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Sample records for karlsruhe germany keywords

  1. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  2. 19 February 2015 - Professor Holger Hanselka President Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Federal Republic of Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson K. Borras and CMS Collaboration, Team Leader, Karlsruhe Institut fur Technologie T. Muller and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. C. Schaefer present throughout.

  3. Report of the Second European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting in Karlsruhe, Germany, March 21-24, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavodeassi, Florencia; Del Bene, Filippo; Fürthauer, Maximilian; Grabher, Clemens; Herzog, Wiebke; Lehtonen, Sanna; Linker, Claudia; Mercader, Nadia; Mikut, Ralf; Norton, William; Strähle, Uwe; Tiso, Natascia; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2013-03-01

    The second European Zebrafish Principal Investigator (PI) Meeting was held in March, 2012, in Karlsruhe, Germany. It brought together PIs from all over Europe who work with fish models such as zebrafish and medaka to discuss their latest results, as well as to resolve strategic issues faced by this research community. Scientific discussion ranged from the development of new technologies for working with fish models to progress in various fields of research such as injury and repair, disease models, and cell polarity and dynamics. This meeting also marked the establishment of the European Zebrafish Resource Centre (EZRC) at Karlsruhe that in the future will serve as an important focus and community resource for zebrafish- and medaka-based research.

  4. The Karlsruhe Dynamo Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown theoretically in the past that homogeneous dynamos may occur in electrically conducting fluids for various vortical velocity fields. Roberts (1972 investigated spatially periodic, infinitely extended fields of vortices which Busse (1978, 1992 confined to a finite cylindrical domain. Based on Busse's vortex arrangement a conceptual design for an experimental homogeneous dynamo has been developed and a test facility was setup at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The first experiments demonstrated that permanent dynamo action can be generated in a cylindrical container filled with liquid sodium in which by means of guide tubes counterrotating and countercurrent spiral vortices are established. The dynamo is self-exciting and the magnetic field saturates at a mean value for fixed super-critical flow rates. The instantaneous magnetic field fluctuates around this mean value by an order of about 5%. As predicted by theory the mode of the observed magnetic field is non-axisymmetric. In a series of experiments a phase- and a bifurcation diagram has been derived as a function of the spiral and axial flow rates.

  5. Casa Wächter Karlsruhe Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann, Friedrich

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Wächter Residence, Karlsruhe - West Germany The design of this home in Karlsruhe v/as presided over by two basic criteria: function and human scale, carried up to their ultimate consequences. The first criteria had a decisive influence on the roof arrangement, as an extension of the neighboring buildings, and on the selection of construction materials to match the suburban environment where the site is located, not to forget the shaping of Windows and skylights, reflecting the internal functions and providing lighting while protecting the privacy of the interior from the exterior lines of view. The second criteria affects aspects so different from one another as the unexpected but valid room arrangement following a spiral path leading from the entrance to the master bedroom at the other end with the remaining rooms at intermediate levels affording the required degree of privacy; or the arrangement of the mechanical installations, resembling the human backbone; or, finally, the paint finish chosen, pleasing man's taste for ornamentality.

    La realización de esta vivienda, en Karlsruhe, estuvo marcada por dos criterios fundamentales: la funcionalidad y la escala humana, llevadas ambas hasta sus últimas consecuencias. La primera influyó desde la disposición de las cubiertas, como prolongación de las construcciones vecinas, hasta la elección de los materiales constructivos, acordes con el entorno suburbano de la parcela, sin olvidar la configuración de las ventanas y lucernarios que, con sus diferentes formatos, indican el uso del interior, al tiempo que posibilitan la iluminación, protegiendo de las vistas exteriores. La segunda característica afecta a aspectos tan dispares como la original, pero válida, secuencia de habitaciones —según una espiral que, desde la entrada, conduce, en el extremo opuesto, al dormitorio de los padres, quedando las restantes dependencias situadas en los niveles intermedios según su exigencia

  6. The nuclear fuel cycle in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report about the joint SFEN/KTG meeting held at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center on November 20-21, 1989. Entwicklungen im nuklearen Brennstoffkreislauf in Frankreich und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bericht ueber die deutsch-franzoesische Tagung der SFEN und der KTG am 20. /21. 11. 89 im Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroebel, R. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung); Wigger, B. (Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-02-01

    The meeting was intended as a platform for comparing and assessing the current situation in the nuclear fuel cycle of LWRs in France and West Germany. The subjects discussed centered on fuel element development and reactor charging strategies, and on the situation in the spent fuel reprocessing sector which has experienced interesting developments. The different approaches adopted in the two countries for ultimate waste disposal were another conference topic. A decisive difference in the conditions of the two countries is that, although the relevant political decisions have been taken at about the same time, the conditions in France were such that by now, all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle have developed to an economically profitable stage, whereas the nuclear controversy in West Germany, and the related deficit in public acceptance, have hampered and delayed the corresponding developments in this country. (orig.).

  7. Status of nuclear data activities at Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This is a brief introduction to nuclear data activity at Karlsruhe Research Center. Some URLs concerned are given. Topics mentioned here are, the FENDL and JEF/EFF project at INR, and measurements of neutron capture cross sections at IK III. (author)

  8. Inverted Classroom an der Hochschule Karlsruhe - ein nicht quantisierter Flip

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Isabel; Ritter, Stefan; Vasko, Mikko; Voss, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    When does a course count as 'inverted'? When first faced with a new teaching method, deliberate lectures may want to test it without abandoning the advantages of the established method. Aftes the experiment they have to evaluate additional benefits of the new system for teacher and student. Considering the high workload of lecturers, the help of a third party may be useful to obtain an objective assessment of the results during such a transition. At the University of Applied Sciences 'Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft' in Germany, the SKATING project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), offers among other things individual technical and didactic advice. This includes practical help with the development, implementation and testing of innovative lecture formats like the Inverted Classroom Method (also known as flipped class). When Professors at the University stated their interest in this approach, varying teaching projects on its implementation and evaluation wer...

  9. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  10. The Mnemonic Keyword Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Available experimental evidence is reviewed concerning the keyword method, a two-stage procedure for remembering materials having an associative component. The review examines subjects' memory for definitions, given vocabulary words; subjects' learning of other aspects of vocabulary, given definitions; group-administered keyword studies; and…

  11. Searching Databases with Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Kun-Long Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, SQL query language is used to search the data in databases. However, it is inappropriate for end-users, since it is complex and hard to learn. It is the need of end-user, searching in databases with keywords, like in web search engines. This paper presents a survey of work on keyword search in databases. It also includes a brief introduction to the SEEKER system which has been developed.

  12. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.;

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However......, the queries studied so far generally focus on finding individual objects that each satisfy a query rather than finding groups of objects where the objects in a group collectively satisfy a query. We define the problem of retrieving a group of spatial web objects such that the group's keywords cover the query...

  13. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geo-positioned. This development gives prominence to spatial keyword queries, which involve both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient processing of continuously moving top-k spatial keyword (MkSK) queries over spatial...... text data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within the safe zone associated with a result. However, existing safe-zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We...

  14. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao;

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user-sup...... different kinds of functionality as well as the ideas underlying their definition....

  15. Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wu, Dingming

    2013-01-01

    an all-around survey of 12 state- of-the-art geo-textual indices. We propose a benchmark that en- ables the comparison of the spatial keyword query performance. We also report on the findings obtained when applying the bench- mark to the indices, thus uncovering new insights that may guide index...

  16. PTO: The New Keyword

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On November 5, the State Council made public the new paid-time-off (PTO) regulations in order to get some feedback. As a result, "PTO"has become the most searched keyword in China;shortly after the announcement more than 140,000 people had participated in a survey on Sina.com, with nearly 60% showing their support of the new policies.

  17. In-pile tests at Karlsruhe of LWR fuel-rod behavior during the heatup phase of a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karb, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a nuclar environment on the mechanisms of fuel-rod failure, in-pile tests simulating the heatup phase of a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized-water reactor are being conducted with irradiated and unirradiated short-length single rods in the FR2 reactor at Kernforschungszentrum karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Nuclear Reasearch Center), Federal Republic of Germany, within the Project Nuclear Safety. With nearly 70% of the scheduled tests completed, no such influences have been found. The in-pile burst and deformation data are in good agreement with results from nonnuclear tests with electrically heated fuel-rod simulators. The phenomenon of pellet disintegration, which has been observed in all tests with previously irradiated rods, needs further investigation.

  18. Contents, Abstracts and Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Transnationalism and Its Theoretical Contributions…… Ding Yueya(1) Abstract: The theory of transnationalism and its development in past twenty years brings great contributions to the studies of the immigration, transnation and transculture. The paper first presents the origin of transnationalism and its definition; then, based on the review of literature relevant, illustrates three core concepts of transnationalism. transnational practices, transnational social space, and transnational identity; finally, discovers the contributions of transnationalism which mean the innovational influence of its logic, perspectives, structure, and method on the academia. Keywords. transnationalism; transnational practices; transnational social space; transnational identity.

  19. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  20. Karlsruhe: En route to a superconducting r.f. separator

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    A superconducting r.f. separator is under construction at Karlsruhe for use at the SPS in the beam-line to the Omega spectrometer. Tests on a section of the first 3 m deflector have given results close to the desired parameters.

  1. Contents, Abstracts and Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Social Competition and the Construction of Ethnic Group: A Refection of Western Theory about Resource Competition Guan Kai(1) Abstract: The theory about resource competition claims that ethnic group, as a symbol, is a kind of toot in the social competition, and that on certain social conditions, people can be organized by ethnic group to strive for social resource, hence the boundary among ethnic groups is drawn. So the need of social competition and the strategy of individual and collectivity to meet it becomes the basic power to construct ethnic group. The paper reviews the origin and development of the theory about resource competition of ethnic group, and the relative cases; on the basis of the above, responds to the theory and analyzes its limitation. At the same time, the paper also tries to introduces a new variable--state--to the theory, that is to say, add a viewpoints of state in the theory about resource competition whose focus is on the society, and discovers the important role of state which means a competition coordinator and its function and effect in the construction of ethnic group. Keywords : resource competition; ethnic group ; state; construction of ethnic group ; competition of ethnic group.

  2. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  3. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  4. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    a health facility is a determinant of patient's choice of provider and willingness to pay for the services. This paper discusses ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 28(1) 25-30 ..... on Health Workers' Training. Daily Trust.

  5. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Introduction: Most patients in Rivers State seek health care from primary health centres which recently had ... Outcome measured were patients' satisfaction with doctors and nurses' ..... to subject selection, measurement instrument and. 15.

  6. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    found to be as long as over 2 hours in Malaysia, to about 42.89 ... guide the Department's management of the PHC. The specific ... The required sample size was calculated using the ... flow analysis chart was given to the parents or ..... health resources to improve service delivery and ... Waiting Room Issues" (2012).

  7. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Background: Domestic Violence is a serious, preventable public health problem that affects millions of people. The abuse of women ... Conclusion: Prevalence of domestic violence in the studied group was high. ...... Violence in North India.

  8. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    family planning methods is for men while 41.7% would communicate with their wives about the need for either partner to use family planning ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ..... Nursing Clinics of North America.

  9. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Male gender and not taking alcohol regularly were significant ... adults in Lagos and the level of knowledge of harmful health effects of tobacco is low .... Footnote: All the students were unemployed and studying at the tertiary level of education.

  10. Keywords:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Methods: The study examined several aspects of diabetes-related knowledge, attitude and ... (39.6%) 10.1% and 2.8% knew that diabetes can present with fast breathing and abdominal pain respectively. ..... Pakistan and the other in Iran.

  11. KEYWORDS'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-25

    May 25, 2003 ... ... propensity to spread to healthcare workers and household members, .... phase, by hyaline membranes, interstitial and ... Respiratory protection and barrier nursing are advised for ... first time in the history of the World Health.

  12. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  13. Status and commissioning of the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment KATRIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuemmler, Thomas; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino properties, and especially the determination of the neutrino rest mass, play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double β decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. Experiments based on single β decay investigate electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino mass by a modelindependent method. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mass.

  14. Tritium operating experience at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, L.; Bekris, N.; Besserer, U.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, W.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Rohrig, H.D.; Schubert, K.; Vollmer, T.; Wendel, J. [Karlsruhe Research Centre, Tritium Laboratory (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe began operations with gram amounts of tritium in March 1995. Since then, the experimental facilities CAPRICE and PETRA have been routinely in operation. New experimental activities include the analysis of tritium in first wall materials of fusion devices and the development of methods for the detritiation of graphite and carbon fibre composite tiles. The experience gained with Tritium Retention Systems, with the Tritium Transfer System, with portable uranium getter beds and in this context with tritium accountancy is reported. The incorporation of a new Pd packed column into the Isotope Separation System, the increase in storage capacity of the Tritium Storage System, the improvements of the analytical instrumentation and some repair activities are also described. (authors)

  15. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "playdriven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  16. Effective Approaches For Extraction Of Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeen Kaur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Keywords are index terms that contain most important information. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words , keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning of document. Keyword extraction is considered as core technology of all automatic processing for text materials. In this paper, a Survey of Keyword Extraction techniques have been presented that can be applied to extract effective keywords that uniquely identify a document.

  17. Eesti Vabariigi aastapäev Karlsruhes pakkus vaimset toitu ja sealiha / Meeli Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    22. veebr. 2003 tähistas Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts EV 85. aastapäeva koosviibimisega, kus Euroopa Parlamendi liige Evelyn Gebhardt esitas ettekande teemal "Eesti Euroopa Liidu lävel", toimus kontsert ja traditsiooniline pidu

  18. Karlsruhe jõulupeol vahetus ka esimees / Meeli Bagger ; foto: Meeli Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    4. detsembril 2004 Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Seltsi, Eesti Ühiskond Saksa Liitvabariigis, Baden-Württembergi Eesti Rahvuskoondise poolt korraldatud jõulupeost ja Sven Baggeri valimisest uueks seltsi esimeheks

  19. DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

    2003-02-27

    The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

  20. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  1. Drawing the nuclear landscape: 50 years of the Karlsruhe Nuklidkarte; Trazando el paisaje nuclear 50 anos de historia de la Karlsruher Nuklidkarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Borge, M. J.; Normand, C.

    2010-07-01

    The map has been Nuklidkarte Karlsruhe nuclei since 1958 the work of thousands of physicists and hundreds of thousands experimental results produced in institutes research worldwide. With excellence as rule, has become over the years a reference the field of nuclear information. (Author) 19 refs.

  2. Visualization According To Research Paper Keywords

    OpenAIRE

    Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Möller, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    To appear; International audience; We analyzed visualization paper keywords supplied for 4366 papers accepted to three main visualization conferences. We describe main keywords, topic areas, and 10-year historic trends from author-chosen keywords for papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference series (now called IEEE VIS) since 2004. Furthermore, we present the KeyVis Web application that allows visualization researchers to easily browse the 2600+ keywords used for IEEE VIS papers o...

  3. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  4. Karlsruhes aastapäeva rohke muusikaga / Meeli Bagger ; fotod: Meeli Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 87. aastapäeva tähistamisest 26. veebruaril 2005 Hoepfneri Õllevabriku saalis, korraldajaks Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts. Kõnega esines Rita Fromm, kontserdil esinesid: Mari-Liis Vihermäe, Triinu Kull, Monika Hausvalter, Mait Martin, Viktoria ja Natalia Zagalskaia

  5. Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva pidu Karlsruhes / Meeli Bagger ; fotod: Sven Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    EV 86. aastapäeva tähistamiseks korraldasid kontsert-aktuse 28. veebr. 2004 Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts koostöös EÜSL-i Baden-Württembergi Rahvuskoondisega, huvitava kõne kultuuri rollist tänapäeva Eestis pidas EV kultuuriatašee Berliinis Reet Weidebaum

  6. A decade of tritium technology development and operation at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, L.; Besserer, U.; Bekris, N.; Bornschein, B.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I. R.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Weite, S.; Wendel, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has been designed to handle relevant amounts of tritium for the development of tritium technology for fusion reactors. This paper describes the tritium technology development and experience gained during the upgrade of facilities, interventions, replacement of failed components and operation of the TLK since its commissioning with tritium in 1994. (authors)

  7. Karlsruhes aastapäeva rohke muusikaga / Meeli Bagger ; fotod: Meeli Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 87. aastapäeva tähistamisest 26. veebruaril 2005 Hoepfneri Õllevabriku saalis, korraldajaks Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts. Kõnega esines Rita Fromm, kontserdil esinesid: Mari-Liis Vihermäe, Triinu Kull, Monika Hausvalter, Mait Martin, Viktoria ja Natalia Zagalskaia

  8. Vom auf der Planeten im Spiegel des Chorgesangs. Knabenchor Tallinn und Orchester aus Estland geben ein Konzert in der Karlsruher Stephanskirche / Bernd Willimek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Willimek, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Planeetide liikumise peegeldus koorilaulus. Tallinna poistekoor ja orkester Eestist andsid kontserdi Karlsruhe Stephanskirhes. Eesti kultuuripäevadest Karlsruhes. Eesti muusikast esitati Urmas Sisaski, Mihkel Lüdigi, Veljo Tormise ja Rudolf Tobiase loomingut

  9. Vom auf der Planeten im Spiegel des Chorgesangs. Knabenchor Tallinn und Orchester aus Estland geben ein Konzert in der Karlsruher Stephanskirche / Bernd Willimek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Willimek, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Planeetide liikumise peegeldus koorilaulus. Tallinna poistekoor ja orkester Eestist andsid kontserdi Karlsruhe Stephanskirhes. Eesti kultuuripäevadest Karlsruhes. Eesti muusikast esitati Urmas Sisaski, Mihkel Lüdigi, Veljo Tormise ja Rudolf Tobiase loomingut

  10. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  11. Keyword analysis of community planning documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains total hits per keyword expressed as percentage of total hits for the eight domains of the human well-being index. Additional categorical data is...

  12. Processing keyword queries under access limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Andrea; Martinenghi, D.; Torlone, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Web is constituted by data accessible through Web pages, but not readily indexable by search engines, as they are returned in dynamic pages. In this paper we propose a framework for accessing Deep Web sources, represented as relational tables with so-called access limitations, with keyword-based queries. We formalize the notion of optimal answer and propose methods for query processing. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first systematic approach to keyword search in such cont...

  13. On the mean-field theory of the Karlsruhe Dynamo Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Rädler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an experiment has been constructed which demonstrates a homogeneous dynamo as is expected to exist in the Earth's interior. This experiment is discussed within the framework of mean-field dynamo theory. The main predictions of this theory are explained and compared with the experimental results. Key words. Dynamo, geodynamo, dynamo experiment, mean-field dynamo theory, a-effect

  14. Stability-mutation feature identification of Web search keywords based on keyword concentration change ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao; LU; Guanghui; YE; Gang; LI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss how the keyword concentration change ratio(KCCR) is used while identifying the stability-mutation feature of Web search keywords during information analyses and predictions.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the stability-mutation feature of keywords and its significance, the paper describes the function of the KCCR in identifying keyword stability-mutation features. By using Ginsberg’s influenza keywords, the paper shows how the KCCR can be used to identify the keyword stability-mutation feature effectively.Findings: Keyword concentration ratio has close positive correlation with the change rate of research objects retrieved by users, so from the characteristic of the "stability-mutation" of keywords, we can understand the relationship between these keywords and certain information. In general, keywords representing for mutation fit for the objects changing in short-term, while those representing for stability are suitable for long-term changing objects. Research limitations: It is difficult to acquire the frequency of keywords, so indexes or parameters which are closely related to the true search volume are chosen for this study.Practical implications: The stability-mutation feature identification of Web search keywords can be applied to predict and analyze the information of unknown public events through observing trends of keyword concentration ratio.Originality/value: The stability-mutation feature of Web search could be quantitatively described by the keyword concentration change ratio(KCCR). Through KCCR, the authors took advantage of Ginsberg’s influenza epidemic data accordingly and demonstrated how accurate and effective the method proposed in this paper was while it was used in information analyses and predictions.

  15. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  16. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  17. Access to Periodicals: Search Key versus Keyword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Susan U.; Golden, Gary A.

    1983-01-01

    Retrievability of titles of 152 periodicals were compared in a fixed-length algorithmic search (Library Computer System) and a keyword search (Washington Library Network) to determine which type of search algorithm is more successful with titles of varying lengths. Three references and a list of English language stopwords are appended. (EJS)

  18. What Makes an Automatic Keyword Classification Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. Sparck; Barber, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    The substitution information contained in automatically obtained keyword classification is most effectively exploited when: (1) strong similarity connectives only are utilized, (2) grouping is confined to non-frequent terms, (3) term groups are used to provide additional and not alternative descriptive items and (4) descriptor collection frequency…

  19. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Mela (Carl); J.M.T. Roos (Jason); Y. Deng (Yanhui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting

  20. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  1. Efficient Spatial Keyword Search in Trajectory Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Gao; Ooi, Beng Chin; Zhang, Dongxiang; Zhang, Meihui

    2012-01-01

    An increasing amount of trajectory data is being annotated with text descriptions to better capture the semantics associated with locations. The fusion of spatial locations and text descriptions in trajectories engenders a new type of top-$k$ queries that take into account both aspects. Each trajectory in consideration consists of a sequence of geo-spatial locations associated with text descriptions. Given a user location $\\lambda$ and a keyword set $\\psi$, a top-$k$ query returns $k$ trajectories whose text descriptions cover the keywords $\\psi$ and that have the shortest match distance. To the best of our knowledge, previous research on querying trajectory databases has focused on trajectory data without any text description, and no existing work has studied such kind of top-$k$ queries on trajectories. This paper proposes one novel method for efficiently computing top-$k$ trajectories. The method is developed based on a new hybrid index, cell-keyword conscious B$^+$-tree, denoted by \\cellbtree, which enabl...

  2. INDEXING WORKSHOP: HOW TO ASSIGN KEYWORDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Virginia

    1979-09-01

    You have heard about issues surrounding indexing and retrieval of nuclear records and automation and micrographics of these records. Now we are going to get each of you involved in indexing and assigning keywords. The first part of this hands-on workshop will be a very basic, elementary step-by-step introduction, concentrating on how to assign keywords. It is a workshop for beginners, People who have never done it before. It is planned to demonstrate what an analyst has to do to index and assign keywords to a document. Then I will take some pages of a report and demonstrate how I choose keywords for it. Then each of you will have a chance to do the same thing with similar pages from another report. Then we will discuss the variations ln the keywords you individually assigned. There are many systems that can be used. In this particular workshop we will cover only a system of building your own keyword listing as you index your documents. We will be discussing keywords or descriptors or subject words, but first I want to point out a few other critical points about indexing. When developing an indexing project the most important thing to do first lS decide what elements you want to retrieve by. Whether you go into a large computer retrieval system or a small three-by-five card system, you have to decide in advance what you want to retrieve. Then you can go on from there. If you only need to search by equipment number or by purchase order or by contract number, then you can use a very simple retrieval system. But if you want to be able to retrieve a record by any combination of elements, then you have to consistently input these into your system. For example, if you want to be able to ask for the drawings of the piping in the secondary cooling system, level 3, manufactured by a certain vendor, then you must have put the information into the index by a retrieval file point, in advance. I want to stress that the time spent in deciding what has to be retrievable is never

  3. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (4th) Held at Karlsruhe University (Germany, F.R.), 12-14 September 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Engineering Division . L.J.S. Bradbury F.J. Durst B.E. Launder F.W. Schmidt J.H. Whitelaw Organizing Committee ". Page SESSION...THROUGH CLOSELY SPACED ROD ARRAYS J.D.Hooper CSIRO Mineral Physics Division Lucas Heights Research Establishment Private Mail Bag 7, Sutherland, NSW...Preliminary Experiment on Initiation Mechanism of . Celular Secondary Currents . The aaove-nentioned fact suggests strongly that an h o initiation of multi

  4. KRBKSS: a keyword relationship based keyword-set search system for peer-to-peer networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZOU Fu-tai; MA Fan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Distributed inverted index technology is used in many peer-to-peer (P2P) systems to help find rapidly document in -set search system for peer-to-peer networkswhich a given word appears. Distributed inverted index by keywords may incur significant bandwidth for executing more complicated search queries such as multiple-attribute queries. In order to reduce query overhead, KSS (keyword-set search) by Gnawali partitions the index by a set of keywords. However, a KSS index is considerably larger than a standard inverted index,since there are more word sets than there are individual words. And the insert overhead and storage overhead are obviously unacceptable for full-text search on a collection of documents even if KSS uses the distance window technology. In this paper, we extract the relationship information between query keywords from websites' queries logs to improve performance of KSS system.Experiments results clearly demonstrated that the improved keyword-set search system based on keywords relationship (KRBKSS) is more efficient than KSS index in insert overhead and storage overhead, and a standard inverted index in terms of communication costs for query.

