WorldWideScience

Sample records for karnal bunt tilletia

  1. Induction of MAP Kinase Homologues during Growth and Morphogenetic Development of Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica) under the Influence of Host Factor(s) from Wheat Spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul K.; Seneviratne, J. M.; Joshi, G. K.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Signaling pathways that activate different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to certain environmental conditions, play important role in mating type switching (Fus3) and pathogenicity (Pmk1) in many fungi. In order to determine the roles of such regulatory genes in Tilletia indica, the causal pathogen of Karnal bunt (KB) of wheat, semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to isolate and determine the expression of MAP kinase homologues during fungal growth and development under in vitro culture. Maximum expression of TiFus3 and TiPmk1 genes were observed at 14th and 21st days of culture and decreased thereafter. To investigate whether the fungus alters the expression levels of same kinases upon interaction with plants, cultures were treated with 1% of host factors (extracted from S-2 stage of wheat spikes). Such treatment induced the expression of MAPks in time dependent manner compared to the absence of host factors. These results suggest that host factor(s) provide certain signal(s) which activate TiFus3 and TiPmk1 during morphogenetic development of T. indica. The results also provides a clue about the role of host factors in enhancing the disease potential due to induction of MAP kinases involved in fungal development and pathogenecity. PMID:22547988

  2. Secretome Analysis Identifies Potential Pathogenicity/Virulence Factors of Tilletia indica, a Quarantined Fungal Pathogen Inciting Karnal Bunt Disease in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishakha; Singh, Manoj; Pandey, Dinesh; Marla, Soma; Kumar, Anil

    2018-04-01

    Tilletia indica is a smut fungus that incites Karnal bunt in wheat. It has been considered as quarantine pest in more than 70 countries. Despite its quarantine significance, there is meager knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Moreover, various disease management strategies have proven futile. Development of effective disease management strategy requires identification of pathogenicity/virulence factors. With this aim, the present study was conducted to compare the secretomes of T. indica isolates, that is, highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. About 120 and 95 protein spots were detected reproducibly in TiK and TiP secretome gel images. Nineteen protein spots, which were consistently observed as upregulated/differential in the secretome of TiK isolate, were selected for their identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified proteins exhibited homology with fungal proteins playing important role in fungal adhesion, penetration, invasion, protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species, production of virulence factors, cellular signaling, and degradation of host cell wall proteins and antifungal proteins. These results were complemented with T. indica genome sequence leading to identification of candidate pathogenicity/virulence factors homologs that were further subjected to sequence- and structure-based functional annotation. Thus, present study reports the first comparative secretome analysis of T. indica for identification of pathogenicity/virulence factors. This would provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms of T. indica and aid in devising effective disease management strategies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 77 FR 22185 - Karnal Bunt; Regulated Areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... day of April 2012. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0074] Karnal Bunt; Regulated Areas in California AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  4. Studies on mode of infection of Neovossia indica incitant of karnal bunt of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munjal, R.L.; Chatrath, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Mode of infection of Karnal bunt fungus-Neovossia indica has been established by using histopathological and radiotracer techniques. It has been observed that germ tubes arising from sporidia of the fungus directly enter the epidermal cells of glumes and then to the ovary through the ovary wall. (author)

  5. Defining the Costs of an Outbreak of Karnal Bunt of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, John P.; Thorne, Fiona S.; Kelly, Paul W.; Murray, Gordon M.

    2004-01-01

    In determining the economic impact of a possible outbreak of the quarantinable wheat disease Karnal Bunt, an examination was made of the detailed components of the costs involved. The costs were classified as: (a) Direct costs (yield and quality losses); (b) Reaction costs (export bans, quality down-grading, seed industry costs); and (c) Control costs (quarantine zones, fungicides, spore destruction). The relative importance of each of these cost components is measured for a hypothetical outb...

  6. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  7. The effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on common bunt and covered smut diseases in wheat and barley seeds (Tilletia Caries, T. Foetida and Ustilago Hordei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.A.

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of seeds treated by low doses of gamma irradiation (5-45 GY) in reducing the infection caused by pathagens transferred on wheat and barley seeds. Field experiments included 4 varieties of wheat (Mexipak, Fl. Aurore, Haurani, Jezira 17) and one variety of barley (WI 2291). Laboratory experiments were also carried out where fungal spores were germinated in soil-extract agar after the exposure to radiation. Field experiments included planting of irradiated seeds before and after inoculation, seed inculated by irradiated spores and seeds planted in soil contaminated by spores. In other experiments, irradiated seeds were planted after inoculation by spores of T. Caries and another time by the spores of T. Foetida. Results for 1988-89 and 1989-90 show that irradiation at doses used have a clear effect on reducing the infection by common bunt in wheat and covered smut in barley, where reductions reached between 15-60% compared with the control. The effects of 30 and 40 GY were more obvious. This study has also shown that the effect of radiation on the rate of infection (Mexipak, Fl. Aurore) was higher than in varieties which are more disease-resistent (Haurani, Jazira 17). Field and laboratory experiments indicate that this reduction in infection may be attributed to the effect of radiation on seeds and their germination and not on the fungi spores. There have been no significant differences between the rate of infection caused by T. Caries and T. Foetida after irradiation treatment. (author). 61 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  8. A novel QTL associated with dwarf bunt resistance in Idaho 444 winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant component of Mendel’s legacy has been the ability to discover, map, and utilize genes for resistance to diseases in the crops that the world relies on for food. Dwarf bunt [Tilletia contraversa Kühn (syn. Tilletia controversa)] is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ...

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of wheat bunt spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y G; Schmitt, R A [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Radiation Center); Trione, E J [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Dept. of Botany; Laul, J C [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of seventeen elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, La, Sm) in two species of fungus which cause wheat bunt disease, Tilletia caries (DC.) Tul. and Tilletia controversa Kuehn, were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A standard sequential INAA procedure was used. Differences in the K and Cl concentrations between these two species of spores are large and therefore can be used as a criterion of distinguishing between the two species of fungus.

  10. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica ) resistance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ear heads were harvested and grains were removed care- fully by hand. Percent ... Low callusing ability of embryo excised from mature grains were also .... induction, proliferation and plant regeneration from mature ... Plant Cell Rep. 18 331– ...

  11. 7 CFR 319.59-4 - Karnal bunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Mechanized harvesting equipment that has been used in the production of wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that... equipment and storage/handling equipment that has been used in the production of wheat, durum wheat, or... solution of hot water and detergent, applied under pressure of at least 30 pounds per square inch, at a...

  12. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations...... and maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the influence...

  13. Heath Bunting / Heath Bunting ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bunting, Heath

    2006-01-01

    Inglise kunstnikust Heath Bunting'ust (sünd. 1966) ja tema loomingust, intervjuu kunstnikuga 19. VI 1997 Kasselis. H. Bunting tegelemisest grafitiga, oma Interneti-projektist "A visitor's guide to London", võrguprojektidest ja muust

  14. Identification of Tilletia species using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Župunski Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing 167 non-processed seed samples of wheat, it was found that 145 samples (86.8 % were contaminated with Tilletia species, while 22 (13.2 % samples were not contaminated. By using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique, it was found that DNA isolates of T. tritici originated from Serbian wheat samples had 80 % similarity with positive control for T. tritici. One isolate shared similarity of 60% with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. It was supposed that this isolate belongs to T. bromi. Isolate of T. laevis shared a similarity of 70 % with isolates of T. tritici and T. controversa, while T. walkeri was more than 10 % similar with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. Although T. controversa and T. tritici had high percent of genetic similarity, they were clustered separately. Our results suggest that rep-PCR fingerprinting could be a useful tool for monitoring presence of morphologically similar Tilletia species in wheat production areas.

  15. Opportunities in Tajikistan to breed wheat varieties resistant to seed-borne diseases and improved baking quality

    OpenAIRE

    Husenov, Bahromiddin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat seed-borne diseases and options for improving baking quality of wheat, as well as the role of genotypes for breeding to achieve high yield and quality are the key issues discussed in this introductory paper. The importance of wheat for Tajikistan and how to achieve food security goals in the country is also elucidated. Wheat seed-borne diseases are caused mostly by fungi. Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici), Common Bunt (Tilletia laevis and T.caries), Karnal Bunt (T.indica), Dwarf Bunt (T....

  16. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Quality-Reducing, Seed Borne Diseases: Lessons From Karnal Bunt of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, John P.; Warham, Elizabeth J.; Byerlee, Derek R.; Hernandez, Julio

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of aggregate disease costs can be used for assigning research resources or to evaluate control measures. Most diseases cause production losses, but others affect quality and marketability. Seed-borne diseases also cause problems for the seed production and distribution industry. The aim in this paper is to examine issues relating to the economic impact of a quality-reducing, seed-borne disease, and to highlight differences compared to non-seed-borne diseases affecting yield only. Ec...

  17. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Karnal district, Haryana state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little work has been done on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in north India. This paper reports the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district of Haryana state, India. Materials and methods Prevalence of type 1 diabetes was assessed by a hospital-based registry and by analysis of data contributed by chemists and other physicians. Results The overall prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district is 10.20/100,000 population, with a higher prevalence in urban (26.6/100,000 as compared to rural areas (4.27/100,000. Karnal city, with a population of 222017, has a relatively high prevalence of type 1 diabetes (31.9/100,000. The prevalence in men is higher (11.56/100,000 than in women (8.6/100,000. In the 5 to 16 years age group, the prevalence is 22.22/100,000, while in the 0-5 years age group, prevalence is 3.82/100,000. Conclusions This report highlights the urban-rural and male-female gradient in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal, north India.

  18. Entwicklung von Immunochemischen und PCR-Methoden zum Qualitativen Nachweis von Tilletia-Arten und Ustilago nuda in Saatgut

    OpenAIRE

    Kellerer, Thomas Georg

    2010-01-01

    Weizensteinbrand (Tilletia caries), Weizenzwergsteinbrand (Tilletia controversa) und der Quarantäneorganismus Indischer Steinbrand (Tilletia indica) sind Brandkrankheiten, die einen erheblichen Einfluss auf die Qualität und Quantität vor allem in Öko-Saatgut haben. Ein Nachweis und die Unterscheidung waren bisher nur schwer und nicht immer eindeutig unter dem Mikroskop durchführbar. Anhand des HSP60 Gens wurden drei spezifische Primerpaare für einen PCR-Nachweis sowie polyklonale Antikörper f...

  19. Which regional features of Danish agriculture favour the corn bunting in the contemporary farming landscape?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Corn buntings Miliaria calandra were abundant throughout arable agricultural landscapes in Europe, but have catastrophically declined since the mid 1970s with changes in farming practice and now give serious conservation cause for concern. Corn buntings declined in Denmark during 1976...... on land use correlation and bird surveillance, these results show an association between mixed farming and favourable conservation status of a species now red-listed throughout much of Europe. Further investigations of habitat use at small spatial scales and throughout the annual cycle are urgently...

  20. The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College Technical Report. Science Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    C. SHAW STELLA M. NKOMO The New Politics ofinclusion: Transformini Fellow (Anthropology and Archaeology ) University of North Carolina at Charloue...Behavior) ROBIN KILSON the Maya L4wia’dt LiWe Joneyr of Women in Corporations Bunting Fellow (Black Women’s Studies) Massachusett Institute of

  1. Phylogeography of a vanishing North American songbird: The Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, C.A.; Sykes, P.W.; Klicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The breeding distribution of Painted Buntings (Passerina ciris) is comprised of two allopatric populations separated by a 550-km distributional gap in the southeastern United States. Curiously, the boundary between the two recognized P. ciris subspecies does not separate the two allopatric breeding populations but instead runs roughly through the center of the interior population. Genetic relationships among these subspecies, and the allopatric breeding populations of Painted Bunting, have not been assessed. Given the recent decline in overall abundance of this species, such an assessment is warranted. We sampled birds from 15 localities (138 individuals) and identified 35 distinct haplotypes, six belonging to the Atlantic Coast population and 26 to the interior population, with three shared by both populations. AMOVA results showed that a significantly greater portion of the total genetic variance is explained when grouping birds by the interior and Atlantic Coast populations rather than by subspecies. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Atlantic Coast and interior populations represent independently evolving taxa, with no measureable gene flow between them. Although recently diverged (26,000-115,000 years ago), these isolated bunting populations represent incipient species. For development of conservation strategies, we suggest that the Atlantic Coast and interior populations be recognized as separate management units. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Responses to playback of different subspecies songs in the Reed Bunting (Emberiza s. schoeniclus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pilastro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in the western Palearctic are classified in two major subspecies groups according to morphology: northern migratory schoeniclus and Mediterranean resident intermedia. Songs of the two groups differ mainly in complexity and syllable structure......, with intermedia songs being more complex. We explored the possibilities of song as a subspecies isolating mechanism by testing if male schoeniclus Reed Buntings reacted differently to field playbacks of songs from their own subspecies group, from the foreign subspecies group and from a control species...

  3. 7 CFR 301.89-15 - Compensation for growers, handlers, and seed companies in the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Karnal bunt after purchase by the handler or seed company, as long as the price to be paid by the handler... the intention of producing certified wheat seed. (1) Growers. Growers of wheat in an area under the... prior to sale, or that was tested by APHIS and found positive for Karnal bunt after sale and the price...

  4. Search for new radioprotective agents. Part 34. Synthesis of Bunte's salts and isothicarbamides of aromatic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulecki, J.; Kalinowska-Torz, J.; Senczuk, L.; Skwarski, D.

    1977-01-01

    In exchange reactions involving sodium thiosulphate and the respective halogen derivatives, the following Bunte's salts hitherto undescribed in the available literature were obtained: sodium salt of 4-methyl-benzyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodium salt of 4-metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodum salt of 4 metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /3/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /5/, sodum salt of 2-methoxy-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /7/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-phenly-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /8/, sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /9/, sodium salt of 3-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /10/, and sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-thiosulphuric acid /11/. In exchange reactions involving thiourea and the respective halogenderivatives, the following isothiocarbamides were obtained: 4-methyl-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /2/, 4-methoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isotchiocarbamide hydrochloride /4/, 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /6/, 4-methosy-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /12/. (author)

  5. Changes in brain peptides associated with reproduction and energy homeostasis in photosensitive and photorefractory migratory redheaded buntings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, Ashutosh; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Present study examined the expression of brain peptides associated with the reproduction and energy homeostasis (GnRH/GnIH, NPY/VIP), and assessed their possible functional association in the photosensitive (non-breeding, pre-breeding), photostimulated (breeding) and photorefractory (post-breeding) migratory redheaded buntings (Emberiza bruniceps), using double-labeled immunohistochemistry. Particularly, we measured immunoreactive (-ir) cell numbers, per cent cell area and cell optical density (OD) in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, DMH and infundibular complex, INc (NPY and VIP), and lateral septal organ (VIP) of buntings kept under natural photoperiods at the wintering latitude (26°55'N). There was a significant seasonal difference in GnRH-I, not GnRH-II, with reduced -ir cells in the photosensitive and photorefractory buntings, and notably with increased cell OD between the refractory and non-breeding states with no increase in testis size. Also, increased cell OD of GnIH neurons in non-breeding state indicated its role in the maintenance of small testes during the post-refractory period. Overall, seasonal changes in GnRH-I and GnIH were found consistent with their suggested roles in reproductive regulation of absolute photorefractory birds. Further, there was a significant seasonal change in cell OD of NPY neurons in DMH, not the INc. In contrast, VIP immunoreactivity was seasonally altered, with a significantly higher VIP-ir cells in breeding than the pre-breeding state. Finally, close proximity between perikarya with fibres suggested functional interactions between the GnRH and GnIH, and NPY and VIP. Thus, seasonal plasticity of brain peptides is perhaps the part of neural regulation of seasonal reproduction and associated energy homeostasis in migratory songbirds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integrative microbiology – the third Golden Age .... Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat ... glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of diabetic and fat fed animals: Effects of insulin and manganese.

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat ... were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of ... Hisar 125 004, India; Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, CCS ...

  8. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... 2 Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, ... markers closely linked to karnal bunt resistance in wheat. ... from leaf tissues using modified CTAB procedure (Saghai-Maroof et.

  9. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread wheat showing an association with karnal bunt resistance. M Kumar, OP Luthra, NR Yadav, L Chaudhary, N Saini, R Kumar, I Sharma, V Chawla ...

