical assays. The enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde a byproduct of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of the individuals along with non-enzymatic antioxidant Vitamin A was estimated. Results: The results showed a no significant differences for age, body mass index, superoxide dismutase and levels of Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. But on the other hand, there is significant changes observed for total antioxidant capacity and vitamin A when exposed group is compared with control subject. Conclusion: It is evidential from the present study that prolonged exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fumes leads to an increase in their oxidative stress in turn resulting broad spectrum of diseases. Hence, there is a raised need for public awareness about the health hazards in order to enable petrol attendants.

  3. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    to know the influence of wind on sea level. These data are provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colarado at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/. Relationship between wind forcing and residuals of sea level was studied by linear...

  4. Study on radon concentration in groundwater of Sira and Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district, Karnataka, India

    M B Karthik Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on radon concentration in groundwater samples collected from different villages of Sira and Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district has been conducted using emanometry method, and the effective dose to the public was estimated. The geometric mean of the activity concentration of dissolved radon was found to be 39.13 ± 1.99 and 3.78 ± 0.05 Bq/L for Sira and Tiptur taluk, respectively. The total annual effective dose for adult, children, and infants was also estimated and was found to be 0.20, 0.18, and 0.31 mSv/year, respectively, in Sira taluk and 0.019, 0.017, and 0.029 mSv/year in Tiptur taluk, respectively. Water samples were also analyzed for the physicochemical parameters to assess the quality of drinking water and also to understand the influence of these parameters on dissolved radon concentration. Poor correlation was observed between dissolved radon concentration and pH in both taluks.

  5. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India

    Karanth, Krithi K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km2 landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.

  6. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

    G.M. Shilpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

  7. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  8. Geochemical studies of granitic rocks of Kallur area, Manvi Taluk, Raichur district, Karnataka (India).

    Raghavendra, N R; Reddy, R Purushottam; Nijagunappa, R

    2011-01-01

    The geochemical data is much widely used in establishing the overall chemical relation existing between the different rock types with their parentage. A major impetus for this shift comes not only from the need to understand and quantify better the spatial and temporal evolution, with emphasis on the younger greenstone belts (Kallur copper formations), but also from the recognition that such knowledge could form the basis for the sustainable development of our natural resources. In addition, the recurrence of natural hazards has reinforced the need to learn more about the mechanics and to develop predictive modeling with advanced technical tools. This paper is emphasizing on Granodiorites of Kallur area of Manvi Taluk, Raichur District to substantiate the classical approaches of exploration and data gathering through quantitative methods of data processing and interpretation. The trilinear diagram indicates that the granites are rich in Potash and Soda. This clearly indicates that Granites are fairly rich in K2O than Na2O.

  9. A STUDY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY AT KIMS HOSPITAL, HUBBALLI, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Chandrashekar K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary heart disease has become an epidemic since 20th century. Deaths due to the same are increasing of around 17.5 million deaths in year 2012. The deaths are increasing more in developing countries and metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders, which are promoting the development of coronary artery diseases. The disorders include central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Increasing prevalence, changing lifestyle and progression of the disease without obvious symptoms had led to increasing morbidity and mortality. The non-infectious epidemic of the century is posing great challenges to healthcare and research in development of more infrastructure and funds to prevent and treat the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients diagnosed with CAD and posted for Coronary Angiogram (CAG in ICCU at KIMS Hospital, Hubballi, were studied over a period of one and a half year. Cases were categorised according to ATPIII and new IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome and compared. Clinical evaluation, ECG, lipid profile and 2D-echo was done. Statistical analysis done using unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney tests, Chi-square test and Kappa statistics. RESULTS Of the total 100, 57 had metabolic syndrome by either ATP criteria or IDF criteria. Kappa=0.859 (p-value 150 mg/dL and DM or FBS >100 mg/dL (p value <0.001. The mean values of SBP (144.0 vs. 120.8, DBP (85.6 vs. 73.8 and waist circumference (95.4 vs. 87.7 was statistically significant (p value <0.01 between patients with metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome with IDF criteria (p value <0.001. It was observed LAD (28.1% was the most common vessel involved individually. There was no much significance related to metabolic syndrome. Incidence of CAD was more common in patients with metabolic syndrome than other group. CONCLUSION The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in patients with CAD. Both metabolic syndrome definitions identify subset of patients who are at high risk for CAD and are cost effective, easily practicable tools

  10. Belekeri as traditional boat building centre in the North Kanara district, Karnataka, India

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_4_69.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_4_69.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm & associated factors in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijayasimha, R

    2011-07-01

    Chronic cough and chronic phlegm are important indicators of respiratory morbidity, accelerated lung function decline, increased hospitalization and mortality. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm in the absence of dyspneoa and wheezing and to study its associated factors in a representative population of Mysore district. A cross-sectional survey was planned in a representative population of Mysore taluk. Eight villages were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. Trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire carried out a house-to-house survey. A total of 4333 adult subjects were enrolled in the study with 2333 males and 2000 females. The prevalence of chronic cough in the community was 2.5 per cent and that of chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent. A significant association was observed between chronic cough and age, gender, occupation and smoking and chronic phlegm with age, gender, occupation, indoor animals and smoking. A multivariate analysis confirmed independent association of age, occupation and smoking for chronic cough and age and smoking for chronic phlegm. On sub-group analysis of males, heavy smokers had higher prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm as compared to light smokers and non smokers. The prevalence of chronic cough was 2.5 per cent and chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent in the general population in Mysore which is lower than that observed in other studies. Heavy smoking was an important preventable risk factor identified in this study and efforts towards smoking cessation are crucial to achieve good respiratory health in the community.