  5. Keyword search in the Deep Web

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Andrea; Martinenghi, D.; Torlone, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Web is constituted by data accessible through Web\\ud pages, but not readily indexable by search engines, as they are returned\\ud in dynamic pages. In this paper we propose a framework for accessing\\ud Deep Web sources, represented as relational tables with so-called ac-\\ud cess limitations, with keyword-based queries. We formalize the notion\\ud of optimal answer and investigate methods for query processing. To our\\ud knowledge, this problem has never been studied in a systematic way.

  6. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  7. EL CONGRESO DE KARLSRUHE: PASO DEFINITIVO HACIA LA QUÍMICA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cid Manzano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estamos celebrando en este año 2009 el 140 aniversario de la publicación de la primera tabla periódica y el 90 aniversario de la creación del IUPAC. Ambos acontecimientos se relacionan directamente con el congreso de Karlsruhe llevado a cabo en esa ciudad alemana en 1860. Este congreso fué convocado para que los químicos europeos pudieran discutir sobre asuntos muy controvertidos, como la naturaleza atómica de la materia, la nomenclatura química y los pesos atómicos. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar a los lectores algunos datos sobre este congreso para entender mejor cómo la tabla periódica fue desarrollada y cómo la química se convirtió en una ciencia moderna.

  8. Muusikamaail. "Musica nova" Helsingis. Händeli festival Karlsruhes. Ooperikonkurss algas. Preemiaid ja tunnustusi. Ka Parmas uus ooperimaja. / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Soomes toimuvast uue muusika festivalist. Händeli festivalist Karlsruhes. Üle-euroopalisest noorte ooperilauljate konkursist. Ooperilaulja Doris Soffel sai Rootsi riigilt Kuningliku Põhjatähe ordeni. Sebastian Baumgarten sai ooperi "Tosca" eest noore režissööri preemia. Parmas valmis uus ooperimaja

  9. Muusikamaail. "Musica nova" Helsingis. Händeli festival Karlsruhes. Ooperikonkurss algas. Preemiaid ja tunnustusi. Ka Parmas uus ooperimaja. / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Soomes toimuvast uue muusika festivalist. Händeli festivalist Karlsruhes. Üle-euroopalisest noorte ooperilauljate konkursist. Ooperilaulja Doris Soffel sai Rootsi riigilt Kuningliku Põhjatähe ordeni. Sebastian Baumgarten sai ooperi "Tosca" eest noore režissööri preemia. Parmas valmis uus ooperimaja

  10. Macroeconomic potentials of intelligent networks in Germany. Abstract; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Potenziale intelligenter Netze in Deutschland. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the contribution under consideration the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) determines the total economic effects of intelligent networks for the German economy. For the first time, the contributions of the different areas (energy, health, traffic, education, administration) are shown detailed. On the whole, it arises a societal total benefit of intelligent networks of 55.7 billion Euro per year.

  11. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...

  12. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  13. Public-key Encryption with Registered Keyword Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    Public-key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) enables a server to test whether a tag from a sender and a trapdoor from a receiver contain the same keyword. In this paper, we highlight some potential security concern, i.e. a curious server is able to answer whether any selected keyword is

  14. The Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars Project - Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dillmann, Iris; Fülöp, Zsolt; Plag, Ralf; Käppeler, Franz; Rauscher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) project is an astrophysical online database for cross sections relevant for nucleosynthesis in the $s$ process and the $\\gamma$ process. The $s$-process database (www.kadonis.org) was started in 2005 and is presently facing its 4th update (KADoNiS v1.0). The $\\gamma$-process database (KADoNiS-p, www.kadonis.org/pprocess) was recently revised and re-launched in March 2013. Both databases are compilations for experimental cross sections with relevance to heavy ion nucleosynthesis. For the $s$ process recommended Maxwellian averaged cross sections for $kT$= 5-100~keV are given for more than 360 isotopes between $^{1}$H and $^{210}$Bi. For the $\\gamma$-process database all available experimental data from $(p,\\gamma), (p,n), (p,\\alpha), (\\alpha,\\gamma), (\\alpha,n)$, and $(\\alpha,p)$ reactions between $^{70}$Ge and $^{209}$Bi in or close to the respective Gamow window were collected and can be compared to theoretical predictions. The aim of...

  15. Bayesian Framework for Automatic Image Annotation Using Visual Keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rajeev; Wu, Changhua; Grosky, William; Fotouhi, Farshad

    In this paper, we propose a Bayesian probability based framework, which uses visual keywords and already available text keywords to automatically annotate the images. Taking the cue from document classification, an image can be considered as a document and objects present in it as words. Using this concept, we can create visual keywords by dividing an image into tiles based on a certain template size. Visual keywords are simple vector quantization of small-sized image tiles. We estimate the conditional probability of a text keyword in the presence of visual keywords, described by a multivariate Gaussian distribution. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by comparing predicted text annotations with manual annotations and analyze the effect of text annotation length on the performance.

  16. Experiences in automatic keywording of particle physics literature

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Ráez, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Attributing keywords can assist in the classification and retrieval of documents in the particle physics literature. As information services face a future with less available manpower and more and more documents being written, the possibility of keyword attribution being assisted by automatic classification software is explored. A project being carried out at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) for the development and integration of automatic keywording is described.

  17. Toward a deeper understanding of Visualization through keyword analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of visualization paper keywords supplied for 4366 papers submitted to five main visualization conferences. We describe main keywords, topic areas, and 10-year historic trends from two datasets: (1) the standardized PCS taxonomy keywords in use for paper submissions for IEEE InfoVis, IEEE Vis-SciVis, IEEE VAST, EuroVis, and IEEE PacificVis since 2009 and (2) the author-chosen keywords for papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference s...

  18. Incremental Training for SVM-Based Classification with Keyword Adjusting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jin-wen; YANG Jian-wu; LU Bin; XIAO Jian-guo

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzed the theory of incremental learning of SVM (support vector machine) and pointed out it is a shortage that the support vector optimization is only considered in present research of SVM incremental learning.According to the significance of keyword in training, a new incremental training method considering keyword adjusting was proposed, which eliminates the difference between incremental learning and batch learning through the keyword adjusting.The experimental results show that the improved method outperforms the method without the keyword adjusting and achieve the same precision as the batch method.

  19. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  20. Output Keywords in Context in an HTML File with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson builds on Keywords in Context (Using N-grams, where n-grams were extracted from a text. Here, you will learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  1. Tag cloud generation for results of multiple keywords queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study tag cloud generation for retrieved results of multiple keyword queries. It is motivated by many real world scenarios such as personalization tasks, surveillance systems and information retrieval tasks defined with multiple keywords. We adjust the state-of-the-art tag cloud...

  2. Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  3. Pilot project on the electron beam procedures at Rheinhafen steam power station in Karlsruhe of Badenwerk AG. Pilot-Projekt Elektronenstrahlverfahren (ESV) am Rheinhafen-Dampfkraftwerk Karlsruhe des Badenwerks AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, B.; Angele, H. (Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)); Wittig, S.; Willibald, U.; Platzer, K.H. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen); Schaefers, W. (Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-04-01

    The electron beam technique has been investigated in a pilot plant at Rheinhafen Steam Power Station of Badenwerk AG in Karlsruhe as a technical and economic alternative to other flue gas cleaning techniques. It has been shown that the electron beam technique can be realized under limiting conditions which are specific to power plants. Separation efficiencies greater than 90% are possible for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}. Development potential exists, inter alia, for the optimization of the radiation equipment (availability, energy consumption). (orig.).

  4. Fuzzy Keyword Search Over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Gedam,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As Cloud Computing becomes prevalent, more and more sensitive information are being centralized into the cloud. For the protection of data privacy, sensitive data usually have to be encrypted before outsourcing, which makes effective data utilization a very challenging task. Although traditional searchable encryption schemes allow a user to securely search over encrypted data through keywords and selectively retrieve files of interest, these techniques support only exact keyword search. This significant drawback makes existing techniques unsuitable in cloud computing as it is greatly affect system usability, rendering user searching experiences very frustrating and system efficiency very low. In this paper, for the first time we formalize and solve the problem of effective fuzzy keyword search over encrypted cloud while maintaining keyword privacy. In our solution, we exploit edit distance to quantify keyword similarity and develop new advanced technique on constructing fuzzy keyword sets which greatly reduces the storage and representation overheads. In this way, we show that our proposed solution is secure and privacy preserving, while realizing the goal of fuzzy keyword search.

  5. Development of a regional concept for energy management for the region of Karlsruhe. Final report; Entwicklung eines regionalen Energiemanagement-Konzeptes und Anwendung auf die TechnologieRegion Karlsruhe. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O.; Fichtner, W.; Frank, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion; Wolf, M.A.; Rejman, M.; Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT) (Germany); Reimert, R.; Schulz, A.; Buren, V. v. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle; Schaefers, B.; Bernart, Y. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Institut fuer Soziologie (IfSoz) (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Major objectives of this project are: to prepare a cross-disciplinary analysis of all characteristic aspects of the energy supply and demand patterns of a group of selected energy-intensive companies in the Karlsruhe and Rhine harbour area (5 industrial power consumers, 1 utility), to identify practical approaches for optimization and integration of energy and material flows, (networking), and to develop optimised investment and energy supply options within the framework of given conditions. The basis of the optimal solution and energy network presented and explained in detail is a new combined-cycle power plant running as a gas-fired CHP plant, substituting about 50% of the systems formerly used. (orig./CB) [German] Fragestellungen der Effizienzsteigerung und der Verwertung von Abfaellen und Abwaerme gewinnen an Relevanz vor dem Hintergrund der begrenzten Aufnahmekapazitaet der Umweltmedien fuer Schadstoffe. Im Rahmen des Projektes wurde am Beispiel der Region Karlsruhe (5 Industrieunternehmen und 1 EVU) die Entwicklung betriebsuebergreifender Energieversorgungssysteme (Netzwerke) interdisziplinaer analysiert und beschrieben. Zielsetzungen des Projekts waren unter anderem: Bestimmung von zukunftsfaehigen Optionen, intelligente Vernetzung von Energiestroemen, wirtschaftliche Optimierung betriebsuebergreifender Energiemanagement-Loesungen. Die optimale vorgestellte Loesung ist charakterisiert durch den Neubau einer zentralen, gasgefeuerten GuD-Anlage, die etwa die Haelfte der bisherigen Anlagen ersetzt und zusammen mit den weiterhin genutzten Anlagen die Energieversorgung der Unternehmen sicherstellt. (orig./CB)

  6. Tag cloud generation for results of multiple keywords queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study tag cloud generation for retrieved results of multiple keyword queries. It is motivated by many real world scenarios such as personalization tasks, surveillance systems and information retrieval tasks defined with multiple keywords. We adjust the state-of-the-art tag cloud...... generation techniques for multiple keywords query results. Consequently, we conduct the extensive evaluation on top of three distinct collaborative tagging systems. The graph-based methods perform significantly better for the Movielens and Bibsonomy datasets. Tag cloud generation based on maximal coverage...

  7. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  8. Bayesian estimation of keyword confidence in Chinese continuous speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jie; LI Xing

    2003-01-01

    In a syllable-based speaker-independent Chinese continuous speech recognition system based on classical Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a Bayesian approach of keyword confidence estimation is studied, which utilizes both acoustic layer scores and syllable-based statistical language model (LM) score. The Maximum a posteriori (MAP) confidence measure is proposed, and the forward-backward algorithm calculating the MAP confidence scores is deduced. The performance of the MAP confidence measure is evaluated in keyword spotting application and the experiment results show that the MAP confidence scores provide high discriminability for keyword candidates. Furthermore, the MAP confidence measure can be applied to various speech recognition applications.

  9. An introduction to XML query processing and keyword search

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiaheng

    2013-01-01

    This book systematically and comprehensively covers the latest advances in XML data searching. It presents an extensive overview of the current query processing and keyword search techniques on XML data.

  10. Boolean Burritos: How the Faculty Ate Up Keyword Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity that librarians can use to acquaint teachers with keyword searching and Boolean operators to more successfully use the library's online catalog. Uses food ingredients to represent various possible combinations. (LRW)

  11. Manifold-Ranking-Based Keyword Propagation for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjing

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel keyword propagation method is proposed for image retrieval based on a recently developed manifold-ranking algorithm. In contrast to existing methods which train a binary classifier for each keyword, our keyword model is constructed in a straightforward manner by exploring the relationship among all images in the feature space in the learning stage. In relevance feedback, the feedback information can be naturally incorporated to refine the retrieval result by additional propagation processes. In order to speed up the convergence of the query concept, we adopt two active learning schemes to select images during relevance feedback. Furthermore, by means of keyword model update, the system can be self-improved constantly. The updating procedure can be performed online during relevance feedback without extra offline training. Systematic experiments on a general-purpose image database consisting of 5 000 Corel images validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Keyword Query over Error-Tolerant Knowledge Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong Cheng; Ye Yuan; Jia-Yu Li; Lei Chen; Guo-Ren Wang

    2016-01-01

    With more and more knowledge provided by WWW, querying and mining the knowledge bases have attracted much research attention. Among all the queries over knowledge bases, which are usually modelled as graphs, a keyword query is the most widely used one. Although the problem of keyword query over graphs has been deeply studied for years, knowledge bases, as special error-tolerant graphs, lead to the results of the traditional defined keyword queries out of users’ satisfaction. Thus, in this paper, we define a new keyword query, called confident r-clique, specific for knowledge bases based on the r-clique definition for keyword query on general graphs, which has been proved to be the best one. However, as we prove in the paper, finding the confident r-cliques is #P-hard. We propose a filtering-and-verification framework to improve the search efficiency. In the filtering phase, we develop the tightest upper bound of the confident r-clique, and design an index together with its search algorithm, which suits the large scale of knowledge bases well. In the verification phase, we develop an efficient sampling method to verify the final answers from the candidates remaining in the filtering phase. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the results derived from our new definition satisfy the users’ requirement better compared with the traditional r-clique definition, and our algorithms are efficient.

  13. Keywords in Context (Using n-grams with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like in Output Data as HTML File, this lesson takes the frequency pairs collected in Counting Frequencies and outputs them in HTML. This time the focus is on keywords in context (KWIC which creates n-grams from the original document content – in this case a trial transcript from the Old Bailey Online. You can use your program to select a keyword and the computer will output all instances of that keyword, along with the words to the left and right of it, making it easy to see at a glance how the keyword is used. Once the KWICs have been created, they are then wrapped in HTML and sent to the browser where they can be viewed. This reinforces what was learned in Output Data as HTML File, opting for a slightly different output. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to extract all possible n-grams from the text. In the next lesson, you will be learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  14. USING GOOGLE’S KEYWORD RELATION IN MULTIDOMAIN DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-I Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People can collect all kinds of knowledge from search engines to improve the quality of decision making, and use document classification systems to manage the knowledge repository. Document classification systems always need to construct a keyword vector, which always contains thousands of words, to represent the knowledge domain. Thus, the computation complexity of the classification algorithm is very high. Also, users need to download all the documents before extracting the keywords and classifying the documents. In our previous work, we described a new algorithm called “Word AdHoc Network” (WANET and used it to extract the most important sequences of keywords for each document. In this paper, we adapt the WANET system to make it more precise. We will also use a new similarity measurement algorithm, called “Google Purity,” to calculate the similarity between the extracted keyword sequences to classify similar documents together. By using this system, we can easily classify the information in different knowledge domains at the same time, and all the executions are without any pre-established keyword repository. Our experiments show that the classification results are very accurate and useful. This new system can improve the efficiency of document classification and make it more usable in Web-based information management.

  15. Development of a taxonomy of keywords for engineering education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Borrego, Maura; Rasoulifar, Golnoosh

    2016-05-01

    The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. One solution is to establish a standardised taxonomy of engineering education terms to map the field and communicate and connect research initiatives. This report describes the process for developing such a taxonomy, the EER Taxonomy. Although the taxonomy focuses on engineering education research in the United States, inclusive efforts have engaged 266 individuals from 149 cities in 30 countries during one multiday workshop, 7 conference sessions, and several other virtual and in-person activities. The resulting taxonomy comprises 455 terms arranged in 14 branches and 6 levels. This taxonomy was found to satisfy four criteria for validity and reliability: (1) keywords assigned to a set of abstracts were reproducible by multiple researchers, (2) the taxonomy comprised terms that could be selected as keywords to fully describe 243 articles in 3 journals, (3) the keywords for those 243 articles were evenly distributed across the branches of the taxonomy, and (4) the authors of 31 conference papers agreed with 90% of researcher-assigned keywords. This report also describes guidelines developed to help authors consistently assign keywords for their articles by encouraging them to choose terms from three categories: (1) context/focus/topic, (2) purpose/target/motivation, and (3) research approach.

  16. An answer summarization method based on keyword extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the redundancy of answer summary generated from community q&a dataset without topic tags, we propose an answer summarization algorithm based on keyword extraction. We combine tf-idf with word vector to change the influence transferred ratio equation in TextRank. And then during summarizing, we take the ratio of the number of sentences containing any keyword to the total number of candidate sentences as an adaptive factor for AMMR. Meanwhile we reuse the scores of keywords generated by TextRank as a weight factor for sentence similarity computing. Experimental results show that the proposed answer summarization is better than the traditional MMR and AMMR.

  17. Word Spotting Based on a posterior Measure of Keyword Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝杰; 李星

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an approach of keyword confidence estimation is developed that well combines acoustic layer scores and syllable-based statistical language model (LM) scores.An a posteriori (AP) confidence measure and its forward-backward calculating algorithm are deduced. A zero false alarm (ZFA) assumption is proposed for evaluating relative confidence measures by word spotting task. In a word spotting experiment with a vocabulary of 240keywords, the keyword accuracy under the AP measure is above 94%, which well approaches its theoretical upper limit. In addition, a syllable lattice Hidden Markov Model (SLHMM) is formulated and a unified view of confidence estimation, word spotting, optimal path search,and N-best syllable re-scoring is presented. The proposed AP measure can be easily applied to various speech recognition systems as well.

  18. Two Decades of Research Collaboration: A Keyword Scopus Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Amarioarei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One issue that has become more important over the years is to evaluate the capability for worldwide research networks on different areas of research, especially in the areas that are identified as being worldwide significant. The study investigated the research output, citations impact and collaborations on publications listed in Scopus authored by researchers all over the world, research published between 1999-2014, selected by a group of keywords identified by authors. The results of the analysis identified an increasing trend in scientific publications starting with 2006, especially on three of the analyzed keywords. We also found differences in the citations patterns for the Black Sea and Danube Delta keywords in the contributing countries. The results of this study revealed a steady increase of the collaboration output and an increasing trend in the collaboration behavior, both at the European and national level. Additionally, at the national level the study identified the collaboration network between Romanian institutions per counties.

  19. Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geopositioned, and increased focus is being given to serving local content in response to web queries. This development calls for spatial keyword queries that take into account both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study...... keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. Index Terms IEEE Terms Electronic mail , Google , Indexes , Joints , Mobile communication...

  20. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakRecommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas.Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identitas penggu...

  1. AN EFFECTIVE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM USING KEYWORD SEARCH TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay A. Gholap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keyword search is the technique use for the retrieving data or information. In Information Retrieval, keyword search is a type of search method that looks for matching documents which contain one or more keywords specified by a user.A keyword search scheme to relational database becomes an interesting area of research system within the IR and relational database system. The assumption and investigation of user search goals can be very valuable in improving search engine relevance and user experience. The user tries to search about any query on the internet, Search engine gives many numbers of result related to that query. These results can be depend on metadata or on full text indexing, because of this, user need to spend a lot of time in finding the information of his interest. Therefore, in project inferred user search goals by analyzing search engine query logs. System use a framework to discover different user search goals for a query by clustering the propose feedback sessions.

  2. Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M.…

  3. Keyword Searching vs. Authority Control in an Online Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Alexis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Study conducted at the University of Western Ontario explored whether use of keywords of an online catalog would be a satisfactory alternative to self cross referencing for locating variant subject heading forms. Random comparison of machine readable cataloging with Library of Congress authorities demonstrated the desirability of cross reference…

  4. World coordinate system keywords for FITS files from Lick Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven L.; Gates, John; Kibrick, Robert I.

    2010-07-01

    Every bit of metadata added at the time of acquisition increases the value of image data, facilitates automated processing of those data, and decreases the effort required during subsequent data curation activities. In 2002 the FITS community completed a standard for World Coordinate System (WCS) information which describes the celestial coordinates of pixels in astronomical image data. Most of the instruments in use at Lick Observatory and Keck Observatory predate this standard. None of them was designed to produce FITS files with celestial WCS information. We report on the status of WCS keywords in the FITS files of various astronomical detectors at Lick and Keck. These keywords combine the information from sources which include the telescope pointing system, the optics of the telescope and instrument, a description of the pixel layout of the detector focal plane, and the hardware and software mappings between the silicon pixels of the detector and the pixels in the data array of the FITS file. The existing WCS keywords include coordinates which refer to the detector structure itself (for locating defects and artifacts), but not celestial coordinates. We also present proof-of-concept from the first data acquisition system at Lick Observatory which inserts the WCS keywords for a celestial coordinate system.

  5. Interdisciplinarity of Nano Research Fields : A Keyword Mining Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Notten, A.; Surpatean, A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a keyword mining approach, this paper explores the interdisciplinary and integrative dynamics in five nano research fields. We argue that the general trend of integration in nano research fields is converging in the long run, although the degree of this convergence depends greatly on the indic

  6. Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinming; Yiu, Man Lung; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. Index Terms IEEE Terms Electronic mail , Google , Indexes , Joints , Mobile communication...