  10. The effects of patch shape and connectivity on nest site selection and reproductive success of the Indigo Bunting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, Aimee Jean

    2004-07-01

    Description – Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abatract - Habitat fragmentation and its associated effects have been blamed for the recent population declines of many Neotropical migratory bird species. Increased predation and parasitism resulting from edge-related effects have been implicated for poor nesting success in many studies, mostly of forest interior species. However, little attention has been devoted to disturbance-dependent birds. In this study, I examine how patch shape and connectivity in fragmented landscapes affects the reproductive success of disturbance-dependent bird species, specifically the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). I conducted my study in a landscape-scale experimental system of similar-area habitat patches that differed in connectivity and in shape. Shapes differed between edgy and rectangular forms, where edgy patches contained 50% more edge than rectangular patches. I tested whether edgy patches function as ecological traps for species with strong edge preferences, by leading them to select dangerous habitats. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches over rectangular patches, but experienced significantly lower reproductive success in edgy patches early in the season. Although predation pressure intensified in rectangular patches late in the season, seasonal fecundity was still significantly lower in edgy patches, providing the first empirical evidence that edges can function as ecological traps for Indigo Buntings. A second objective of my study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservation corridors for disturbance-dependent bird species. Conservation corridors have become a popular strategy to preserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes, but corridors may also have negative consequences. I tested the hypothesis that corridors can increase nest predation risk in connected patches relative to unconnected patches. Nest predation rates

  11. Discussing implications of fast depleting rural ponds on the globally threatened wetland winter migratory bird in Haryana: a Case Study of Nigdu village pond in Karnal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash Chand Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nigdu-Sarovar is located in Nilokheri block in Karnal district in Haryana (29°50′N 76°55′E. The duration of observations span over seven years (September, 2005 to March, 2012. The recording of wetland winter visitor birds during 2005-08 in winter season included atleast 58 species of birds belonging to 10 orders and 18 families. It is important to mention that 29 species of wetland birds were winter migratory, 17 residents, 9 local migratory and three species of wetland birds like Lesser-whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus and Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus were summer migratory. The special features of 2005-06 winter was the huge populations of birds like Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal Anas crecca, Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhynchus, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Greylag Goose Anser anser, Gadwall Anas strepera, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Common Redshank Tringa totanus etc.In successive years, the scenario was more or less a substantial one depicting stability with respect to diversity of birds, number of birds upto the year of 2008. The popular birds included Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans, White-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines. The sharp decline in winter migratory birds at “Nigdu-Sarovar” started in the year of 2008 when the pond was leased out for FISH-FARMING as per the policies of Govt. of Haryana. Fish Farming based deepening of the pond by excavation of bottom resulting in total decimation of rooted, floating, submerged and ejecting plants along with its subsidiary fauna, Zooplanktons, phytoplankton etc. The age old structural regime of the pond

  12. Integrating Open Access Geospatial Data to Map the Habitat Suitability of the Declining Corn Bunting (Miliaria calandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim M. Abdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of integrating open access geospatial data to produce habitat suitability maps for the corn bunting (Miliaria calandra was investigated. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM and Corine (Coordination of Information on the Environment land cover data for the year 2000 (CLC2000 were processed to extract explanatory variables and divided into three sets; Satellite (ETM+, SRTM, CLC2000 and Combined (CLC2000 + Satellite. Presence-absence data for M. calandra, collected during structured surveys for the Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas, were provided by the Catalan Ornithological Institute. The dataset was partitioned into an equal number of presence and absence points by dividing it into five groups, each composed of 88 randomly selected presence points to match the number of absences. A logistic regression model was then built for each group. Models were evaluated using area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC. Results of the five groups were averaged to produce mean Satellite, CLC2000 and Combined models. The mean AUC values were 0.69, 0.81 and 0.90 for the CLC2000, Satellite and the Combined model, respectively. The probability of M. calandra presence had the strongest positive correlation with land surface temperature, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, coefficient of variation for ETM+ band 5 and the fraction of non-irrigated arable land.

  13. Phenotypic divergence among west European populations of Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus: the effects of migratory and foraging behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available Divergent selection and local adaptation are responsible for many phenotypic differences between populations, potentially leading to speciation through the evolution of reproductive barriers. Here we evaluated the morphometric divergence among west European populations of Reed Bunting in order to determine the extent of local adaptation relative to two important selection pressures often associated with speciation in birds: migration and diet. We show that, as expected by theory, migratory E. s. schoeniclus had longer and more pointed wings and a slightly smaller body mass than the resident subspecies, with the exception of E. s. lusitanica, which despite having rounder wings was the smallest of all subspecies. Tail length, however, did not vary according to the expectation (shorter tails in migrants probably because it is strongly correlated with wing length and might take longer to evolve. E. s. witherbyi, which feed on insects hiding inside reed stems during the winter, had a very thick, stubby bill. In contrast, northern populations, which feed on seeds, had thinner bills. Despite being much smaller, the southern E. s. lusitanica had a significantly thicker, longer bill than migratory E. s. schoeniclus, whereas birds from the UK population had significantly shorter, thinner bills. Geometric morphometric analyses revealed that the southern subspecies have a more convex culmen than E. s. schoeniclus, and E. s. lusitanica differs from the nominate subspecies in bill shape to a greater extent than in linear bill measurements, especially in males. Birds with a more convex culmen are thought to exert a greater strength at the bill tip, which is in agreement with their feeding technique. Overall, the three subspecies occurring in Western Europe differ in a variety of traits following the patterns predicted from their migratory and foraging behaviours, strongly suggesting that these birds have became locally adapted through natural selection.

  14. Further contributions on the description of the nest, eggs and nesting habitat of the Mexican micro-endemic and near threatened Rose-bellied Bunting (Passerina rositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Monroy-Ojeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While assessing species density, abundance, and distribution through transects and point counts for the near threatened species Rose-bellied Bunting, Passerina rositae, we found two active nests on two hillsides characterized by tropical dry deciduous forest on the western slope of its restricted range in the Sierra Tolistoque, in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. In both cases, we found no evidence of human disturbance and no proximate trail systems. This description adds further details of previous nest descriptions. These new findings have conservation implications due to the fact that original habitat degradation is rapidly occurring, not only due to cattle pastures, croplands, orchards, and human settlements, but also to a fast growing wind farm and highway development projects in the region.

  15. Urinary metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effects of total alkaloids from Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats using 1H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Zheng-Teng; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Jin-Xia; Liu, Xu-Wen; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fang-Ming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Liang, Yong-Hong; Song, Hui; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2017-06-05

    Chronic liver injury has been shown to cause liver fibrosis due to the sustained pathophysiological wound healing response of the liver, and eventually progresses to cirrhosis. The total alkaloids of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (TACS), a collection of important bioactive ingredients derived from the traditional Chinese folk medicine Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), have been reported to have protective effects on the liver. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, the urinary metabonomics and the biochemical changes in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced chronic liver injury due to treatment TACS or administration of the positive control drug-bifendate were studied via proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) analysis. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) suggested that metabolic perturbation caused by CCl 4 damage was recovered with TACS and bifendate treatment. A total of seven metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylamine, taurine, phenylacetylglycine, creatinine and hippurate were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury. According to pathway analysis using identified metabolites and correlation network construction, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were recognized as the most affected metabolic pathways associated with CCl 4 chronic hepatotoxicity. Notably, the changes in 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, taurine and hippurate during the process of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury were significantly restored by TACS treatment, which suggested that TACS synergistically mediated the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including the TCA cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. This study could bring valuable insight to evaluating the efficacy of TACS intervention therapy, help deepen the understanding of the

  16. 7 CFR 301.89-12 - Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica must be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with § 301.89-13 prior to being used in the conditioning of seed that has tested negative for the spores of Tilletia indica or to being moved from a... move bunted-kernel-positive host crops, including trucks, railroad cars, and other containers, that...

  17. Serum metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effect of Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats by (1)H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong-Hong; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Fang; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fangming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Song, Hui; Zheng, Hua; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2016-09-10

    Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), a traditional Chinese folk medicine, has been effectively used for treating liver disease in Zhuang nationality in South China. However, the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of CS was still looking forward to further elucidation by far. In present work, metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the serum of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury rats after CS treatment were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. Metabolic profiling by means of principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation caused by CCl4 was reduced by CS treatment. A total of 9 metabolites including isoleucine (1), lactate (2), alanine (3), glutamine (4), acetone (5), succinate (6), phosphocholine (7), d-glucose (8) and glycerol (9) were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl4-induced acute liver injury. According to pathway analysis by metabolites identified and correlation network construction by Pearson's correlation coefficency matrix, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism were recognized as the most influenced metabolic pathways associated with CCl4 injury. As a result, notably, deviations of metabolites 1, 3, 4, 7 and 9 in the process of CCl4-induced acute liver injury were improved by CS treatment, which suggested that CS mediated synergistically abnormalities of the metabolic pathways, composed of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. In this study, it was the first report to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the CS based on metabonomics strategy, which may be a potentially powerful tool to interpret the action mechanism of traditional Chinese folk medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and other...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Induction of defense response against Karnal bunt (KB) by suppressing the pathogenesis was observed upon exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) as evident from decrease in the coefficient of infection and overall response value in both susceptible and resistant varieties of wheat. The ultra-structural changes ...

  20. 7 CFR 301.89-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 301.89-1 Section 301.89-1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-1 Definitions. Actual price... part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a...

  1. Profil Imunoglobulin-G Serum Kambing Peranakan Etawah Bunting yang Diberi Imbuhan Pakan Mineral Seng (SERUM IMUNOGLOBULIN-G LEVEL ON PREGNANT ETTAWAH CROSSBRED WERE GIVEN ZINC MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sus Derthi Widhyari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the effect of zinc supplementation on the profile of immunoglobulin-G (IgG in the pregnant etawah-cross ewes. Fifteen etawah-cross ewes (3-6 years old and 30-50 kg body weight were used in this experiment and they were divided into three groups each of which consisted of 5 ewes. The first group (Zn40 received 40 ppm Zn as control, the second group (Zn60 received 60 ppm Zn, and the third group (Zn80 received 80 ppm Zn. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein every two weeks, started at twelve weeks of pregnancy up to eight weeks post partum for immunoglobulin-G analysis. IgG level were analyzed by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique. Results showed that there were no significant difference of immunoglobulin-G level (P>0,05 among the three treatment groups ( Zn40, Zn60, and Zn80. However, IgG level of Zn40 and Zn80 groups tended to decrease during the last staget of pregnancy until two weeks post partum. In conclusion, supplementation of 60 ppm Zn showed higher IgG level than Zn 80 ppm. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek suplementasi seng (Zn terhadap imunoglobulin-G (IgG pada kambing peranakan etawah (PE bunting. Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 ekor kambing PE umur sekitar tiga sampai enam tahun, bobot badan sekitar 30-50 kg dibagi ke dalam tiga kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari lima ekor. Kelompok Zn40 (kontrol diberi pakan mengandung mineral Zn 40 ppm, kelompok Zn60 mengandung mineral Zn 60 ppm, dan kelompok Zn80 mengandung mineral Zn 80 ppm. Sampel darah diambil melalui vena jugularis untuk menganalisis konsentrasi IgG. Pengambilan sampel darah dilakukan setiap dua minggu mulai umur kebuntingan 12 minggu sampai delapan minggu setelah melahirkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi IgG serum tidak menunjukkan perbedaan secara nyata antar kelompok (P>0,05 antara kelompok Zn 0, Zn 40 dan Zn 80 ppm. Kelompok Zn 40 ppm dan 80 ppm cendrung

  2. Induced mutations in Iraqi bread wheat cv. Saber Beg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, I F; Haidar, H O [Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, NRC and Agriculture Research Station, Telafor (Iraq)

    1989-07-01

    ''Saber Beg'', is a local wheat cultivar important in the semi-arid zone of Iraq where the rainfall is less than 450 mm per year. This cultivar has a good baking quality, but is of low productivity, high susceptibility to common bunt (Tilletia spp.) and to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.), but only in the rainy season. A mutation breeding programme using gamma irradiation has been started in 1978 to improve this cultivar. Seeds of all main tillers from M{sub 1} plants were harvested and artificially inoculated with teliospores of Tilletia spp. All the seeds from healthy M{sub 2} plants were inoculated again and sown in the same area. Out of 22920 M{sub 3} plants, 244 resistant ones were selected. During subsequent screening for 4 generations, however, only 3 mutants were confirmed.

  3. Induced mutations in Iraqi bread wheat cv. Saber Beg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Haidar, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    ''Saber Beg'', is a local wheat cultivar important in the semi-arid zone of Iraq where the rainfall is less than 450 mm per year. This cultivar has a good baking quality, but is of low productivity, high susceptibility to common bunt (Tilletia spp.) and to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.), but only in the rainy season. A mutation breeding programme using gamma irradiation has been started in 1978 to improve this cultivar. Seeds of all main tillers from M 1 plants were harvested and artificially inoculated with teliospores of Tilletia spp. All the seeds from healthy M 2 plants were inoculated again and sown in the same area. Out of 22920 M 3 plants, 244 resistant ones were selected. During subsequent screening for 4 generations, however, only 3 mutants were confirmed

  4. "Russkii bunt" smetajut s polok / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    Urmas E. Liivi dokumentaalfilm "Pronksöö : Vene mäss Tallinnas" DVD tuli müügile 9. juulil. Esimene tiraazh (üle 4000) müüdi läbi kuu ajaga, tellitud on teine (3000), millest osa loodetakse müüa väljaspoole Eestit

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the yellow-browed bunting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) kit (Takara, Dalian,. China) .... boxes in the central domain; CSB, conserved sequence block; CSB-like, a sequence similar to the CSB; LSP, ..... and Ecology Safety in Anhui Province, the Key Programme of.

  6. Variation in singing style use in the reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus: influencing factors and possible functions

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, P; Pasinelli, G

    2010-01-01

    The two main functions of bird song are territory defence and mate attraction. Considerable progress has been made in understanding how species adjust the use of songs to serve these and other (presumed) functions of bird song, but the striking variety of singing behavior observable in wild birds remains enigmatic. Some species make do with simple songs and small repertoires, while others show large, complex repertoires and still others have evolved several distinct singing styles. In most sp...

  7. Bunt, gra, taniec. Wokół początków capoeiry

    OpenAIRE

    Kleczkowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the most popular theories of the origins of capoeira, focusing on main meaning of this sport: the protest, the play and the dance. The capoeira is a Brazilian martial art, which combines elements of dance, acrobatics, music and game. It is nowadays very popular in both Americas and Europe (including Poland), but primarily it was only an art of African slaves and lower classes in Brazil. It is not well known how the capoeira came into existence, but the most popular of ...

  8. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.M.; Lessells, C.M.; Komdeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  9. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Lessells, CM; Komdeur, J; Lessells, C(Kate). M.

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  10. Synthesis of morpholine derivatives and Bunte's salt as compounds of potential radioprotective activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain several compounds possessing radioprotective activity. The syntheses yielded seven undescribed compounds i.e.: benzyl ester of the N-morpholinecarbathionothioglicol acid, ester bis S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-2-thioethyl, morpholine salt of the N-morpholinecarbothionothiolic acid, sodium and potassium salt of S-morpholine-4-carbonyl, methylthiosulfate, sodium and potassium salt of beta-hydroxyethyl thiosulfate. Moreover, with the aid of other methods following compounds were synthetized: beta-S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl) ethyl thiopropioniane, amide of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, acid S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, sodium salt of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid. The structure of these compounds was confirmed using elementary and spectral analysis.

  11. A conversion of aromatic thiocyanates into sulfothioates: new synthetic route to aromatic Bunte salts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Čechová, Lucie; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2013), s. 2650-2654 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : functionalized gold nanoparticles * self -assembled monolayers * thiosulfates * disulfides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.708, year: 2013

  12. Syntheses of some Bunte's salts, isothiourea derivatives and thioethers, potential radioprotective agents. Part 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulecki, J.; Kalinowska Torz, J.; Musial, E.; Nacewicz-Anjedani, H.; Senczuk, L.; Skwarski, D.; Sobolewski, H.

    1977-01-01

    By reacting respective halogen-derivatives with sodium or potassium thiosulphate there were obtained sodium or potassium salts of S-thiosulphates of 1-ureidocarbonyl-1-butyl, 3,4-dihydroxyphenacyl, carbophenoxymethyl, 2-hydroxyphenacyl, /N-(4-iodophenyl) carbamyl/methyl, /N-(4-iodophenyl) carbamyl/ethyl, /N-(2-iodophenyl) carbamyl/-methyl, /N-(2-iodophenyl) carbamyl/ethyl, /N-(6-carbomethoxybenzothiazolyl-2)-carbamyl/methyl, (2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylpyrimidyl-5)-methyl and (2,4-dihydroxypyrimidyl-5)-methyl. Reactions of thiourea with respective halogen-derivatives yielded hydrochlorides of 1-methyl-02-amidinothiomethylbenzimidazole, 1-ethyl-2-amidinothiomethylbenzimidazole, S-/N-(2-iodophenyl) carbamylethyl/ isothiourea, 5-amidinothiomethyl-6-methyl-2,4-dihydroxypyrimide and 5-amidinothiomethyl-2,4-dihydroxypyrimidine. Reactions of 4-chloroquinoline N-oxide with respective mercaptanes afforded thioether derivatives of quinoline N-oxide: 4-(p-chlorophenylthio)-4-(t-butylthio)-, 4-(3-naphtylthio)-, 4-(3-naphtylaminoacetylthio), 4-(benzimidazolythio)-, 4-(benzothiazolylthio) - and 4-benzoxalylthio. (author)

  13. RESPONS ANTIBODI ANTI ETEC K99 PADA INDUK SAPI BUNTING SETELAH PEMBERIAN VAKSIN ESCHERICHIA COLI POLIVALEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to detect antibody (IgG against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETECK99 in the blood of cows vaccinated by Escherichia coli polyvalent vaccine. Eight dry cows were injectedsubcutaneously by polyvalent Escherichia coli twice prior to parturition. Before vaccinated, the cows were givenimmunomodulator orally for 3 days. Blood samples were drawn from coccigeal vein prior to the 1st vaccination,two week following the 1st vaccination and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the 2nd vaccination. Blood samples wereanalyzed for IgG and ETEC K99 using indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA assay. Results of theexperiment indicated that absorbance values of all vaccinated cows before the first vaccination until third weekfollowing the 2nd vaccination were below cut off values. The absorbance values then increased and were above cutoff values at fourth week following the 2nd vaccination. In conclusion, antibody against ETEC K99, were detected inthe blood of cows, fourth week following the 2nd vaccination.