  12. Cryogenian alkaline magmatism in the Southern Granulite Terrane, India: Petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes

    Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Ram Mohan, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Shaji, E.; Satyanarayanan, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India preserves the records of the formation and recycling of continental crust from Mesoarchean through Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, involving multiple subduction-accretion-collision associated with major orogenic cycles. A chain of unmetamorphosed and undeformed alkaline magmatic intrusions occurs along the northern margin of the SGT aligned along paleo-suture zones. Here we investigate two representative plutons from this suite, the Angadimogar syenite (AM) and the Peralimala alkali granite (PM) through field, petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf studies. Magma mixing and mingling textures and mineral assemblages typical of alkaline rocks are displayed by these plutons. The whole-rock major and trace element data characterize their alkaline nature. In trace element discrimination diagrams, the AM rocks straddle between the VAG (volcanic-arc granites) and WPG (within plate granites) fields with most of the samples confined to the VAG field, whereas the PM rocks are essentially confined to the WPG field. The diversity in some of the geochemical features between the two plutons is interpreted to be the reflection of source heterogeneities. Most zircon grains from the AM and PM plutons display oscillatory zoning typical of magmatic crystallization although some grains, particularly those from the PM pluton, show core-rim structures with dark patchy zoned cores surrounded by irregular thin rims resulting from fluid alteration. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the magmatic zircons from three samples of the AM syenite are in the range of 781.8 ± 3.8 Ma to 798 ± 3.6 Ma and those from two samples of the PM alkali granite yield ages of 797.5 ± 3.7 Ma and 799 ± 6.2 Ma. A mafic magmatic enclave from the AM pluton shows weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 795 ± 3.3 Ma. The AM and PM plutons also carry rare xeneocrystic zircons which define upper intercept concordia ages of 3293 ± 13 Ma and 2530

  13. Measurement and modeling of CO2 exchange over forested landscapes in India: an overview

    Kushwaha, S.; Dadhwal, V.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its potential impact on global climate change is the subject of worldwide studies, political debates and international discussions. The concern led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol to curtail emissions and mitigate the possible global warming. The studies so far suggest that terrestrial biological sinks might be the low cost options for carbon sequestration, which can be used to partially offset the industrial CO2 emissions globally. In past, the effectiveness of terrestrial sink and the quantitative estimates of their sink strengths have relied mainly on the measurements of changes in carbon stocks across the world. Recent developments in flux tower based measurement techniques such as Eddy Covariance for assessing the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes provide tools for quantifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 on a continuous basis. These near real time measurements, when integrated with remote sensing, enable the up-scaling of the carbon fluxes to regional scale. More than 470 towers exist worldwide as of now. Indian subcontinent was not having any tower-based CO2 flux measurement system so far. The Indian Space Research Organization under its Geosphere Biosphere Programme is funding five eddy covariance towers for terrestrial CO2 flux measurements in different ecological regions of the country. The tower sites already planned are: (i) a mixed forest plantation (Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia) at Haldwani in collaboration with DISAFRI, University of Tuscia, Italy and the Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, (ii) a sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Doon valley Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in northern India, (ii) a teak (Tectona grandis) mixed forest at Betul in Madhya Pradesh in central India, (iv) an old teak plantation at Dandeli, and (v) a semi-evergreen forest at Nagarhole in Karnataka state in southern India. The three towers have been

  14. Research protocol for an epidemiological study on estimating disease burden of pediatric HIV in Belgaum district, India

    Anju Sinha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric HIV is poised to become a major public health problem in India with the rising trend of HIV infection in pregnant women (Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, http://www.naco.gov.in. There is lack of information on the epidemiology of pediatric HIV infection in India. Existing surveillance systems tend to underestimate the Pediatric burden. The overall aim of the present study is to estimate the disease burden of pediatric HIV among children in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka in Southern India. An innovative multipronged epidemiological approach to comb the district is proposed. Methods The primary objectives of the study would be attained under three strategies. A prospective cohort design for objective (i to determine the incidence rate of HIV by early case detection in infants and toddlers (0–18 months born to HIV infected pregnant women; and cross sectional design for objectives (ii to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in children (0–14 years of HIV infected parents and (iii to determine the prevalence of HIV in sick children (0–14 years presenting with suspected signs and symptoms using age specific criteria for screening. Burden of pediatric HIV will be calculated as a product of cases detected in each strategy multiplied by a net inflation factor for each strategy. Study participants (i (ii (iii: HIV infected pregnant women and their live born children (ii Any HIV-infected man/woman, of age 18–49 years, having a biological child of age 0–14 years (iii Sick children of age 0–14 years presenting with suspected signs and symptoms and satisfying age-specific criteria for screening. Setting and conduct: Belgaum district which is a Category ‘A’ district (with more than 1 % antenatal prevalence in the district over the last 3 years before the study. Age-appropriate testing is used to detect HIV infection. Discussion There is a need to strengthen

  15. Research protocol for an epidemiological study on estimating disease burden of pediatric HIV in Belgaum district, India.