  7. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  8. Enjoying Vocabulary Learning in Junior High: The Keyword Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Gail

    1977-01-01

    The keyword method is a mnemonic device limited to teaching vocabulary items. It involves association of a bizarre image with the meaning of the word and can take on the attractive qualities of a game. Results indicate that motivation and interest are stimulated and vocabulary skills improved. (AMH)

  9. Vom Klangrausch des Nordwinds und der leeren Tafel der Seele. Lepo Sumeras vierte Symphonie "Serena Borealis" in Karlsruhe uraufgeführt: Eri Klas dirigierte im Konzert der Badischen Staatskapelle zu den Kulturtagen auch Musik von Arvo Pärt und Edua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartmann, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    Lepo Sumera neljanda sümfoonia "Serena Borealis" esiettekanne Karlsruhes: Eri Klas dirigeeris kontserdil kultuuripäevade raames ka Arvo Pärdi ja Eduard Tubina muusikat. Eesti muusikute esinemisest Karlsruhe kultuuripäevadel

  10. Vom Klangrausch des Nordwinds und der leeren Tafel der Seele. Lepo Sumeras vierte Symphonie "Serena Borealis" in Karlsruhe uraufgeführt: Eri Klas dirigierte im Konzert der Badischen Staatskapelle zu den Kulturtagen auch Musik von Arvo Pärt und Edua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartmann, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    Lepo Sumera neljanda sümfoonia "Serena Borealis" esiettekanne Karlsruhes: Eri Klas dirigeeris kontserdil kultuuripäevade raames ka Arvo Pärdi ja Eduard Tubina muusikat. Eesti muusikute esinemisest Karlsruhe kultuuripäevadel

  11. Turkish Slang and Rap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇ, Safiye

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to analyze the emergence of Turkish Slang amongst the young turkish immigrants and its importance. Rap music is where Turkish Slang is mostly used. Since the midst of the 80s, Rap Music has become a medium of expression for the young immigrants who live in Germany. The correlation between Turkish Slang and Rap Music will be discussed in that sense.Keywords: Turkish slang, Turkish migrants, Hip hop – culture, Rap music, Migrant workers

  12. Practical surface analysis. Contributions to a workshop at the Karlsruhe Research Centre on November 9-11, 1994; Praktische Oberflaechenanalytik. Beitraege zu einem Workshop im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe vom 9.-11. November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goschnick, J. [ed.; Schuricht, J. [ed.

    1995-12-01

    This volume contains 22 lectures which were given at the Workshop `Practical Surface Analysis` at the College for Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Centre. The subjects were: SIMS for detecting the depth distribution; measuring the thickness of layers with SNMS; surface and depth profile analysis of ceramic powders; analysis of aerosol particles resolved according to depth with SNMS and SIMS; individual particle analysis of atmospheric microparticles; determining the origin of the emission of fine dust; the analysis of smoke particles in dense smoke from fires; fast soil analysis of historic waste dumps; surface analysis of semiconductor structures (SIMS); depth profile measurements on glass after anodic bonding with copper; principles of photo-electron spectroscopy and AES; the use of the surface analysis processes AES, XPS and SIMS in material testing; analysis of ionic glasses for electro-chemical microsensors; analysis of CVD layers for gas sensors; characterisation of wool with surface modified by corona discharge; corrosion on metals; atmospheric damage to metal surfaces and passivation of steel in aggressive media; electron microscope processes in material testing; quantitative X-ray micro-analysis of PVC layers for microsystem technique; photo-thermal analysis of metal surfaces after atmospheric corrosion; the application of the scanning microscope to biological material. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dieser Band enthaelt 22 Vortraege, die auf einem Workshop `Praktische Oberflaechenanalytik` in der Schule fuer Technik und Umwelt des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe gehalten wurden. Die Themen waren: SIMS zur Erfassung von Tiefenverteilungen; Schichtdickenmessung mit SNMS; Oberflaechen- und Tiefenprofilanalyse von keramischen Pulvern; Tiefenaufgeloeste Analyse von Aerosolpartikeln mit SNMS und SIMS; Einzelpartikelanalyse von atmosphaerischen Mikropartikeln; Herkunftsbestimmung von Feinstaubemissionen; Analyse von Rauchpartikeln in Brandqualm; Schnelle

  13. Keyword-based Ciphertext Search Algorithm under Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xunyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of network storage services, cloud storage have the advantage of high scalability , inexpensive, without access limit and easy to manage. These advantages make more and more small or medium enterprises choose to outsource large quantities of data to a third party. This way can make lots of small and medium enterprises get rid of costs of construction and maintenance, so it has broad market prospects. But now lots of cloud storage service providers can not protect data security.This result leakage of user data, so many users have to use traditional storage method.This has become one of the important factors that hinder the development of cloud storage. In this article, establishing keyword index by extracting keywords from ciphertext data. After that, encrypted data and the encrypted index upload cloud server together.User get related ciphertext by searching encrypted index, so it can response data leakage problem.

  14. Visualization as Seen through its Research Paper Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Moller, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive multi-pass analysis of visualization paper keywords supplied by authors for their papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference series (now called IEEE VIS) between 1990-2015. From this analysis we derived a set of visualization topics that we discuss in the context of the current taxonomy that is used to categorize papers and assign reviewers in the IEEE VIS reviewing process. We point out missing and overemphasized topics in the current taxonomy and start a discussion on the importance of establishing common visualization terminology. Our analysis of research topics in visualization can, thus, serve as a starting point to (a) help create a common vocabulary to improve communication among different visualization sub-groups, (b) facilitate the process of understanding differences and commonalities of the various research sub-fields in visualization, (c) provide an understanding of emerging new research trends, (d) facilitate the crucial step of finding the right reviewers for research submissions, and (e) it can eventually lead to a comprehensive taxonomy of visualization research. One additional tangible outcome of our work is an online query tool (http://keyvis.org/) that allows visualization researchers to easily browse the 3952 keywords used for IEEE VIS papers since 1990 to find related work or make informed keyword choices.

  15. International Annual Conference (29th) of ICT Held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany on June 30-July 3, 1998. Energetic Materials; Production, Processing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    controlled by a PID controller, with accuracy of 0.05K. The analysis of CSD, shape and mean crystal size were carried out by image analysis system( VIDAS ...Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA 8. Merzkirch, W. Density sensitive Flow Visualisation, Methods of Experimental Physics, Vol. 18A, Academic Press, 1981 9. Born

  16. Statistics of co-occurring keywords on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide examples on predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show that the occurrence rate of brand names forms a highly correlated time signal.

  17. Keyword Search over Data Service Integration for Accurate Results

    CERN Document Server

    Zemleris, Vidmantas; Robert Gwadera

    2013-01-01

    Virtual data integration provides a coherent interface for querying heterogeneous data sources (e.g., web services, proprietary systems) with minimum upfront effort. Still, this requires its users to learn the query language and to get acquainted with data organization, which may pose problems even to proficient users. We present a keyword search system, which proposes a ranked list of structured queries along with their explanations. It operates mainly on the metadata, such as the constraints on inputs accepted by services. It was developed as an integral part of the CMS data discovery service, and is currently available as open source.

  18. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  19. Efficient Continuously Moving Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2011-01-01

    keyword data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within a zone. However, existing safe zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We propose two algorithms for computing...... safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the computation on the server as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space pruning. Empirical studies...

  20. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. PKIS: practical keyword index search on cloud datacenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jae Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the importance of the interoperability of the encrypted DB in terms of the characteristics of DB and efficient schemes. Although most prior researches have developed efficient algorithms under the provable security, they do not focus on the interoperability of the encrypted DB. In order to address this lack of practical aspects, we conduct two practical approaches--efficiency and group search in cloud datacenter. The process of this paper is as follows: first, we create two schemes of efficiency and group search--practical keyword index search--I and II; second, we define and analyze group search secrecy and keyword index search privacy in our schemes; third, we experiment on efficient performances over our proposed encrypted DB. As the result, we summarize two major results: (1our proposed schemes can support a secure group search without re-encrypting all documents under the group-key update and (2our experiments represent that our scheme is approximately 935 times faster than Golle's scheme and about 16 times faster than Song's scheme for 10,000 documents. Based on our experiments and results, this paper has the following contributions: (1 in the current cloud computing environments, our schemes provide practical, realistic, and secure solutions over the encrypted DB and (2 this paper identifies the importance of interoperability with database management system for designing efficient schemes.

  2. Formalizing An Approach to Curate the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD)'s Controlled Vocabularies (Keywords) Through a Keyword Governance Process and Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) curates a hierarchical set of controlled vocabularies (keywords) covering Earth sciences and associated information (data centers, projects, platforms, and instruments). The purpose of the keywords is to describe Earth science data and services in a consistent and comprehensive manner, allowing for precise metadata search and subsequent retrieval of data and services. The keywords are accessible in a standardized SKOS/RDF/OWL representation and are used as an authoritative taxonomy, as a source for developing ontologies, and to search and access Earth Science data within online metadata catalogs. The keyword curation approach involves: (1) receiving community suggestions; (2) triaging community suggestions; (3) evaluating keywords against a set of criteria coordinated by the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Standards Office; (4) implementing the keywords; and (5) publication/notification of keyword changes. This approach emphasizes community input, which helps ensure a high quality, normalized, and relevant keyword structure that will evolve with users' changing needs. The Keyword Community Forum, which promotes a responsive, open, and transparent process, is an area where users can discuss keyword topics and make suggestions for new keywords. Others could potentially use this formalized approach as a model for keyword curation.

  3. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  4. Finding keywords amongst noise: automatic text classification without parsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

    2007-06-01

    The amount of text stored on the Internet, and in our libraries, continues to expand at an exponential rate. There is a great practical need to locate relevant content. This requires quick automated methods for classifying textual information, according to subject. We propose a quick statistical approach, which can distinguish between 'keywords' and 'noisewords', like 'the' and 'a', without the need to parse the text into its parts of speech. Our classification is based on an F-statistic, which compares the observed Word Recurrence Interval (WRI) with a simple null hypothesis. We also propose a model to account for the observed distribution of WRI statistics and we subject this model to a number of tests.

  5. A Keyword Analysis for Human Resource Management Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad ÖZLEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the constant increasing in technology and education, with development of multinational corporations and frequent changes in economic status and structures, Human Resources become the most crucial, the most reliable and necessary department. Moreover, in many companies, Human Resource Department is the most important department. The main purpose of this research is to mark off top rated factors related with Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers of a Human Resource Management journal for the period between the first issue of 2005 and the first issue of 2013. We identified the most frequent categories of the articles during this analyzed period. The literature is reviewed according to the identified factors related to Human Resource Management. If the keywords about Human Resources (35,7 % is not considered, it is observed that the researches, for the selected period, have organizational approach (39,2 % (Management, organizational strategy, organizational performance, organizational culture, contextual issues, technical issues and location and from the individual approach (24,4 % (Individual performance, training and education, employee rights, and behavioral issues. Furthermore, it is also observed that the researchers (a mainly give importance to the practice more than the theory and (b consider the organization more than the individual.

  6. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  7. Keywords Review of IT Security Literature in Recent 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lidong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The volume of published scientific literature available on Internet has been increasing exponentially. Some of them reflect the latest achievement of the specific research domain. In recent years, many projects have been funded aiming to online scientific literature mining, especially in biomedical research. Scientific literature covers most of the hot topics in the research field and has a very large domain-specific vocabulary. The exploitation of domain knowledge and specialized vocabulary can dramatically improve the result of literature text processing. The purpose of this paper is to identify the frequently used keywords in IT security literatures. The result then can be utilized to improve the performance of automatic IT security document retrieval, identification and classification. Our method is to query CiteseeX to retrieve source data of paper description information and build an artificially annotated corpus. Over the corpus, we perform words frequency statistics, word co-occurrence analysis, discrimination index computation, retrieval efficiency analysis and thus build a lexicon of IT security based on our experimental result. The lexicon can further be used in improving retrieval performance and assisting new words discovering and document classification.

  8. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  9. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  10. 3. ICME. Karlsruhe 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics in School, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Impressions are recorded of several aspects of the International Congress on Mathematical Education. The program, curriculum development, calculators and computers, goals for teaching mathematics, and preservice elementary teacher education are briefly discussed. (DT)

  11. Query Intent Disambiguation of Keyword-Based Semantic Entity Search in Dataspaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Yang; De-Rong Shen; Ge Yu; Yue Kou; Tie-Zheng Nie

    2013-01-01

    Keyword query has attracted much research attention due to its simplicity and wide applications.The inherent ambiguity of keyword query is prone to unsatisfied query results.Moreover some existing techniques on Web query,keyword query in relational databases and XML databases cannot be completely applied to keyword query in dataspaces.So we propose KeymanticES,a novel keyword-based semantic entity search mechanism in dataspaces which combines both keyword query and semantic query features.And we focus on query intent disambiguation problem and propose a novel three-step approach to resolve it.Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and correctness of our proposed approach.

  12. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 "complex networks" articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  13. The Effect of Keyword and Context Methods on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the comparative effectiveness of keyword and context method on immediate and delayed vocabulary retention of EFL learners. It also compared the rate of forgetting in the keyword and context groups. With a quasi experimental design, 40 learners from two intact classes in a language teaching institute in Khorramabad, Iran, were randomly assigned to the keyword and context group. The keyword group received the keyword strategy training, while the context group focused on learning vocabulary in their real context. The result indicated that learners in the keyword group recalled more vocabulary immediately after training and one week later. The results also indicated the rate of forgetting is more in the context group than in the keyword group.Key words: Vocabulary Learning, Keyword Strategy, Context Strategy, Vocabulary Retention

  14. Community Involvement in Enhancing the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Controlled Vocabularies (Keywords)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T.; Ritz, S.; Aleman, A.; Genazzio, M.; Morahan, M.; Wharton, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) develops and expands a hierarchical set of controlled vocabularies (keywords) covering the Earth sciences and associated information (data centers, projects, platforms, instruments, etc.). The purpose of the keywords is to describe Earth science data and services in a consistent and comprehensive manner, allowing for the precise searching of metadata and subsequent retrieval of data and services. The keywords are accessible in a standardized SKOSRDFOWL representation and are used as an authoritative taxonomy, as a source for developing ontologies, and to search and access Earth Science data within online metadata catalogues. The keyword development approach involves: (1) receiving community suggestions, (2) triaging community suggestions, (3) evaluating the keywords against a set of criteria coordinated by the NASA ESDIS Standards Office, and (4) publication/notification of the keyword changes. This approach emphasizes community input, which helps ensure a high quality, normalized, and relevant keyword structure that will evolve with users changing needs. The Keyword Community Forum, which promotes a responsive, open, and transparent processes, is an area where users can discuss keyword topics and make suggestions for new keywords. The formalized approach could potentially be used as a model for keyword development.

  15. Extraction of Protein-Protein Interaction from Scientific Articles by Predicting Dominant Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Koyabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the automatic extraction of protein-protein interaction information from scientific articles, a machine learning approach is useful. The classifier is generated from training data represented using several features to decide whether a protein pair in each sentence has an interaction. Such a specific keyword that is directly related to interaction as “bind” or “interact” plays an important role for training classifiers. We call it a dominant keyword that affects the capability of the classifier. Although it is important to identify the dominant keywords, whether a keyword is dominant depends on the context in which it occurs. Therefore, we propose a method for predicting whether a keyword is dominant for each instance. In this method, a keyword that derives imbalanced classification results is tentatively assumed to be a dominant keyword initially. Then the classifiers are separately trained from the instance with and without the assumed dominant keywords. The validity of the assumed dominant keyword is evaluated based on the classification results of the generated classifiers. The assumption is updated by the evaluation result. Repeating this process increases the prediction accuracy of the dominant keyword. Our experimental results using five corpora show the effectiveness of our proposed method with dominant keyword prediction.

  16. Extraction of Protein-Protein Interaction from Scientific Articles by Predicting Dominant Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Shun; Phan, Thi Thanh Thuy; Ohkawa, Takenao

    2015-01-01

    For the automatic extraction of protein-protein interaction information from scientific articles, a machine learning approach is useful. The classifier is generated from training data represented using several features to decide whether a protein pair in each sentence has an interaction. Such a specific keyword that is directly related to interaction as "bind" or "interact" plays an important role for training classifiers. We call it a dominant keyword that affects the capability of the classifier. Although it is important to identify the dominant keywords, whether a keyword is dominant depends on the context in which it occurs. Therefore, we propose a method for predicting whether a keyword is dominant for each instance. In this method, a keyword that derives imbalanced classification results is tentatively assumed to be a dominant keyword initially. Then the classifiers are separately trained from the instance with and without the assumed dominant keywords. The validity of the assumed dominant keyword is evaluated based on the classification results of the generated classifiers. The assumption is updated by the evaluation result. Repeating this process increases the prediction accuracy of the dominant keyword. Our experimental results using five corpora show the effectiveness of our proposed method with dominant keyword prediction.

  17. One-Match and All-Match Categories for Keywords Matching in Chatbot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas S. Lokman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Artificial intelligence chatbot is a technology that makes interactions between men and machines using natural language possible. From literature of chatbots keywords/pattern matching techniques, potential issues for improvement had been discovered. The discovered issues are in the context of keywords arrangement for matching precedence and keywords variety for matching flexibility. Approach: Combining previous techniques/mechanisms with some additional adjustment, new technique to be used for keywords matching process is proposed. Using newly developed chatbot named ViDi (abbreviation for Virtual Diabetes physician which is a chatbot for diabetes education activity as a testing medium, the proposed technique named One-Match and All-Match Categories (OMAMC is being used to test the creation of possible keywords surrounding one sample input sentence. The result for possible keywords created by this technique then being compared to possible keywords created by previous chatbots techniques surrounding the same sample sentence in matching precedence and matching flexibility context. Results: OMAMC technique is found to be improving previous matching techniques in matching precedence and flexibility context. This improvement is seen to be useful for shortening matching time and widening matching flexibility within the chatbots keywords matching process. Conclusion: OMAMC for keywords matching in chatbot is shown to be an improvement over previous techniques in the context of keywords arrangement for matching precedence and keywords variety for matching flexibility.

  18. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  19. Scientists and professionals from all around the world in Karlsruhe. Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school 2013 on nuclear reactors 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.; Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Scientific Secretariat FJOHSS

    2014-02-15

    Every 2 years the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) organizes the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn (FJOH) Summer School together with the Commissariat a l'-Energie Atomique (CEA) since 1999. In 2013, the FJOH Summer School took place in Karlsruhe from 21 to 30 August. The topic of this year's school was 'Advanced Nuclear Systems with Transuranium Fuels'. Experts from internationally well recognized research institutions and Universities from USA, Japan, Asia and Europe gave lectures about the current status and trends on the related fields. (orig.)

  20. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  1. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  2. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  3. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  4. Automatic medical image annotation and keyword-based image retrieval using relevance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Lee, JiHyeon; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents novel multiple keywords annotation for medical images, keyword-based medical image retrieval, and relevance feedback method for image retrieval for enhancing image retrieval performance. For semantic keyword annotation, this study proposes a novel medical image classification method combining local wavelet-based center symmetric-local binary patterns with random forests. For keyword-based image retrieval, our retrieval system use the confidence score that is assigned to each annotated keyword by combining probabilities of random forests with predefined body relation graph. To overcome the limitation of keyword-based image retrieval, we combine our image retrieval system with relevance feedback mechanism based on visual feature and pattern classifier. Compared with other annotation and relevance feedback algorithms, the proposed method shows both improved annotation performance and accurate retrieval results.

  5. Predicting financial markets with Google Trends and not so random keywords

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Challet; Ahmed Bel Hadj Ayed

    2013-01-01

    We check the claims that data from Google Trends contain enough data to predict future financial index returns. We first discuss the many subtle (and less subtle) biases that may affect the backtest of a trading strategy, particularly when based on such data. Expectedly, the choice of keywords is crucial: by using an industry-grade backtesting system, we verify that random finance-related keywords do not to contain more exploitable predictive information than random keywords related to illnes...

  6. HarkMan-A Vocabulary-Independent Keyword Spotter for Spontaneous Chinese Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Fang; XU Mingxing; MOU Xiaolong; WU Jian; WU Wenhu; FANG Ditang

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a novel technique adopted in HarkMan is introduced. HarkMan is a keyword-spotter designed to automatically spot the given words of avocabulary-independent task in unconstrained Chinese telephone speech. The speaking manner and the number of keywords are not limited. This paper focuses on the novel technique which addresses acoustic modeling, keyword spotting network, search strategies, robustness, and rejection.The underlying technologies used in HarkMan given in this paper are useful not only for keyword spotting but also for continuous speech recognition. The system has achieved a figure-of-merit value over 90%.

  7. The Effects of Keyword Generation and Summary Writing on Teachers’ Judgments of Students’ Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Jan; Camp, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Sixth-graders (N = 282) judged their level of comprehension for six expository texts after writing keywords, summaries, or no additional activity. Afterwards, teachers (N = 14) judged the students’ level of comprehension while seeing the keywords or summaries. Monitoring accuracy was low in all cond

  8. A Novel Model for Lattice-Based Authorized Searchable Encryption with Special Keyword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugeng Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data stored in the cloud servers, keyword search, and access controls are two important capabilities which should be supported. Public-keyword encryption with keyword search (PEKS and attribute based encryption (ABE are corresponding solutions. Meanwhile, as we step into postquantum era, pairing related assumption is fragile. Lattice is an ideal choice for building secure encryption scheme against quantum attack. Based on this, we propose the first mathematical model for lattice-based authorized searchable encryption. Data owners can sort the ciphertext by specific keywords such as time; data users satisfying the access control hand the trapdoor generated with the keyword to the cloud sever; the cloud sever sends back the corresponding ciphertext. The security of our schemes is based on the worst-case hardness on lattices, called learning with errors (LWE assumption. In addition, our scheme achieves attribute-hiding, which could protect the sensitive information of data user.

  9. Keyword Searches in Data-Centric XML Documents Using Tree Partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoliang; FENG Jianhua; ZHOU Lizhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an effective keyword search method for data-centric extensive markup language (XML) documents.The method divides an XML document into compact connected integral subtrees,called self-integral trees (Si-Trees),to capture the structural information in the XML document.The Si-Trees are generated based on a schema guide.Meaningful self-integral trees (MSI-Trees) are identified,which contain all or some of the input keywords for the keyword search in the XML documents.Indexing is used to accelerate the retrieval of MSI-Trees related to the input keywords.The MSI-Trees are ranked to identify the top-k results with the highest ranks.Extensive tests demonstrate that this method costs 10-100 ms to answer a keyword query,and outperforms existing approaches by 1-2 orders of magnitude.

  10. CoPub: a literature-based keyword enrichment tool for microarray data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; van Beek, Pieter; Bouwhuis, Maurice; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Polman, Jan; Alkema, Wynand

    2008-01-01

    Medline is a rich information source, from which links between genes and keywords describing biological processes, pathways, drugs, pathologies and diseases can be extracted. We developed a publicly available tool called CoPub that uses the information in the Medline database for the biological interpretation of microarray data. CoPub allows batch input of multiple human, mouse or rat genes and produces lists of keywords from several biomedical thesauri that are significantly correlated with the set of input genes. These lists link to Medline abstracts in which the co-occurring input genes and correlated keywords are highlighted. Furthermore, CoPub can graphically visualize differentially expressed genes and over-represented keywords in a network, providing detailed insight in the relationships between genes and keywords, and revealing the most influential genes as highly connected hubs. CoPub is freely accessible at http://services.nbic.nl/cgi-bin/copub/CoPub.pl. PMID:18442992

  11. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords

    CERN Document Server

    Sreenivasan, Sameet

    2013-01-01

    The generation of novelty is central to any creative endeavor. Novelty generation and the relationship between novelty and individual hedonic value have long been subjects of study in social psychology. However, few studies have utilized large-scale datasets to quantitatively investigate these issues. Here we consider the domain of American cinema and explore these questions using a database of films spanning a 70 year period. We use crowdsourced keywords from the Internet Movie Database as a window into the contents of films, and prescribe novelty scores for each film based on occurrence probabilities of individual keywords and keyword-pairs. These scores provide revealing insights into the dynamics of novelty in cinema. We investigate how novelty influences the revenue generated by a film, and find a statistically significant relationship that resembles the Wundt-Berlyne curve. We also study the statistics of keyword occurrence and the aggregate distribution of keywords over a 100 year period.