  14. Bunte Blumenwiese versus Nutzbarkeit - Virtuelle Fachbibliotheken und andere Fachportale im Kontext von vascoda und Möglichkeiten der Homogenisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Pianos, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research have funded the establishment of subject-specific portals since the end of the 1990s. Currently, there exist at about 40 portals for each academic field. These subject portals are aligned to the specific user needs in research and teaching. This means that each portal has its own characteristics, but all of them offer the same core of services, e.g., literature search, catalogue of internet resources, etc...

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLB620 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 67 2e-10 DQ993184_8( DQ993184 |pid:none) Tilletia indica strain F11 mitocho... 66 4e-10 EF536375_8( EF536375 |pid:none) Tilletia wal...keri strain TJ23 mitoc... 66 4e-10 M35967_1( M35967 |pid:none) A.nidulans mitochond

  16. "Któż tam będzie wisiał?" – Bunt chłopski w miejskiej wyobraźni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Starnawski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available “Who’s going to dangle there?” – Peasant revolt in urban imagination. On the Gore album by R.U.T.A. and on its reception The author presents a review of a recent album “Gore: Songs of Rebellion and Misery from 16th to 20th Century” by a Polish punk rock / hardcore group R.U.T.A. The album, which combines traditional peasant lyrics with modern arrangements and folk instruments, has received acclaim from both fans and critics, while the band declared their commitment to struggles of contemporary progressive social movements. The author analyses the lyrics situating his reflection in sociological-historical framework to discuss realities of peasants’ lives and revolts during the second serfdom in early modern Poland. The author interprets the musical form of the songs as “punk-rock assimilation” of folklore themes. The final section contains critical reflection on the album’s marketing strategy and reception with the key dissected categories being “rebellion” and “authenticity.”

  17. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from buntings, cardinals and tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae, Cardinalidae, Thraupidae) from Costa Rica, with descriptions of two new species of the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1631, - (2007), s. 57-68 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Myrsidea * new host -louse associations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01631p068.pdf

  18. Investigation of seed damaging pathogens associated with wheat crop in bhimber azad kashmir, pakistan and their managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Ishtiaq, M.; Azam, S.; Maqbool, M.; Mushtaq, W.

    2017-01-01

    Mycopathogens were explored from wheat germplasm cultivars from District Bhimber of Azad Kashmir. In this study, 10 different seed-borne pathogens were isolated from District of Bhimber, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Agar Plate Method (APM) and Towel Paper Method (TPM) were used for detection of seed borne pathogens. The disease incidence (percentage) and disease severity of fungi varied with respect to type of pathogen and seed sampling sites. Kernel bunt caused by Tilletia indica showed highest incidence (67.25%) and severity (7.0) on 0-9 rating scale. Fusarium graminearum showed the highest infection rate in three sub-divisions of district Bhimber as compared to others. The fungal attacking pathogens on wheat crop were control through fungicides treatment and treatments with plant extracts. Maximum germination rates were calculated in three sub-divisions of Bhimber after treatment of Tilt fungicide. As 86% germination rate in Samahni, 87.5% in Bhimber and 84.5% in Bernala was calculated. Antifungal activity of five plant extracts (Acacia nilotica L., Azadirachta indica L. Juss., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Ficus bengalensis L. and Allium sativum L.) were evaluated in four different solvents. Highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated of all plants in methanolic extracts. Maximum MIC (57.38 mcg/ml) exhibited by extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves against ten fungi. Azadirachta indica extracts in different solvents against wheat-seed fungal pathogens was shown more antimicrobial activity as compared to other four plants. Azadirachta indica extract in methanol showed the highest mean of antifungal activity (62.20 mcg/ml) against ten different fungal pathogens. Antimicrobial activity (MIC) of Ficus bengalensis in different solvents against nine wheat-seed fungal pathogens was also investigated. Highest MIC was measured against B. graminis (57.50 mcg/ml) and S. macrospora (57.00 mcg/ml) by using methanolic extract of Ficus bengalensis

  19. Dibutyryl c-AMP as an inducer of sporidia formation: Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, India. *Corresponding author ... on growth and morphological differentiation of Tilletia indica. Exponential growth was .... developmentally related markers on fungal population. Number of these markers is ...

  20. Technical report of EFSA prepared by the Assessment Methodology Unit on Quantitative pathway analysis of the exposure of the wheat production area with Tilletia indica M. teliospores one year after importation of US wheat for grain into the EU and desert durum wheat into Italy. Appendix B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    and desert durum wheat into Italy, based on original model and an updated model with revised parameter values. Model output was teliospores number per hectare on soil surface of each EU country. Simulated teliospores numbers entering EU were lower with the updated than with the original model. These results...

  1. Molecular characterization of leptin (obese) gene in domesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal, ... Leptin is obesity gene involved in production and reproduction traits in domestic animals. In the ..... leptin concentration, growth, feed intake, feeding behavior, and.

  2. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    model identified two novel QTL for common bunt resistance located on wheat chromosomes 2B and 7 A. The identification of new resistance loci may help to broaden our understanding of common bunt resistance in wheat, and QTL may potentially be exploited by marker assisted selection in plant breeding. QTL...... markers for common bunt resistance may potentially help to speed up resistance breeding by shortening the long time required for phenotypic disease screening. Here, we report the results of 1. an association mapping study for common bunt resistance, 2. a QTL mapping study for the localization of common...

  3. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator... disease caused by the fungus Tilletia indica (Mitra) Mundkur. Plant. Any plant (including any plant part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a shrub...

  4. 7 CFR 2.21 - Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with agricultural research efforts to identify compounds in vegetables and fruits that prevent these... caused by Fusarium graminearum and related fungi or Tilletia indica and related fungi (7 U.S.C. 7628... participants in the food programs administered by the Department; and (C) Research on the factors affecting...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chen H, Huyghe JR, van de Bunt M, Pearson RD, Kumar A, Müller-Nurasyid M, Grarup N, ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  6. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  7. Ot Gannibala do "Russkogo bunta" / Tatjana Mühlbeier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mühlbeier, Tatjana

    2000-01-01

    Eestis elanud legendaarsest A. Pushkini vaarisast Abram Hannibalist ja temaga seoses ka sama ajastut kujutavast vene režissööri Aleksandr Proshkini uuest ajaloolisest mängufilmist "Vene mäss" ("Russki bunt")

  8. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  9. Nuuk Basic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulf Hansen, Birger; Christensen, Louise Holm; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

    2014-01-01

    simulating higher temperatures and increased cloud cover. Generally, all plots functioned as sinks for atmospheric CO2 at the time of the measurement (midday). In October, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) was generally close to zero. Similar to previous years the uptake of CO2 was higher in control plots...... house in Kobbefjord. All four species of passerines (Lapland buntings, snow buntings, northern wheatears, and redpolls) were already present at the time of the first census, and the survey was carried out until no more observations were made at any census point. The total number of passerines has varied...

  10. Genetic variation in nuclear and mitochondrial markers supports a large sex difference in lifetime reproductive skew in a lekking species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Juillet, C.; Lank, D.B.; Widemo, F.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, populations of two subspecies of the Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus have become increasingly fragmented during the last decades when suitable habitats have been lost and/or the populations have gone extinct. Presently, both subspecies are endangered. We estimated the

  11. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. LEI ZHANG. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 93 Issue 3 December 2014 pp 699-707 Research Article. The complete mitochondrial genome of the yellow-browed bunting, Emberiza chrysophrys (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), and phylogenetic relationships within the ...

  12. Cost of Parasitism Incurred by Two Songbird Species and Their Quality As Cowbird Hosts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    2000-01-01

    We measured the costs of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism incurred by Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). We predicted that the frequent occurrence of nest desertion as a response to cowbird parasitism in Field Sparrows would be reflected by a higher cost of...

  13. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  14. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  15. Challenges for extension service to render efficient post-transformer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LPhidza

    generation of knowledge and information to provide back- up service to Extensionists which in turn should help their clients (Arnon, 1989; Bunting, 1986; Van den Ban & Hawkins,. 1990: 293). Furthermore Extensionists are expected to account for their performance in order to justify the investment of public funds in extension ...

  16. A trouser bag experiment that quantify by-catch species escaping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea fishing trials were conducted to quantify by-catch species escaping from a modified shrimp trawl codend and retained in a trouser bag. Modification was by inserting a rectangular aluminum frame excluder device with bar spacing of 20mm at the anterior bunt. Thirty replicate landings showed that; Drepane africana have ...

  17. Kannski triumf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivali auhindadest : Kuldse Palmioksa saanud Christian Mungiu "4 kuud, 3 nädalat ja 2 päeva" (Rumeenia). Lähemalt vene filmidest : Konstantin Lavronenko parima näitleja auhind Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmis "Pagendus" (Izgnanije"), Andrei Nekrassovi dokumentaalfilmist "Vastuhakk: Litvinenko juhtum" ("Bunt. Delo Litvinenko")

  18. Evaluation of the effect of Spathodea campanulata flower bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    The antioxidant potentials of the exudate were evaluated using the total antioxidant activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays as described by .... galactitol by the aldose reductase and causes hydration of the eye which eventually leads to osmotic stress (Patterson and Bunting, 1965; Kinoshita,. 1974 ...

  19. Final Environmental Assessment: Western Range Command Transmit Site Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    between the U.S. and Canada, Japan, Mexico and the former Soviet Union for the protection of migratory birds. Under the Act, taking, killing or...Song sparrow I Northern mockingbird I Brown-headed cowbird I Fox sparrow !Lazuli bunting !California towhee !Spotted towhee IBushtit !Black

  20. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mitochondrial genomes have proved to be powerful tools in resolving phylogenetic relationships. Emberiza chrysophrys (least concern species: IUCN 2013) is a passerine bird in the bunting family, Emberizidae. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. chrysophrys was sequenced. This circular mitochondrial genome was ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also be used to evaluate the response of cervical carcinoma to treatment. ... biopsy-proven untreated cancer of the cervix that was suitable for ..... Van de Bunt L, Van der Heide UA, Ketelaars M, De Kort GA, Jürgenliemk-Schultz IM.

  2. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  3. The role of OTX2 in medulloblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Het onderdrukken van het gen OTX2 lijkt een potentiële therapie voor medulloblastomen, een kwaadaardige hersentumor. Jens Bunt stelt dat OTX2 door binding aan het DNA de expressie van genen die nodig zijn voor celdeling aanzet, terwijl het indirect de differentiatie van cellen remt. Uit proeven met

  4. Begegnungen mit dem 'grossen Anderen'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2008-01-01

    I så godt som alle fortællingerne i Bunte Steine udgør spørgsmålet om egenidentitet et centralt tema. I artiklen analyseres fortællingernes forhandling, etablering og forandring af kulturel identitet gennem mødet med det store Andet, det være sig i form af uhørte naturfænomener, historiske hændel...

  5. First records of several bird species for Zacatecas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-Arteaga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the first records of five species of birds for the state of Zacatecas, Mexico: Ortalis poliocephala (West Mexican Chachalaca, Progne sinaloae (Sinaloa Martin, Peucaea carpalis (Rufous-winged Sparrow, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow and Cyanocompsa parellina (Blue Bunting. Ortalis poliocephala is also a new record for the Western Sierra Madre biogeographic region. These records are ecologically relevant as they extend the known distribution ranges and suggest that the southern Zacatecas region might be more diverse than previously thought.

  6. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 6. Appendix S. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    rainbow trout Salmo qairdneri hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha brown trout Salmo trutta 0 34 Disturbance of...Department of Fish and Game Stream Survey 1938 Sacramento pike Pvtocheilus grandis hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus roach Hesperoleucas symmetricus...Lazuli bunting Passerina amoena R,G,W,F Rufous-sided towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus C,U,F Brown towhee Pipilo fuscus C,U,F Rufous-crowned sparrow

  7. Constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity my be caused by PTEN mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Pigarova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Pal A, Barber TM, Van de Bunt M, Rudge SA, Zhang Q, Lachlan KL, Cooper NS, Linden H, Levy JC, Wakelam MJ, Walker L, Karpe F, Gloyn AL. PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity. N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 13;367(11:1002-11.

  8. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea Waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the Emberizidae and Thraupidae (Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2009), s. 501-503 ISSN 1519-566X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Bunting * tanager Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2009 http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ne/v38n4/v38n4a10.pdf

  9. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Carolina Diaz; Wichmann, Fabienne; Schlaich, Thomas; Fammartino, Alessandro; Huckauf, Jana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Unger, Christoph; Broer, Inge; Sautter, Christof

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4) is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  10. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Diaz Quijano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4 is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  11. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in term pregnancies in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is common in pregnancy. No study has determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in term pregnancies in India. Aim: This study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of hypothyroidism in women who delivered at a center in Karnal, Haryana, North India. Results: Indoor records of all women who had delivered at this centre from April 2016 to March 2017 were reviewed. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 12.3%, of which 15.5% were diagnosed during pregnancy. The dose requirement of L-thyroxine ranged from 25 to 200 μg (mean 76.38 +- 43.02. With this, 80% were able to achieve trimester-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone targets. Hypothyroidism did not correlate with any medical or obstetric complications. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is common in term pregnancies. If treated adequately, healthy fetomaternal outcomes can be achieved.

  12. Prevalence of pharamcologically-treated diabetes in term pregnancies in Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is common in pregnancy. Epidemiological studies have described the prevalence of GDM in the antenatal period, but do not assess the number of women who require pharmacological therapy at term. This information is important for obstetric care providers and health planners. We reviewed indoor charts of all women admitted for delivery at a maternity center in Karnal, Haryana, India. Of the 569 participants, 0.87% had preexisting diabetes, while 1.93% were being treated with drugs for GDM (0.70% insulin, 1.23% metformin. The overall prevalence of diabetes needing drug therapy at time of delivery in pregnant women was 2.81%.

  13. Weather effects on avian breeding performance and implications of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of recent climate change on the world’s biota has manifested broadly, resulting in latitudinal range shifts, advancing dates of arrival of migrants and onset of breeding, and altered community relationships. Climate change elevates conservation concerns worldwide because it will likely exacerbate a broad range of identified threats to animal populations. In the past few decades, grassland birds have declined faster than other North American avifauna, largely due to habitat threats such as the intensification of agriculture. We examine the effects of local climatic variations on the breeding performance of a bird endemic to the shortgrass prairie, the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) and discuss the implications of our findings relative to future climate predictions. Clutch size, nest survival, and productivity all positively covaried with seasonal precipitation, yet relatively intense daily precipitation events temporarily depressed daily survival of nests. Nest survival was positively related to average temperatures during the breeding season. Declining summer precipitation may reduce the likelihood that Lark Buntings can maintain stable breeding populations in eastern Colorado although average temperature increases of up to 38C (within the range of this study) may ameliorate declines in survival expected with drier conditions. Historic climate variability in the Great Plains selects for a degree of vagility and opportunism rather than strong site fidelity and specific adaptation to local environments. These traits may lead to northerly shifts in distribution if climatic and habitat conditions become less favorable in the drying southern regions of the Great Plains. Distributional shifts in Lark Buntings could be constrained by future changes in land use, agricultural practices, or vegetative communities that result in further loss of shortgrass prairie habitats.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Genomic Instability in Brca-Deficient Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    repair defects asso- ciated with downstream mediators of the HR reaction (e.g., XRCC2, BRCA2, or PALB2) (Bouwman et al., 2010; Bowman- Colin et al., 2013...and BRCA-mutated breast cancers. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17, 688–695. Bowman- Colin , C., Xia, B., Bunting, S., Klijn, C., Drost, R., Bouwman, P., Fine...chromosomes. It is thus surprising that cells use ‘quick and dirty ’ repair by NHEJ rather than the slower, more accurate repair by homologous recombination

  15. Wissenshäppchen als Facebook Instant Article – ein durchaus mögliches Zukunftsszenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fleck, Rika

    2018-01-01

    „Hast Du Schwierigkeiten, die richtige Ansprache für Millennials zu finden?“ Dann empfiehlt die Onlinemarketingplattform www.onlinemarketing.de sich die perfekte Videowerbung für die Generation Y anzusehen. Im Video sind „hippe, junge Menschen in Zeitlupe“ zu sehen, die fröhlich sind, sich frei fühlen, lachen, bunte Haare haben, gern mit Freunden zusammen sind und Spaß an der Konversation haben, fotografieren, posten, liken und teilen. Natürlich werden im Video die Klischees überzogen und auc...