    Sinha, Anju; Nath, Anita; Sethumadhavan, Rajeev; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold

    2016-05-26

    Pediatric HIV is poised to become a major public health problem in India with the rising trend of HIV infection in pregnant women (Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, http://www.naco.gov.in). There is lack of information on the epidemiology of pediatric HIV infection in India. Existing surveillance systems tend to underestimate the Pediatric burden. The overall aim of the present study is to estimate the disease burden of pediatric HIV among children in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka in Southern India. An innovative multipronged epidemiological approach to comb the district is proposed. The primary objectives of the study would be attained under three strategies. A prospective cohort design for objective (i) to determine the incidence rate of HIV by early case detection in infants and toddlers (0-18 months) born to HIV infected pregnant women; and cross sectional design for objectives (ii) to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in children (0-14 years) of HIV infected parents and (iii) to determine the prevalence of HIV in sick children (0-14 years) presenting with suspected signs and symptoms using age specific criteria for screening. Burden of pediatric HIV will be calculated as a product of cases detected in each strategy multiplied by a net inflation factor for each strategy. Study participants (i) (ii) (iii): HIV infected pregnant women and their live born children (ii) Any HIV-infected man/woman, of age 18-49 years, having a biological child of age 0-14 years (iii) Sick children of age 0-14 years presenting with suspected signs and symptoms and satisfying age-specific criteria for screening. Setting and conduct: Belgaum district which is a Category 'A' district (with more than 1 % antenatal prevalence in the district over the last 3 years before the study). Age-appropriate testing is used to detect HIV infection. There is a need to strengthen existing pediatric HIV estimation methods in India and other

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of public sector primary health care physicians of rural north karnataka towards obesity management

    Manjunath S Somannavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM, and hypertension (HTN. In an era of rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, it is important to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary care physicians. Materials and Methods: Study participants were medical officers (MOs of primary health centers in three districts of North Karnataka. The questionnaire was developed by a review of literature in the field and validated with five participants for scope, length, and clarity. Results/Discussion: Of the 102 participants, only 15% were aware about the burden of obesity in India. HTN, DM, and CVD were indicated as comorbidities by 73, 78, and 60 participants, respectively. Only 25 and 12 participants indicated appropriate body mass index (BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity diagnosis. Of the 102 participants, 54 were not aware of the guidelines for obesity management. Practices and attitudes of the participants were encouraging. Nearly all of them felt that the adults with BMI within the healthy range should be encouraged to maintain their weight and, three-fourth of them agreed that most overweight persons should be treated for weight loss and small weight loss can achieve major medical benefit. However, nearly half of the participants′ responses were stereotypical as they felt only obese and overweight with comorbidities should be treated for weight loss. Two-thirds of them use BMI to diagnose overweight/obese and nearly all of them advice their patients to increase physical activity and restrict fat. Most of the participants were advising their patients to restrict sugar intake, increase fruits and vegetable consumption, reduce red meat, and avoid alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Present study exposed the lack of knowledge regarding obesity. However, practices and attitudes of the participants were promising. There is a need of in-service training to MOs to further

  17. Study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg District, Karnataka State

    Prakash, M.M; KaliPrasad, C.S.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg district, Karnataka state. The level of terrestrial radiation are related to the geological composition of the region, and to the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in rock. Rocks are used in various construction activities, which also have these natural radionuclides. Hence, a study was done to assess the concentration of these radionuclides in rock samples. Coorg lies along the eastern slopes of Western Ghats, which is in the south western side of Karnataka state. The rock samples were collected from different locations of Coorg. The samples were crushed, ovendried and sieved through 240µm sieve. The sieved samples were sealed in a plastic container of 300ml and stored for 30 days

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  19. Perception of radiation awareness among patients in Karnataka - a qualitative study