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS, WHICH INFLUENCE TURKISH STUDENTS AT PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN GERMANY: ACCORDING TO OPINIONS OF THE FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsün Şahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the agreement signed between Germany and Turkey in 1961, hundreds of thousands of Turkish nationals immigrated to Germany as guest workers. Since1974, these guest workers bring their spouses and children to Germany as well under the family reunification law. While at first it was thought that the workers would return to their home countries, they settled in Germany where they established a new living space. These workers' children speak Turkish at home while learning German as second language in pre-primary school. In accordance with the guidance given at the end of four years of primary education, they continue to secondary school. While the children who learn German well have a chance to upon successful completion of which they can qualify for higher education, many immigrant children have to continue vocational education schools. The aim of this work is to determine the factors which Influence success of the Turkish primary school students based on parents' opinion and develop recommendations to increase these children's academic successes. In this work the qualitative research method is used and the research data collected with a semi-structured survey form. The study group is chosen by using „Maximum Sampling Method“ and is composed of a total of 18 Parents in Karlsruhe and Freiburg in Baden Württemberg region. „Content Analysis“ has been carried out to analyze the data.

  13. Title, Description, and Subject are the Most Important Metadata Fields for Keyword Discoverability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Yang, L. (2016. Metadata effectiveness in internet discovery: An analysis of digital collection metadata elements and internet search engine keywords. College & Research Libraries, 77(1, 7-19. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.77.1.7 Objective – To determine which metadata elements best facilitate discovery of digital collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving over 32,000 graduate and undergraduate students in the Southwestern United States of America. Subjects – A sample of 22,559 keyword searches leading to the institution’s digital repository between August 1, 2013, and July 31, 2014. Methods – The author used Google Analytics to analyze 73,341 visits to the institution’s digital repository. He determined that 22,559 of these visits were due to keyword searches. Using Random Integer Generator, the author identified a random sample of 378 keyword searches. The author then matched the keywords with the Dublin Core and VRA Core metadata elements on the landing page in the digital repository to determine which metadata field had drawn the keyword searcher to that particular page. Many of these keywords matched to more than one metadata field, so the author also analyzed the metadata elements that generated unique keyword hits and those fields that were frequently matched together. Main Results – Title was the most matched metadata field with 279 matched keywords from searches. Description and Subject were also significant fields with 208 and 79 matches respectively. Slightly more than half of the results, 195 keywords, matched the institutional repository in one field only. Both Title and Description had significant match rates both independently and in conjunction with other elements, but Subject keywords were the sole match in only three of the sampled cases. Conclusion – The Dublin Core elements of Title, Description, and Subject were the most frequently matched fields in keyword

  14. The biological aspects of physiological anthropology with reference to its five keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Koichi

    2005-05-01

    The methodology of physiological anthropology has been defined in the capacity of an independent academic field by five keywords: environmental adaptability, technological adaptability, physiological polymorphism, whole-body coordination and functional potentiality, clearly suggesting the direction of approach to human beings in the field of physiological anthropology. Recently, these keywords have attracted a great deal of attention from physiological anthropologists in Japan. Physiological anthropology is based on a biological framework. From the viewpoint of biology, it is essential to discuss the biological function of human behavior. In this brief conceptual manuscript, the biological aspects of physiological anthropology are discussed in relation to the five keywords.

  15. Establishing a Research Information System as Part of an Integrated Approach to Information Management: Best Practice at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scholze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is one of the largest research and higher education organisations in the world focusing on engineering and natural sciences. At present KIT, under the chairmanship of its executive board, is installing an extensive current research information system (CRIS covering all institutes and facilities of the organisation. The assumption underlying the project is that a consistent overview of research performance has become fundamental for the international competitiveness of research institutions and is increasingly important for strategic decisions at the executive level. Ultimately, it also leads to better data and control in rankings at higher education assessments. The new research information system systematically maps all of KIT’s processes and instruments to obtain, connect, present and utilise the research metadata of active researchers. This reduces the documentation workload for researchers, for the executive level and central units such as the library, and at the same time allows for and facilitates an overall view and the aggregation and visualisation of research metadata. Our vision is to build a federally structured network of systems that gathers information on KIT’s publications, research competence, research projects, patents and technological offers by retrieving data from external and internal sources as well as directly from the researchers. The network facilitates linking and aggregating of data and provides unique identifiers for individual researchers and organizational units. With its consistent data model the research information system also fosters the organisational development of KIT, which was formed in 2009 by the merger of a university and a national research centre. The researchers and their activities are at the core of the research information system. The system substantially reduces their administrative burden in documenting project information and publications. Automatic

  16. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  17. KEYWORD SEARCH IN TEXT CUBE: FINDING TOP-K RELEVANT CELLS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KEYWORD SEARCH IN TEXT CUBE: FINDING TOP-K RELEVANT CELLS BOLIN DING, YINTAO YU, BO ZHAO, CINDY XIDE LIN, JIAWEI HAN, AND CHENGXIANG ZHAI Abstract. We study the...

  18. Structural Consistency: Enabling XML Keyword Search to Eliminate Spurious Results Consistently

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Han, Wook-Shin; Kim, Min-Soo

    2009-01-01

    XML keyword search is a user-friendly way to query XML data using only keywords. In XML keyword search, to achieve high precision without sacrificing recall, it is important to remove spurious results not intended by the user. Efforts to eliminate spurious results have enjoyed some success by using the concepts of LCA or its variants, SLCA and MLCA. However, existing methods still could find many spurious results. The fundamental cause for the occurrence of spurious results is that the existing methods try to eliminate spurious results locally without global examination of all the query results and, accordingly, some spurious results are not consistently eliminated. In this paper, we propose a novel keyword search method that removes spurious results consistently by exploiting the new concept of structural consistency.

  19. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  20. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kostakos

    Full Text Available Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE, is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  1. Efficient Keyword-Based Search for Top-K Cells in Text Cube

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous studies on supporting free-form keyword queries over RDBMSs provide users with linked-structures (e.g.,a set of joined tuples) that are relevant to a given...

  2. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  3. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  4. A Model for Personalized Keyword Extraction from Web Pages using Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppusamy, K. S.; Aghila, G.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web caters to the needs of billions of users in heterogeneous groups. Each user accessing the World Wide Web might have his / her own specific interest and would expect the web to respond to the specific requirements. The process of making the web to react in a customized manner is achieved through personalization. This paper proposes a novel model for extracting keywords from a web page with personalization being incorporated into it. The keyword extraction problem is approach...

  5. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals. PMID:27802319

  6. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals.

  7. Conceptual design of a First Wall mock-up experiment in preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket technologies in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeile, C., E-mail: christian.zeile@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Abou-Sena, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B.E.; Kang, Q.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lamberti, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Maione, I.A.; Rey, J.; Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experiment in preparation for the qualification of Breeding Blanket technologies in HELOKA facility is proposed. • Experimental capabilities, instrumentation of the mock-up and experimental program are presented. • Design and manufacturing of the mock-up is described. • Design of modular attachment system to obtain different stress levels and distributions on the mock-up is discussed. - Abstract: An experimental program based on a First Wall mock-up is presented as preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket mock-ups at high heat flux in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility. Two objectives of the experimental program have been defined: testing of the experimental setup and a first validation of FE models. The design and manufacturing of mock-up representing about 1/3 of the heated zone of an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) First Wall is discussed. A modular attachment system concept has been developed for the fixation of the mock-up in order to be able to generate different stress distributions and levels on the plate, which is confirmed by thermo-mechanical analyses. The HELOKA facility is able to provide a TBM relevant helium cooling system and to generate the required surface heat flux by an electron beam gun. An installed IR camera can be used to measure the temperature distribution on the surface.

  8. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' am Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (KIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Campus Nord/Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Tech. (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  9. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  10. Comparing the hierarchy of keywords in on-line news portals

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    The tagging of on-line content with informative keywords is a widespread phenomenon from scientific article repositories through blogs to on-line news portals. In most of the cases, the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, relations among keywords in a collection of news items is unknown. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialised ones at the bottom. Here we apply a recent, cooccurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorised low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news...

  11. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CLASCN: Candidate Network Selection for Efficient Top-k Keyword Queries over Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Zhao-Hui Peng; Shan Wang; Hui-Jing Nie

    2007-01-01

    Keyword Search Over Relational Databases (KSORD) enables casual or Web users easily access databases through free-form keyword queries. Improving the performance of KSORD systems is a critical issue in this area. In this paper, a new approach CLASCN (Classification, Learning And Selection of Candidate Network) is developed to efficiently perform top-k keyword queries in schema-graph-based online KSORD systems. In this approach, the Candidate Networks(CNs) from trained keyword queries or executed user queries are classified and stored in the databases, and top-k results from the CNs are learned for constructing CN Language Models (CNLMs). The CNLMs are used to compute the similarity scores between a new user query and the CNs from the query. The CNs with relatively large similarity score, which are the most promising ones to produce top-k results, will be selected and performed. Currently, CLASCN is only applicable for past queries and New All-keyword-Used (NAU) queries which are frequently submitted queries. Extensive experiments also show the efficiency and effectiveness of our CLASCN approach.

  13. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  14. Context and Keyword Extraction in Plain Text Using a Graph Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Chahine, Carlo Abi; Kotowicz, Jean-Philippe; Pécuchet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Document indexation is an essential task achieved by archivists or automatic indexing tools. To retrieve relevant documents to a query, keywords describing this document have to be carefully chosen. Archivists have to find out the right topic of a document before starting to extract the keywords. For an archivist indexing specialized documents, experience plays an important role. But indexing documents on different topics is much harder. This article proposes an innovative method for an indexing support system. This system takes as input an ontology and a plain text document and provides as output contextualized keywords of the document. The method has been evaluated by exploiting Wikipedia's category links as a termino-ontological resources.

  15. EasyKSORD: A Platform of Keyword Search Over Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Wang, Shan

    Keyword Search Over Relational Databases (KSORD) enables casual users to use keyword queries (a set of keywords) to search relational databases just like searching the Web, without any knowledge of the database schema or any need of writing SQL queries. Based on our previous work, we design and implement a novel KSORD platform named EasyKSORD for users and system administrators to use and manage different KSORD systems in a novel and simple manner. EasyKSORD supports advanced queries, efficient data-graph-based search engines, multiform result presentations, and system logging and analysis. Through EasyKSORD, users can search relational databases easily and read search results conveniently, and system administrators can easily monitor and analyze the operations of KSORD and manage KSORD systems much better.

  16. Analysis of Science and Mathematics Education Articles Published In Turkey-I: Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver TATAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a descriptive analysis of science and mathematics education articlespublished in Turkey was purposed. The study was carried out based on the keywords ofa total of 680 articles which were published in 26 refereed journals during 2000-2006.As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the study, the following werefound: (a there were keywords including up to eight words, almost in the form of asentence (b The frequencies of nearly all keywords related to topics in the curriculumof science and mathematics were low c Science and mathematics topics in thecurriculum of primary school were studied less than topics in secondary and universitylevel (d Studies related to the misconceptions in the science education and related toattitude the mathematics education were mostly studied by researchers.

  17. Method of determining of keywords in English texts based on the DKPro Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, Oleg V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Yahimovich, Olexand V.; Smailova, Saule

    2016-09-01

    The new method of the keywords determining based on finding the connections between word forms of the English text with the instrumental capabilities of package DKPro Core is suggested in this article. The method, which is illustrated with examples of analysis, aimed at solving problems of efficient processing of text documents - indexing, abstracting, clustering and classification. As a result of theoretical and experimental studies it is found that the developed method found more keywords, specified by the author of the text, compared to analogues and had better quality characteristics. The proposed method of determining of the keywords differs from existing in that it uses additional information about the complex relationships between members of an English sentence.

  18. AN EFFICIENT APPROACH FOR KEYWORD SELECTION; IMPROVING ACCESSIBILITY OF WEB CONTENTS BY GENERAL SEARCH ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Kian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available General search engines often provide low precise results even for detailed queries. So there is a vital needto elicit useful information like keywords for search engines to provide acceptable results for user’s searchqueries. Although many methods have been proposed to show how to extract keywords automatically, allattempt to get a better recall, precision and other criteria which describe how the method has done its jobas an author. This paper presents a new automatic keyword extraction method which improves accessibilityof web content by search engines. The proposed method defines some coefficients determining featuresefficiency and tries to optimize them by using a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, it evaluates candidatekeywords by a function that utilizes the result of search engines. When comparing to the other methods,experiments demonstrate that by using the proposed method, a higher score is achieved from searchengines without losing noticeable recall or precision.

  19. KEYWORD AND IMAGE CONTENT FEATURES FOR IMAGE INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL WITHIN COMPRESSED DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irianto .

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The central problem of most Content Based Image Retrieval approaches is poor quality in terms of sensitivity (recall and specificity (precision. To overcome this problem, the semantic gap between high-level concepts and low-level features has been acknowledged. In this paper we introduce an approach to reduce the impact of the semantic gap by integrating high-level (semantic and low-level features to improve the quality of Image Retrieval queries. Our experiments have been carried out by applying two hierarchical procedures. The first approach is called keyword-content, and the second content-keyword. Our proposed approaches show better results compared to a single method (keyword or content based in term of recall and precision. The average precision has increased by up to 50%.

  20. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  1. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  2. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  3. Extraction of Keywords Related with Stock Price Change from Bloggers' Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shinji; Nadamoto, Hironori; Horiuchi, Tadashi

    This paper presents an extraction method of keywords related with actual changes of stock price from bloggers' hot topics. We realized the computer program to collect bloggers' hot topics about stocks and actual stock prices. Then, the important keywords, which have correlation with changes of the stock prices, are selected based on stochastic complexity. We classify information of stock price changes by using text classification method such as Naive Bayes method and decision tree learning. We confirm the effectiveness of our method through the classification experiment.

  4. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  5. An Algorithm to Self-Extract Secondary Keywords and Their Combinations Based on Abstracts Collected using Primary Keywords from Online Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Isokpehi, Raphael; Cohly, Hari; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2307

    2010-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is the development and implementation of an algorithm to selfextract secondary keywords and their combinations (combo words) based on abstracts collected using standard primary keywords for research areas from reputed online digital libraries like IEEE Explore, PubMed Central and etc. Given a collection of N abstracts, we arbitrarily select M abstracts (M<< N; M/N as low as 0.15) and parse each of the M abstracts, word by word. Upon the first-time appearance of a word, we query the user for classifying the word into an Accept-List or non-Accept-List. The effectiveness of the training approach is evaluated by measuring the percentage of words for which the user is queried for classification when the algorithm parses through the words of each of the M abstracts. We observed that as M grows larger, the percentage of words for which the user is queried for classification reduces drastically. After the list of acceptable words is built by parsing the M abstracts, we ...

  6. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    -scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over...

  7. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  8. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  9. Germany: Europe’s China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is a crucial moment in the country's evolution. Special attention is paid to Germany's position on the single currency. Germany's performance is that it managed to turn the euro into a kind of European Dmark. The euro now formally "obeys" German rules, agreed upon from the very beginning, and is mainly coupled to the evolution of German economy. Germany is now sitting its most important exam: the European one. Today, Germany is Europe's most powerful state, but it must become its leader, whose development model would be accepted throughout the continent. Some German economic options are strikingly similar to China's.

  10. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  11. Fostering Learners' Metacognitive Skills of Keyword Reformulation in Image Seeking by Location-Based Hierarchical Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Kinshuk; Wen, Dunwei

    2013-01-01

    It is critical that students learn how to retrieve useful information in hypermedia environments, a task that is often especially difficult when it comes to image retrieval, as little text feedback is given that allows them to reformulate keywords they need to use. This situation may make students feel disorientated while attempting image…

  12. The Effect of Keyword Method on Vocabulary Retention of Senior High School EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Dina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of keyword method, as one of the mnemonic strategies, on vocabulary retention of Iranian senior high school EFL learners. Following a quasi-experimental design, the study used thirty eight (n = 38) female senior high school students in grade four from two intact classes at a public high school. The…

  13. Consensus-based Approach for Keyword Extraction from Urban Events Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana OLIVEIRA ALVES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatic keyword extraction (AKE from textual sources took a valuable step towards harnessing the problem of efficient scanning of large document collections. Particularly in the context of urban mobility, where the most relevant events in the city are advertised on-line, it becomes difficult to know exactly what is happening in a place.In this paper we tackle this problem by extracting a set of keywords from different kinds of textual sources, focusing on the urban events context. We propose an ensemble of automatic keyword extraction systems KEA (Key-phrase Extraction Algorithm and KUSCO (Knowledge Unsupervised Search for instantiating Concepts on lightweight Ontologies and Conditional Random Fields (CRF.Unlike KEA and KUSCO which are well-known tools for automatic keyword extraction, CRF needs further pre-processing. Therefore, a tool for handling AKE from the documents using CRF is developed. The architecture for the AKE ensemble system is designed and efficient integration of component applications is presented in which a consensus between such classifiers is achieved. Finally, we empirically show that our AKE ensemble system significantly succeeds on baseline sources and urban events collections.

  14. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  15. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provid...

  16. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was ‘Traffic’ which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the ‘personal’ and ‘economical’. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea. PMID:27656637

  17. Generating Keywords Improves Metacomprehension and Self-Regulation in Elementary and Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Thiede, Keith W.; Camp, Gino; Redford, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The ability to monitor understanding of texts, usually referred to as metacomprehension accuracy, is typically quite poor in adult learners; however, recently interventions have been developed to improve accuracy. In two experiments, we evaluated whether generating delayed keywords prior to judging comprehension improved metacomprehension accuracy…

  18. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Devi Munisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  19. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  20. Discrete Strategies in Keyword Auctions and Their Inefficiency for Locally Aware Bidders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Markakis (Vangelis); O. Telelis (Orestis); A. Saberi

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study formally discrete bidding strategies for the game induced by the Generalized Second Price keyword auction mechanism. Such strategies have seen experimental evaluation in the recent literature as parts of iterative best response procedures, which have been shown not to converge.

  1. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  2. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide...

  3. Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods--keyword and…

  4. Leveraging Bibliographic RDF Data for Keyword Prediction with Association Rule Mining (ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kushwaha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web (Web 3.0 has been proposed as an efficient way to access the increasingly large amounts of data on the internet. The Linked Open Data Cloud project at present is the major effort to implement the concepts of the Seamtic Web, addressing the problems of inhomogeneity and large data volumes. RKBExplorer is one of many repositories implementing Open Data and contains considerable bibliographic information. This paper discusses bibliographic data, an important part of cloud data. Effective searching of bibiographic datasets can be a challenge as many of the papers residing in these databases do not have sufficient or comprehensive keyword information. In these cases however, a search engine based on RKBExplorer is only able to use information to retrieve papers based on author names and title of papers without keywords. In this paper we attempt to address this problem by using the data mining algorithm Association Rule Mining (ARM to develop keywords based on features retrieved from Resource Description Framework (RDF data within a bibliographic citation. We have demonstrate the applicability of this method for predicting missing keywords for bibliographic entries in several typical databases. −−−−− Paper presented at 1st International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC-2014 March 27-28, 2014. Organized by VIT University, Chennai, India. Sponsored by BRNS.

  5. Grapho-Phonemic Enrichment Strengthens Keyword Analogy Instruction for Struggling Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Satlow, Eric; Gaskins, Irene

    2009-01-01

    First, second, and third graders (N = 102) who had completed from 1 to 3 years of literacy instruction in other schools and had experienced failure entered a private school for struggling readers and received instruction in either of 2 types of systematic phonics programs over a 4-year period. One group received a keyword analogy method (KEY) that…

  6. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: Effects on the Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriganjanavong, Vanlee

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to introduce the technique called "Mnemonic Keyword Method" ("MKM") to low proficiency English learners, and to explore the effectiveness of the method in terms of short-term and long-term retention. The sample was purposefully drawn from one intact class consisting of 44 students. They were…

  7. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  8. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  9. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  10. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  11. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  12. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  13. Program and Abstracts of the International Symposium on Detection of Subsurface Flow Phenomena by Self-Potential/Geoelectrical and Thermical Methods Held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany on March 14-18, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    the moisture holding capaci- ty of air may lead to a complete drying of the rock. In both cases low water-bearing joint systems may not be localized...often associated to groundwater polution and several examples of geoelectrical measurements contri- butions are reviewed. Geoelectrical measurements...inten- sity of carstification. The approach (geological air photo interpretation - resis- tivity measurements - classification of faults etc.) will be

  14. Keyword Extraction from a Document using Word Co-occurrence Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    We present a new keyword extraction algorithm that applies to a single document without using a large corpus. Frequent terms are extracted first, then a set of co-occurrence between each term and the frequent terms, i.e., occurrences in the same sentences, is generated. The distribution of co-occurrence shows the importance of a term in the document as follows. If the probability distribution of co-occurrence between term a and the frequent terms is biased to a particular subset of the frequent terms, then term a is likely to be a keyword. The degree of the biases of the distribution is measured by χ²-measure. We show our algorithm performs well for indexing technical papers.

  15. A Model for Personalized Keyword Extraction from Web Pages using Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, K. S.; Aghila, G.

    2012-03-01

    The World Wide Web caters to the needs of billions of users in heterogeneous groups. Each user accessing the World Wide Web might have his / her own specific interest and would expect the web to respond to the specific requirements. The process of making the web to react in a customized manner is achieved through personalization. This paper proposes a novel model for extracting keywords from a web page with personalization being incorporated into it. The keyword extraction problem is approached with the help of web page segmentation which facilitates in making the problem simpler and solving it effectively. The proposed model is implemented as a prototype and the experiments conducted on it empirically validate the model's efficiency.

  16. A Model for Personalized Keyword Extraction from Web Pages using Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuppusamy, K S; 10.5120/5682-7720

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web caters to the needs of billions of users in heterogeneous groups. Each user accessing the World Wide Web might have his / her own specific interest and would expect the web to respond to the specific requirements. The process of making the web to react in a customized manner is achieved through personalization. This paper proposes a novel model for extracting keywords from a web page with personalization being incorporated into it. The keyword extraction problem is approached with the help of web page segmentation which facilitates in making the problem simpler and solving it effectively. The proposed model is implemented as a prototype and the experiments conducted on it empirically validate the model's efficiency.

  17. A Corpus-based Study on Keywords in The Glass Menagerie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-mei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Corpus-based approach has been an important method. Based on the analysis about some Papers on corpus and corpus-based approach in literary texts, this thesis takes the work of American famous writer Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie as the research object. Guided by the stylistic theoretical framework put forward by Leech and Short, the study con⁃ducts text analysis with Wordsmith and Antconc3.3.1 for studying the keywords of the novel.

  18. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  19. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  20. Supporting Keyword Search for Image Retrieval with Integration of Probabilistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Hua Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing quantities of digital photo resources are annotated with enriching vocabularies to form semantic annotations. Photo-sharing social networks have boosted the need for efficient and intuitive querying to respond to user requirements in large-scale image collections. In order to help users formulate efficient and effective image retrieval, we present a novel integration of a probabilistic model based on keyword query architecture that models the probability distribution of image annotations: allowing users to obtain satisfactory results from image retrieval via the integration of multiple annotations. We focus on the annotation integration step in order to specify the meaning of each image annotation, thus leading to the most representative annotations of the intent of a keyword search. For this demonstration, we show how a probabilistic model has been integrated to semantic annotations to allow users to intuitively define explicit and precise keyword queries in order to retrieve satisfactory image results distributed in heterogeneous large data sources. Our experiments on SBU (collected by Stony Brook University database show that (i our integrated annotation contains higher quality representatives and semantic matches; and (ii the results indicating annotation integration can indeed improve image search result quality.