  16. Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Hubert Burda, magnat de la presse magazine allemande, possède l’une des plus grosses fortunes d’Allemagne ; le magazine Forbes l’estime à 2,5 milliards $. Portrait d’un prince héritier des médias qui règne sur un empire florissant où se côtoient le news magazine Focus, des féminins (freundin), des people (Bunte) et la presse TV (Super Illu). (ib)

  17. The Women’s Army Corps: 1945-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    their new neighbors by proclaiming 21 July as "WAC Day." The main streets of the city (popu- lation 26,000) were draped with bunting and welcome...counseling the women and managing activities in the building. A WAC first sergeant, Anna M. Armour , assisted her in her command duties-administration...Utilization of women. Armor, 385 women’s command authority. See Corn- Armour , 1st Sgt. Anna M., 201 mand authority. Army, act’g ass’t secretary of for manpow

  18. Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anushika; Dürr, Tobias; Klenke, Reinhard A; Henle, Klaus

    2018-02-28

    Biodiversity-related impacts at wind energy facilities have increasingly become a cause of conservation concern, central issue being the collision of birds. Utilizing spatial information of their carcass detections at wind turbines (WTs), we quantified the detections in relation to the metric distances of the respective turbines to different land-use types. We used ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) to identify combinations of land-use distances with respect to the spatial allocation of WTs that led to higher proportions of collisions among the worst affected bird-groups: Buntings, Crows, Larks, Pigeons and Raptors. We also assessed their respective similarities to the collision phenomenon by checking for overlaps amongst their distance combinations. Crows and Larks showed the narrowest "collision sensitive niche"; a part of ecological niche under higher risk of collisions with turbines, followed by that of Buntings and Pigeons. Raptors had the broadest niche showing significant overlaps with the collision sensitive niches of the other groups. This can probably be attributed to their larger home range combined with their hunting affinities to open landscapes. Identification of collision sensitive niches could be a powerful tool for landscape planning; helping avoid regions with higher risks of collisions for turbine allocations and thus protecting sensitive bird populations.

  19. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Kilgo; C.E. Moorman

    2003-09-01

    Until recently, little information was available on patterns of brood parasitism by Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the southeastern United States, a region into which cowbirds expanded their range only during the last half of the Twentieth Century and where their abundance is relatively low. We compiled parasitism data from several published and unpublished studies conducted in Georgia and South Carolina from 1993-2000 to examine levels of brood parasitism and determine frequent host species. The combined dataset included 1,372 nests of 24 species reported in the literature to have been parasitized by cowbirds. The parasitism rate on all species combined was 8.2%. Considering only those species that served as hosts in these studies (n = I2), the parasitism rate was 9.3%. Seven species were parasitized at rates 2 10%. Based on the extent of parasitism (among studies and locations), their relative abundance, and the sample size of nests, Prairie Warblers (Dendroicta discolor), Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina), Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), all shrub nesters, appear to be the most important cowbird hosts in the region. Parasitism on some species reported as frequent hosts elsewhere was extremely low or not documented. We conclude that the impact of brood parasitism on the seasonal fecundity of hosts in the region probably is minimal, but additional work is warranted on species of concern, such as the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris).

  20. Behaviour of heavy metals during the thermal conversion of sawdust in entrained flows; Verhalten von Schwermetallen bei der thermischen Umwandlung von Saegespaenen im Flugstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimert, R.; Klensch, S. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle

    2000-07-01

    The behaviour of heavy metals during the thermal utilisation of sawdust was studied experimentally in a pilot-scale experimental plant at the Engler-Bunte Institute. The experiments served to determine the influence of reactor temperature (1050 -1300 C), dedusting temperature, and the nature of the gas atmosphere (reductive/oxidative) on the distribution of heavy metals contained in the sawdust over the product fractions slag, flue ash, and product gas. A calculation model was used to calculate the theoretical heavy metal concentrations in flue ash as a function of reactor temperature, dedusting temperature and gas atmosphere. [German] Am Engler-Bunte-Institut wurden experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Verhalten von Schwermetallen bei der thermischen Nutzung von Saegespaenen in einer halbtechnischen Versuchsanlage durchgefuehrt. Mit Hilfe der Versuche wurden die Einfluesse der Reaktortemperatur (1050-1300 C), der Entstaubungstemperatur (350-850 C) und der Gasatmosphaere (reduzierend/oxidierend) auf die Verteilung der in den Saegespaenen enthaltenen Schwermetalle auf die Produktfraktionen Schlacke, Flugasche und Produktgas bestimmt. Mit einem Berechnungsmodell wurden die theoretischen Schwermetallkonzentrationen in der Flugasche als Funktion der Reaktortemperatur, der Entstaubungstemperatur und der Gasatmosphaere berechnet. (orig.)

  1. Shear weakening for different lithologies observed at different saturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethart-Jauk, Elisabeth; Gegenhuber, Nina

    2018-01-01

    For this study, samples from different lithologies ("Leitha"-limestone, "Dachstein"-limestone, "Haupt"-dolomite, "Bunt"-sandstone, Grey Berea sandstone, granite, quartzite and basalt) were selected. Samples were dried at 70 °C, respectively 105 °C and were saturated with brine. Mass, porosity, permeability, compressional and shear wave velocity were determined from dry and brine saturated samples at laboratory conditions, based on an individual measurement program. Shear modulus was calculated to find out, if shear weakening exists for the dataset. Shear weakening means that shear modulus of dry samples is higher than of saturated samples, but it is assumed that shear modulus is unaffected by saturation. "Dachstein"-limestone and basalt show shear weakening, quartzite samples show both weakening and hardening. Granite samples are affected by temperature, after drying with 105 °C no change can be observed anymore. "Bunt"-sandstone samples show a change in the shear modulus in a small extent, although they may contain clay minerals. The other lithologies show no effect. Explanations for carbonate samples can be the complicated pore structure, for basalt it could be that weathering creates clay minerals which are known as causes for a change of the shear modulus. Fluid viscosity can also be an important factor.

  2. Biological activity of sedaxane---a novel broad-spectrum fungicide for seed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeun, Ronald; Scalliet, Gabriel; Oostendorp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sedaxane is a new broad-spectrum seed treatment fungicide developed by Syngenta Crop Protection for control of seed- and soil-borne diseases in a broad range of crops. Its physicochemical properties and activity spectrum have been optimised for use as a seed treatment providing both local and systemic protection of the seed and roots of target crops. Sedaxane inhibits respiration by binding to the succinate dehydrogenase complex in the fungal mitochondrium. Its activity spectrum covers seed-borne fungi such as Ustilago nuda, Tilletia caries, Monographella nivalis and Pyrenophora graminea, as well as the soil-borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, R. cerealis and Typhula incarnata. Under greenhouse conditions, sedaxane showed high levels and consistent protection against U. nuda, P. graminea and Rhizoctonia spp. Under field conditions, efficacy against Rhizoctonia spp. resulted in increased yield compared with the untreated check. Efficacy against snow mould has been shown under very high disease pressure conditions. The combination of sedaxane plus fludioxonil against snow mould can provide resistance management for sustainable use. The broad spectrum and high level of activity in combination with excellent crop tolerance allow the use of sedaxane as a seed treatment in a wide variety of crops. It is a potential tool for precautionary resistance management when combined with other fungicides, especially against pathogens showing a potential for resistance development, such as M. nivalis. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt. Engelm.] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses.

  4. Scrub-Successional Bird Community Dynamics in Young and Mature Pine-Wiregrass Savannahs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated how management for habitat conditions to support the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker effects the biodiversity of the breeding bird community associated with those habitats. Habitat is created by thinning, burning and mid-story control of hardwoods in mature longleaf stands. In addition, similar habitat structurally can be found in recently harvested areas. We tested the hypothesis that diversity and abundance, as well as survival and reproduction would be greater in mature stands. However, mature stands used for recruitment always had fewer species (36/31) than recently harvested areas (54/55). All species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in mature stands. No differences in survival rates were found between mature and recent cuts for Bachman's sparrow and indigo bunting

  5. The irrelevant sound phenomenon revisited: what role for working memory capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip

    2004-09-01

    High-span individuals (as measured by the operation span [OSPAN] technique) are less likely than low-span individuals to notice their own names in an unattended auditory stream (A. R. A. Conway, N. Cowan, & M. F. Bunting, 2001). The possibility that OSPAN accounts for individual differences in auditory distraction on an immediate recall test was examined. There was no evidence that high-OSPAN participants were more resistant to the disruption caused by irrelevant speech in serial or in free recall. Low-OSPAN participants did, however, make more semantically related intrusion errors from the irrelevant sound stream in a free recall test (Experiment 4). Results suggest that OSPAN mediates semantic components of auditory distraction dissociable from other aspects of the irrelevant sound effect. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. Final report V1.0 for the CORE Organic II funded project: Coordinating Organic Breeding Activities for Diversity - COBRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Bruce; Kir, Alev; Andersen, Rikke Thomle

    variation in climate and weather. In this context, COBRA aimed to support and develop organic plant breeding and seed production with a focus on increasing the use and potential of plant material with high genetic diversity in cereals (wheat and barley) and grain legumes (pea and faba bean), through...... ensuring seed quality and health Progress was made in handling individual seeds in terms of their actual and potential resistance to seed-borne disease. One of the most important problems, bunt of wheat, was advanced considerably in terms of the 'gene for gene' interaction between host and pathogen...... and understanding the resilience of the performance of composite cross populations of wheat. A wide range of molecular markers were identified in barley which will help in selecting genotypes adapted to expected future changes in climate and weather. Progress was also made with organic trials of grain legumes...

  7. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  8. The singing nurse?! Music therapy, interdisciplinarity and an overview of research in psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    Conference: Music Therapy and Dementia Care in the 21st Century Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people, with agitation in dementia as the most significant symptom causing patient distress and caregiver burden in later stages of the disease. Music...... in various forms (e.g. caregiver singing or music listening) is widely used in nursing homes for people with dementia; however these practices are generally little informed by music therapy theory and research. In this presentation, an overview of research in non- pharmacological approaches is given.......g. in dyads with caregivers or relatives and the person with dementia. The aim is to provide and develop psychosocial interventions in the interdisciplinary team, and to support staff and caregivers in their use of music as part of the daily culture of care. References Bunt, L. & Stige, B. (2014). Music...

  9. Global population collapse in a superabundant migratory bird and illegal trapping in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Oppel, Steffen; Ananin, Alexandr A; Durnev, Yurii A; Gashev, Sergey N; Hölzel, Norbert; Mishchenko, Alexandr L; Pessa, Jorma; Smirenski, Sergey M; Strelnikov, Evgenii G; Timonen, Sami; Wolanska, Kolja; Chan, Simba

    2015-12-01

    Persecution and overexploitation by humans are major causes of species extinctions. Rare species, often confined to small geographic ranges, are usually at highest risk, whereas extinctions of superabundant species with very large ranges are rare. The Yellow-breasted Bunting (Emberiza aureola) used to be one of the most abundant songbirds of the Palearctic, with a very large breeding range stretching from Scandinavia to the Russian Far East. Anecdotal information about rapid population declines across the range caused concern about unsustainable trapping along the species' migration routes. We conducted a literature review and used long-term monitoring data from across the species' range to model population trend and geographical patterns of extinction. The population declined by 84.3-94.7% between 1980 and 2013, and the species' range contracted by 5000 km. Quantitative evidence from police raids suggested rampant illegal trapping of the species along its East Asian flyway in China. A population model simulating an initial harvest level of 2% of the population, and an annual increase of 0.2% during the monitoring period produced a population trajectory that matched the observed decline. We suggest that trapping strongly contributed to the decline because the consumption of Yellow-breasted Bunting and other songbirds has increased as a result of economic growth and prosperity in East Asia. The magnitude and speed of the decline is unprecedented among birds with a comparable range size, with the exception of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which went extinct in 1914 due to industrial-scale hunting. Our results demonstrate the urgent need for an improved monitoring of common and widespread species' populations, and consumption levels throughout East Asia. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. CAUSES OF DISPOSAL OF MURRAH BUFFALO FROM AN ORGANISED HERD

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    S. Taraphder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.

  11. Effect of laboratory-isolated Lactobacillus plantarum LGFCP4 from gastrointestinal tract of guinea fowl on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal histomorphometry and gastrointestinal microflora population in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, P G; Tomar, S; Saxena, V K; Kapgate, M; Suvarna, A; Adil, K

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of feed supplements, viz Lactobacillus plantarum LGFCP4 (laboratory isolate from GIT of Guinea fowl), Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCDC, Karnal) and in-feed antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) on growth performance, FCR, carcass traits and immune organs weight, intestinal histomorphometry and gastrointestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. In a completely randomized design, CARIBRO-Dhanraja broiler chicks (n = 160) were used with four treatment groups. During the entire experimental duration of 35 days, treatment groups were provided with different dietary treatments (T1 - basal diet (negative control), T2 - antibiotic growth promoter BMD 20 g/100 kg feed (positive control), T3 - 1 × 10 8  cfu of L. acidophilus/gm-fermented feed +MOS 1 g/kg feed and T4 - 1 × 10 8  cfu of laboratory-isolated L. plantarum LGFCP4/gm-fermented feed+ MOS 1 g/kg feed. After 35 days of experimental period, no significant results have been observed in different growth performance traits among treatment groups. Cut-up parts and edible organs' weight remained unaffected by dietary supplementation, whereas weight of immune organs were significantly higher (p growth promoters in broiler diets by altering intestinal villi morphology and improving the gut health by reducing the pathogenic microbial load. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Uncertainties in Integrated Climate Change Impact Assessments by Sub-setting GCMs Based on Annual as well as Crop Growing Period under Rice Based Farming System of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

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    Pillai, S. N.; Singh, H.; Panwar, A. S.; Meena, M. S.; Singh, S. V.; Singh, B.; Paudel, G. P.; Baigorria, G. A.; Ruane, A. C.; McDermid, S.; Boote, K. J.; Porter, C.; Valdivia, R. O.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated assessment of climate change impact on agricultural productivity is a challenge to the scientific community due to uncertainties of input data, particularly the climate, soil, crop calibration and socio-economic dataset. However, the uncertainty due to selection of GCMs is the major source due to complex underlying processes involved in initial as well as the boundary conditions dealt in solving the air-sea interactions. Under Agricultural Modeling Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), the Indo-Gangetic Plains Regional Research Team investigated the uncertainties caused due to selection of GCMs through sub-setting based on annual as well as crop-growth period of rice-wheat systems in AgMIP Integrated Assessment methodology. The AgMIP Phase II protocols were used to study the linking of climate-crop-economic models for two study sites Meerut and Karnal to analyse the sensitivity of current production systems to climate change. Climate Change Projections were made using 29 CMIP5 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 during mid-century period (2040-2069). Two crop models (APSIM & DSSAT) were used. TOA-MD economic model was used for integrated assessment. Based on RAPs (Representative Agricultural Pathways), some of the parameters, which are not possible to get through modeling, derived from literature and interactions with stakeholders incorporated into the TOA-MD model for integrated assessment.

  13. Post-treatment and reuse of secondary effluents using natural ltreatment systems: the Indian practices.

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    Kumar, D; Asolekar, S R; Sharma, S K

    2015-10-01

    Paper summarizes the results of India-wide survey of natural treatment systems (NTSs) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The quality of treated wastewater from different types of NTSs was analyzed for various physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters, and needs for post-treatment were identified. Currently, about 1838 million liters per day (MLD) of wastewater is being treated using NTSs, of which the contributions of polishing ponds, waste stabilization ponds, duckweed ponds, constructed wetlands, and Karnal technology were found to be 53.39, 45.15, 0.13, 0.55, and 0.78%, respectively. Among the NTSs studied, constructed wetland was found most efficient in removal of pollutants including nitrogen, phosphorus, total coliform, and fecal coliform in the range of 76, 61, 99.956, and 99.923%, respectively. Of all types of NTSs, only constructed wetland was found to meet the total coliform count requirements (effluents for irrigation; effluents from 48 systems are being discharged into river or lake, and remaining 38 systems have not found any designated use of treated effluent. The chlorination was the only post-treatment, which is being practiced at only three wastewater treatment facilities. During post-treatment, 1-2 ppm of chlorine is applied to the secondary effluent irrespective of its quality. The treated effluents from different NTSs contain fecal bacteria in the magnitude of 10(3) to 10(5), which may cause the severe health impacts through contamination of groundwater as well as surface water resources.

  14. Lactoferrin gene promoter variants and their association with clinical and subclinical mastitis in indigenous and crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (pmastitis in indigenous Sahiwal and crossbred Karan Fries cattle maintained at organised herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A non-significant association was observed between subclinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS), and GG genotype in Karan Fries cattle, however, a lower SCS was observed in animals having GG genotype. Overall a lower incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded in those animals having GG genotype of Lf in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) cattle. The SNP identified in the promoter region may effect expression lactoferrin protein, which may lead to different levels of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf gene. Results from this study indicated the probable role played by Lactoferrin promoter to serve as candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility among indigenous and crossbred milch cattle.

  15. Optimizing weight control in diabetes: antidiabetic drug selection

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    S Kalra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available S Kalra1, B Kalra1, AG Unnikrishnan2, N Agrawal3, S Kumar41Bharti Hospital, Karnal; 2Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi; 3Medical College, Gwalior; 4Excel Life Sciences, Noida, IndiaDate of preparation: 18th August 2010Conflict of interest: SK has received speaker fees from Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis, MSD, Eli Lilly, BMS, and AstraZeneca.Clinical question: Which antidiabetic drugs provide optimal weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes?Results: Metformin reduces weight gain, and may cause weight loss, when given alone or in combination with other drugs. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone use is associated with weight gain. Use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogs, liraglutide and exenatide, is associated with weight loss. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are considered weight-neutral. Results with insulin therapy are conflicting. Insulin detemir provides weight control along with glycemic control.Implementation: • Weight gain is considered an inevitable part of good glycemic control using conventional modalities of treatment such as sulfonylureas.• Use of metformin, weight-sparing insulin analogs such as insulin detemir, and liraglutide, should be encouraged as monotherapy, or in combination with other drugs.Keywords: weight control, diabetes

  16. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

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    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  17. Sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls

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    Shushant Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg, to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS and sexual behavior score (SBS. Reaction time (RT and total time taken in mounts (TTTM had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM, sperm concentration (SCON, head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, acrosomal integrity (AI whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC, HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided.