    Sukumar, Suresh; Kotian, Rahul P.; Rajagopal, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing concern has recently been expressed in the literature that the patients undergoing diagnostic Computer Tomography imaging and X-ray examinations have inadequate knowledge and awareness about radiation. The frequent use of Computed tomography and routine X-ray examinations for unnecessary indications is the most vital cause of increase in medical radiation exposure. Dose reduction techniques and radiation protection measures is a topic of public concern in which government should play a very important role. Radiologists and patients undergoing any radiological procedure involving ionizing radiation are becoming highly sensitized to the issue of radiation exposure from these diagnostic procedures. The attitudes and perceptions of these patients undergoing diagnostic imaging procedures that use ionizing radiation vary widely. Patients perception about radiation awareness strongly influence their consent or acceptance of any diagnostic imaging procedure. In this study we review the perceptions of radiation risk by laypersons i.e patients who have very little knowledge and awareness about the diagnostic procedure and X-ray examination for which they have been referred. Although the benefit vs risk ratio will outweigh the radiation risk involved in these X-ray and CT examinations but the patients awareness about radiation is a major concern in today's society. The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of radiation awareness among patients in the Karnataka population. Very less qualitative research work has been taken up in this field, as a result such study will gain impetus in the near future. The study was carried out in Karnataka. Qualitative case study was conducted based on Non-Probability purposive sampling and in-depth interview was conducted at the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal among ten patients who were referred for X-ray and CT examinations. An in-depth interview among patients in

  20. New record of Helopeltis bradyi Waterhouse and Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Miridae on tea Camellia sinensis L.O. (Kuntze in southern India

    Kodakkadan SRIKUMAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis theivora commonly called as tea mosquito bug (TMB is considered as important pest of tea in South India. Extensive survey in tea plantations of Anamallais, recorded H. bradyi and Pachypeltis maesarum (Hemiptera: Miridae causing considerable damage and were registered for the first time on tea. Their occurrence was seen in association with H. theivora. There was considerable variation among these species in size of the circular rings formed by rostral piercing, indicating that these three species can be easily demarcated based on the observation of feeding punctures even in field condition. As the dosage and recommendations of insecticides against TMB in tea in south India was pertaining only to H. theivora the addition of H. bradyi and P. maesarum will improve the future pest management strategies.

  1. A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION IN COASTAL KARNATAKA

    Annappa Shetty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychological mood changes, depression is very common in Post-partum period ranging from mild and transient “baby blues” experienced by 50-80% of women to postpartum Psychosis which affects 1% of women. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of different factors with Post-Partum depression in coastal Karnataka region, (Karwar. MATERIAL & METHODS  A Prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, KAIMS, Karwar, Karnataka.  A total one thousand patients 4-7 Post-partum days were selected and interrogated using Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic factors (age, Parity, literacy, socio-economic status, marital status and family structure, history of psychiatric disorders and abuse, mode of delivery and the obstetric outcome were recorded. The results were analysed statistically using Chi-square chart. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: The incidence of PPD was 22%. Significant association of PPD was seen with low socio-economic status group (P<005, poor literacy (P<0.001, nuclear family structure (P<0.05, single mother (P<0.001, past history of abuse (P<0.05 and poor obstetric outcome (P<0.001. CONCLUSION This study provides useful information about the prevalence of PPD and the association of socio economic, cultural practices prevalent in coastal Karnataka with PPD.

  2. The Karnataka Anemia Project 2--design and evaluation of a community-based parental intervention to improve childhood anemia cure rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Shet, Arun S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Mascarenhas, Maya; Risbud, Arvind; Atkins, Salla; Klar, Neil; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2015-12-30

    Childhood anemia is highly prevalent worldwide. Improving the hemoglobin level of preschool age children could yield substantial benefits in cognitive and psychosocial development and overall health. While evidence-based recommendations for reducing childhood anemia in high anemia prevalence countries are available, there is no experimental evidence of community centered education and counseling programs, as a route to improved acceptance of iron supplements, demonstrating beneficial effects on anemia outcomes. We report on the evaluation protocol of a complex educational intervention led by the community lay health worker (LHW) and delivered to mothers of 12-59-month-old anemic children living in and visiting village day care centers in a large district of southern India. The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention is based on the social cognitive theory and aims to promote among mothers, anemia awareness, dietary modifications to increase iron intake in the child, and recognition of the need for enhanced adherence to supplemental iron in the anemic child. From 270 eligible villages in the study area, a sample of 60 villages will be randomized to intervention [n = 30] or to treatment as usual [n = 30] of the study. LHWs in the intervention arm will be trained to administer the following intervention components to mothers of anemic children: 1] monthly distribution of Iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements to mothers of anemic children, and 2] five monthly counseling sessions of mothers of anemic children covering: a] anemia awareness education b] IFA adherence counseling and assessment, c] dietary modification to improve iron intake, and d] hygiene and sanitation. LHWs in the control arm will distribute IFA to mothers of anemic children as in the intervention arm but will not provide monthly education and counseling support. The primary outcome is the difference between the two experimental groups in anemia cure rates of

  3. Assessing the presence of marine toxins in bivalve molluscs from southwest India.

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Rowland-Pilgrim, Stephanie; Turner, Lucy M; Rai, Ashwin; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2017-12-15