  1. Efficient Multi-keyword Ranked Search over Outsourced Cloud Data based on Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cloud computing, more and more data owners are motivated to outsource their data to the cloud server for great flexibility and less saving expenditure. Because the security of outsourced data must be guaranteed, some encryption methods should be used which obsoletes traditional data utilization based on plaintext, e.g. keyword search. To solve the search of encrypted data, some schemes were proposed to solve the search of encrypted data, e.g. top-k single or multiple keywords retrieval. However, the efficiency of these proposed schemes is not high enough to be impractical in the cloud computing. In this paper, we propose a new scheme based on homomorphic encryption to solve this challenging problem of privacy-preserving efficient multi-keyword ranked search over outsourced cloud data. In our scheme, the inner product is adopted to measure the relevance scores and the technique of relevance feedback is used to reflect the search preference of the data users. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can meet strict privacy requirements for such a secure cloud data utilization system. Performance evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme can achieve low overhead on both computation and communication.

  2. Using Gazetteers to Extract Sets of Keywords from Free-Flowing Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Crymble

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If you have a copy of a text in electronic format stored on your computer, it is relatively easy to keyword search for a single term. Often you can do this by using the built-in search features in your favourite text editor. However, scholars are increasingly needing to find instances of many terms within a text or texts. For example, a scholar may want to use a gazetteer to extract all mentions of English placenames within a collection of texts so that those places can later be plotted on a map. Alternatively, they may want to extract all male given names, all pronouns, stop words, or any other set of words. Using those same built-in search features to achieve this more complex goal is time consuming and clunky. This lesson will teach you how to use Python to extract a set of keywords very quickly and systematically from a set of texts. It is expected that once you have completed this lesson, you will be able to generalise the skills to extract custom sets of keywords from any set of locally saved files.

  3. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  4. Efficient re-indexing of automatically annotated image collections using keyword combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavlinsky, Alexei; Rüger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for improving the image index obtained by automated image annotation. Within this framework, the technique of keyword combination is used for fast image re-indexing based on initial automated annotations. It aims to tackle the challenges of limited vocabulary size and low annotation accuracies resulting from differences between training and test collections. It is useful for situations when these two problems are not anticipated at the time of annotation. We show that based on example images from the automatically annotated collection, it is often possible to find multiple keyword queries that can retrieve new image concepts which are not present in the training vocabulary, and improve retrieval results of those that are already present. We demonstrate that this can be done at a very small computational cost and at an acceptable performance tradeoff, compared to traditional annotation models. We present a simple, robust, and computationally efficient approach for finding an appropriate set of keywords for a given target concept. We report results on TRECVID 2005, Getty Image Archive, and Web image datasets, the last two of which were specifically constructed to support realistic retrieval scenarios.

  5. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) logically represents biological interactions, pathways, and networks. INO has been demonstrated to be valuable in providing a set of structured ontological terms and associated keywords to support literature mining of gene-gene interactions from biomedical literature. However, previous work using INO focused on single keyword matching, while many interactions are represented with two or more interaction keywords used in combination. This paper reports our extension of INO to include combinatory patterns of two or more literature mining keywords co-existing in one sentence to represent specific INO interaction classes. Such keyword combinations and related INO interaction type information could be automatically obtained via SPARQL queries, formatted in Excel format, and used in an INO-supported SciMiner, an in-house literature mining program. We studied the gene interaction sentences from the commonly used benchmark Learning Logic in Language (LLL) dataset and one internally generated vaccine-related dataset to identify and analyze interaction types containing multiple keywords. Patterns obtained from the dependency parse trees of the sentences were used to identify the interaction keywords that are related to each other and collectively represent an interaction type. The INO ontology currently has 575 terms including 202 terms under the interaction branch. The relations between the INO interaction types and associated keywords are represented using the INO annotation relations: 'has literature mining keywords' and 'has keyword dependency pattern'. The keyword dependency patterns were generated via running the Stanford Parser to obtain dependency relation types. Out of the 107 interactions in the LLL dataset represented with two-keyword interaction types, 86 were identified by using the direct dependency relations. The LLL dataset contained 34 gene regulation interaction types, each of which associated with multiple keywords. A

  6. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  7. The Recent Trend in a Human Resource Management Journal: A Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous changes in technology, economic, social and psychological understandings and structures have influence on both Human Resources and their management. Organizations approach their human capital in a more sensitive way in order to win the loyalty and commitment of them, while increasing profit and maximizing the efficiency/effectiveness of its work power. Human Resources Management helps achieving these goals by recruiting, training, developing, motivating and rewarding employees. Therefore, the identification of current research interests is essential to lead them in defining organizational human resources strategies. The main purpose of this research is to identify top rated factors related to Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers in a Human Resource Management journal from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2012. As a result of analyzing the keywords of all abstracts, the frequencies of the keyword categories are identified. Except the keywords related to Human Resources (17.6%, it is observed that the studies for the period consider the following: Employee rights and their career (18.3%, management (14.6%, contextual issues (10%, organizational strategies (9.5%, performance measurement and training (9.5%, behavioral issues and employee motivation (5.7, organizational culture (5.4%, technical issues (4.1%, etc. It should be noted that the researchers (a mainly stress on practice more than theory and (b consider the organization less than the individual. Interestingly, employee motivation is found to be less considered by the researchers. This study is believed to be useful for future studies and the industry by identifying the hot and top rated factors related to Human Resource Management.

  8. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  9. Green energy. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

  10. An Efficient Multi-keyword Symmetric Searchable Encryption Scheme for Secure Data Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudha Arora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE schemes allow a data owner to encrypt its data in such a way that it could be searched in encrypted form. When searching over encrypted data the retrieved data, search query, and search query outcome everything must be protected. A series of SSE schemes have been proposed in the past decade. In this paper, we are going to propose our an efficient multi-keyword symmetric searchable encryption scheme for secure data outsourcing and evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme on a real data set.

  11. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: The Effects of Bidirectional Retrieval Training and of Ability to Image on Foreign Language Vocabulary Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyra, Mirella; Lawson, Michael J.; Hungi, Njora

    2007-01-01

    The mnemonic keyword method is an effective technique for vocabulary acquisition. This study examines the effects on recall of word-meaning pairs of (a) training in use of the keyword procedure at the time of retrieval; and (b) the influence of the self-rated ability to image. The performance of students trained in bidirectional retrieval using…

  12. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  13. Hybrid Ontology for Semantic Information Retrieval Model Using Keyword Matching Indexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Uthayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  14. EMBANKS: Towards Disk Based Algorithms For Keyword-Search In Structured Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a lot of interest in the field of keyword querying relational databases. A variety of systems such as DBXplorer [ACD02], Discover [HP02] and ObjectRank [BHP04] have been proposed. Another such system is BANKS, which enables data and schema browsing together with keyword-based search for relational databases. It models tuples as nodes in a graph, connected by links induced by foreign key and other relationships. The size of the database graph that BANKS uses is proportional to the sum of the number of nodes and edges in the graph. Systems such as SPIN, which search on Personal Information Networks and use BANKS as the backend, maintain a lot of information about the users' data. Since these systems run on the user workstation which have other demands of memory, such a heavy use of memory is unreasonable and if possible, should be avoided. In order to alleviate this problem, we introduce EMBANKS (acronym for External Memory BANKS), a framework for an optimized disk-based BANKS sy...

  15. Improving statistical keyword detection in short texts: Entropic and clustering approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Campos, C.; Bernaola-Galván, P.; Coronado, A. V.; Carpena, P.

    2013-03-01

    In the last years, two successful approaches have been introduced to tackle the problem of statistical keyword detection in a text without the use of external information: (i) The entropic approach, where Shannon’s entropy of information is used to quantify the information content of the sequence of occurrences of each word in the text; and (ii) The clustering approach, which links the heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of a word in the text (clustering) with its relevance. In this paper, first we present some modifications to both techniques which improve their results. Then, we propose new metrics to evaluate the performance of keyword detectors based specifically on the needs of a typical user, and we employ them to find out which approach performs better. Although both approaches work well in long texts, we obtain in general that measures based on word-clustering perform at least as well as the entropic measure, which needs a convenient partition of the text to be applied, such as chapters of a book. In the latter approach we also show that the partition of the text chosen affects strongly its results. Finally, we focus on short texts, a case of high practical importance, such as short reports, web pages, scientific articles, etc. We show that the performance of word-clustering measures is also good in generic short texts since these measures are able to discriminate better the degree of relevance of low frequency words than the entropic approach.

  16. Attaining New Heights With Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The launch of inter-governmental consultation ushers in a new era for Sino-German relations During his recent visit to Germany,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,together with German Chancellor Angela Merkel,inaugurated an inter-governmental cons ultation mechanism to enhance cooperation between the two countries.The two cochaired the first round of consultation in Berlin on June 28.This is a milestone in Sino-German relations since Germany is the first country to establish this kind of mecha-

  17. Constructing Virtual Documents for Keyword Based Concept Search in Web Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Paliwal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web ontologies are structural frameworks for organizing information in semantics web and provide shared concepts. Ontology formally represents knowledge or information about particular entity as a set of concepts within a particular domain on semantic web. Web ontology helps to describe concepts within domain and also help us to enables semantic interoperability between two different applications byusing Falcons concept search. We can facilitate concept searching and ontologies reusing. Constructing virtual documents is a keyword based search in ontology. The proposed method helps us to find how search engine help user to find out ontologies in less time so we can satisfy their needs. It include some supportive technologies with new technique is to constructing virtual documents of concepts for keywordbased search and based on population scheme we rank the concept and ontologies, a way to generate structured snippets according to query. In this concept we can report the user feedback and usabilityevolution.

  18. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  19. Level statistics of words: finding keywords in literary texts and symbolic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpena, P; Bernaola-Galván, P; Hackenberg, M; Coronado, A V; Oliver, J L

    2009-03-01

    Using a generalization of the level statistics analysis of quantum disordered systems, we present an approach able to extract automatically keywords in literary texts. Our approach takes into account not only the frequencies of the words present in the text but also their spatial distribution along the text, and is based on the fact that relevant words are significantly clustered (i.e., they self-attract each other), while irrelevant words are distributed randomly in the text. Since a reference corpus is not needed, our approach is especially suitable for single documents for which no a priori information is available. In addition, we show that our method works also in generic symbolic sequences (continuous texts without spaces), thus suggesting its general applicability.

  20. Query-By-Keywords (QBK): Query Formulation Using Semantics and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aditya; Chakravarthy, Sharma; Li, Chengkai

    The staples of information retrieval have been querying and search, respectively, for structured and unstructured repositories. Processing queries over known, structured repositories (e.g., Databases) has been well-understood, and search has become ubiquitous when it comes to unstructured repositories (e.g., Web). Furthermore, searching structured repositories has been explored to a limited extent. However, there is not much work in querying unstructured sources. We argue that querying unstructured sources is the next step in performing focused retrievals. This paper proposed a new approach to generate queries from search-like inputs for unstructured repositories. Instead of burdening the user with schema details, we believe that pre-discovered semantic information in the form of taxonomies, relationship of keywords based on context, and attribute & operator compatibility can be used to generate query skeletons. Furthermore, progressive feedback from users can be used to improve the accuracy of query skeletons generated.

  1. Forecasting U.S. Home Foreclosures with an Index of Internet Keyword Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. Kent

    Finding data to feed into financial and risk management models can be challenging. Many analysts attribute a lack of data or quality information as a contributing factor to the worldwide financial crises that seems to have begun in the U.S. subprime mortgage market. In this paper, a new source of data, key word search statistics recently available from Google, are applied in a experiment to develop a short-term forecasting model for the number of foreclosures in the U.S. housing market. The keyword search data significantly improves forecast of foreclosures, suggesting that this data can be useful for financial risk management. More generally, the new data source shows promise for a variety of financial and market analyses.

  2. Multi-stream LSTM-HMM decoding and histogram equalization for noise robust keyword spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllmer, Martin; Marchi, Erik; Squartini, Stefano; Schuller, Björn

    2011-09-01

    Highly spontaneous, conversational, and potentially emotional and noisy speech is known to be a challenge for today's automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, which highlights the need for advanced algorithms that improve speech features and models. Histogram Equalization is an efficient method to reduce the mismatch between clean and noisy conditions by normalizing all moments of the probability distribution of the feature vector components. In this article, we propose to combine histogram equalization and multi-condition training for robust keyword detection in noisy speech. To better cope with conversational speaking styles, we show how contextual information can be effectively exploited in a multi-stream ASR framework that dynamically models context-sensitive phoneme estimates generated by a long short-term memory neural network. The proposed techniques are evaluated on the SEMAINE database-a corpus containing emotionally colored conversations with a cognitive system for "Sensitive Artificial Listening".

  3. Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.

  4. Secure Multi-Keyword Search with User/Owner-side Efficiency in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the amount of data in the cloud grows, ranked search system, the similarity of a query to data is ranked, are of significant importance. on the other hand, to protect privacy, searchable encryption system are being actively studied. In this paper, we present a new similarity-based multi-keyword search scheme for encrypted data. This scheme provides high flexibility in the pre- and post-processing of encrypted data, including splitting stem/suffix and computing from the encrypted index-term matrix, demonstrated to support Latent Semantic Indexing(LSI. On the client side, the computation and communication costs are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous methods, as demonstrated in the experimental results. we also provide a security analysis of the proposed scheme.

  5. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  6. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiiver, H.

    2010-01-01

    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  7. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  8. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH in Germany: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzer S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available S Walzer,1 K Travers,2 S Rieder,3 E Erazo-Fischer,3 D Matusiewicz41MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy UG (hb, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2United Biosource Corporation, Lexington, USA; 3Alcimed GmbH, Cologne, Germany; 4Institute for Health Care Management and Research, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, GermanyIntroduction: In Europe a disease is recognized as rare if less than 1 in 2000 people suffer from the specific disease. In patients with familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia (HoFH the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C leads to generalized atherosclerosis due to an insufficient functioning of the LDL-C receptors. Patients die early sometimes even in the mid-30s, from myocardial infarction or stroke. For the German population, insufficient epidemiological evidence exists.Methods: A systematic literature search in EMBASE and Medline was performed in conjunction with a targeted manual search for epidemiological HoFH studies. Additionally a nationwide survey was conducted in Germany in all identified apheresis- and lipid centers. The purpose of the survey was the validation of the systematic literature search results based on empirical (practice data.Results: In total 961 publications were found, 874 were excluded based on pre-defined exclusion criteria leaving only 87 for further review. After review of the identified abstracts (n = 87 23 publications were identified as epidemiological studies. Only one publication was found which reported a prevalence of 1:1,000,000. The qualitative survey among 187 physicians in Germany also revealed a low prevalence: 95 HoFH patients were identified in 35 centers.Conclusion: The estimated frequency of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients in Germany is around 95 (1:860,000 and the disease should be recognized as rare according to the definition of the European Medical Agency.Keywords: epidemiology, homozygous

  9. Stock prediction: an event-driven approach based on bursty keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di WU; Gabriel Pui Cheong FUNG; Jeffrey Xu YU; Qi PAN

    2009-01-01

    There are many real applications existing where the decision making process depends on a model that is built by collecting information from different data sources. Letus take the stock market as an example. The decision mak-ing process depends on a model which that is influenced by factors such as stock prices, exchange volumes, market in-dices (e.g. Dow Jones Index), news articles, and government announcements (e.g., the increase of stamp duty). Yet Nev-ertheless, modeling the stock market is a challenging task be-cause (1) the process related to market states (rise state/drop state) is a stochastic process, which is hard to capture us-ing the deterministic approach, and (2) the market state is invisible but will be influenced by the visible market infor-mation, like stock prices and news articles. In this paper, wepropose an approach to model the stock market pro-cess by using a Non-homogeneous Hidden Markov Model (NHMM). It takes both stock prices and news articles into consideration when it is being computed. A unique feature of our approach is event driven. We iden-tify associated events for a specific stock using a set of bursty features (keywords), which has a significant impact on the stock price changes when building the NHMM. We apply the model to predict the trend of future stock prices and the encouraging results indicate our proposed approach is practically sound and highly effective.

  10. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  11. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  12. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  13. 2016 Year-in-Review of Clinical and Consumer Informatics: Analysis and Visualization of Keywords and Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Joo Yun; On, Jeongah; Lee, Ji Hyun; Jung, Hyesil; Park, Seul Ki

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to review and visualize the medical informatics field over the previous 12 months according to the frequencies of keywords and topics in papers published in the top four journals in the field and in Healthcare Informatics Research (HIR), an official journal of the Korean Society of Medical Informatics. A six-person team conducted an extensive review of the literature on clinical and consumer informatics. The literature was searched using keywords employed in the American Medical Informatics Association year-in-review process and organized into 14 topics used in that process. Data were analyzed using word clouds, social network analysis, and association rules. The literature search yielded 370 references and 1,123 unique keywords. 'Electronic Health Record' (EHR) (78.6%) was the most frequently appearing keyword in the articles published in the five studied journals, followed by 'telemedicine' (2.1%). EHR (37.6%) was also the most frequently studied topic area, followed by clinical informatics (12.0%). However, 'telemedicine' (17.0%) was the most frequently appearing keyword in articles published in HIR, followed by 'telecommunications' (4.5%). Telemedicine (47.1%) was the most frequently studied topic area, followed by EHR (14.7%). The study findings reflect the Korean government's efforts to introduce telemedicine into the Korean healthcare system and reactions to this from the stakeholders associated with telemedicine.

  14. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  15. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  16. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2006-01-01

    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  17. Implications of Germany's declining defense spending

    OpenAIRE

    Merrath, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the question of how much it is willing to invest for safety and stability in Europe and for protection of peace in the world. In determining the level of commitment behind Germany's foreign and security policy, defense spending is an important indic...

  18. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUSTRIA, *GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), *VENEREAL DISEASES, SENSITIVITY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), MEDICAL RESEARCH, SERODIAGNOSIS, CHEMOTHERAPY, ANTIBIOTICS, PENICILLINS, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM .

  19. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  20. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  1. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  2. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  3. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  4. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  5. Development of new auxiliary basis functions of the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including diffuse basis functions (def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QVPPD) for RI-MP2 and RI-CC calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Arnim; Rappoport, Dmitrij

    2015-01-14

    We report optimized auxiliary basis sets for use with the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including moderately diffuse basis functions (Rappoport and Furche, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 134105) in resolution-of-the-identity (RI) post-self-consistent field (post-SCF) computations for the elements H-Rn (except lanthanides). The errors of the RI approximation using optimized auxiliary basis sets are analyzed on a comprehensive test set of molecules containing the most common oxidation states of each element and do not exceed those of the corresponding unaugmented basis sets. During these studies an unsatisfying performance of the def2-SVP and def2-QZVPP auxiliary basis sets for Barium was found and improved sets are provided. We establish the versatility of the def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QZVPPD basis sets for RI-MP2 and RI-CC (coupled-cluster) energy and property calculations. The influence of diffuse basis functions on correlation energy, basis set superposition error, atomic electron affinity, dipole moments, and computational timings is evaluated at different levels of theory using benchmark sets and showcase examples.

  6. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  7. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  8. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  9. Why Study Germany and Europe Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Provides 10 reasons why the study of Germany and the European Community should be taught in U.S. social studies. Argues that the cultural interrelationships between the United States and Germany are historically significant. Contends that the experiences of post-World War II German reconstruction and the reunification after the Cold War can serve…

  10. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  11. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Harry (comp.)

    2015-10-16

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  12. [Health and justice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  13. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. 意会关键词信息取证方法%Information Forensics Method for Tacit Keyword

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 周学广; 陈涛

    2011-01-01

    As a new form of media, the Internet public opinion influences the society profoundly. Information forensics is an important aspect in the Internet public opinion monitoring field. To resolve the problem of unhealthy information forensics, an information forensics technique for tacit keywords is presented. It defines the term of tacit keywords, then classifies and quantifies tacit keywords. Six algorithms of tacit keywords extracted for information forensics are proposed. Based on the algorithms, the integrity of the evidence information is protected with Hash function. Experimental results show all the extraction time of the six algorithms presented controls in the ms grade, and the accurate rate and recall rate are up to 92% and 95%. This indicates that the presented information forensics technique is effective.%新型宣传媒介的网络舆情存在大量非法信息.为此,提出一种意会关键词信息取证方法,对中文意会关键词进行定义、分类和量化,给出6种意会关键词提取算法,对提取的证据信息进行完整性处理.实验结果表明,6种算法的提取速度均在毫秒级,查准率和查全率分别达到92%和95%,从而保证在网页舆情监控下非法信息的取证效率.

  15. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  16. Germany: Twenty Years After The Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Mavrokordatos; Stan Stascinsky; Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important events in the world after World War II was the reunification of Germany, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general economic conditions in Germany, before and after the reunification. This paper is divided into four parts. The introductory section provides a summative discussion of the economic conditions in East and West Germany from World War II until the time of reunification. The second section presents an evaluation of...

  17. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  18. 一种改进的web文档关键词权重计算方法%An improved algorithm for weighting keywords in web documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙双; 贺樑; 杨静; 顾君忠

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm, web-based keyword weight algorithm (WKWA), is presented to weight keywords in web documents. WKWA takes into account representation features of web documents and advantages of the TF*IDF, TFC and ITC algorithms in order to make it more appropriate for web documents. Meanwhile, the presented algorithm is applied to improved vector space model (IVSM). A real system has been implemented for calculating semantic similarities of web documents. Four experiments have been carried out. They are keyword weight calculation, feature item selection, semantic similarity calculation, and WKWA time performance. The results demonstrate accuracy of keyword weight, and semantic similarity is improved.

  19. Germany's Population: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, G.K.; Büttner, T; W. Lutz

    1990-01-01

    When the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, 16 million East Germans were added to the West German population, giving it a 20 million person advantage over Italy, France and the United Kingdom. This report traces the history of German population growth from the 1870s through World War II and up to the present. The authors examine the demographic trends of the new Germany and the prospects for future growth. Until 1990, marriage, fertility, and mortality followed different paths in the...