  18. Cluster of differentiation 14 gene polymorphism and its association with incidence of clinical mastitis in Karan fries cattle

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    A. Sakthivel Selvan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize, identify DNA polymorphism in cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 gene in Karan Fries (KF cattle and to analyze association between genetic variants with incidence of clinical mastitis in National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected hundred KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out using reported primers to amplify 832 base pair region covering nucleotide base position number 1012 to 1843 (part of promoter, 5’UTR, exon 1, intron 1 and part of exon 2 of bovine CD14 gene. The PCR amplified target product was purified, sequenced and further ClustalW analysis was done to align edited sequence with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was performed for each KF cow using HinfI restriction enzyme (RE. Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2 test. Results: After PCR amplification, DNA sequencing of amplicon confirmed the 832 bases covering 1012 to 1843 nucleotide base position of bovine CD14 gene. ClustalW multiple sequence alignment program for DNA revealed six nucleotide changes in KF cows at positions T1117D, T1239G, T1291C, G1359C, G1361A, and G1811A. Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with HinfI RE, which revealed three genotypes CC, CD and DD that differed significantly regarding mastitis incidence. Within CC genotype, 72.73% of cows were in a mastitis non-affected group whereas, those in CD and DD genotypes 69.44% and 60.38% respectively were mastitis affected. Conclusion: KF cows with allele C of CD14 gene were less susceptibility to mastitis compared with D allele.

  19. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

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    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  20. Prevailing practices in the use of antibiotics by dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Gupta, Jancy

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the antibiotic use in dairy animals and to trace its usage pattern among the small, medium, and large dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India. Materials and Methods: Karnal and Kurukshetra districts from Eastern region of Haryana state were purposively selected, and four villages from each district were selected randomly. From each village, 21 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling by categorizing into small, medium, and large farmers constituting a total of 168 farmers as respondents. An antibiotic usage index (AUI) was developed to assess usage of antibiotics by dairy farmers. Results: Frequency of veterinary consultancy was high among large dairy farmers, and they mostly preferred veterinarians over para-veterinarians for treatment of dairy animals. Small farmers demanded low-cost antibiotics from veterinarians whereas large farmers rarely went for it. Antibiotics were used maximum for therapeutic purposes by all categories of farmers. Completion of treatment schedules and follow-up were strictly practiced by the majority of large farmers. AUI revealed that large farmers were more consistent on decision-making about prudent use of antibiotics. Routine use of antibiotics after parturition to prevent disease and sale of milk without adhering to withdrawal period was responsible for aggravating the antibiotic resistance. The extent of antibiotic use by small farmers depended on the severity of disease. The large farmers opted for the prophylactic use of antibiotics at the herd level. Conclusion: Antibiotic usage practices were judicious among large dairy farmers, moderately prudent by medium dairy farmers and faulty by small farmers. The frequency of veterinary consultancy promoted better veterinary-client relationship among large farmers. PMID:29657416

  1. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana). T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR) was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

  2. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights

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    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana.T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

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    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  4. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P  0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  5. Living in the hands of God. English Sunni e-fatwas on (non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-02-01

    Ever since the start of the twentieth century, a growing interest and importance of studying fatwas can be noted, with a focus on Arabic printed fatwas (Wokoeck 2009). The scholarly study of end-of-life ethics in these fatwas is a very recent feature, taking a first start in the 1980s (Anees 1984; Rispler-Chaim 1993). Since the past two decades, we have witnessed the emergence of a multitude of English fatwas that can easily be consulted through the Internet ('e-fatwas'), providing Muslims worldwide with a form of Islamic normative guidance on a huge variety of topics. Although English online fatwas do provide guidance for Muslims and Muslim minorities worldwide on a myriad of topics including end-of-life issues, they have hardly been studied. This study analyses Islamic views on (non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide as expressed in English Sunni fatwas published on independent--i.e. not created by established organisations--Islamic websites. We use Tyan's definition of a fatwa to distinguish between fatwas and other types of texts offering Islamic guidance through the Internet. The study of e-fatwas is framed in the context of Bunt's typology of Cyber Islamic Environments (Bunt 2009) and in the framework of Roy's view on the virtual umma (Roy 2002). '(Non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide' are defined using Broeckaert's conceptual framework on treatment decisions at the end of life (Broeckaert 2008). We analysed 32 English Sunni e-fatwas. All of the e-fatwas discussed here firmly speak out against every form of active termination of life. They often bear the same structure, basing themselves solely on Quranic verses and prophetic traditions, leaving aside classical jurisprudential discussions on the subject. In this respect they share the characteristics central in Roy's typology of the fatwa in the virtual umma. On the level of content, they are in line with the international literature on Islamic end-of-life ethics. English Sunni e-fatwas make

  6. Semi-arid grassland bird responses to patch-burn grazing and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Augustine, David J.; Derner, Justin D.

    2018-01-01

    As grassland birds of central North America experience steep population declines with changes in land use, management of remaining tracts becomes increasingly important for population viability. The integrated use of fire and grazing may enhance vegetation heterogeneity and diversity in breeding birds, but the subsequent effects on reproduction are unknown. We examined the influence of patch-burn grazing management in shortgrass steppe in eastern Colorado on habitat use and reproductive success of 3 grassland bird species, horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys), and McCown’s longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii), at several spatial scales during 2011 and 2012. Although no simple direct relationship to patch-burn grazing treatment existed, habitat selection depended on precipitation- and management-induced vegetation conditions and spatial scale. All species selected taller-than-expected vegetation at the nest site, whereas at the territory scale, horned larks and McCown’s longspurs selected areas with low vegetation height and sparse cover of tall plants (taller than the dominant shortgrasses). Buntings nested primarily in unburned grassland under average rainfall. Larks and longspurs shifted activity from patch burns during average precipitation (2011) to unburned pastures during drought (2012). Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests varied with time in season, species, weather, and vegetation structure. Daily survival rate of McCown’s longspur nests did not vary with foliar cover of relatively tall vegetation at the nest under average precipitation but declined with increasing cover during drought. At the 200-m scale, increasing cover of shortgrasses, rather than taller plant species, improved DSR of larks and longspurs. These birds experience tradeoffs in the selection of habitat at different spatial scales: tall structure at nests may reduce visual detection by predators and provide protection from sun, wind, and rain, yet

  7. Status of avifauna at Taranga Hill-forest, Gujarat, India

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    C.D. Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Taranga is one of the famous pilgrim places of northern Gujarat. It is located (240 00’N & 72046’E at starting point of Aravalli ranges. Climate of this area is semi-arid with irregular rainfall. Variable width line transect method was adapted to study the avifaunal diversity. Taranga Hill-forest has atleast 90 species of birds belonging to 11 orders, 33 families and 68 genera. Passeriformes being the largest family. All common residents appear to be adapted to the prevailing conditions. Red-vented Bulbul and Rock Pigeon were most abundant while Asian Paradise-flycatcher, Crested Bunting and European Roller were rare. White-naped Tit a globally threatened and endemic resident has been found as local migrant, scarce in number, common in occurrence and breeder in the tropical thorn-scrub habitat of THf. Plum-headed Parakeet may be a breeding possible species. In comparison to other places, the avian diversity is observed poor, because Aravallis are not on the migratory route or landing site of migratory birds. In addition, anthropogenic factors, presence of predators and loss of vegetation may be having a telling effect.

  8. Vertragsnaturschutz für Feldvögel im Europäischen Vogelschutzgebiet Hellwegbörde (NRW – Ergebnisse und Perspektiven

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    Joest, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural area “Hellwegbörde” in Northrhine-Westphalia was designated as special protection area for Montague´s Harrier and other birds of open farmland. Agri-environmental schemes to improve habitat quality were offered to local farmers since 2002. At the level of singular measures these allowed to increase density and species diversity of farmland birds during the breeding season as well as in winter, among others Skylark and Grey Partridge. It can be assumed that these measures also improved food availability (vole and small birds for Montague´s Harrier. At the landscape level, however, these isolated measures were not sufficient to counterbalance the negative effects of loss of set aside land and increased cultivation of Maize as energy crop. Therefore, no increases of Skylark and Grey Partridge on larger study plots were found. Likewise, Montague´s Harrier, Corncrake and Corn Bunting are declining within the special protection area “Hellwegbörde”. To stabilize farmland bird populations on the landscape level, a sufficient proportion of landscape elements of high ecological quality is necessary.

  9. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Emily S.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Mallory, Mark L.; Smol, John P.; Blais, Jules M.

    2010-01-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ΣPCB and ΣDDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ 15 N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:ΣDDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  10. Microhabitat selection by three common bird species of montane farmlands in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiakiris, Rigas; Stara, Kalliopi; Pantis, John; Sgardelis, Stefanos

    2009-11-01

    Common farmland birds are declining throughout Europe; however, marginal farmlands that escaped intensification or land abandonment remain a haven for farmland species in some Mediterranean mountains. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important anthropogenic microhabitat characteristics for Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio), Corn Bunting (Miliaria calandra) and Common Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) in three such areas within the newly established Northern Pindos National Park. We compare land use structural and physiognomic characteristics of the habitat within 133 plots containing birds paired with randomly selected "non-bird" plots. Using logistic regression and classification-tree models we identify the specific habitat requirements for each of the three birds. The three species show a preference for agricultural mosaics dominated by rangelands with scattered shrub or short trees mixed with arable land. Areas with dikes and dirt roads are preferred by all three species, while the presence of fences and periodically burned bushes and hedges are of particular importance for Red-Backed Shrike. Across the gradient of vegetation density and height, M. calandra is mostly found in grasslands with few dwarf shrubs and short trees, S. communis in places with more dense and tall vegetation of shrub, trees and hedges, and L. collurio, being a typical bird of ecotones, occurs in both habitats and in intermediate situations. In all cases those requirements are associated with habitat features maintained either directly or indirectly by the traditional agricultural activities in the area and particularly by the long established extensive controlled grazing that prevent shrub expansion.

  11. Neutron activation and atomic absorption analyses of heavy metals in corals of Malaysia: historical recorders for sustainable environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlin Mokhtar; Almah Awaludin; Abdul Khalik Wood; Lim Kim Shenk; Tan Pey Fang; Yasmin Mohd Hasni

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the determination of total chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in skeletons of the corals Porites sp., sediment and sea water samples taken from various locations in waters of Kedah, Johor and Labuan. Sampling was carried out around Pulau Bunting, Pulau Bidan, Pulau Telur, Pulau Songsong, all in Kedah, Pulau Burung in Labuan, and Pulau Lima in Johor. The concentrations of metals were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The range of concentrations of Cr, Mn and Zn in coral samples of this study were <0.2 - 1.60, 1.20 - 11.10 and 3.55 - 15.08 μg/g, respectively. Concentrations in sediment samples were Cr 0.62 - 5.19 μg/g, Mn 71.0 - 162 μg/g and Zn 28.2 - 57.8 μg/g. The levels in seawater samples were Cr 0.004 - 0.28 mg/l, Mn 0.26 - 0.33 mg/l, and Zn 0.92 - 1.56 mg/l. (Author)

  12. An historical overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, 1985–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM), established as the Regional Medical Library Program in 1965, has a rich and remarkable history. The network’s first twenty years were documented in a detailed 1987 history by Alison Bunting, AHIP, FMLA. This article traces the major trends in the network’s development since then: reconceiving the Regional Medical Library staff as a “field force” for developing, marketing, and distributing a growing number of National Library of Medicine (NLM) products and services; subsequent expansion of outreach to health professionals who are unaffiliated with academic medical centers, particularly those in public health; the advent of the Internet during the 1990s, which brought the migration of NLM and NNLM resources and services to the World Wide Web, and a mandate to encourage and facilitate Internet connectivity in the network; and the further expansion of the NLM and NNLM mission to include providing consumer health resources to satisfy growing public demand. The concluding section discusses the many challenges that NNLM staff faced as they transformed the network from a system that served mainly academic medical researchers to a larger, denser organization that offers health information resources to everyone. PMID:29632439

  13. Divergence at the casein haplotypes in dairy and meat goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Julia; Chessa, Stefania; Rignanese, Daniela; Caroli, Anna; Erhardt, Georg

    2010-02-01

    Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weisse Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0.05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A', is characterized by a t-->c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0.01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0.1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0.8) in the Buren.

  14. Examination of the combustion conditions of herbaceous biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemmelveisz, K.; Szucs, I.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [Department of Combustion Technology and Thermal Energy, University of Miskolc (Hungary); Eddings, E.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Power generation from biomass is a fairly new area, and boilers that utilize various types of biomass have in many cases experienced serious problems with slagging, fouling and corrosion of boiler tubes. Mineral matter in these fuels can deposit on the heat-exchanger surfaces in the boiler and generate an insulating layer, which will significantly reduce the degree of heat-transfer from flue gas to water and steam. Our investigations were focused on the slag characteristics of different kinds of herbaceous biomass fuels. Since there is usually a reducing atmosphere present in the direct combustion zone of modern low-NO{sub x} firing systems, it is important to study mineral matter transformation of burned fuel residues in a reducing atmosphere. An excellent device for this type of study is the electric-resistance heated Bunte-Baum softening temperature testing instrument, which was used in this work. Ash chemical composition was analyzed via flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the microstructure of ash was determined using a scanning electron microscope. Crystalline compounds of the ashes were identified by using X-ray powder diffraction. This paper provides an overview of results on the combustion and slag characteristics of herbaceous biomass fuels. The results include chemical compositions, morphology and softening properties of these fuels, with special attention to switch grass and sunflower seed shell. (author)

  15. Flume and field-based calibration of surrogate sensors for monitoring bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, L.; Carrillo, R.; Escauriaza, C.; Iroume, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bedload transport assessment is important for geomorphological, engineering, and ecological studies of gravel-bed rivers. Bedload can be monitored at experimental stations that require expensive maintenance or by using portable traps, which allows measuring instantaneous transport rates but at a single point and at high costs and operational risks. The need for continuously measuring bedload intensity and dynamics has therefore increased the use and enhancement of surrogate methods. This paper reports on a set of flume experiments in which a Japanese acoustic pipe and an impact plate have been tested using four well-sorted and three poorly sorted sediment mixtures. Additional data were collected in a glacierized high-gradient Andean stream (Estero Morales) using a portable Bunte-type bedload sampler. Results show that the data provided by the acoustic pipe (which is amplified on 6 channels having different gains) can be calibrated for the grain size and for the intensity of transported sediments coarser than 9 mm (R2 = 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). Even if the flume-based calibration is very robust, upscaling the calibration to field applications is more challenging, and the bedload intensity could be predicted better than the grain size of transported sediments (R2 = 0.61 and 0.43, respectively). The inexpensive impact plate equipped with accelerometer could be calibrated for bedload intensity quite well in the flume but only poorly in the field (R2 = 0.16) and could not provide information on the size of transported sediments.

  16. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  17. Low-NO{sub x}, wood chip combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Oravainen, H.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The regulations for nitrogen oxide emissions vary in different countries, but the general trend in the future will probably be that the emissions limits will be lowered also for wood combustion plants, which are small or medium size units. Thus, the development of wood chip burning furnaces (grate furnaces, fluidized bed combustors, stoker furnaces) with lower nitrogen oxide emissions, is important. The wood used in the combustor, its particle size, moisture and fuel properties (nitrogen content) affect the nitrogen emissions. The nitrogen oxide release is also much affected by the design and operation of the combustor (air staging, fuel air preheat, flue gas circulation, air to fuel mass ratio). The fate of nitrogen compounds originally in the virgin wood depends much on the design of the combustor system and by proper planning it is possible to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Basic knowledge of the release of nitrogen compounds from single wood particles is attained. The release of gaseous nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis and combustion is studied experimentally and by modelling. Nitrogen release is studied experimentally by two ways, by analysing the gas and by quenching the particle and analysing the char residue. Formation of nitrogen oxide emissions in a fuel bed is studied by modelling and by combustion experiments with a pot furnace. This research gives general information of nitrogen oxide formation in wood bunting especially in fixed beds. The development of a horizontal stoker burner for wood chips with low emissions is the practical aim of the research. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis of Alkanethiolate-Capped Metal Nanoparticles Using Alkyl Thiosulfate Ligand Precursors: A Method to Generate Promising Reagents for Selective Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Aye San

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of metal nanoparticle catalysts functionalized with well-defined thiolate ligands can be potentially important because such systems can provide a spatial control in the reactivity and selectivity of catalysts. A synthetic method utilizing Bunte salts (sodium S-alkylthiosulfates allows the formation of metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pd, Pt, and Ir capped with alkanethiolate ligands. The catalysis studies on Pd nanoparticles show a strong correlation between the surface ligand structure/composition and the catalytic activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation/isomerization of alkenes, dienes, trienes, and allylic alcohols. The high selectivity of Pd nanoparticles is driven by the controlled electronic properties of the Pd surface limiting the formation of Pd–alkene adducts (or intermediates necessary for (additional hydrogenation. The synthesis of water soluble Pd nanoparticles using ω-carboxylate-S-alkanethiosulfate salts is successfully achieved and these Pd nanoparticles are examined for the hydrogenation of various unsaturated compounds in both homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Alkanethiolate-capped Pt nanoparticles are also successfully synthesized and further investigated for the hydrogenation of various alkynes to understand their geometric and electronic surface properties. The high catalytic activity of activated terminal alkynes, but the significantly low activity of internal alkynes and unactivated terminal alkynes, are observed for Pt nanoparticles.