    The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality. Since then, there have been no further reports of serious shellfish intoxication and there is little awareness of the risks from natural toxins and no routine monitoring programme in place to protect shellfish consumers. This study presents the findings from the first ever systematic assessment of the presence of marine toxins in mussels and oysters grown in four different shellfish harvesting areas in the region. Shellfish were collected and subjected to analysis for ASP, PSP and lipophilic toxins, as well as a suite of non-EU regulated toxins such as tetrodotoxin and selected cyclic imines. Results revealed the presence of low levels of PSP toxins in oysters throughout the study period. Overall, total toxicities reached a maximum of 10% of the EU regulatory limit of 800 μg STX eq/kg. Toxin profiles were similar to those reported from the 1980 outbreak. No evidence was found for significant levels of ASP and lipophilic toxins, although some cyclic imines were detected, including gymnodimine. The results indicated that the risk to shellfish consumers during this specific study period would have been low. However, with historical evidence for extremely high levels of PSP toxins in molluscs, there is a strong need for routine surveillance of shellfish production areas for marine toxins, in order to mitigate against human health impacts resulting from unexpected harmful algal blooms, with potentially devastating socio

  4. Recent Pilot Plant Experience on Alkaline Leaching of Low Grade Uranium Ore in India

    Suri, A. K; Ghosh, S. K.; Padmanabhan, N. P.H., [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium deposits in India are low grade and are relatively smaller in extent as compared to present worldwide commercial practice. So far, the vein type deposits of Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB) are being exploited for meeting the Indian requirements of uranium. The deposits are currently processed by acid leaching in the mills located at Jaduguda and Turamdih near Jamshedpur in Jharkhand State of India. The deposits at Jaduguda and Narwapahar are being mined by underground mining and are processed in Jaduguda mill using airagitated Pachucas. The deposits at Banduhurang and Turamdih are being mined by open cast and underground mining respectively and are processed at Turamdih by acid leaching in mechanically agitated reactors. The occurrences of uranium in North East and Northern part of Kadapa basin are relatively moderate in size and are expected to be processed in the near future by acid leaching. Uranium is also found to occur near Tummalapalle in granitic and limestone host rocks in Southern part of Kadapa basin (Andhra Pradesh) and in Gogi in Bhima basin (Karnataka). The deposit in Tummalapalle is relatively lower in grade (≈ 0.042% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is a reasonably large reserve, whereas that in Gogi is rich in uranium content (≈0.18% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is relatively small reserve. Laboratory tests based on alkaline leaching have been carried out on both types of deposits. Studies for Tummalapalle deposits have been extended to pilot plant level and a complete flow sheet has been established with the regeneration and recirculation of lixiviants and recovery of sodium sulphate as a by-product. The process involves alkaline leaching under oxygen pressure in batch type and/or continuous leach reactor using sodium carbonate/bicarbonate as a leaching media and uranium is recovered as sodium diuranate. Based on the techno-economic evaluation of the process, an industrial scale mill (3 000 tonnes ore/day) is being set up at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh

  5. A note on the taxonomy, field status and threats to three endemic species of Syzygium (Myrtaceae from the southern Western Ghats, India

    R. Ramasubbu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy, field status and threats of three endemic species of Syzygium,  Syzygium densiflorum Wall. ex Wight & Arn., Syzygium myhendrae (Bedd. ex Brandis Gamble and Syzygium travancoricum Gamble of the southern Western Ghats were discussed.

  6. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8) than their counterparts. The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  7. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40% of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8 and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7, report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0 and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8 than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  8. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP) among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lazarus, Lisa; Doshi, Monika; Hafeez Ur Rahman, Syed; Ramaiah, Manjula; Maiya, Raviprakash; Ms, Venugopal; Venukumar, K T; Sundararaman, Sundar; Becker, Marissa; Moses, Stephen; Lorway, Robert

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka. From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data. Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95%) expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%), those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%), who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%), who drink alcohol regularly (49%), and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%). This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means of

  9. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera attacking dead wood in southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India, with descriptions of two new species

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of four species of Hymenoptera parasitoids probably of the wood boring beetle Clytocera chinospila Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. Two new hymenopteran species, Eurytoma chinnarensis (Eurytomidae and Foenatopus idukkiensis (Stephanidae are described. Solenura ania Walker (Pteromalidae is reported for the first time from Kerala and Western Ghats with a new host record, and Doryctus sp. (Braconidae is reported here.

  10. Design and Baseline Findings of a Multi-site Non-randomized Evaluation of the Effect of a Health Programme on Microfinance Clients in India

    Saha, Somen

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance is the provision of financial services for the poor. Health program through microfinance has the potential to address several access barriers to health. We report the design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health program on the members of two microfinance organizations from Karnataka and Gujarat states of India. Villages identified for roll-out of health services with microfinance were pair-matched with microfinance only villages...

  11. Managed aquifer recharge by a check dam to improve the quality of fluoride-rich groundwater: a case study from southern India.