  20. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan L. Thomsen; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants' wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

  1. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Staeck

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  2. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  3. Design and Implementation of Keywords Frequency Statistic Program Basing on Keywords Fields Extracted from Subject Bibliography of Web of Science%WoS题录Keywords字段关键词频度统计程序设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉强

    2015-01-01

    The paper takes Visual Basic as programming tool and uses regular expression to extract keywords filed data in batches from BibTex bibliography derived from Web of Science, combines synonyms, homoionyms and morphological changes of words as need-ed, then writes the keywords frequency statistics in Excel graph, and programs an Excel macro to draw broken line graph automatically to visualize the data. Information workers can further carry out complex data portfolio analysis of the Excel files by using Excel to im-prove their working efficiency.%使用Visual Basic编程,采用正则表达式批量提取由Web of Science导出的BibTex题录中所有Keywords字段关键词,按需合并所得关键词的同义词、近义词及词形变化词,然后将出现频度的统计数据写入Excel表,并编制Excel宏自动生成折线图,实现关键词分布的简单可视化。情报工作者后续可借助Excel功能对该程序生成的Excel表执行复杂的数据组合分析,以提高工作效率。

  4. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  5. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ENERGY SECTOR AND “CITIZEN ENERGY”: INSIGHTS FROM GERMANY WITH COMMENTS ON THE LITHUANIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ball

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Explore the extent to which the Energy Transition in Germany is a social transformation and comment on the Lithuanian context Design/methodology/approach Interviews with German energy entrepreneurs and field notes Findings The Energy Transition in Germany has been driven by “Citizen Energy”, but this is under threat from recent reforms which undermine the potential of “citizen energy” as a social transformation. There remain barriers to the growth of “Citizen Energy” in Lithuania. Research limitations/implications It is, to an extent context-specific with limitations for generalizability Practical implications Findings may be of use to the Lithuanian academic community and policy makers interested in energy policy Originality/Value Energy entrepreneurship is a timely theme in view of concerns about climate change and energy security Keywords: citizen energy, crowdsourcing, entrepreneurship, energy transition. Research type: research paper

  6. Index of English Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aacidosis Effects of acidosis on the L-type calcium current of rat ventricular myocytes Gao Z, Zhu MZ, Zhou JJ, Wang YM, Liang T, Zhang MF (21):1930acoustic stimulation Changes of oxygenation and lung damage after different decibel of 8 Hz and 16 Hz infrasound operated on rats Li W, Jia KY, Li HZ, Ni DT, Chen JZ, Dai YL (16):1485acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Investigation on HIV/AIDS knowledge of medical university personnel Li ZD, Xu ZK, Yang QX, Li Y, Zhang H, Ren JP, Zhang L, Wang PZ, Li YH, Xing AH (20); 1866 action potential Effects of erythromycin on APD and main currents involved in action potentional in single guinea pig ventricular myocytes Wang HC, Jia GL (21):1927 acute lung injuryInfluences of intravenous infusion of car-dionatrin on TNF-α IL-8 and ET-1 contents in blood and

  7. Keywords in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ What we achieve: 2 Laws In China's labor market, everything was changed on January 1, 2008, for employers in China, when China's new labor law went into effect, enhancing rights for mainland workers, including open-ended work contracts and severance pay. The Labor Contract Law aims to improve job security for workers, making open-ended terms of employment for those who have completed two fixed terms. The legislation limits overtime, sets minimum wages and requires one month's pay for each year worked for dismissed employees.

  8. Contents, Abstracts and Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ethnic Minority Rights from the Angle of Multiculturalism Zhou Shaoqing(1) Abstract: Historically, multiculturalism was closely related to the ethnic minority rights. Currently there are two features in the research on multiculturalism and the ethnic minority rights. One is that most researchers do not strictly distinguish the different dimensions of multiculturalism, the other is that they tend to regard only multiculturalism as a theory of the ethnic minority rights, and less attach its importance to the multi-ethnie state construction. The thesis argues that multiculturalism has at least five dimensions, such as fact, theory, ideology, policy, and normative principle. The concept of the ethnic minority rights in each dimension has its special meaning and effect. The ethnic minority rights protection and the multi-ethnic state construction are two different aspects in the same historical process. Multiculturalism is not only a theory of the ethnic minority rights, but also an important supportive theory of the multi-ethnic state construction.

  9. Contents, Abstracts and Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Micro-Foundation of Macro-National Analysis: A Review on the Western Banal Nationalism Theory and Its Complement Gao Qiqi(1) Abstract: In recent years, banal nationalism has already created relatively important influence in western national theory areas, and stimulated new thoughts of two different paths: banal sub-nationalism and banal supra-nationalism. The emergence of banal nationalism theory means that micro-national analysis launched by primordialism is promoted into a more normative analyzing period. The meaning of banal nationalism is that it partly lowers the conflict and explosivity embedded in macro-national analysis, and it shows a national meaning world around the individual as a national member. The difficulties of this theory are two points, namely, the lack of consideration of elite function and the lack of integration of historical changes. In this article, the author tries to introduce the knowledge of western sociology to overcome those difficulties of banal nationalism. Enlightened by Collins's interaction ritual chains theory, the author puts forward an analysis framework of intra-national interaction field in order to summarize and generalize the western banal nationalism theory from the perspective of sociology; on the basis of it, tries to complement and develop the western banal nationalism theory.

  10. Research article Abstract Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determination of the user-price of a public–private partnership residence .... bed and therefore that Kovacs was charging double the normal cost of student housing. ..... the agreements are: 1) The terms of the lease [are] 25 years plus 3 years of.

  11. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  12. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  13. Impacts of the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 on routinely recorded meteorological and air quality data in south-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Ahrens

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 over Central Europe was also visible in Baden-Wuerttemberg, a state in south-west Germany. To investigate the impact of the total solar eclipse on the lower planetary boundary layer, meteorological and air quality data extracted from routine measurements at six sites in Baden-Wuerttemberg were examined. The meteorological data were recorded at the Plittersdorf meteorological station (in the path of totality of the total solar eclipse and at the Forest meteorological Site Hartheim (outside the path of totality of the total solar eclipse. The air quality data were obtained from four official air quality monitoring stations located at Freudenstadt, Karlsruhe-West, Rastatt and Welzheimer Wald, all of which lie within the path of totality of the total solar eclipse. Due to cloudiness, weather conditions on 11 August 1999 were not optimal in south-west Germany. However, the transient reduction (followed by a rise induced by the total solar eclipse on meteorological variables including global solar radiation, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, air temperature, horizontal wind speed, elevation angle of the three-dimensional wind vector as well as turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes was quite obvious. Despite unfavourable weather conditions, half-hourly mean values of ozone routinely measured at the above-mentioned standard official air quality monitoring stations showed a varying decline up to 27% at the urban station Rastatt and 37% at the background station Welzheimer Wald. This decline was owing mainly to the fall in global radiation during the total solar eclipse. However, additional influences by advection and deposition can not be precluded.

  14. Barriers to cardiovascular risk prevention and management in Germany – an analysis of the EURIKA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmieder RE

    2012-03-01

    comprehensive data on the status of primary prevention of CVD in clinical practice in Germany and reveals considerable potential for improving the primary prevention of CVD.Keywords: cardiovascular risk factor, primary care

  15. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 一种面向主题的关键词查询扩展方法%AN APPROACH FOR TOPIC-ORIENTED KEYWORD QUERY EXPANSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 李培峰; 朱巧明

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel topic-oriented keyword query expansion approach, which is based on the combination of local statistics and semantic expansion. It searches those feedback pages for analysis through initial keyword of the given topics, and then calculates the weight of candidate keywords of the topic using the TF * PSF semantic weighting algorithm for further sieving those topic keywords. Based on that, a Web-oriented topic keyword iterative query expansion algorithm is designed, which gradually iterates and expands the keyword set by adopting keyword combination strategy. Experiments prove that this method is effective.%提出一种基于局部统计和语义扩展相结合,面向主题的关键词查询扩展方法.该方法通过对给定主题的初始关键词搜索反馈网页进行分析,采用TF*PSF语义加权方法计算主题候选词的权重来进一步筛选主题关键词.在此基础上,设计了面向Web的主题关键词迭代查询扩展算法,采用主题关键词的组合查询策略,迭代扩展出主题的关键词集合.实验证明该方法是有效的.

  17. TEACHING NEW VOCABULARY TO IRANIAN YOUNG FL LEARNERS: USING TWO METHODS TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE AND KEYWORD METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Toghyani Khorasgani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early language learning for children is increasingly common, and the majority of parents and the public do not see it as superfluous or overburdening children. Moreover, teaching a foreign language to very young children has been an increasingly dominant trend in most globalized societies. While there is abundant literature that supports teaching a foreign language at an early age through language immersion programs, little is known about the efficiency of strategies used to explicitly teach new vocabulary words in a foreign language to young learners. This empirical investigation aimed to assess and compare the efficiency of two mnemonics that have been traditionally used to explicitly teach new foreign language words: the Keyword Method (KWM and the Total Physical Response (TPR. Results indicate that the KWM is more effective than TPR in teaching new vocabulary words in a foreign language to early elementary school children.

  18. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  19. XML关键字查询处理研究%Keyword Search on XML Data: A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军锋; 孟小峰

    2012-01-01

    As an effective way of extracting desired information, keyword search on XML data has been a hot research issue along with the ever increasing of XML-based applications, and large volumes of research work appear on various top-level conferences and journals each year. In this paper, we organize existing works according to the architecture of an XML keyword search system, and give an in depth analysis to the representative techniques from five aspects, I. E. , query generation, query semantics, ranking mechanism, query processing algorithms and result presentation. Finally, according to the requirements of latest applications, we conclude open research problems according to the inherent requirement of effectiveness and efficiency.%关键字查询作为一种有效的信息检索手段,一直以来都是XML数据管理领域研究的热点问题,每年均有大量最新研究成果出现在各种顶级会议和期刊上.针对众多国内外研究者在XML关键字查询领域所作出的创新性工作,该文以XML关键字查询处理系统为框架来组织现有工作,重点分析和比较了查询生成、语义定义、排序机制、查询算法及结果展示等5个关键技术点所涉及的代表性工作的特点,并结合最新的应用需求从有效性和高效性的角度归纳出XML关键字查询技术后续研究面临的问题和挑战.

  20. Health care transition in Germany – standardization of procedures and improvement actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Pieper, Izabela KolankowskaInstitute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyAbstract: Previous studies have assessed an increase in the number of people in need and emphasized the advantages of structured discharge management and health care transition. Therefore, our study evaluated the status quo of transition in a major German city after standardization of procedures and implementation of standard forms. Satisfaction with handling of standard forms and improvement of procedures was evaluated. Additionally, patients who had recently been hospitalized were asked about the hospital discharge process. The results show that the recent efforts of standardization helped to improve interface management for health care workers and patients and showed further improvement options.Keywords: hospital discharge process, standard forms, long-term care, aftercare

  1. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  2. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  3. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  4. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  5. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  6. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  7. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  8. Differential mortality by lifetime earnings in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt D. Scholz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available e estimate mortality rates by a measure of socio-economic status in a very large sample of male German pensioners aged~65 or older. Our analysis is entirely nonparametric. Furthermore, the data enable us to compare mortality experiences in eastern and western Germany conditional on socio-economic status. As a simple summary measure, we compute period life expectancies at age~65. Our findings show a lower bound of almost 50 percent (six years on the difference in life expectancy between the lowest and the highest socio-economic group considered. Within groups, we find similar values for the former GDR and western Germany. Our analysis contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, we provide the first population-based differential mortality study for Germany. Second, we use a novel measure of lifetime earnings as a proxy for socio-economic status that remains applicable to retired people. Third, the comparison between eastern and western Germany may provide some interesting insights for transformation countries.

  9. Earnings Inequality in Germany and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIACOMO; CORNEO

    2015-01-01

    The current paper discusses the evolution of earnings inequality in Germany with an eye to its potential lessons for China. Inequality is assessed from two different perspectives: the distribution of annual earnings, and the distribution of lifetime earnings. This paper proposes to implement closer monitoring of lifetime earnings and take a proactive stance in the formation of the wage-bargaining regime.

  10. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  11. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  12. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  13. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  14. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...... of informal carers (relatives), balanced view on assistive technology, destigmatisation and support of autonomy....

  15. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  16. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  17. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  18. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  19. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  20. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  1. Macroeconomic trends and reforms in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sabbatini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. Its performance is compared with that of the rest of the euro area and its largest economies. The study documents as GermanyÕs modest growth in the later 1990s was due to the restrictive impact on domestic demand coming from the deep restructuring and modernization of the production system, followed by sweeping reforms after the turn of the century. Rapid productivity increases and prolonged wage moderation, especially in industry, fuelled a large and mounting current account surplus in Germany, that compares with the deficits registered in most European countries. The study retraces the recent debate on how to correct those imbalances, recalling the arguments for and against the thesis that the countries with a current payments surplus, above all Germany, must also play an active role in fostering the adjustment of the deficit countries. A possible synthesis is proposed, based on an analysis of the formation of national income and the use of resources according to the national accounts system. The implication is that Germany may contribute to the correction of imbalances within the euro area not so much by altering the wage formation mechanism as by creating incentives for domestic investment, hence fostering employment creation, in the service sectors that are currently lagging behind the extraordinary perfomance of a number of core activities in the industry.

  2. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing the

  3. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  4. PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx and http://holab.med.ncku.edu.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx.

  5. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  6. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  7. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  8. ["Crisis"--oscillating between keyword and buzzword. On the discourse about a "crisis of medicine" in the Weimar Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The buzzword "crisis" has not only become omnipresent since the recent financial crisis. The term that originated in Ancient Greece underwent several different usages--quantitatively as well as qualitatively; especially in the Weimar Republic, the time period that has long been considered as the crisis era par excellence. Using the discourse about the "crisis of medicine" in the 1920s and the early 1930s as an example, the article attempts to provide a critical reflection on the concept of "crisis". The focus of this article is on the idea's construction, the different semantic usages of "crisis" and the motives of the different authors for their respective rhetorical applications of this term. The analysis of the examined publications on the "crisis of medicine", how they influenced other periods and the reconstruction of their origin show that the semantics of the word "crisis" went far beyond a simply negative connotation, and with regard to its rhetorical usage have oscillated between keyword and a meaningless but catchy buzzword.

  9. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  10. Retrieving Targeted Results from a Static File Repository using a Keyword matching Mechanism relying on a Cluster-based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina ZURINI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the web based solutions designed for learning contain, among the compulsory functions, the uploading of didactic materials of the person doing the examining (on a regular basis this being the professor and the possibility of accessing these by the examinee (on a regular basis this being the student, within this paper we have chosen to set the goal of finding a resolution that will enable the access of content relevant to the person being examined. Hereby we have suggested a prototype which will capacitate the singling out and grouping of documents depending on the keywords, which will be followed by a visual search depending on the distance between two documents, by the recurrence of the closest k documents to the one being the element of interest - reaching the optimal alternative in case of a performance oriented point of view. The algorithm needed for the extraction of this data is presented within the paper. An optimization model is proposed in order to reduce the time consuming component in regards to the minimization of differences in the quality of the documents resulted in the automatic search using a k Nearest Neighbour grid search engine.

  11. Comparison Of Keyword Based Clustering Of Web Documents By Using Openstack 4j And By Traditional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiza Anand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As the number of hypertext documents are increasing continuously day by day on world wide web. Therefore clustering methods will be required to bind documents into the clusters repositories according to the similarity lying between the documents. Various clustering methods exist such as Hierarchical Based K-means Fuzzy Logic Based Centroid Based etc. These keyword based clustering methods takes much more amount of time for creating containers and putting documents in their respective containers. These traditional methods use File Handling techniques of different programming languages for creating repositories and transferring web documents into these containers. In contrast openstack4j SDK is a new technique for creating containers and shifting web documents into these containers according to the similarity in much more less amount of time as compared to the traditional methods. Another benefit of this technique is that this SDK understands and reads all types of files such as jpg html pdf doc etc. This paper compares the time required for clustering of documents by using openstack4j and by traditional methods and suggests various search engines to adopt this technique for clustering so that they give result to the user querries in less amount of time.

  12. Gender- and age-related treatment compliance in patients with osteoporosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadji P

    2016-11-01

    , whereas daily and monthly treatments were associated with an increased risk.Conclusion: Compliance is insufficient in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications. Keywords: osteoporosis treatment, compliance, fracture, real-world data, Germany 

  13. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  14. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  15. Boom in Germany; Boom in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, Bernward

    2013-02-15

    In the year 2012, the expansion of the wind energy in Germany has newly gained a rise: 1,008 wind power plants with a total performance of 2,439 megawatt. The average performance of new wind turbines increases further. The average rotor diameter amounts 88.5 metres, while the average hub height amounts 109.8 metres. Above all, the southern Federal States of the Federal Republic of Germany jeopardise on large hub heights: With a hub height of 133.9 metres, Bavaria is in the vanguard of all Federal States followed by Baden-Wuerttemberg with a hub height of 129.9 metres. The wind power plants in Schleswig-Holstein have the lowest average hub height of 81.7 metres. Meanwhile, the repowering occurs in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen because there are the oldest wind power plants.

  16. Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive and specifically address (migrant specific migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals.

  17. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  18. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  19. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  20. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  1. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio- Economic Panel (GSOEP).To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  2. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  3. Micro modeling of retirement : decisions in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Börsch-Supan, Axel; Kohnz, Simone; Schnabel, Reinhold

    2002-01-01

    Early retirement in Germany is very costly and amplifies the burden which the German public pension system has to carry due to population aging. This paper shows that the German pension system provides strong incentives to retire early. The paper provides relatively robust econometric evidence for the strength of incentive effects on old age labor supply, using several specifications of incentive variables. The econometric estimates are used to simulate the individual responses to policy chan...

  4. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  5. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  6. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  7. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  8. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  9. Gender, cancer experience and internet use: a comparative keyword analysis of interviews and online cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive; Ziebland, Sue; Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    A new method, comparative keyword analysis, is used to compare the language of men and women with cancer in 97 research interviews and two popular internet based support groups for people with cancer. The method is suited to the conjoint qualitative and quantitative analysis of differences between large bodies of text, an alternative to the 'code and retrieval' approach used in much thematic analysis of qualitative materials. Web forums are a rich source of data about illness experience and gender differences. Marked differences in the performance of gender are evident. These differences follow linguistic and other behavioural patterns (such as social network differences) established in other contexts. Men with prostate cancer indicate in research interviews that they are more likely to seek information on the internet; women with breast cancer that they are more likely to seek social and emotional support. Men's concerns cluster around treatment information, medical personnel and procedures. Their experience of disease is more localised on particular areas of the body, while women's experience is more holistic. Women's forum postings orientate much more towards the exchange of emotional support, including concern with the impact of illness on a wide range of other people. Women's use of superlatives as well as words referring to feelings indicate their enactment of greater emotional expressivity. Web forums are platforms for an intensification of men's knowledge gathering activities. Web forums, though actually quite publicly visible, appear to be subjectively experienced by both sexes as relatively private places for the exchange of intimate personal information. The 'privacy' of the breast cancer forum facilitated interactions found in other studies to be characteristic of women's friendship groups.

  10. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  11. The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM; Das Karlsruher Atmosphaerische Mesoskalige Modell KAMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-01-01

    The applications of the KAMM model range from real-time simulations over the analysis of mesoscale phenomena and the development of parametrizations to describing climatology. In the course of time, wishes emerged to change essential parts of the original model concept, calling for substantial reprogramming; so it was decided to entirely redraft the dynamic core of KAMM and to program it from the beginning including the parallelization of the code. The paper describes the basics of the new model core. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Der Anwendungsbereich des KAMM-Modells erstreckt sich von Echtzeitsimulationen, ueber Analyse mesoskaliger Phaenomene, Entwicklung von Parametrisierungen bis hin zur beschreibenden Klimatologie. Weil im Laufe der Entstehungszeit wesentliche Aenderungswuensche des urspruenglichen Konzeptes entstanden sind, die eine Neuprogrammierung in wesentlichen Teilen erforderlich erscheinen lassen, wurde entschieden, den dynamischen Kern von KAMM voellig neu zu gestalten und bei der Programmierung eine Parallelisierung des Codes von Anfang an mit einzubeziehen. Die Grundlagen dieses neuen Modellkernes werden vorgestellt. (orig./KW)

  12. Biomedical engineering and biophysics at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe; Medizintechnik und Biophysik im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Programm Mikrosystemtechnik

    2000-07-01

    Three central topics dominate this R and D-field: Systems development for surgical interventions and diagnostics, encompassing dedicated operation theater systems, training systems for minimally invasive surgery, and image understanding techniques. Activities in support of rehabilitation medicine comprising biophysical investigations and the development of multifunctional prostheses. Application of radioisotope techniques for diagnostics and therapy. Most of the developments are being done in close collaboration with clinical and industrial partners. (orig.)

  13. Secure Search Algorithm for Conjunctive Keyword in Encrypted Data%加密数据中连接关键词的安全搜索算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星毅

    2009-01-01

    该算法把生成"能力"的过程分为线下和线上2个部分,它对多个连接关键词的安全搜索时间比原有算法降低了80%左右,实例分析结果验证了其正确性和有效性.%Existing keyword search algorithms can only deal with single keyword and presenting high time complexity. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a secure search algorithm for encrypted data which searches several conjunctive keywords at the same time. This algorithm partitions the processes for generating "Capability" into two parts -- online part and offline part. Its run time of secure search is about eighty percents less than existing algorithms. Example analysis results show that this algorithm is reasonable and effective.

  14. The restructuring of Germany`s hard coal industry - political and corporate challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K.F. [RAG Group (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    With the termination of the so-called `Century Contract` in 1995, the steam coal market in German is liberalised with competition from imported coal being the driving force. German coal is still subsidised, according to the Artikelgesetz. The deregulation of the electricity market may lead to a more fierce competition in fuels for power generation. A recent survey by the Progress Research Institute showed however that the total use of coal in Germany will remain fairly constant until 2020. The article discusses the strategy adopted particularly by the RAG group which holds 80% of all German hard coal mining activities, to increase market attractivity of German coal now and in the future. There is a move afoot to integrate RAG with Saarbergwerke, Germany`s second largest hard coal producer. RAG already has developed many non-mining divisions - energy (STEAG), Chemicals (Ruetgers), trade and services (Ruhrkohle Handel) environment, and real estate and mining technology (DBT). 6 figs.

  15. XIXth century earthquakes in Belgium, the Netherlands and western Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuts, Elisabeth; Dost, Bernard; Alexandre, Pierre; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Graben, at the border between Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. Keywords: historical seismicity, doubtful earthquake, fake earthquake, macroseismic map.

  16. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  17. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  18. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  19. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...... aspects of food, with the possible exception of price and the social aspect. Their food-related lifestyle is characterized by the fact that they hardly food to achieve basic values at all. Whatever it is these consumers want to achieve in their lives, they achieve it through other channels than food. 4...

  20. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields...

  1. [Foreign labor in a reunited Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, J

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses migration into Germany, primarily since World War II, with a focus on the impact on the German labor market. The radical changes that came about in the late 1980s as a result of granting political asylum to third-world refugees and of the readmittance of persons of German descent who wanted to repatriate are then assessed. Following reunification, the author foresees new trends in migration into the country and predicts some of their effects. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)

  2. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  3. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    life values. We call them the uninvolved, the careless, the conservative, the rational and the adventurous food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 21% of the population. These consumers are quite uninterested in most......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  4. Economic Factors of Development of Tourism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina K. Zhigalina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Germany has a negative balance for tourism. The article deals with attempts for creating the Germany’s positive image for tourists. Germans themselves travel a lot domestically, and for the first time since 2011 Germany has enjoyed a positive balance in tourism industry – tourists spent 20,4 bl. Euros inside against 15,5 bl. Euros spent outside of the country. According to YUNVTO Germany entered the list of top 10 tourist destinations.