  19. Report on results of research and development work in 1980 of the Institute for Radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Reported are the investigations of the Institute with the main points of analysis, nuclear chemistry and water chemistry. The analytical and nuclear chemical topics are included in the projects PWA, PNS, PSB and KMUe. The KMUe-project is performed in close co-operation with the European Institute for Transuranic Elements. The analytical investigations concentrate on fuel- and burn-up tests, on analyses of epipolar rays and neutron activations as well as on methodical development and automation of test methods. The 'Isotope-place' does preparatory works and effects irradiations in the FR2, Cyclotron and Co-60-γ-source. The radiochemical group prepares weekly several hundreds of Curie fission molybdenum 99 for nuclear medical purposes. The institute-internal project 'Drinkwater treatment and technology' treats in close co-operation with the 'Engler-Bunte-Institute' the clearing of water impurities and the analytical determination of persistent noxious substances in waters like the Rhine, the Danube and the lake Constance. (orig./HK) [de

  20. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINTAL MUNA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muna L, Astirin OP, Sugiyarto. 2011. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus. Bioteknologi 8: 65-77. Penelitiian ini betujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Pandanus conoideus Lam. var. buah kuning terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, berat dan panjang fetus, keadaan morfologi fetus, serta struktur skeleton fetus tikus putih. Dalam penelitian ini diggunakan 25 tikus bunting yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok secara acak, sehingga masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor tikus. Setiap kelompok diberi dosis yang berbeda. P1 (kontrol diberi 1 mL minyak wijen, P2 , P3, P4 dan P5 diberi ekstrak masing-masing: 0,02 mL, 0,04 mL, 0,08 mL dan 0,16 mL. Ekstrak tersebut diberikan secara oral pada kebuntingan hari ke 5 sampai hari ke 17 (fase organogenesis. Pengamatan dilakukan pada hari ke 18 dengan cara bedah sesar untuk menggambil fetus dari uterus. Morfologi fetu s diamati setelah fetus dikeluarkan dari uterus, sedangkan untuk pengamatan struktur skeleton dibuat preparat wholemount dengan pewarnaan ganda Alcian blue dan Allizarrin Red-S. Hasil percobaan diianalisis dengan ANAVA satu jalur. Hasil penelitiann menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak tidak berpengaruh terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, serta berat dan panjang fetus (P≥0,05. Pemberian ekstrak pada induk mengakibatkan kecacatan skeleton (lordosis fetus pada dosis 0,16 mL dan menghambat osifikasi fetus.

  1. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  2. The rotameter and the waterwheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foregger, R

    2001-09-01

    The publication imparts information about the personal life and professional sphere of activity of J.A. Segner, Karl Küppers, Maximilian Neu, Hans Bunte, and Felix Meyer, as far as they were involved with the invention of devices for measuring gas flow, especially their involvement in testing the introduction of Rotameters into the medical field. The knowledge that the threat of deportation in October 1940, due to his Jewish background and in view of the politics of the National Socialists at the time, led to Maximilian Neu's committing suicide, is of added historical interest. Together with biographical details, the role played by the Institute of Research in Karlsruhe and the establishment of the Rotameter site in Aachen is presented. The historical outline finishes with a short report of the author's first experience with Rotameters at the Nuffeld Department of Anaesthetics, Oxford University during the Second World War and with his subsequent efforts to introduce Rotameters into anesthesia equipment design in the United States.

  3. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  4. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kimpe, Linda E., E-mail: linda.kimpe@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.c [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with {Sigma}PCB and {Sigma}DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing {delta}{sup 15}N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:{Sigma}DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  5. Monitoring of pipeline oil spill fire events using Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Eckardt, F. D.; Martinez, P.

    2016-12-01

    Nigeria, the largest producer of crude oil in Africa occupies sixth position in the world. Despite such huge oil revenue potentials, its pipeline network system is consistently susceptible to leaks causing oil spills. We investigate ground based spill events which are caused by operational error, equipment failure and most importantly by deliberate attacks along the major pipeline transport system. Sometimes, these spills are accompanied with fire explosion caused by accidental discharge, natural or illegal refineries in the creeds, etc. MODIS satellites fires data corresponding to the times and spill events (i.e. ground based data) of the Area of Interest (AOI) show significant correlation. The open source Quantum Geographical Information System (QGIS) was used to validate the dataset and the spatiotemporal analyses of the oil spill fires were expressed. We demonstrate that through QGIS and Google Earth (using the time sliders), we can identify and monitor oil spills when they are attended with fire events along the pipeline transport system accordingly. This is shown through the spatiotemporal images of the fires. Evidence of such fire cases resulting from bunt vegetation as different from industrial and domestic fire is also presented. Detecting oil spill fires in the study location may not require an enormous terabyte of image processing: we can however rely on a near-real-time (NRT) MODIS data that is readily available twice daily to detect oil spill fire as early warning signal for those hotspots areas where cases of oil seepage is significant in Nigeria.

  6. Poročilo o obročkanju ptic v Sloveniji v letu 2016 in pojavljanje mušje listnice Phylloscopus inornatus v 25 letih v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, data on 176 bird species were gathered during bird ringing activities in Slovenia. A total of 65,711 birds of 165 different species were ringed. Furthermore, 148 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 245 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1840 local recoveries were made. The most frequently ringed species was the Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. Among the ringed nestlings, Great Tits Parus major, Tree Sparrows Passer montanus and White Storks Ciconia ciconia predominated. Considering recoveries of birds ringed or found abroad, the most frequent were finds based on colour rings, especially of Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Mute Swans Cygnus olor and Common Terns Sterna hirundo. As far as local recoveries are concerned, most data were collected for Great Tit and Siskin Spinus spinus. Among rare species, two Yellow-browed Warblers Phylloscopus inornatus were ringed, one Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola, one Little Emberiza pusilla and one Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala, the latter as a singing male, which probably also bred in 2016. The catch frequency of the Yellow-browed Warblers has indeed been increasing in Slovenia in the last 25 years, but this is still a rare and irregular vagrant on autumn migration.

  7. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  8. An historical overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, 1985–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Speaker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM, established as the Regional Medical Library Program in 1965, has a rich and remarkable history. The network’s first twenty years were documented in a detailed 1987 history by Alison Bunting, AHIP, FMLA. This article traces the major trends in the network’s development since then: reconceiving the Regional Medical Library staff as a “field force” for developing, marketing, and distributing a growing number of National Library of Medicine (NLM products and services; subsequent expansion of outreach to health professionals who are unaffiliated with academic medical centers, particularly those in public health; the advent of the Internet during the 1990s, which brought the migration of NLM and NNLM resources and services to the World Wide Web, and a mandate to encourage and facilitate Internet connectivity in the network; and the further expansion of the NLM and NNLM mission to include providing consumer health resources to satisfy growing public demand. The concluding section discusses the many challenges that NNLM staff faced as they transformed the network from a system that served mainly academic medical researchers to a larger, denser organization that offers health information resources to everyone.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  9. An historical overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, 1985-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Susan L

    2018-04-01

    The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM), established as the Regional Medical Library Program in 1965, has a rich and remarkable history. The network's first twenty years were documented in a detailed 1987 history by Alison Bunting, AHIP, FMLA. This article traces the major trends in the network's development since then: reconceiving the Regional Medical Library staff as a "field force" for developing, marketing, and distributing a growing number of National Library of Medicine (NLM) products and services; subsequent expansion of outreach to health professionals who are unaffiliated with academic medical centers, particularly those in public health; the advent of the Internet during the 1990s, which brought the migration of NLM and NNLM resources and services to the World Wide Web, and a mandate to encourage and facilitate Internet connectivity in the network; and the further expansion of the NLM and NNLM mission to include providing consumer health resources to satisfy growing public demand. The concluding section discusses the many challenges that NNLM staff faced as they transformed the network from a system that served mainly academic medical researchers to a larger, denser organization that offers health information resources to everyone.

  10. Reproducción en hembras bufalinas: inseminación artificial y reproducción asistida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Vale

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El uso de semen congelado de la especie bufalina en la Inseminación Artificial (IA se realizó por primera vez por Bhattacharya y Srivastava (1955 en la India. Luego, continuaron varios estudios realizados en diferentes países, Roy et al. (1956, Basirov (1964, Allahverdiev (1969 y Sahana y Roy (1972. Sin embargo, la ausencia de un procesamiento tecnológico adecuado del esperma en lo que se refiere a los diluyentes, el de tiempo de equilibración, concentración de glicerol, métodos de congelación y la falta de un estándar adecuado llevó a resultados pobres y variables. Toda la tecnología de procesamiento se basó en la misma metodología utilizada para el ganado bovino, faltando por lo tanto, el desarrollo de un diluyente especifico para bufalinos. Después del seminario sobre la reproducción y la inseminación artificial, promovido por la FAO y el Gobierno Sueco, en Karnal, India en 1979, varias mejoras se obtuvieron en los laboratorios de diferentes partes del mundo, lo cual culminó en el uso de diluyentes aptos para el semen de búfalo y la obtención de tasas nacimiento mayores al 65% (Sengupta y Sukhija, 1988.En Brasil, la práctica de la IA en los bufalinos comenzó en los años 80 del pasado siglo, cuando Vale et al. (1984 al utilizar los diluyentes TES y TRIS realizaron con éxito la primera inseminación con semen congelado en la región amazónica, con el cual logró tasas de preñez superiores a 50%. Posteriormente, tasas superiores al 70% de nacimientos fueron obtenidas por los mismos investigadores, iniciando el uso del proceso ampliamente en todo Brasil y América Latina. En otros países de América Latina, incluyendo Brasil se registran índices de nacimientos arriba del 80%, mientras que en China hay datos oficiales que reportan índices de fertilidad alrededor del 90% en búfalas inseminadas en municipios rurales. Por lo tanto, hoy en día la inseminación artificial en hatos de búfalos llega a la misma tasa de

  11. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sakthivel Selvan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenolchloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1 were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I (contig 2 and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI (contig 4 restriction enzyme (RE. Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCRRFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2 test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Results: Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1, revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs. Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I

  12. Predicting response to incretin-based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Kalra1, Bharti Kalra2, Rakesh Sahay3, Navneet Agrawal41Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Diabetology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 3Department of Endocrinology, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, India; 4Department of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, IndiaAbstract: There are two important incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulin tropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1. The biological activities of GLP-1 include stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and insulin biosynthesis, inhibition of glucagon secretion and gastric emptying, and inhibition of food intake. GLP-1 appears to have a number of additional effects in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. Incretin based therapy includes GLP-1 receptor agonists like human GLP-1 analogs (liraglutide and exendin-4 based molecules (exenatide, as well as DPP-4 inhibitors like sitagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin. Most of the published studies showed a significant reduction in HbA1c using these drugs. A critical analysis of reported data shows that the response rate in terms of target achievers of these drugs is average. One of the first actions identified for GLP-1 was the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from islet cell lines. Following the detection of GLP-1 receptors on islet beta cells, a large body of evidence has accumulated illustrating that GLP-1 exerts multiple actions on various signaling pathways and gene products in the ß cell. GLP-1 controls glucose homeostasis through well-defined actions on the islet ß cell via stimulation of insulin secretion and preservation and expansion of ß cell mass. In summary, there are several factors determining the response rate to incretin therapy. Currently minimal clinical data is available to make a conclusion. Key factors appear to be duration of diabetes, obesity, presence of autonomic neuropathy, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucagon levels and

  13. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L; Ganie, Zahoor A; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Gupta, Raj K

    2016-03-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha -1 ) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30' and 'Pusa 1121') tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha -1 ) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha -1 ) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha -1 , respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha -1 reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%).

  14. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, A Sakthivel; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chaudhari, M V; Magotra, A

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ (2)) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I (contig 2) and HinfI (contig 4) RE

  15. Assessment of expected breeding values for fertility traits of Murrah buffaloes under subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Dash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of temperature and humidity prevalent under subtropical climate on the breeding values for fertility traits viz. service period (SP, pregnancy rate (PR and conception rate (CR of Murrah buffaloes in National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI herd. Materials and Methods: Fertility data on 1379 records of 581 Murrah buffaloes spread over four lactations and climatic parameters viz. dry bulb temperature and relative humidity (RH spanned over 20 years (1993-2012 were collected from NDRI and Central Soil and Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India. Monthly average temperature humidity index (THI values were estimated. Threshold THI value affecting fertility traits was identified by fixed least-squares model analysis. Three zones of non-heat stress, heat stress and critical heat stress zones were developed in a year. The genetic parameters heritablility (h2 and repeatability (r of each fertility trait were estimated. Genetic evaluation of Murrah buffaloes was performed in each zone with respect to their expected breeding values (EBV for fertility traits. Results: Effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001 on all fertility traits with threshold THI value identified as 75. Based on THI values, a year was classified into three zones: Non heat stress zone(THI 56.71-73.21, HSZ (THI 75.39-81.60 and critical HSZ (THI 80.27-81.60. The EBVfor SP, PR, CR were estimated as 138.57 days, 0.362 and 69.02% in non-HSZ while in HSZ EBV were found as 139.62 days, 0.358 and 68.81%, respectively. EBV for SP was increased to 140.92 days and for PR and CR, it was declined to 0.357 and 68.71% in critical HSZ. Conclusion: The negative effect of THI was observed on EBV of fertility traits under the non-HSZ and critical HSZ Thus, the influence of THI should be adjusted before estimating the breeding values for fertility traits in Murrah buffaloes.

  16. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L.; Ganie, Zahoor A.; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha−1) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30′ and 'Pusa 1121′) tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha−1) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha−1) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha−1 reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%). PMID

  17. Hydrological and vegetational response to the Younger Dryas climatic oscillations: a high resolution case study from Quoyloo Meadow, Orkney, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, David; Abrook, Ashley; Timms, Rhys; Matthews, Ian; Palmer, Adrian; Milner, Alice; Candy, Ian; Sachse, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Younger Dryas (Loch Lomond) Stadial is a well defined period of cold climate that in North West Europe punctuated the climatic amelioration during the Last Glacial - Interglacial Transition (LGIT ca. 16-8 ka). A palaeolake record from Quoyloo Meadow, Orkney Islands (N59.067, E-3.309) has been analysed for pollen and stable isotopes on biomarker lipids. n-Alkanes from terrestrial and aquatic sources are present throughout the core. The average chain length (ACL) is relatively low during the interstadial (~28.0) and shows a distinct increase during the Younger Dryas (to 29.0 +), attributed to an increase in grasses and drought resistant shrubs (e.g. Artemisia, Castañeda et al., 2009, Bunting, 1994). At the beginning of the Holocene, the ACL rapidly drops to 28.3 and from thereon gently increases again to ~29.0. There is a continued odd-over-even n-alkane predominance, although even n-alkanes are present in greater quantities in the interstadial, indicating an increasing terrestrial contribution in the Holocene. Ongoing deuterium isotope measurements of the n-alkanes will give independent evidence for palaeohydrological changes and can be compared to the other proxy evidence within the same core. Using a combination of nC29 and nC23 (terrestrial and aquatic end-members, respectively), a change in relative humidity (rH) can be qualified. This is based on the idea that terrestrial vegetation is affected by evapotranspiration processes, whereas aquatic vegetation is not (Rach et al., 2014). This data is supported by a high resolution palynological study; the contiguously sampled record demonstrates ecosystem/environmental responses to millennial-scale climatic change and allows for the possible detection of vegetation shifts at the sub-millennial scale. Vegetation aside, the pollen data can further aid in the interpretation of the recorded n-alkanes and isotopic analyses. This data is placed within a chronological framework derived from a high resolution crypto- and

  18. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manual of Tesla Experiments; Handbuch Tesla Experimente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The first part, ''Making Lightning and Thunder'', describes a number of Tesla generators that can generate, e.g., coloured light arcs, ball lightning and swords of lightning. The second part, ''New Experiments with EMP, Tesla Waves and Microwaves'', presents a solid state Tesla generator for generating electrodynamic vortices and proposes circuiting alternatives to generate electromagnetic pulses (EMP). Further, mysterious Teslar wave, microwave and scalar wave generators are presented, as well as exotic Star Wars experiments like mass accelerators and plasma guns. The third section describes, among others, a tube-driven Tesla generator with 50 cm streamers. The reader will also find a catalogue of Messrs. Information Unlimited, USA, who are providers of many of the kits, circuiting diagrams and apparatuses presented here. (orig.) [German] Der erste Teil mit dem Titel ''Blitz und Donner selbst erzeugt'' beschreibt eine Reihe von Teslageneratoren, mit denen zum Beispiel bunte Lichtbogen, Kugelblitze und Blitzschwerter erzeugt werden koennen. Im zweiten Teil ''Neue Experimente mit EMPs, Tesla- and Mikrowellen'' findet der Leser einen Solid-State-Teslagenerator zur Erzeugung elektrodynamischer Wirbel sowie Schaltungsvorschlaege zum Thema ''Elektromagnetischer Impuls'' (EMP). Des Weiteren werden geheimnisumwitterte Tesla-, Mikro- und Skalarwellengeneratoren vorgestellt. Exotische Star-Wars-Experimente wie Massenbeschleuniger und Plasmakanonen fehlen ebenfalls nicht. Im dritten Teil wird unter anderem ein roehrenbetriebener Teslagenerator mit Streamern von 50 cm Laenge beschrieben. Ausserdem findet der Leser hier einen Katalog der US-Firma Information Unlimited, bei der viele im Buch besprochenen Bausaetze, Schaltplaene und Fertiggeraete bezogen werden koennen. (orig.)