    Gowrisankar, G; Jagadeshan, G; Elango, L

    2017-04-01

    In many regions around the globe, including India, degradation in the quality of groundwater is of great concern. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of recharge from a check dam on quality of groundwater in a region of Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu State, India. For this study, water samples from 15 wells were periodically obtained and analysed for major ions and fluoride concentrations. The amount of major ions present in groundwater was compared with the drinking water guideline values of the Bureau of Indian Standards. With respect to the sodium and fluoride concentrations, 38% of groundwater samples collected was not suitable for direct use as drinking water. Suitability of water for agricultural use was determined considering the electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, permeability index, Wilcox and United States Salinity Laboratory diagrams. The influence of freshwater recharge from the dam is evident as the groundwater in wells nearer to the check dam was suitable for both irrigation and domestic purposes. However, the groundwater away from the dam had a high ionic composition. This study demonstrated that in other fluoride-affected areas, the concentration can be reduced by dilution with the construction of check dams as a measure of managed aquifer recharge.

  12. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  13. Girl prostitution in India.

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  14. Do pregnant women know about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth? – A study of the level of knowledge and its associated factors from a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    R Nithya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness about danger signs during pregnancy is essential for a woman to seek prompt care. This can avert long-term morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to find the level of knowledge and its related factors about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in South India. Systematic random sampling of every 10th woman exiting the antenatal clinic was done. Results: We studied 382 pregnant women. Of them, 188 (49.2% [95% confidence interval (CI: 44%–54%], 104 (27.2% [95% CI: 23%–32%], and 81 (21.2% [95% CI: 17%–26%] women had sufficient knowledge about danger signs during pregnancy, labor, and childbirth, respectively. On multivariable analysis, lack of exposure to formal awareness raising health counseling classes was the only factor found to be significantly associated with a lack of knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy (adjusted prevalence ratio, 95% CI: 1.8 [1.2–2.7] and after childbirth (1.4 [1.1–1.7]. Lower education level was significantly associated with a lack of knowledge about danger signs of labor (1.2 [1.1–1.4]. Conclusion: We found that lack of exposure to formal awareness raising health counseling classes is a modifiable risk factor to improve knowledge about danger signs. We recommend structured mandatory health awareness sessions addressing the danger signs of pregnancy and child health to all pregnant women.

  15. Facilities at Indian Institute of Astrophysics and New Initiatives

    Bhatt, Bhuwan Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The Indian Institute of Astrophysics is a premier national institute of India for the study of and research into topics pertaining to astronomy, astrophysics and related subjects. The Institute's main campus in Bangalore city in southern India houses the main administrative set up, library and computer center, photonics lab and state of art mechanical workshop. IIA has a network of laboratories and observatories located in various places in India, including Kodaikanal (Tamilnadu), Kavalur (Tamilnadu), Gauribidanur (Karnataka), Leh & Hanle (Jammu & Kashmir) and Hosakote (Karnataka).

  16. U-Pb and Lu-Hf systematics of zircons from Sargur metasediments, Dharwar Craton, Southern India: new insights on the provenance and crustal evolution

    Maibam, Bidyananda; Gerdes, Axel; Srinivasan, R.; Goswami, J.N.

    2017-01-01

    A study of U-Pb and Lu-Hf-Yb isotope data in zircons from metamorphosed psammopelite and quartzite from the type area of Archaean Sargur Group, Dharwar Craton, India is carried out. Two age populations are observed: an older population with concordant U-Pb ages between 2.7 and 2.8 Ga, and a younger population with ages in the 2.4 - 2.6 Ga age range. The εHf values of 0 to + 2.0 for the older zircon population suggest that they were derived from juvenile crust formed at 2.7- 2.8 Ga. Sub-chondritic εHf values for the younger population indicate metamorphism and/or crustal reworking at ∼2.5 Ga. Meta-sedimentary enclaves in the Sargur type area are therefore part of the gneiss-supracrustal complex of different antiquities and may not have an independent stratigraphic status. (author)

  17. Community Collectivization and Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India: Evidence from Two Rounds of Behavioral Tracking Surveys.

    Vejella, Shanti; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2016-04-01

    Community collectivization is an integral part of condom use and HIV risk reduction interventions among key population. This study assesses community collectivization among female sex workers (FSWs), and explores its relationship with sex workers' consistent condom use (CCU) with different partners considering the interaction effect of time and collectivization. Data were drawn from two rounds of cross-sectional surveys collected during 2010 (N1 = 1986) and 2012 (N2 = 1973) among FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Results of the multiple logistic regression analysis show that, CCU with regular and occasional clients increased over the inter-survey period among FSWs with a high collective efficacy (AOR 2.9 and 6.1) and collective agency (AOR 14.4 and 19.0) respectively. The association of high levels of collectivization with CCU and self-efficacy for condom use are central to improve the usefulness and sustainability of HIV prevention programs worldwide.