  5. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  6. Prioritizing the patient: optimizing therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a patient questionnaire in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollenhaupt J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Wollenhaupt,1 Inge Ehlebracht-Koenig,2 André Groenewegen,3 Dieter Fricke41Rheumatologikum Hamburg, Schön Klinik Hamburg Eilbek, Hamburg, Germany; 2Center of Rehabilitation, Bad Eilsen, Germany; 3UCB Pharma SA, Brussels, Belgium; 4UCB Pharma GmbH, Monheim, GermanyPurpose: A 40-question postal survey was developed to gain insight into the nature of difficulties experienced by patients due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as patient perceptions and priorities regarding their RA treatmentPatients and methods: A total of 3000 Lower Saxony, Germany members of Rheuma-Liga (RL, a patient support group for people with RA, were invited to participate between July 1, and August 20, 2009. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: (1 patient demographics, (2 quality of life (QOL, (3 treatment expectations and, (4 patient perceptions of RL. The questionnaire could be completed in writing or via the internet.Results: Of 959 respondents (response rate = 32.0%, 318 had diagnosed RA and were included in the analysis. The respondents were mostly retired (71.2%, female (83.3%, and >60 years of age (63.5%. Members’ responses indicated that most were generally satisfied with their current treatment (67.3%, considered it efficacious (84.0%, and reported minimal (none or little side-effects (61.2%. Patient involvement in treatment decisions, however, was reportedly low (49.6% felt insufficiently involved. Patients’ primary impairments were reflected in their treatment priorities: mobility (97.0%, ability to run errands/do shopping (97.1%, do the housework (95.6%, and be independent of others (94.2%. The primary service provided by RL and used by respondents was physiotherapy (70.6%, which was reported to benefit physical function and mood by over 90.0% of respondents.Conclusion: RA had a detrimental effect upon respondents' quality of life, specifically impairing their ability to perform daily tasks and causing pain/emotional distress

  7. Health care resource utilization before and after natalizumab initiation among patients with multiple sclerosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson C

    2017-02-01

    .Conclusions: In a real-world setting in Germany, initiation of natalizumab treatment in people with MS significantly reduced MS-related hospitalizations, corticosteroid use, sick days, and associated costs. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, relapsing–remitting, health care resource utilization, costs, outcomes, natalizumab

  8. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  9. The Effectiveness of Keyword-Based Instruction in Enhancing English Vocabulary Achievement and Retention of Intermediate Stage Pupils with Different Working Memory Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Mona Abdullah Bakheet

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of keyword-based instruction in enhancing English vocabulary achievement and retention of intermediate stage pupils with different working memory capacities. The study adopted a quasi experimental design employing two groups (experimental and control). The design included an independent…

  10. Comments on ERP System Research Focus Based on Keywords Analysis%基于关键词分析的ERP系统研究热点评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗; 张国强; 徐桂芬

    2012-01-01

    通过关键词分析的方法来分析ERP系统研究热点,统计从2007年-2011年间,12种核心期刊上发表的关于ERP系统的有效文献,将文献中的关键词进行客观统计,从关键词数量,关键词词频,关键词词义三个维度量化统计分析ERP系统的研究内容,运用定量的研究方法定性地分析了文献内在规律,揭示了近五年ERP系统的研究热点,预测ERP系统的未来发展趋势。%The paper uses Keywords analysis to analyze the research focus of ERP system, and counts the effective literatures published in 12 kinds journals from 2007 to 2011,the research contents of ERP system are analyzed from three perspectives of quantity of keywords, word frequency of keywords and character of keywords, at the same time, it applies quantitative methods to research analysis the literature of the inherent laws qualitatively, which reveals the research focus of ERP system in the last five years, and forecasts the development trend of ERP system in the future.

  11. Document object network model for extracting keywords from Web pages%面向Web文本关键词自动抽取的DON模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭浩; 蔡美玲; 王瑞龙; 余炳锐

    2012-01-01

    It is very hard to exactly extract keywords from hub Web pages because of its topic noise. A Document Object Network (DON) model and Keywords Extraction Algorithm Based on it (KEYDON) are proposed. The model DON clusters the topic society with the betweenness centrality and impact fraction of nodes in DON. Experiments show that the accuracy of proposed keywords extraction algorithm's performance based on DON has increased by 20% compared with the algorithm based on Doc View model.%Web网页中往往包含许多主题噪声,准确地自动抽取关键词成为技术难点.提出了一个文本对象网络模型DON,给出了对象节点的中心度概念和基于中心度的影响因子传播规则,并据此自动聚集DON中的主题社区(topic society),从而提高了模型的抗噪能力.提出一个基于DON的网页关键词自动抽取算法KEYDON(Keywords Extraction Algorithm Based on DON).实验结果表明,与基于DocView模型的相应算法相比,KEYDON的准确率提高了近20%,这说明DON模型具有较强的抑制主题噪声能力.

  12. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES OF BUSINESS INCUBATION: THE USA, GERMANY AND RUSSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evgeny Tsaplin; Yulia Pozdeeva

    2017-01-01

    ...: the USA, Germany, and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies...

  13. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  14. The Official Real Estate Appraisal in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph JOCHEIM-WIRTZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Real Estate Appraisal in Germany is regulated by the articles 192-199 of the German Construction Law. Technical guidelines, including the appraisal methods, are defined in bylaws. For the purpose of official real estate appraisal, Expert Appraisal Committees were founded in counties and large cities. The Committees are comprised of real estate experts doing a honorary service, coming from such professions as land surveying engineers, architects, civil engineers, Tax Office employees, experts from the banking sector, agronomists and real estate agents. The chairman of the Committee is also the director of the Cadastral Office and/or the Surveying Office. Every Committee has its own office within the Cadastral Office or the Surveying Office. The main task of the Committees is to establish and guarantee the transparency of the real estate market, by means of the publication of approximate plot value maps on the Internet as well as the publication of the reports on the real estate market. Apart from that, the Expert Appraisal Committees provide reports on the market value of real estate objects, available upon request. Reports on the market value of real estate objects are also made by publicly appointed and sworn experts. Based on the steady rise in the requests for superregional information about the real estate market in the recent years, the working group comprised of the representatives from the Expert Appraisal Committees from the whole country published its first report on the real estate market in Germany in 2008, and the second one in 2011.

  15. [Multi-family group therapy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Multi-family therapy, common group therapy with several families per one index patient, has been gaining popularity recently. This has occasioned an exploratory study of the status of implementation and common factors in all multi-family therapy programs in Germany. In a survey conducted across Germany, all providers of multi-family therapy interventions were requested to give a detailed description of their intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and verbal data were summarized categorically with qualitative content analysis. Of the 25 intervention programs examined 21 are directed at emotionally disturbed children and young people and their families; mainly with disturbances in social behavior. Over 4,000 families per year are treated in multi-family therapy, and five programs were systematically evaluated. MFT is characterized by systematically oriented group therapy methods. Those surveyed traced the effect of this form of intervention back to activating problems in the group, activating resources, changing perspective, learning models, experiencing self-efficacy, and the therapeutic relationship. Systematic studies of multi-family therapy in evaluations and in random controlled study designs are recommended.

  16. Evaluation of domino liver transplantations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Fabian Johannes; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Becker, Thomas; Braun, Felix; Pascher, Andreas; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schmidt, Jan; Nadalin, Silvio; Otto, Gerd; Barreiros, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective multicenter study has been conducted to evaluate domino liver transplantations (DLTs) in Germany. The study provides insight into survival and features having an impact on the assessment of neuropathy after DLT. In addition, a neurologic follow-up program with a scheme to estimate the likelihood of de novo amyloidosis is presented. A series of 61 DLTs at seven transplant centers in Germany was enrolled. The mean age of domino recipients at the time of transplantation was 58 years, 46 of them being men, and 15 being women. The median follow-up was 46 months. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of domino recipients was 81.6%, 70.8% and 68.8%, respectively. Causes of death were primarily not related to familial amyloidosis. The main indication of DLT was hepatocellular carcinoma. Two of the reported domino recipients developed symptoms and signs of de novo amyloidosis within 10 years after transplantation. A total of 30 domino graft recipients (49.18%) presented with diabetes post transplantation. In conclusion, an advanced follow-up program is crucial to evaluate the risk of transmitting familial amyloidosis by DLT and to establish more strict selection criteria for domino recipients. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The historiography of homoeopathy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Homoeopathy originated in Germany. The same applies, by the way, to many other branches of alternative medicine, e.g. mesmerism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, anthroposophical medicine. This historical fact provides more than just an excuse to start with a survey of the historiography of homeopathy in German-speaking countries. The first part of the paper focuses on 19th-century attempts at a history of homoeopathy, reflecting the wish to establish a corporate identity among the adherents of the new art of healing. Early examples are books by prominent homoeopathic doctors on the origins and recent history of homoeopathy in German lands. A look at their motives will give us a notion of the response of the fringe medicine to a wide ranger of attacks of orthodox physicians and medical historians who saw progress in the field of the new "scientific" medicine only and who shared the values and ideologies of the medical establishment. The second part of the paper - which covers the period from the turn of the century to the end of World War II - examines the first attempts by professional medical historians as well as amateurs to write about the rise and fall of homeopathy in Germany. The third part is then centred on recent medical historiography on this subject.

  18. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Nonpharmacological therapies and provision of aids in outpatient dementia networks in Germany: utilization rates and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wübbeler M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Markus Wübbeler,1 Jochen René Thyrian,1 Bernhard Michalowsky,2 Johannes Hertel,2 Franziska Laporte Uribe,3 Karin Wolf-Ostermann,4 Susanne Schäfer-Walkmann,6 Wolfgang Hoffmann2,5 1Interventional Health Care Research Group, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE Rostock/Greifswald, 2German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; 3Implementation and Dissemination Research Group, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE, Witten, Germany; 4Department of Human and Health Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 5Epidemiology of Health Care and Community Health, Institute for Community Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; 6Institute for Applied Social Sciences, Stuttgart, Germany Background: Nonpharmacological therapies and the provision of aids are described to be supportive in the treatment of persons with dementia (PWDs. These aim to maintain individuals' participation in daily activities as long as possible, to slow the progression of their disease, and to support their independent living at home. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the utilization of therapies and aids among community-dwelling PWDs.Objective: The aims of the study were a to describe the utilization of nonpharmacological therapies and aids among community-dwelling PWDs and b to analyze the factors associated with utilization.Method: As part of a cross-sectional study of n=560 caregivers of PWDs in dementia networks throughout Germany, we assessed sociodemographics, clinical variables, and the utilization of nonpharmacological therapies (physiotherapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], and aids (sensory, mobility, and others, using face-to-face interviews and questionnaires.Results: Approximately every fourth PWD received PT and every seventh PWD received OT. Sensory aids were utilized by 91.1%, personal hygiene aids by 77.2%, mobility aids by 58.6%, and medical

  20. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  1. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements

  2. New insights of seismic disturbances due to wind turbines - long and short term measurements in SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Within the scope of the project "TremAc", we present new insights of ground motion disturbances due to wind turbines (WTs) in the vicinity of the town of Landau, SW Germany. The main goal of this project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, is the detection of influences from WTs on human health and buildings in an interdisciplinary way. The interaction between WTs, humans, infrastructure (incl.seismic stations) becomes more and more an important role with the increase of installed WTs. We present averaged one hour long PSD-spectra in a frequency range from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz depending on the wind speed before and after the installation of characteristic WTs, especially for seismic borehole stations, during one month measurements. The results show a clear increase of the ground motion and a related disturbance of the seismic recordings. The station threshold for signal detection below 2 Hz is reduced after the installation of a new wind farm in the area around Landau. This effect occurs even up to distances to the WTs of more than 5 kilometers. The increasing noise level depends also clearly on wind speed, which indicate also the WT origin related with the signals. Using short-term measurements during few hours, we are able to determine the maximum of the PSD values for different discrete frequencies as function of distance to the next WT and to fit a power-law decay curve proportional to 1/rb to the data. In this way we can differentiate between near- and far-field effects of the seismic wave propagation of WTs. A clear frequency dependent decay can be observed, for which high frequencies are more attenuated than lower frequencies, probably due to scattering processes. The new results will help for a better understanding of WTs as a seismic noise source and their interaction with nearby seismic stations and other infrastructure. Seismic data were provided by "Erdbebendienst Südwest", "Federal Institute for Geosciences and

  3. Fixedwing UAV soundings of the boundary layer during the ScaleX 2015 summer campaign in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Andreas; Groos, Alexander; Petersen, Erik; Bischoff, Julian; Szogs, Sebastian; Beck, Christoph; Hähner, Jörg; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    In order to examine the potential to close the local water cycle budget and to evaluate models on different scales (among other aims) a fleet of 6 fixed wing UAVs has been operated by the Institute for Geography and the Institute for Informatics of the University of Augsburg during the ScaleX measurement campaign of the KIT/IMK-IFU (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie/Institut für Meteorologie und Klimatologie, Garmisch Partenkirchen). The site is located in southern Germany in a rural, hilly landscape at a small catchment tributing to the Ammersee and equipped with several ground based and remote sensing hydrological instruments. In order to complement these instruments by in situ measurements of the boundary layer, three intensive observation periods (IOPs) for taking temperature and humidity profiles took place, each with a different set up in order to evaluate optimal operation modes. The UAVs are all operated by the open hardware Apogee autopilot and sensor controller developed by ENAC (Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile, Toulouse) operated by the PPRZ open source software package. The first IOP (30.06.-01.07.2015) was an experiment to cover a small site of 500 by 500 meters (well-apointed with hydrological instruments) in a 24 hours period as dense as possible. Thus three simultaneous helical profile flights (radius 70 m) have been run at each full hour around three different centres with heights ranging up to 1000 m above ground level (with special permissions). During a second IOP (15.07.2015) it has been tried to increase the frequence of profile flights up to 2 flights per hours between 7:30 and 14:00 CEST. These soundings have been accompanied by flyovers of a manned ultra light aircraft of the IMK-IFU. Finally a third experiment (06.08.2015) tried to evaluate longer flights (up to 55 minutes) of two UAVs at constant levels of 300 and 500 m above ground level between 6:00 and 14:00 CEST in order to cover the early diurnal cycle even more constantly

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  5. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  6. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  7. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  8. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  9. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  10. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... certain lightweight thermal paper from Germany that the Department of Commerce found were sold at...

  11. Germany at CERN, from 13 to 15 November 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF, during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 02: Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committe, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 04: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF; Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committee; Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva (background); Dr Horst Wenninger, CERN and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, visiting the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN.

  12. Career situation of female astronomers in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Fohlmeister, J; 10.1002/asna.201211656

    2012-01-01

    We survey the job situation of women in astronomy in Germany and of German women abroad and review indicators for their career development. Our sample includes women astronomers from all academic levels from doctoral students to professors, as well as female astronomers who have left the field. We find that networking and human support are among the most important factors for success. Experience shows that students should carefully choose their supervisor and collect practical knowledge abroad. We reflect the private situation of female German astronomers and find that prejudices are abundant, and are perceived as discriminating.We identify reasons why women are more likely than men to quit astronomy after they obtain their PhD degree. We give recommendations to young students on what to pay attention to in order to be on the successful path in astronomy.

  13. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  14. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  15. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  16. Mapping the Knowledge Structure of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Over the Past Decade: A Co-word Analysis Based on Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jichong; Tang, Jun; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yan; Bao, Shan; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the knowledge structure and report the evolution of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy research over the past decade based on co-word analysis. Scientific publications focusing on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were searched from the Web of Science database (January 2005 to December 2014). The keywords from these articles were extracted, and a knowledge network based on these keywords was built using Ucinet6.212 and NetDraw2.084 software. A total of 1892 papers were included, and 39 high-frequency keywords were defined. "HIE" and "neonate" located at the center of the knowledge network. Etiology and pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and therapy were researched more widely in the network than other aspects of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This co-word analysis provides an overview of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy research and suggests that the etiology, clinical manifestation, and therapy of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy have become research cores over the past decade.

  17. XML关键字检索的访问控制规则和索引%ACCESS CONTROL POLICY AND INDEX OF XML KEYWORD SEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 黄浩; 朱皓; 杨卫东

    2011-01-01

    XML数据库的关键字检索简单易用,并且用户不必了解数据库的模式,近期受到人们的广泛关注.当前的相关研究主要集中于关键字检索的算法以及返回结果的组织和排序,然而却忽视了关键字的安全访问控制问题.结合XML关键字搜索和XML安全访问控制,提出一种新的建立于XML Schema上基于角色的访问控制规则SRACP( Schema Role Access Control Policy),并在SRACP规则的基础上建立安全的XML关键字检索的索引(SRACP-Index),包括:SRACP-Index的数据结构,SRACP-Index的构建和算法,以及如何利用SRACP-Index的建立进行SSLCA的查询.最后通过实验证明该索引和SSLCA查询算法的有效性.%Keyword search of XML database is simple and easy to use, and the users do not have to understand the pattern of the database. Recently it is widely concerned by the people. Current researches on this issue mainly focus on the algorithms of the keyword search and the organisation and sorting of the returned results, but the issue of secure access control of the keywords is ignored. Combining XML keyword search and XML secure access control, in this paper we put forward a new Role-based Access Control Policy which is built based on XML Schema (SRACP), and on the basis of SRACP, we built a secure index for XML keyword search (SRACP-Index) including the data structure of the SRACP-Index, the construction and algorithm of the SRACP-Index, and the way to carry out SSLCA search using the SRACP-Index. At the end, we proved the validity of our index and SSLCA search algorithm through experiments.

  18. Research on Shielded Keywords Based on Cascaded Hidden Markov Model%基于层叠隐马模型的屏蔽关键词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶非凡

    2014-01-01

    The information age brings a huge improvement in people's lives,but also accompanied by a series of problems arising,in which how to filter a large amount of information the network's remarks generated is a major difficulty. The traditional method of shiel-ding has low efficiency and is not accurate enough,so propose a new keyword shielding technology. Mainly use binary syntax model combined with layered hidden Markov model segmentation techniques,first utilize binary syntax model to get the constitute probability of the common words and keywords in a large corpus,creating a dictionary of common words and keywords classified,then combined casca-ding hidden Markov model for the specific sentence word processing,calculate the probability of its keywords shield for segmented result, finally get a scientific shielding probability,which can greatly improve the accuracy of keyword shield.%信息时代给人们的生活带来巨大改善,但同时也伴随一系列问题的产生,其中如何对网络中产生的大数据量的言论信息进行过滤的问题是研究的一大难点。传统的屏蔽法效率较低而且不够准确,因此文中提出了一种新的关键词屏蔽技术。主要采用二元语法模型结合层叠隐马可夫分词技术,首先运用二元语法模型在大量语料中得到普通词和关键词的构成概率,建立一个有普通词和关键词分类的词典,再结合层叠隐马可夫模型对具体句子进行分词处理,对分词后的结果计算其关键词屏蔽概率,最终得到一个科学的屏蔽概率,可以大大提高关键词屏蔽的准确性。

  19. 挖掘专利知识实现关键词自动抽取%Mining Patent Knowledge for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忆群; 周如旗; 朱蔚恒; 李梦婷; 印鉴

    2016-01-01

    关键词是人们快速判断是否要详细阅读文件内容的重要线索,关键词自动抽取在信息检索、自然语言处理等研究领域均有重要应用。设计了一种新的关键词自动抽取方法,使计算机能够像人类专家一样,利用知识库对目标文本进行学习和理解,最终自动抽取出关键词。专利数据因其数据量庞大、内容丰富、表达准确、专业权威而被选中作为知识库来源。详细讨论了专利数据的特性,挖掘不同专利间的知识关联,针对某一知识领域构造背景知识库,在此基础上进行目标文本的关键词自动抽取。与目标文本相关的专利文集中每个专利的专利发明人、权利人、专利引用和分类信息都被用于在不同的专利文档之间发现关联性,利用关联信息扩充背景知识库,获得目标文档在各个相关知识领域的背景知识库。基于背景知识库设计了词知识特征值,以反映词在目标文本背景知识中的重要程度。最后,把关键词抽取问题转化为分类问题,利用支持向量机(support vector machine ,SVM )抽取出目标文本的关键词。在专利数据集和开放数据集的实验结果证明明显优于现有算法。%Keywords are important clues that can help a user quickly decide whether to skip ,to scan , or to read the article .Keyword extraction plays an increasingly crucial role in information retrieval , natural language processing and other several text related researches . This paper addresses the problem of automatic keyword extraction and designs a novel automatic keyword extraction approach making use of patent knowledge . This approach can help computer to learn and understand the document as human being according to its background knowledge , finally pick out keywords automatically .The patent data set is chosen as external knowledge repository because of its huge amount of data ,rich content ,accurate

  20. "Experimental Pedagogy" in Germany, Elaborated for Mathematics--A Case Study in Searching the Roots of PME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubring, Gert

    2012-01-01

    PME, the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, was founded in 1976, at the "Third International Congress on Mathematical Education" in Karlsruhe, organised by the International Commission on Mathematics Instruction (ICMI). While PME is thus beyond coming of age and is reflecting its further orientation--due to…

  1. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  2. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  3. Training and Recruitment of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of German judges is part of general legal education which is the same for all regulated legal professions (judges, prosecutors, practising lawyers, lawyers in administration and private employment. This uniform qualification is acquired by passing two exams administered by the state, i.e. the Länder (not the Federation, the first exam after university studies and the second exam after state-organized practical training. The paper gives an overview of this system of legal education. Germany, as a rule, has career judges. Courts of first and second instance are administered by the Länder, therefore the Länder judicial administrations are also responsible for recruitment of young career judges. General criteria for appointment to any public office are laid down in the German constitution (Grundgesetz. Apart from this, selection proceedings differ in detail, although elaborate lists of criteria (employee profiles, competence profiles are widely used. Professional competence is judged with emphasis on exam results; personal competence and social competence are assessed in interviews with appointment commissions or staff managers of ministries of justice. The paper provides details of these proceedings and also gives the author’s personal experience with recruitment proceedings in the Court of Appeal district of Cologne.

  4. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  5. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  6. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  7. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  8. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  9. EMI in Germany - Qualitative Differentiation in a Tracked Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  10. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  11. Duesseldorf :An Attractive City for Investments in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ At the 3rd Chinese Enterprises Outbound Investment Conference,a seminar was sponsored by Duesseldorf municipal government,a city of 600,000 inhabitants in Germany,in hopes of attracting Chinese investments.

  12. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  13. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  14. Isolation of sindbis virus from a hooded crow in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Martin; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Müller, Kerstin; Granzow, Harald; Jöst, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus that causes clinical symptoms, including arthritis, rash, and fever during acute human infections. In Europe, SINV outbreaks are largely restricted to northern Europe. Intrigued by the isolation of SINV from mosquitoes in southwestern Germany in 2009, we initiated a passive arbovirus-monitoring program in birds and analyzed a total of 685 samples. By this approach, we were able to detect a SINV in a Hooded Crow in Germany for the first time. It was possible to isolate SINV virus in cell cultures and even to visualize virus particles by electron microscopy. After the determination of the complete SINV genome sequence, the phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to SINV genotype I sequences previously obtained from mosquitoes in Germany and Scandinavia. This first report on the isolation of viable SINV indicates the potential involvement of crows in an enzootic circulation of SINV in Germany and Central Europe.

  15. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  16. 基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取研究%Research on Chinese Keywords Extraction Based on Characters Sequence Annotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 邓三鸿; 苏新宁

    2011-01-01

    以某大学图书馆的所有馆藏书目为研究对象,在对图书关键词标引信息进行分析的基础上,总结中文关键词的基本特点及其抽取规律,构建一个基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取模型,提出中文关键词抽取的基础思路和实现方案,并通过实验论证模型的合理性、正确性和实用性,认为字序列标注方法优于词序列标注,基本上可以解决不分词情况下的中文关键词抽取问题。%Based on the whole Chinese booklist of a certain university library as well as the analysis of its book indexing information, the paper summarizes the features and extracting laws of Chinese keywords, and establishes a Chinese key- words extraction model based on characters sequence annotation, which proposes the basic idea and implementation scheme for extracting keywords. It verifies the feasibility, rationality and practicality of the model by large - scale experiments, and basically solves the problems of Chinese keywords extraction without executing words segmentation, which shows that characters sequence annotation is better than words sequence annotation.