  20. Radiological monitoring plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant: Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The Y-12 Plant conducts a surface water monitoring program in response to DOE Orders and state of Tennessee requirements under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The anticipated codification of DOE Order 5400.5 for radiation protection of the public and the environment (10 CFR Part 834) will require an environmental radiation protection plan (ERPP). The NPDES permit issued by the state of Tennessee requires a radiological monitoring plan (RMP) for Y-12 Plant surface waters. In a May 4, 1995 memo, the state of Tennessee, Division of Water Pollution Control, stated their desired needs and goals regarding the content of RMPs, associated documentation, and data resulting from the RMPs required under the NPDES permitting system (L. Bunting, General Discussion, Radiological Monitoring Plans, Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control, May 4,1995). Appendix A provides an overview of how the Y-12 Plant will begin to address these needs and goals. It provides a more complete, documented basis for the current Y-12 Plant surface water monitoring program and is intended to supplement documentation provided in the Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), NPDES reports, Groundwater Quality Assessment Reports, and studies conducted under the Y-12 Plant Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The purpose of this update to the Y-12 Plant RMP is to satisfy the requirements of the current NPDES permit, DOE Order 5400.5, and 10 CFR Part 834, as current proposed, by defining the radiological monitoring plan for surface water for the Y-12 Plant. This plan includes initial storm water monitoring and data analysis. Related activities such as sanitary sewer and sediment monitoring are also summarized. The plan discusses monitoring goals necessary to determine background concentrations of radionuclides, to quantify releases, determine trends, satisfy regulatory requirements, support consequence assessments, and meet requirements that releases be ''as low as

  1. UNAM Scientific Drilling Program of Chicxulub Impact Structure-Evidence for a 300 kilometer crater diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, L.; Trejo-Garcia, A.

    As part of the UNAM drilling program at the Chicxulub structure, two 700 m deep continuously cored boreholes were completed between April and July, 1995. The Peto UNAM-6 and Tekax UNAM-7 drilling sites are ˜150 km and 125 km, respectively, SSE of Chicxulub Puerto, near the crater's center. Core samples from both sites show a sequence of post-crater carbonates on top of a thick impact breccia pile covering the disturbed Mesozoic platform rocks. At UNAM-7, two impact breccia units were encountered: (1) an upper breccia, mean magnetic susceptibility is high (˜55 × 10-6 SI units), indicating a large component of silicate basement has been incorporated into this breccia, and (2) an evaporite-rich, low susceptibility impact breccia similar in character to the evaporite-rich breccias observed at the PEMEX drill sites further out. The upper breccia was encountered at ˜226 m below the surface and is ˜125 m thick; the lower breccia is immediately subjacent and is >240 m thick. This two-breccia sequence is typical of the suevite-Bunte breccia sequence found within other well preserved impact craters. The suevitic upper unit is not present at UNAM-6. Instead, a >240 m thick evaporite-rich breccia unit, similar to the lower breccia at UNAM-7, was encountered at a depth of ˜280 m. The absence of an upper breccia equivalent at UNAM-6 suggests some portion of the breccia sequence has been removed by erosion. This is consistent with interpretations that place the high-standing crater rim at 130-150 km from the center. Consequently, the stratigraphic observations and magnetic susceptibiity records on the upper and lower breccias (depth and thickness) support a ˜300 km diameter crater model.

  2. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  3. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  4. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  5. Declining Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Andrew Cox

    Full Text Available Many songbird species have experienced significant population declines, partly because of brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater, which is positively associated with increasing landscape forest cover in the midwestern United States. However, cowbirds are also experiencing long-term population declines, which should reduce parasitism pressure and thus increase productivity of host species. We used 20 years of nest monitoring data from five sites in Missouri across a gradient of landscape forest cover to assess temporal trends in the rate and intensity of brood parasitism for Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea, and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis. We evaluated whether there were concomitant changes in fledging brood size, nest survival, a combination of the two metrics (i.e., host young produced per nest attempt, and whether such changes were more substantial with decreasing landscape forest cover. Parasitism rates and intensities declined substantially during 1991-2010. Fledging brood size and nest survival rates were positively associated with landscape forest cover, confirming the fragmentation hypothesis for Midwest forest birds. Declining parasitism rates were associated with increased fledging brood sizes, with more pronounced increases as landscape forest cover decreased. Nest survival increased insubstantially across time during laying and incubation, but not during the nestling stage. The best predictor of nest survival was parasitism status, with parasitized nests surviving at lower rates than unparasitized nests. Overall, productivity increased during 1991-2010, with more pronounced increases associated with lower levels of landscape forest cover. The negative effects of cowbirds on nest survival in addition to fledging brood size in less forested landscapes suggest that cowbirds may be a primary cause of forest fragmentation effects on songbird productivity in the

  6. Uropygial gland volatiles may code for olfactory information about sex, individual, and species in Bengalese finches Lonchura striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xu ZHANG et al.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-shadowed by eye-catching vocal and visual signals, chemical communication has long been overlooked in birds. This study aimed at exploring whether volatile composition of the uropygial gland secretion (UGS of birds was associated with the information about sex, individual and species. By using dichloromethane extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, we analyzed the UGS volatiles of domesticated Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata, Estrildiea which is also known as white-rumped munias. We characterized 16 volatile molecules from the UGS, including eight n-alkanols, five diesters, an ester, an aldehyde and a fatty acid, and quantified them in terms of GC peak area percentages (relative abundances. Among these compounds, hexadecanol and octadecanol were major components in both sexes. The former was richer in males than females and the latter richer in females than males, suggesting that they might be male and female pheromone candidates, respectively. The high inter-individual variations, in relative abundance, of the UGS volatiles implied that they might carry information about individuality. The similarity between GC profiles of the UGS and wing feather from same individuals indicates that the birds might preen the secretion to their feathers to transmit chemical cues. Additionally, by comparing with three sympatric passerine species,i.e., zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, yellow-bowed buntings Emberiza chrysophrys and rooks Corvus frugilegus, we found that the composition of C13-C18 alkanols in the UGS might contain information about species. Our study also show that quantitative differences (degree of same UGS volatiles might be the key for the Bengalese finch to code for information about sex and individuality whereas both the kind and degree of UGS constituents could be utilized to code for information about species [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  7. [The nurse answers for health in social inequalities: the development of the nursing critical paradigm.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Gennaro; Stievano, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Until the early Eighties, critical social theory as a philosophical orientation informing nursing science, theory development and practice did not exist. Interest on this topic began to arise only after the mid-Eighties. In fact, nursing scholars questioned the validity of empiricism as the historical foundation for nursing science and the limitations of interpretivism in strengthening nursing knowledge, and thus started to focus on the lack of epistemological perspectives in nursing, giving particular prominence to the peculiar social, political, historical and economic conditions involving those who needed nursing care. The theoretical reflection began to develop, like the empirical paradigm, the post-positivist paradigm and, later, the interpretative paradigm, expanded thanks to the early works by Martha Rogers and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, were seen as unable to address issues related to power inequities, structural constraints and oppression suffered by vulnerable groups such as the homeless, mental health individuals, people affected by HIV+ and other infectious diseases, unemployed, etc.. Empiricism and interpretative paradigms did not manage to bridge the gap between theory and praxis, and a new theoretical and philosophical approach gradually gained ground. This paradigm, based on critical social theory, was developed by distinguished scholars and intellectuals, such as Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse of the Frankfurt School in the Thirties, and, in recent years, by Giddens, Bourdieu, Foucault, Habermas. On this social field the first works of Allen, Thompson, Stevens, Campbell and Bunting, Kendall, allowed to work out a new paradigmatic nursing approach that would have predicted the employment of the critical theory for particular nursing aspects, as a conceptual framework for nursing education, as a paradigm to carry out participatory action-research and for the development of the discipline. The purpose of this article was to describe this

  8. Riparian bird density decline in response to biocontrol of Tamarix from riparian ecosystems along the Dolores River in SW Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Biocontrol of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the arid Southwest using the introduced tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda elongata) has been hypothesized to negatively affect some breeding bird species, but no studies to date have documented the effects of beetle-induced defoliation on riparian bird abundance. We assessed the effects of tamarisk defoliation by monitoring defoliation rates, changes in vegetation composition, and changes in density of six obligate riparian breeding bird species at two sites along the Dolores River in Colorado following the arrival of tamarisk beetles. We conducted bird point counts from 2010 to 2014 and modeled bird density as a function of native vegetation density and extent of defoliation using hierarchical distance sampling. Maximum annual defoliation decreased throughout the study period, peaking at 32–37% in 2009–2010 and dropping to 0.5–15% from 2011–2014. Stem density of both tamarisk and native plants declined throughout the study period until 2014. Density of all bird species declined throughout most of the study, with Song Sparrow disappearing from the study sites after 2011. Blue Grosbeak, Yellow-breasted Chat, and Yellow Warbler densities were negatively related to defoliation in the previous year, while Lazuli Bunting exhibited a positive relationship with defoliation. These findings corroborate earlier predictions of species expected to be sensitive to defoliation as a result of nest site selection. Tamarisk defoliation thus had short-term negative impacts on riparian bird species; active restoration may be needed to encourage the regrowth of native riparian vegetation, which in the longer-term may result in increased riparian bird density.

  9. Instrument Failure, Stress, and Spatial Disorientation Leading to a Fatal Crash With a Large Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2017-11-01

    An aircraft's orientation relative to the ground cannot be perceived via the sense of balance or the somatosensory system. When devoid of external visual references, the pilot must rely on instruments. A sudden unexpected instrument indication is a challenge to the pilot, who might have to question the instrument instead of responding with the controls. In this case report we analyze, from a human-factors perspective, how a limited instrument failure led to a fatal accident. During straight-ahead level flight in darkness, at 33,000 ft, the commander of a civil cargo airplane was suddenly confronted by an erroneous pitch-up indication on his primary flight display. He responded by pushing the control column forward, making a bunt maneuver with reduced/negative Gz during approximately 15 s. The pilots did not communicate rationally or cross-check instruments. Recordings of elevator and aileron positions suggest that the commander made intense efforts to correct for several extreme and erroneous roll and pitch indications. Gz displayed an increasing trend with rapid fluctuations and peaks of approximately 3 G. After 50 s the aircraft entered a turn with decreasing radius and finally hit the ground in an inverted attitude. A precipitate maneuvring response can, even if occurring in a large aircraft at high altitude, result in a seemingly inexorable course of events, ending with a crash. In the present case both pilots were probably incapacitated by acute psychological stress and spatial disorientation. Intense variations in Gz may have impaired the copilot's reading of the functioning primary flight display.Tribukait A, Eiken O. Instrument failure, stress, and spatial disorientation leading to a fatal crash with a large aircraft. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(11):1043-1048.

  10. NRC new sustainable building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The National Research Council Institute For Fuel Cell Innovation is relocating to a purpose-built 71,343 sq. Ft. (6598 sq. M) Research, Testing, Evaluation, and Industry Incubation Facility in the spring of 2006. The new facility will contain Hydrogen-ready laboratories, the existing relocated Hydrogen Safe Environmental Test Chamber, a hydrogen vehicle maintenance bay, a hydrogen vehicle refuelling station, and the following demonstration projects and features: 1. A Ground Source Heat Pump: This long-proven natural-source heating and cooling technology to provide climate control for the new IFCI's atrium and galleria. It is being designed by Keen Engineering of North Vancouver, BC. 2. 5 KW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System: Fuelled by natural gas and in the future, from biomass, the fuel cell will also produce approximately 15 kW of waste heat, which will be captured and used to supply heat for the building. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell will be supplied by Fuel Cell Technologies in Kingston, ON. 3. LEED Building certification: Attaining LEED 'green building' certification is considered an important complement to the plans for the new NRC-IFCI, because it will provide respected third-party verification of government's commitment to efficient building design and construction. Project architects Bunting Coady of Vancouver, BC believe the IFCI has strong potential to earn gold LEED certification. 4. Photovoltaic hydrogen source for back-up power fuel cell system: A photovoltaic array will capture energy from sunlight to power an electrolyzer that will produce and store hydrogen for a PEM fuel cell emergency backup power system. The electrolyzer will be provided by Hydrogenics of Mississauga, ON. Photovoltaics are being designed and installed by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. (author)

  11. Inventory of montane-nesting birds in Katmai and Lake Clark national parks and preserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service’s Inventory and Monitoring Program, biologists from the U. S. Geological Survey’s Alaska Science Center conducted an inventory of birds in montane regions of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves during 2004–2006. We used a stratified random survey design to allocate samples by ecological subsection. To survey for birds, we conducted counts at 468 points across 29, 10-km x 10-km (6.2-mi x 6.2-mi) sample plots in Katmai and 417 points across 25, 10-km x 10-km sample plots in Lake Clark. We detected 92 and 104 species in Katmai and Lake Clark, respectively, including 40 species of conservation concern. We detected three species not previously recorded in Katmai (Ring-necked Duck [Aythya collaris], Lesser Scaup [Aythya affinis], and White-tailed Ptarmigan [Lagopus leucurus]) and two species not previously recorded in Lake Clark (Northern Flicker [Colaptes auratus ] and Olive-sided Flycatcher [Contopus cooperi]). The most commonly detected species in both parks was Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) and American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) were abundant and widely-distributed as well. We defined sites as low (100–350 m), middle (351–600 m), or high (601–1,620 m) elevation based on the distribution of vegetation cover, and similarly categorized the 34 most-commonly detected species based on the mean elevation of sample points at which they were detected. High elevation (i.e., alpine) sites were characterized by high percent cover of dwarf shrub and bare ground habitat and supported species like Rock Ptarmigan (L. mutus), American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Wandering Tattler (Tringa incana), Surfbird (Aphriza virgata), and Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), all species of conservation concern. This inventory represents the first systematic survey of birds nesting in montane regions of both parks. Results from this inventory can form the foundation of

  12. The fate of the postmodern world: On melancholy and rebellion by Milan Mihajlović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The musical oeuvre of Milan Mihajlović (b. 1945 enjoys a high reputation and position in contemporary Serbian music. This has been proven by the many awards he has received, countless performances of his compositions at home and abroad, and especially by the warm and approving reactions of the audience. The stylistic consistency in his oeuvre is a result of his creative use of Scriabin’s scale. The concept of this scale was first theoretically elaborated in an extensive study written by Mihajlović in 1980 and, since then the scale has been functioning as a crucial cohesive element in all Mihajlović’s compositions. The novelty in his oeuvre, composed during the 1990s, were intertextual references made by using citations from his own works and those of other composers (Monteverdi, Mozart, Stravinsky, Rachmaninov, Vasilije Mokranjac. The most characteristic features of his mature style are also recognizable in his recent works Melancholy (2014 and Rebellion (2015. The interval structure of Skriabin’s scale is projected along the horizontal (melodical and vertical (harmonical axes of the both works while the formal design resulted from shifts of tensions and relaxations. Developmental sections are based on variation and improvisation of the small number of different motifs (three basic ones in Melancholy, four in Rebellion above the metrically moveable ostinato layers and the releases are marked by change of tempo, dynamic, meter and texture. The most significant and radical release is the one which marks the abrupt ending of Rebellion by the physical gesture of slamming down the keyboard lid. As the composition was written for the BUNT festival (Belgrade it fits the festival’s idea of expressing resistance to the government’s neglect of academic musicians and institutions. In the wider sense, it becomes a sign of the resistance to the world we live in, and that is the world of lost ideals. Both works are composed for the wind

  13. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  14. PENGARUH LINAMARIN TERHADAP PENAMPILAN REPRODUKSI INDUK MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitra Wahyuni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was performed to observe the effect of linamarin on reproductive performance, that consist of the number of live fetuses, reabsorption embryo or fetal, fetal death and fetal body weight together with length. Pregnant mice were divided into one control group with administration of distilled water (0 mg/kgb.w/days and six treatment groups linamarin dose is 0.36; 0.72; 1.26 mg; 2; 4; and 8 mg/kgb.w./days. Linamarin dosing and control begins at 5th to 16th gestation days, at 17-days of gestation caesarean section were performed to pregnant mice to remove foetuses. Statistical analysis used was a variation analysis by ANOVA followed by comparisons between treatments HSD test (Tukey. Giving linamarin observed in the parent mice led to a decrease in average weight gain of the mother during pregnancy compared with controls. In linamarin dose 8 mg/kgb.w/day an increase in embryo reabsorption and fetal death, as well as the observed decrease in fetal body weight and length, but after statistical analysis of the decrease was not significantly different. Linamarin with the doses given in this study is not expected to interfere with pregnancy based on reproductive performance were observed. Keywords: Linamarin, reproductive performance, fetal weight, fetal body length ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilaksanakan bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh linamarin pada penampilan reproduksi yang meliputi jumlah fetus hidup, embrio resorpsi, fetus mati dan berat beserta panjang badan fetus. Induk mencit yang bunting dikelompokkan ke dalam satu kelompok kontrol dengan pemberian akuades (0 mg/kgb.b./hari dan enam kelompok perlakuan dosis linamarin yaitu 0,36; 0,72; 1,26 mg; 2; 4; dan 8 mg/kgb.b./hari. Pemberian dosis linamarin dan kontrol dimulai pada umur kebuntingan 5 sampai 16 hari, setelah itu pada umur kebuntingan 17 hari mencit dikorbankan nyawanya untuk pengambilan fetus. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah analisis variasi dengan ANOVA dan

  15. ISOLASI cDNA SUCROSE TRANSPORTER (SUT DARI BATANG TANAMAN TEBU (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Slameto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose Transporter (SUT is kind of protein transporter that control in sucrose translocation. Sucrose Transporter is intermediate in translocation of sucrose from apoplasmic to simplasmic. SUT facilitates sucrose transportation from vascular tissues to parenchyma cells toward in node sugarcane stem. This research was purposed to isolate cDNA SUT from sugarcane stem, and cloned in Escherichia coli strain DH5α. Total RNA of sugarcane stem was isolated by single step method, then add with oligo dT in order to obtain the first strand of SUT cDNA then used as template for PCR. The primer used for PCR is 5’ –ggg ctg att gtg gcc atg tc- ‘3 (SUT-F and 5’ –tgc cct ttg tct ccg gaa cc- ‘3 (SUT-R. PCR was programmed as follow denaturation at 94°C for 2 minutes and 30 second, annealing at 54°C for 30 s, extension at 72°C 2 min and 7 min, and storage at 4°C for unlimited, It was for 30 cycles. Complementary DNA SUT from PCR ligalized to pTOPO bunt-end, then it cloned in to E. coli strain DH5α. The cloning resulted then be sequenced in order to observe the homologues with other nucleotides sequences of some plant using BLASTn program in GENE BANK NCBI and the level of homology determined by Genetyx program. The concentrated of total RNA isolated was 5,024 μg/μl, with purity of 1,85. Complementary DNA SUT fragment from PCR with size 2037 bp appropriated to the both of primer was used. Complementary DNA SUT fragment showed by analyzed some of restriction enzyme e.g. EcoRI, PstI and BamHI. Homologues of this cDNA SUT fragment was 100% to SoSUT 2A of sugarcane stem and 84% to OsSUT of rice plant (Casu et al ., 2003.