  18. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: An overview of Asian Elephants in the Western Ghats, southern India: implications for the conservation of Western Ghats ecology

    N. Baskaran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats region is a global biodiversity hotspot and the source of all the major rivers of peninsular India. The conservation of this region is important for the biodiversity it harbours, and for ecological functions that include climate stability, erosion control, clean water and air, which are essential to safeguard economic growth, social stability and quality of life for the people of peninsular India. Possessing a unique diversity in topography, climate, vegetation, faunal communities, endemism and human communities, the Western Ghats is also known for its spectacular assemblage of larger mammals, including 25% of the global population of Asian Elephants. There are four major landscapes in the Western Ghats: (1 Uttara Kannada, (2 Brahmagiri-Nilgiris, (3 Anamalai-Nelliyampathy-High Range, and (4 Periyar-Agasthyamalai, spread across 30,000km2, harbouring a minimum 10,000 elephants in six different populations with signs of an increasing trend in some populations. The second landscape (Brahmagiri-Nilgiris with over 50% of the Ghats elephant population, along with its contiguity to the Eastern Ghats elephant landscape, forms the single largest global population of Asian Elephants. However, major threats to the long-term conservation of the elephant include further fragmentation of habitat, continued poaching of bulls for ivory, and escalation in human-elephant conflicts resulting in public antagonism toward the species. The goals of management should thus be to: (1 consolidate habitats and preserve corridors to avoid further fragmentation; (2 take steps through integrated land use planning at the landscape level to reduce human-elephant conflicts; and (3 build up a demographically and genetically viable elephant population by protecting the tusked males from ivory poaching. Being a wide-ranging umbrella species, ensuring the long-term conservation of Asian Elephants in the Ghats implies protecting its biodiversity and ecological

  19. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: First record of the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae from India with description of three new species from the Western Ghats, India

    M. Siliwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.

  20. India Emerging

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  1. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Southern Region

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: to better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and to provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  2. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Highland and Wanni Complexes, Sri Lanka: Their geochronological correlation with southern India and East Antarctica

    Kitano, Ippei; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Tatsuro; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.

    2018-05-01

    additional detritus derived from early to middle Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. The relic zircon core ages in the HC are comparable with those of the Trivandrum Block and Nagercoil Block of southern India. In contrast, those ages in the WC match the Achankovil Shear Zone and Southern Madurai Block of southern India. These comparisons are also supported by Th/U ratios of detrital zircon cores from paragneisses (Th/U ratios of >0.10 for the former and not only >0.10 but also ≤0.10 for the latter). Comparisons with the Lützow-Holm Complex of East Antarctica indicate that the geochronological characteristics of the HC and WC broadly match those of the Skallen Group, and the Ongul and Okuiwa Groups, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of genetic damage in tobacco and arsenic exposed population of Southern Assam, India using buccal cytome assay and comet assay.

    Roy, Prasenjit; Mukherjee, Anita; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Ground water is the principal source of drinking water in Assam. Ground water contamination of arsenic in drinking water is a great concern for human health and considered as a human carcinogen. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effects associated with people of southern Assam consuming arsenic contaminated water and chewing tobacco. Employing the buccal cytome assay, exfoliated cells were analyzed in 138 individuals of age range 22-42 years and divided into four groups. Group I (n=54) are participants residing in localities where ground water contains arsenic concentration below the permissible limit (comet assay, percent of tail DNA gradually increases among the groups and has statistical significance. Spearman correlation revealed strong positive correlation between the arsenic exposed peoples and the binucleated cells (r=0.4763; Pcomet assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of annual intake of thorium from animal origin food consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of southern India

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai; Prabhath, R.K.; Rao, D.D.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium ( 232 Th) concentration was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in animal origin food groups widely consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of Tamil Nadu, India. The annual intake was evaluated based on market basket study method for female and male population for different age groups. Annual committed effective dose due to 232 Th intake from the ingestion was evaluated for different age groups of individuals, using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients and annual consumption rate obtained from National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). Annual intake values of 232 Th for adult members of the population were obtained from food items as, fish from 0.2 to 0.8; flesh food (meat, beef and chicken), from 0.03 to 0.12; and milk from 0.2 to 0.3 Bq year -1 . The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotope in these food groups was 0.2 µSv year -1 for male adult population. (author)

  5. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  6. Sanitation challenges of the poor in urban and rural settings: Case studies of Bengaluru City and rural North Karnataka

    Seshaiah, Manasi; Nagesh, Latha; Ramesh, Hemalatha

    2017-01-01

    Bengaluru city faces severe challenges in providing sanitation infrastructure for the urban poor. Similarly, we have villages in North Karnataka that encounter problems of toilet access and related challenges. This paper addresses concerns both in city and rural contexts. We surveyed 400 respondents

  7. Physiological stress responses in wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus in a human-dominated landscape in the Western Ghats, southern India.

    Vijayakrishnan, Sreedhar; Kumar, Mavatur Ananda; Umapathy, G; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Anindya

    2018-05-16

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014. Physiological stress responses varied significantly among the tested elephant age- and sex categories but not across different types of social organisation. Adults generally showed higher FGM concentrations, even in the absence of stressors, than did any other age category. Males also appeared to have higher stress responses than did females. Although there was no significant variation in mean stress levels between elephants on the plateau in the absence of human interactions and those in adjacent, relatively undisturbed forest habitats, FGM concentrations increased significantly for adult and subadult individuals as well as for calves following drives, during which elephants were driven off aggressively by people. Our study emphasises the general importance of understanding individual variation in physiology and behaviour within a population of a seriously threatened mammalian species, the Asian elephant, and specifically highlights the need for long-term monitoring of the stress physiology and behavioural responses of individual elephants across both human-dominated and natural landscapes. Such studies would not only provide comprehensive insights into the adaptive biology of elephants in changing

  8. Long-term trend analysis and climatology of tropical cirrus clouds using 16 years of lidar data set over Southern India

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sixteen-year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from 7 and a half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and the differences in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55 % of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect a higher number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. The mid-cloud altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds is found to be increasing at the rate of 41 ± 21 m year-1. Statistically significant decrease in optical thickness of sub-visible and thick cirrus clouds is observed. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to have increased by 9 % in the last 16 years (1998 to 2013). This increase is mainly compensated by a 7 % decrease in thin cirrus cloud fraction. This has implications for the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  9. Prevalence of Oral, Skin, and Oral and Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus in Patients Visiting a Dental School in Southern India

    Omal, PM; Jacob, Vimal; Prathap, Akhilesh; Thomas, Nebu George

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common among adult population. LP can present as skin and oral lesions. This study highlights the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP from a population of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiodiagnosis, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. This is a ongoing prospective study with results of 2 years being reported. LP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological analysis of mucosal and skin biopsy done for all patients suspected of having LP. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software version 14. To test the statistical significance, chi-square test was used. Results: Out of 18,306 patients screened, 8,040 were males and 10,266 females. LP was seen in 118 cases (0.64%). Increased prevalence of LP was observed in middle age adults (40–60 years age group) with lowest age of 12 years and highest age of 65 years. No statistically significant differences were observed between the genders in skin LP group (P=0.12) and in oral and skin LP groups (P=0.06); however, a strong female predilection was seen in oral LP group (P=0.000036). The prevalence of cutaneous LP in oral LP patients was 0.06%. Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of oral LP than skin LP, and oral and skin LP with a female predominance. PMID:22615505

  10. Contrasting isotopic mantle sources for proterozoic lamproites and kimberlites from the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton: implication for proterozoic mantle heterogeneity beneath southern India

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Gibson, S.A.; Pyle, D.M.; Dickin, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Kimberlites intruding the Precambrian basement towards the western margin of the Cuddapah basin near Anantapur (1090 Ma) and Mahbubnagar (1360 Ma) in Andhra Pradesh have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70205 to 0.70734 and σNd between +0.5 to +4.68. Mesoproterozoic lamproites (1380 Ma) from the Cuddapah basin (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) and its NE margin (Ramannapeta) have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70520 and 0.7390 and εNd from -6.43 to -8.29. Combined Sr- and Nd- isotopic ratios suggest that lamproites were derived from enriched sources which have time-averaged higher Rb/Sr and lower Sm/Nd ratios than the Bulk Earth whereas kimberlites were derived from depleted source with lower Rb/Sr and higher Sm/Nd ratios. Calculated T DM model ages suggest that the lamproite source enrichment (∼2 Ga) preceded that of kimberlites (∼1.37 Ga). Our work demonstrates the existence of isotopically contrasting upper mantle sources for southern Indian kimberlites and lamproites and provides evidence for a lateral, isotopically heterogeneous mantle beneath the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton. The significance of our results in the context of diamond exploration is also highlighted. (author)

  11. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  12. No longer diseases of the wealthy: prevalence and health-seeking for self-reported chronic conditions among urban poor in Southern India.

    Bhojani, Upendra; Beerenahalli, Thriveni S; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, C M; Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-08-13

    The burden of chronic conditions is high in low- and middle-income countries and poses a significant challenge to already weak healthcare delivery systems in these countries. Studies investigating chronic conditions among the urban poor remain few and focused on specific chronic conditions rather than providing overall profile of chronic conditions in a given community, which is critical for planning and managing services within local health systems. We aimed to assess the prevalence and health- seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in a poor neighbourhood of a metropolitan city in India. We conducted a house-to-house survey covering 9299 households (44514 individuals) using a structured questionnaire. We relied on self-report by respondents to assess presence of any chronic conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the prevalence and health-seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in general as well as for diabetes and hypertension in particular. The predictor variables included age, sex, income, religion, household poverty status, presence of comorbid chronic conditions, and tiers in the local health care system. Overall, the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was 13.8% (95% CI = 13.4, 14.2) among adults, with hypertension (10%) and diabetes (6.4%) being the most commonly reported conditions. Older people and women were more likely to report chronic conditions. We found reversal of socioeconomic gradient with people living below the poverty line at significantly greater odds of reporting chronic conditions than people living above the poverty line (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.5, 5.8). Private healthcare providers managed over 80% of patients. A majority of patients were managed at the clinic/health centre level (42.9%), followed by the referral hospital (38.9%) and the super-specialty hospital (18.2%) level. An increase in income was positively associated with the use

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychological distress on infant development in Bengaluru, southern India: a prospective cohort study.

    Nath, Anita; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Ba