  16. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    the restoration projects provide benefits for special-status species, but they also appeared effective in restoring the larger native riparian community. Increases in bird abundance through time were observed both at restoration sites and in remnant habitats, suggesting that restoration efforts may be having positive spill-over effects, although observed increases may have been caused by other factors. Although positive overall, these studies yielded some disconcerting results. The Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena declined at restoration sites and remnant habitats alike, and certain exotic invasive species, such as black rats, appeared to increase as restoration sites matured.

  17. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  18. The effect of monofluorophosphate implant in white rat mothers towards the level of fluor in the incisors of their young babies (Rattus-rattus

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    Widjijono Widjijono

    2010-06-01

    implantasi memberikan keluaran fluor jumlah kecil dan waktu lama. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah induk tikus yang diberi implan-MFP berpengaruh terhadap kandungan fluor gigiseri anak tikus. Metode: Subjek penelitian adalah 20 ekor induk tikus putih bunting 2 hari dibagi 4 kelompok (n=5. Induk diberi implan pada bawah-kulit punggung hingga anak tikus lahir dan pada umur 35 hari (n=5. Kandungan fluor pada gigi seri anak tikus diukur menggunakan Potensiometer. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan Anova 1 jalur dilanjutkan uji LSD (p=0,05. Hasil: penelitian menunjukkan rerata fluor gigiseri anak tikus berturut-turut sebesar: 11956,16±201,35 ppb (K, 27328,04±234.56 ppb (P1, 37267,21±248.86 ppb (P2, dan 18103,50±267,11 ppb (P3. Hasil: Anava membuktikan bahwa ada pengaruh bermakna akibat variasi kadar MFP dalam implan terhadap kandungan fluor gigi anak tikus. Beda rerata antar kelompok perlakuan diuji dengan LSD0,05 memperlihatkan perbedaan bermakna pada semua kelompok. Kesimpulan: Penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kenaikan secara bermakna terhadap retensi fluor optimal dalam gigiseri tikus putih pada pemberian fluoridasi menggunakan implan dengan muatan MFP: 52,98 mg.

  19. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  20. TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN INSEMINASI BUATAN DENGAN KUALITAS DAN DEPOSISI SEMEN YANG BERBEDA PADA SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Susilawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan kualitas spermatozoa PTM, terutama dari semen beku yang memiliki kualitas di bawah PTM kelas AI dan deposisi semen untuk keberhasilan kebuntingan pada Filial (PO sapi Ongole. Metodologi yang digunakan adalah percobaan menggunakan 80 PO perempuan sebagai sampel yang diambil secara purposive. Penelitian ini menggunakan 8 perlakuan dengan mengulangi proses di 10 sapi. Perlakuan IB ini yang menggunakan 4 level  kualitas PTM dari semen beku (PTM 5-20%, 20-30%, 30-40% dan ³ 40% dan 2 jenis deposisi semen (4 dan 4 +. Hasil  penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kemungkinan kebuntingan  dengan kualitas semen dengan PTM 20-30% dan 30-40% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kualitas semen   PTM 5-20%, meskipun , secara statistik persentase kebuntingan  tidak berbeda. IB menggunakan deposisi semen 4 + hasil 2.168 kali lebih tinggi dari kebuntingan  dibandingkan dengan deposisi semen IB 4. Secara statistik, persentase kebuntingan  dari perbedaan kualitas spermatozoa PTM dan deposisi semen itu tidak signifikan. Oleh karena itu, hasil penelitian ini akan menjadi keuntungan besar, terutama jika ditinjau dari aspek reproduksi. Semen beku yang mempunyai kualitas PTM di bawah standar SNI (20 – 40% masih dapat menghasilkan kebuntingan pada ternak akseptor IB yaitu berhasil bunting 85% - 95%.  Deposisi semen saat IB pada posisi  4+ menghasilkan kemungkinan kebuntingan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan IB pada posisi 4.     pregnancy successfulness with different quality AND Semen deposition  in Filial Ongole (PO cattle ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to finding out the influence of the different quality of spermatozoa’s PTM, especially from frozen semen that has under grade PTM quality and AI semen deposition to the pregnancy successfulness in Filial  Ongole (PO cattle. The methodology that is used is experiment using 80 female PO as the sample that is taken

  1. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yekimova

    2014-11-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature. Keywords: seeds, disease, infection

  2. Sediment mobility and bedload transport rates in a high-elevation glacier-fed stream (Saldur river, Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnese, A.; Mao, L.; Comiti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of bedload transport in high-gradient streams is necessary to evaluate and mitigate flood hazards and to understand morphological processes taking place in the whole river network. Bedload transport in steep channels is particularly difficult to predict due to the complex and varying types of flow resistance, the very coarse and heterogeneous sediments, and the activity and connections of sediment sources at the basin scale. Yet, bedload measurements in these environments are still relatively scarce, and long-term monitoring programs are highly valuable to explore spatial and temporal variability of bedload processes. Even fewer are investigations conducted in high-elevation glaciarized basins, despite their relevance in many regions worldwide. The poster will present bedload transport measurements in a newly established (spring 2011) monitoring station in the Saldur basin (Eastern Italian Alps), which presents a 3.3 km2 glacier in its upper part. At 2100 m a.s.l. (20 km2 drainage area), a pressure transducer measures flow stage and bedload transport is monitored continuously by means of a hydrophone (a cylindrical steel pipe with microphones registering particle collisions) and by 4 fixed antennas for tracing clasts equipped with PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders). At the same location bedload samples are collected by using both a "Bunte" bedload trap and a "Helley-Smith" sampler at 5 positions along a 5 m wide cross-section. Bedload was measured from June to August 2011 during daily discharge fluctuations due to snow- and ice- melt flows. Samples were taken at a large range of discharges (1.1 to 4.6 m3 s-1) and bedload rates (0.01 to 700 g s-1 m-1). As expected, samples taken using the two samplers are not directly comparable even if taken virtually at the same time and at the same location across the section. Results indicate that the grain size of the transported material increases with the shear stress acting on the channel bed and with the

  3. Developmental care does not alter sleep and development of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Thoman, E B; Boeddiker, M A; Kugener, B; Constantinou, J C; Mirmiran, M; Baldwin, R B

    1997-12-01

    The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Program (NIDCAP) for very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants has been suggested by Als et al to improve several medical outcome variables such as time on ventilator, time to nipple feed, the duration of hospital stay, better behavioral performance on Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB), and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We have tested the hypothesis of whether the infants who had received NIDCAP would show advanced sleep-wake pattern, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcome. Thirty-five VLBW infants were randomly assigned to receive NIDCAP or routine infant care. The goals for NIDCAP intervention were to enhance comfort and stability and to reduce stress and agitation for the preterm infants by: a) altering the environment by decreasing excess light and noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and by using covers over the incubators and cribs; b) use of positioning aids such as boundary supports, nests, and buntings to promote a balance of flexion and extension postures; c) modification of direct hands-on caregiving to maximize preparation of infants for, tolerance of, and facilitation of recovery from interventions; d) promotion of self-regulatory behaviors such as holding on, grasping, and sucking; e) attention to the readiness for and the ability to take oral feedings; and f) involving parents in the care of their infants as much as possible. The infants' sleep was recorded at 36 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and at 3 months corrected age (CA) using the Motility Monitoring System (MMS), an automated, nonintrusive procedure for determining sleep state from movement and respiration patterns. Behavioral and developmental outcome was assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) at 36 weeks PCA, the APIB at 42 weeks PCA, and by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 4, 12, and 24 months CA. Sleep developmental measures at 3 months CA showed a

  4. Approaches in the design of 99mTc based peptide radiolabelling for tumour targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, A.; Horiuchi, K.; Arano, Y.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks in diagnostic and/or therapeutic uses of peptides radiolabelled with radiometals via bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) is their accumulation in excretory organs such as liver or kidney. Thus, the aim of the project is centred in the search for chemical and radiochemical approaches to reduce radioactivity accumulated in excretory organs while preserving the in vivo receptor binding affinity of the peptide. During the first stage a suitable procedure using the F-moc-chemistry (solid phase) was developed and synthesis of DTPA-D-Phen1-Octreotide and DTPA-L-Phen1-Octreotide was carried out. During the synthesis, the need to improve the yield demanded the synthesis of a DTPA derivative holding only one reactive carboxylic group to avoid side intermolecular reaction. The availability of both isomeric conjugated octreotide led to their radiolabelling with 111 In. Their metabolic studies in animals indicated that the degradation rate of the peptide containing the natural aminoacid, 111 In DTPA-L-Phen1-Octreotide, was slightly higher than the corresponding D-aminoacid derivative, as expected. Stability of the peptide during radiolabelling with 99m Tc was then studied, requiring the use of variable agents such as ascorbic acid, dithionite and stannous ion. The selected peptide, RC-160, was provided by the IAEA and, as reference compounds, corresponding iodinated and radioiodinated peptides were synthesized. Demonstration of the stability of the peptide was carried out using disodium 2-nitro-5-thiosulfobenzoate (NTBS) and the lack of Bunte salt formation served as an indication of the stability of the disulfide bond under various mild conditions required for the future radiolabelling with 99m Tc. The knowledge gained served in moving to the next stage of 99m Tc radiolabelling using HYNIC as the BCA and tricine as co-ligands. The biodistribution studies demonstrated great accumulation on excretory organs. This led us to look for a model protein

  5. Pareceristas da RBHCS no Triênio 2015-2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editores RBHCS

    2017-12-01

    Jonas Moreira Vargas (UFPel José Carlos da Silva Cardozo (FURG Karina Barra Gomes (UENF Lania Stefanoni Ferreira (Centro Universitário da FEI Leandro Karnal (Unicamp Leny Caselli Anzai (UFMT Luciana Mendes Gandelman (UFRRJ Luciana Rodrigues Penna (UFRGS Luciano Costa Gomes (UFRGS Luís Antonio Groppo (UNIFAL Luís Augusto Ebling Farinatti (UFSM Luisa Tombini Wittmann (UDESC Luiz Estevam de Oliveira Fernandes (UFOP Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte (Museu Nacional/ UFRJ Luiz Fernando Medeiros Rodrigues (UNISINOS Lyndon de Araújo Santos (UFMA Maíra Bonafé Sei (UEL Maísa Faleiros da Cunha (Unicamp Marcelo Henrique Nogueira Diana (IFC Marcelo Vianna (IFRS Marco Trentini (Universidad de Bologna - Itália Marcos Antonio Witt (UNISINOS Marcus Peixoto (UFRJ Maria Aparecida Bergamaschi (UFRGS Maria Cristina Bohn Martins (UNISINOS Maria de Nazaré Sarges (UFPA Maria Gabriela Silva Martins da Cunha Marinho (UFABC Mário Martins Viana Júnior (UFC Marlise Regina Meyrer (UPF Marta Regina Cioccari (UFRJ Mauro Dillmann (UFPEL Melina Piglia (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Argentina Micheli Verginia Ghiggi (UFMS Moacir de Freitas Junior (UFU Mônica da Silva Ribeiro (UFRRJ Mônica Ribeiro de Oliveira (UFJF Natália de Lacerda Gil (UFRGS Nathalia Monseff Junqueira (UFMS Nilson Gomes Vieira Filho (UFAM Patrice Schuch (UFRGS Patricia Dario El-Moor Hadjab (UNB Paulo Eduardo Teixeira (UNESP-Marília Paulo Henrique Martinez (UNESP Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Soares (UFRGS Pedro Eduardo Mesquita de Monteiro Marinho (Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins/UNIRIO Petrônio José Domingues (UFS Pompilio Locks Filho (UDESC Rauer Ribeiro Rodrigues (UFMS Rodrigo Stumpf González (UFRGS Roswithia Weber (FEEVALE Thiago Barcelos Soliva (UFRJ

  6. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    CentreOld Govt College Campus, Railway Road , Near Liberty ,KARNAL (HARYANA - 132 001INDIATel: +91-184-2260075Fax: +91-184-2255738E-mail: ignourck10@sancharnet.in

  7. Count Nouns - Mass Nouns, Neat Nouns - Mess Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose and formalize a theory of the mass-count distinction in which the denotations of count nouns are built from non-overlapping generators, while the denotations of mass nouns are built from overlapping generators. Counting is counting of generators, and it will follow that counting is only correct on count denotations. I will show that the theory allows two kinds of mass nouns: mess mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping minimal generators, and neat mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping generators, where the overlap is not located in the minimal generators. Prototypical mass nouns like meat and mud are of the first kind. I will argue that mass nouns like furniture and kitchenware are of the second type. I will discuss several phenomena—all involving one way or the other explicitly or implicitly individual classifiers like stuks in Dutch—that show that both distinctions mass/count and mess/neat are linguistically robust. I will show in particular that nouns like kitchenware pattern in various ways like count nouns, and not like mess mass nouns, and that these ways naturally involve the neat structure of their denotation. I will also show that they are real mass nouns: they can involve measures in the way mess mass nouns can and count nouns cannot. I will discuss grinding interpretations of count nouns, here rebaptized fission interpretations, and argue that these interpretations differ in crucial ways from the interpretations of lexical mass nouns. The paper will end with a foundational problem raised by fission interpretations, and in the course of this, atomless interpretation domains will re-enter the scene through the back door.ReferencesBarner, D. & Snedeker, J. 2005. ‘Quantity judgements and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count’. Cognition 97: 41–66.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.06.009PMid:16139586Bunt, H. 1985. Mass Terms and Model Theoretic Semantics. Cambridge

  8. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    fragment cover on interrill soil erosion from bare soils in Western Andalusia, Spain. Soil Use and Management, 24(1), 108-117. Mwango S. B., Msanya B. M., Mtakwa P. W., Kimaro D. N., Deckers J., Poesen J. 2016. Effectiveness of mulching under miraba in controlling soil erosion, fertility restoration and crop yield in the usambara mountains, Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 2332 Nanko K., Giambelluca T. W., Sutherland R. A., Mudd R. G., Nullet M. A., Ziegler A. D. 2015. Erosion potential under miconia calvescens stands on the island of hawai'i. Land Degradation and Development, 26 (3), 218-226. DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 2200 Ochoa-Cueva, P., Fries, A., Montesinos, P., Rodríguez-Díaz, J.A., Boll, J. 2015. Spatial Estimation of Soil Erosion Risk by Land-cover Change in the Andes OF Southern Ecuador. Land Degradation and Development, 26 (6), 565-573. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2219 Poesen, J. W., Torri, D., Bunte, K. 1994. Effects of rock fragments on soil erosion by water at different spatial scales: a review. Catena, 23(1), 141-166. Poesen, J., Lavee, H. 1994. Rock fragments in top soils: significance and processes. Catena, 23 (1), 1-28. Zavala, L. M., Jordán, A., Bellinfante, N., Gil, J. 2010. Relationships between rock fragment cover and soil hydrological response in a Mediterranean environment. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition, 56 (1), 95-104. Zhao, C., Gao, J., Huang, Y., Wang, G., Zhang, M. 2015. Effects of Vegetation Stems on Hydraulics of Overland Flow Under Varying Water Discharges. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2423