  17. A keyword extraction method based on BP neural network%一种基于BP神经网络的关键词抽取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓雷; 黄广君; 段建辉

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步提高Web信息抽取的准确性和效率,通过分析传统中文关键词抽取方法,文章提出了一种基于BP神经网络的中文关键词抽取方法。该方法在分析和提取术语特征的基础上,给出了确定网络隐层节点数的表达式和多个术语特征表达式,以此确定网络参数,实现中文关键词的抽取。实验结果表明,该方法查全率、查准率和查找性能较高,具备较好的应用前景。%In order to further enhance the accuracy and efficiency of Web information extraction ,a Chi-nese keyword extraction method based on back propagation(BP) neural network is proposed by analy-zing of the traditional Chinese keyword extraction method .The network hidden layer nodes expres-sions and terminology characteristic expression are given on the basis of analyzing and extracting term characteristic so as to determine the network parameters and achieve the Chinese keyword extraction . The experimental results show that the proposed method possesses high recall ratio ,precision ratio and look-up performance ,and it has a good application prospect .

  18. GenCLiP: a software program for clustering gene lists by literature profiling and constructing gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi-Bo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical researchers often want to explore pathogenesis and pathways regulated by abnormally expressed genes, such as those identified by microarray analyses. Literature mining is an important way to assist in this task. Many literature mining tools are now available. However, few of them allows the user to make manual adjustments to zero in on what he/she wants to know in particular. Results We present our software program, GenCLiP (Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, which is based on the methods presented by Chaussabel and Sher (Genome Biol 2002, 3(10:RESEARCH0055 that search gene lists to identify functional clusters of genes based on up-to-date literature profiling. Four features were added to this previously described method: the ability to 1 manually curate keywords extracted from the literature, 2 search genes and gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords, 3 compare analyzed gene results with negative and positive controls generated by GenCLiP, and 4 calculate probabilities that the resulting genes and gene networks are randomly related. In this paper, we show with a set of differentially expressed genes between keloids and normal control, how implementation of functions in GenCLiP successfully identified keywords related to the pathogenesis of keloids and unknown gene pathways involved in the pathogenesis of keloids. Conclusion With regard to the identification of disease-susceptibility genes, GenCLiP allows one to quickly acquire a primary pathogenesis profile and identify pathways involving abnormally expressed genes not previously associated with the disease.

  19. 水资源学研究的关键词共词聚类分析%Co-word cluster analysis of keywords in water resources science research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富强; 韩宇平; 王朋; 王静

    2014-01-01

    Cluster analysis and multivariate statistics analysis for the co-words are performed taking into account the keywords in core journal papers on water resources issued in China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ( CAJD) during 2003 to 2012. Further, the keyword frequency counted by Bibexcel, co-word network set up by Ucinet and Netdraw, co-word clustering analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis by SPSS, internal relations among high frequency keywords were studied. Additionally, the research focus and research status were analyzed. The results show that in the course of water resources science research four major communities of water resources research are developed: sustainable utilization, social sustainable development, water resources system and water resources management. Furthermore, these four major communities are greatly related with each other.%以中国知网学术期刊网络出版总库中2003-2012年的水资源学科核心期刊论文为基础,采用Bibexcel统计关键词频次,采用Ucinet和Netdraw绘制共词网络,运用SPSS进行共词聚类分析与多维尺度分析,研究高频关键词之间的内在联系,评述水资源学科的研究热点与研究现状。研究结果表明,水资源学科在研究过程中形成了水资源可持续利用、社会可持续、水资源系统和水资源管理四大类群体,并且四者之间具有较强的关联性。

  20. Seasonal variation in nativity and mortality and in socioeconomic conditions in a single family residing at different latitudes: Germany versus South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmer B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Björn Lemmer Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: This is the first report in which seasonal patterns in nativity and mortality were analyzed in a single family, branches of which have resided in the middle of Europe as well as in South Africa for several hundreds of years. The family included a total of 3,645 members. The data convincingly demonstrate the effect of the seasonal amplitude of the photoperiod, as represented by the different latitudes, on the seasonal rhythm in nativity and mortality, discernible from 1500–1950 in Europe at 51° N but not in South Africa at 30° S. Most interestingly, this pattern in Germany was lost in the second half of the 20th century, possibly because of socioeconomic conditions and masking effects from the introduction of new technology to better control environmental conditions, greater use of artificial light, further incorporation of shiftwork schedules in industry, stronger advances in medical treatment of many diseases (including increased availability of intensive care in hospitals, and finally, greater longevity of the population. Keywords: season, latitude, Germany, South Africa, nativity, mortality, weddings, birth of first child

  1. Impression of the NGOs in Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoSumei; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the “Moral Re-armament” Norwegian Foundation and the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation of Germany, the delegation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU), headed by Vice-President, Mr. Zhu Dacheng,paid a visit to Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During the visit, we did some research on the state of NGOs in the two countries.

  2. VDMA: Germany Already European Champion at ITMA ASIA + CITME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Frankfurt/Main, Shanghai, 12th June 2012 - Occupying 6,402 square meters of booked space,Germany already won the European Championship at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012, leaving all other competitors from Europe behind. The German exhibition area increased by 18 % compared with the 2010 edition of the show. Measured by square meters, Germany is the biggest foreign exhibiting nation at the major fair for the Asian market,

  3. The Economic Performance of Germany's East European Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Germany has experienced a substantial influx of German immigrants from Eastern Europe after World War II and expects several million more as a consequence of the demise of socialism. This paper analyses the economic performance of ethnic German migrants to West Germany in comparison with native born West Germans. Ethnic German immigrants from Eastern Europe display lower levels of education, lower rates of self-employment and higher unemployment rates than natives and immigrants from East Ger...

  4. Social Deprivation and Exclusion of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on social exclusion of immigrants in Germany. We demonstrate that when using a conventional definition of the social inclusion index typically applied in the literature, immigrants appear to experience a significant degree of social deprivation and exclusion, confirming much of the economic literature examining the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany. We propose a weighting scheme that weights components of social inclusion by their s...

  5. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  6. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  7. Study on the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ruqiong; LI Bing; ZHENG Lina

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure for spatial information is an important part of our national information construction that is the subject of essentials on the social of spatial information. As an EU member, Germany has an obligation for the European spatial information infrastructure to provide its spatial data. The relevant experience of the Germany in the organization, design and implementation of spatial information infrastructure wil be a good reference to build our geospatial framework construction.

  8. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  9. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  10. DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES IN GERMANY - STATUS AT BMBF SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, R.; Komorowski, K.

    2002-02-25

    In a period of approximately 40 years prior to 1994, the German Federal Government had spent about {approx} 15 billion to promote nuclear technology. These funds were earmarked for R&D projects as well as demonstration facilities which took up operation between 1960 and 1980. These BMBF (Federal Ministry for Research) facilities were mainly located at the sites of the federal research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe (the research reactors AVR, FR2, FRJ-1, KNK, and MZFR, the pilot reprocessing plant WAK) but included also the pilot plants SNR-300 and THTR-300 for fast breeder and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor development, respectively, and finally the salt mine Asse which had been used for waste emplacement prior to conversion into an underground research laboratory. In the meantime, almost all of these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling. This is mainly due to the facts that R&D needs are satisfied or do not exist any more and that, secondly, the lack of political consensus led to the cancellation of advanced nuclear technology.

  11. [Model calculation to explain the BSE-incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Radulf C

    2004-01-01

    The future development of BSE-incidence in Germany is investigated using a simple epidemiological model calculation. Starting point is the development of the incidence of confirmed suspect BSE-cases in Great Britain since 1988, the hitherto known mechanisms of transmission and the measures taken to decrease the risk of transmission as well as the development of the BSE-incidence in Germany obtained from active post mortem laboratory testing of all cattle older then 24 months. The risk of transmission is characterized by the reproduction ratio of the disease. There is a shift in time between the risk of BSE transmission and the BSE incidence caused by the incubation time of more than 4 years. The observed decrease of the incidence in Germany from 2001 to 2003 is not a consequence of the measures taken at the end of 2000 to contain the disease. It can rather be explained by an import of BSE contaminated products from countries with a high BSE incidence in the years 1995/96 being used in calf feeding in Germany. From the future course of the BSE-incidence in Germany after 2003 a quantification of the recycling rate of BSE-infected material within Germany before the end of 2000 will be possible by use of the proposed model if the active surveillance is continued.

  12. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany’s European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Knodt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  13. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  14. 基于关键词的深度万维网数据库选择%Keyword-Based Deep Web Database Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范举; 周立柱

    2011-01-01

    该文提出一种基于关键词的深度万维网查询方法:用户用关键词的方式提交查询,该方法在线地选择能够反映查询意图并且提供高质量结果的万维网数据库.这种方法既避免了深度万维网数据抓取这一代价高、难度大的操作,又可支持多领域的数据库上的关键词查询,从而能够与现有的搜索引擎实现无缝集成.文中侧重于讨论基于关键词的数据库选择,从以下两个方面解决这一问题所涉及的挑战:(1)提出了一种度量关键词—领域属性关联的相关性模型,并设计了基于随机游动的算法从查询日志中发现潜在的关键词—属性关联;(2)给出了一种新的数据采样方法,并用于基于采样的数据库—查询的相关性模型中,最终解决深度万维网的数据库选择问题.在中文深度万维网真实数据集上的实验表明:提出的方法能够有效地选择与关键词查询相关的数据库,提供高质量的结果.%This paper proposes a keyword-based Deep Web search method: Given keyword queries provided by users, the proposed method on-the-fly selects the databases capturing the query intent and providing high-quality data. The method, which is much more efficient than Deep Web crawling, can support keyword search over multiple-domain Deep Web databases, and thus can be smoothly integrated with the existing search engine architecture. In this paper, we focus on keyword-based Deep Web database selection, and study the research challenges that naturally arise in the proposed method. (1) We introduce an effective model to measure the relevance of database-domain attributes with respect to keyword queries, and propose a random-walk algorithm to compute the relevance from database query logs. (2) We develop a novel database sampling method for measuring the relevance of databases with respect to queries, in order to select relevant databases in the selected domains. We have implemented our methods

  15. research article Abstract Keywords Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enhance diversity within the Listen, Live and Learn senior student housing initiative at ... a multifaceted and highly complex array of factors that can significantly influence society in terms of cohesion, .... gay marriage?) To observe how the.

  16. Communication : the Digital World Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In recent years we have become increasingly submerged by information. As Information Professionals we are called to help our users to cope with this wealth of content: it is not only a matter of quantity, it is a question of quality (improvement or obsolescence), and of rapid change of tools of selection and so on. We are discovering that technological improvements cannot be efficiently incorporated in the day by day professional activity without an appropriate context and a purpose built ...

  17. GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Environmental Technology Atlas for Germany; GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Umwelttechnologie-Atlas fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Ralph; Henzelmann, Torsten; Wiedemann, Andrea [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The environmental engineering and resource efficiency has been developed into a driver of growth globally as well as in Germany. Companies operate in a highly dynamic environment being characterized by a technical progress and changes in the political and social conditions. Innovative products, processes and services which focus on environmental sustainability and efficiency are sought after on the international markets as never before.

  18. 一种语义增强的空间关键词搜索方法%Semantic-Enhanced Spatial Keyword Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军; 范举; 周立柱

    2015-01-01

    Spatial keyword search finds the points‐of‐interest (POIs) which are not only relevant to users’ query intent ,but also close to query location .Spatial keyword search has many important applications ,such as map search .Previous methods for spatial keyword search have the limitation that they only consider textual relevance of POIs to query keywords ,and neglect the semantics of queries .So these methods may not be able to return relevant results or return many irrelevant results . To address this problem ,this paper introduces a semantic‐enhanced spatial keyword search method , named S3 (semantic‐enhanced spatial keyw ord search) .Given a query ,S3 analyzes the semantics of the query keywords to measure semantic distances of POIs to the query .Then ,it utilizes a novel POI ranking mechanism by combining both semantic and spatial distance for effective POI search .S3 has the following challenges .Firstly ,S3 introduces knowledge bases to help capture query semantics and introduces a ranking scoring function that considers both semantic distance and spatial distance . Secondly ,it calls for instant search on large‐scale POI data sets .To address this challenge ,we devise a novel index structure GRT ree , and develop some effective pruning techniques based on this structure .The extensive experiments on a real dataset show that S3 not only produces high‐quality results ,but also has good efficiency and scalability .%空间关键词搜索立足于查找满足用户查询意图且空间距离相近的兴趣点(point of interest , POI),在地图搜索等领域有着广泛的应用.传统的空间关键词搜索方法仅考虑关键词与POI点在文本上的匹配程度,忽略了查询的语义信息,因而会导致相关结果丢失以及无关结果引入等问题.针对传统方法的局限,提出了语义增强的空间关键词搜索方法S3(semantic‐enhanced spatial keyword search).该方法对查询关键词中包含的

  19. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  20. Status and perspectives of the dismantling of nuclear power plants in Germany (Dismantling monitoring 2015); Stand und Perspektiven des Rueckbaus von Kernkraftwerken in Deutschland (''Rueckbau-Monitoring 2015'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wealer, Ben; Seidel, Jan Paul [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Gerbaulet, Clemens; Hirschhausen, Christian von [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The dismantling monitoring 2015 covers the nuclear power plants HDR Grosswelzheim, Niederaichbach (KKN), MZFR Karlsruhe, Lingen (KWL), Gundremmingen unit A (KRB-A), VAK Kahl, Muehlheim-Kaerlich (KMK), THTR-300 Hamm-Uentrop, AVR Juelich, Greifswald (KGR 1-5), KNK II Karlsruhe, Rheinsberg (KKR), Wuergassen (KWW), Stade (KKS), Obrigheim (KWO), SNR 300. The post-operational phase activities of other shut-down nuclear power plants and the active companies are summarized.

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  2. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  3. 基于关键词的深度万维网数据库查询%Keyword-based Deep Web Database Query

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁传羽; 陈军华; 夏海峰

    2013-01-01

    深度万维网蕴藏着海量的信息,现有的搜索引擎很难搜索到其中的内容.如何充分地获取深度万维网中的有价值的信息成为一个难题.论文提出了基于关键词的深度万维网的数据库的查询方法,该方法采用朴素贝叶斯算法对关键词进行分类,并采用日志挖掘对采样的数据库进行统计,最终生成查询的SQL,语句.该方法不仅解决了深度万维网多领域的数据库查询,而且能够与现有的搜索引擎进行整合,帮助用户快速有效的查询.%Deep Web contain vast amounts of information, existing search engines are difficult to search the contents. How to make the access to valuable information in Deep Web becomes a problem. This paper proposes a keyword-based Deep Web database query method, the method using the Naive Bayes algorithm to classify the keywords and log mining statistics of the sample database, eventually generate the SQL statement for the query. This method not only solves Deep Web in various fields of the database query, but also can be integrated with the existing search engine to help users to query quickly and efficiently.

  4. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. This development especially experienced an enormous upswing in the last two years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, FRG).

  5. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach, Karl W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  6. The use of IMRT in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Ambulanzzentrum des UKE GmbH, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Bereich Strahlentherapie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [German] Intensitaetsmodulierte Bestrahlungstechniken (IMRT) werden oft eingesetzt. Es gibt jedoch keine Daten ueber deren Haeufigkeit in Abhaengigkeit von den Tumorentitaeten und welche Geraete fuer die Qualitaetssicherung (QA) zum Einsatz kommen. Der Arbeitskreis IMRT (AK IMRT) der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) hat von April bis Oktober 2014 eine Online-Umfrage zu diesem Themenbereich

  7. Are there signs of acidification reversal in freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alewell

    2001-01-01

    implications for water authorities, forest managers and policy makers: the delay in acidification reversal suggests a need for ongoing intensive amelioration of waters, a careful selection of management tools to guarantee sustainable management of forests and the reduction of nitrogen deposition to prevent further acidification of soils and waters. Keywords: freshwater, acidification reversal, drinking water supply, forested catchments, Germany

  8. Seasonal, synoptic and diurnal variation of atmospheric water-isotopologues in the boundary layer of Southwestern Germany caused by plant transpiration, cold-front passages and dewfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; Kohler, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Gonzales, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric water is an enormously crucial trace gas. It is responsible for ~70 % of the natural greenhouse effect (Schmidt et al., JGR, 2010) and carries huge amounts of latent heat. The isotopic composition of water vapor is an elegant tracer for a better understanding and quantification of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere (evaporation, cloud condensation, rainout, re-evaporation, snow), which in turn is a prerequisite to improve climate modeling and predictions. As H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure and mass, isotope fractionation occurs due to condensation, evaporation and diffusion processes. In contrast to that, plants are able to transpire water with almost no isotope fractionation. For that reason the ratio of isotopologue concentrations in the boundary layer (BL) provides, compared to humidity measurements alone, independent and additional constraints for quantifying the strength of evaporation and transpiration. Furthermore the isotope ratios contain information about transport history of an air mass and microphysical processes, that is not accessible by humidity measurements. Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) a commercial Picarro Analyzer L2120-i is operated at Karlsruhe in Southwestern Germany, which is continuously measuring the isotopologues H216O, HDO and H218O of atmospheric water vapor since January 2012. A one year record of H216O, HDO and H218O shows clear seasonal, synoptic and diurnal characteristics and reveals the main driving processes affecting the isotopic composition of water vapor in the Middle European BL. Changes in continental plant transpiration and evaporation throughout the year lead to a slow seasonal HDO/H216O-variation, that cannot be explained by pure Rayleigh condensation. Furthermore, cold-front passages from NW lead to fast and pronounced depletion of the HDO/H216O-ratio within

  9. China Folk Shadow Play Performing Group in Austria and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Sent by the CPAFFC,the Daoqing Shadow Play Performing Group(alias Shi Family Troupe) of Huanxian County,Gansu Province made a performance tour in Austria and Germany from October 22 to November 5,2007,during which it attended the International Puppet Theatre Festival in Mistelbach of Austria and gave performance at the opening ceremony of the International Puppet Art Festival in Bad Kreuznach of Germany.The performance tour was made at the invitation of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China(AAPFCRC).

  10. Are There Austerity Related Policy Changes in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Hassel, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the existence and the extent of austerity‐oriented policies in Germany in the aftermath of the 2008‐9 recession. In contrast to the intensive phase of labour market and welfare state reforms in the early 2000s aimed at 'welfare readjustment', we do not see austerity policies in Germany, rather a continuation of the path that was adopted earlier. This can be explained by the economic conditions which were, and still are, much more favourable than in many other EU Member Sta...

  11. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  12. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  13. [Malaria importation into Germany in 1989/90].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, K D; Dieckmann, S; Schöneberg, I

    1993-11-01

    Malaria was in 1989/90 the most important imported disease in Germany. Most of all cases were imported by German tourists (about 75%). Africa was the most prominently represented geographic region (about 75%). Kenia and Ghana represented there the biggest share. About 33% of all patients had not done a sufficient prophylaxis against malaria. An adequate prophylaxis against malaria taking into consideration the recommendations for medicaments for different geographical areas is imperative before the number of importations of malaria into Germany can be reduced.

  14. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  15. 利用概念格发现领域关键词间的语义关系%Finding semantic relationship among domain keywords based on concept lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志安; 叶飞跃

    2009-01-01

    提出一种利用概念格发现领域关键词间的语义关系的方法,定义了关键词间两种语义关系:相似关系和蕴含关系;关键词根据其出现频率高低分为高频关键词、中频关键词,低频关键词,进而形成关键词的语义空间.为发现高层次主题间语义关系提供了条件,也为形成语义网络奠定了一定的基础.在上海某服装搜索引擎项目中取得了很好的效果,可以直接应用于搜索引擎中的相关搜索和关键词扩展.%A method to find the semantic relationship among domain keywords based on concept lattice is proposed, and two semantic relationships: Similar relationship and imply relationship are defined. According to the frequency of the keyword occurring in the text, keywords are classified as high-frequency keywords, middle-frequency keywords, and low-frequency keywords. It forms the semantic space of keywords, providing the condition to find the semantic relationships in the topic level and form the semantic network. Good result is obtained in the search engine about clothes in Shanghai, and can be directly applied to related search and keyword extending.

  16. Restructuring power supply in Germany; Umstrukturierung der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  17. Modeling the hydrological effect on local gravity at Moxa, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, S.; Troch, P.A.A.; Boll, J.; Kroner, C.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting gravimeter has observed with high accuracy (to within a few nm s¿2) and high frequency (1 Hz) the temporal variations in the earth¿s gravity field near Moxa, Germany, since 1999. Hourly gravity residuals are obtained by time averaging and correcting for earth tides, polar motion,

  18. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  20. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  1. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  2. Responses of England, Germany and Switzerland to Declining School Enrolments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Catherine

    Results of interviews with educators in England, Germany, and Switzerland are combined with statistical data in this study of the effects of declining enrollment and the development of multicultural programs in those countries. In all three countries, the author encountered a prevailing resistance to program change in the face of declining…

  3. Germany, the United States, and Future Core Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schulz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, much attention has been paid to the nature of the emerging new world order. By what criteria will power and influence be measured in this new era? Who will be the winners and losers? What types of allegiances will develop? Or is Francis Fukuyama's argument correct that, with the collapse of communism, we have reached the "...endpoint of man's ideological evolution" and thus "the end of history". Unlike Marx, who saw socialism at the end of humanity's arduous journey, Fukuyama tells us that the search is off because we have already arrived at our evolutionary destination: liberal capitalism...Other analysts envision less optimistic scenarios...One of the most popular scenarios over the past few years has been to anticipate growing tensions between the three main core powers: the US, Germany, and Japan... The first task of this paper, then, is to look at Germany within the context of the radically altered post-Cold War period... We argue that Germany, based on a multitude of factors which will be outlined below, is not now, nor will it ever become in the foreseeable future, a global hegemon... Indeed, as will be asserted in the second part of this paper, Germany will enter into a close alliance with the United States to form a reinvigorated trans-Atlantic marriage in which the common bonds of "culture and civilization" will replace a virulent anti-communism as the common vow.

  4. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  5. A Matter of Comparative Music Education? Community Music in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    In German music education, the term "community music" is almost unknown. There could be various reasons for this fact such as a lack of community music activities in Germany, terminological problems concerning the German translation, or an appropriate explanation of the term "community music." This paper will discuss some of…

  6. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  7. [Living kidney transplantation. A comparison of Scandinavian countries and Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lück, R; Schrem, H; Neipp, M; Nashan, B; Klempnauer, J

    2003-06-01

    The discussion of compensating for shortages of cadaveric donation with increased living donation often reveals differences between the Scandinavian countries and Germany. Possible adoption of Scandinavian structures to improve the rate of living donations in Germany warrants analysis of the actual differences between these two regions. Close examination reveals that significantly higher rates of living donation are achieved only in Sweden and Norway. In Norway, a frequently postulated negative effect on cadaveric donation due to very high rates of living donation could not be confirmed. In contrast to Germany and as a consequence of Norwegian geography, kidney transplantation has been regarded in Norway as the first-line therapy for endstage renal disease for more than 35 years. Living donation has since been actively pursued and is traditionally the transplantation of first choice. In Germany, living donation is still regarded as the second choice after cadaveric donation, due to legal regulations. Significant improvements in living donation frequencies could be achieved there by adopting the active Norwegian approach to living donor identification.

  8. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. Using administrative data, the paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and v...

  9. Teacher Union Blitz in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Expansion of the powerful former West German teacher union (the Trade Union for Educators and Scholars) into the former East Germany is chronicled, and potential problems of the recruitment effort are examined. Declining teacher morale and unfulfilled promises of opportunity and freedom of speech are seen as serious threats to positive change.…

  10. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  11. Multiple Synchronous Outbreaks of Puumala Virus, Germany, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Jakob; Hofmann, Jorg; Enders, Martin; Tewald, Friedemann; Oehme, Rainer M.; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Schlegel, Mathias; Essbauer, Sandra; Osterberg, Anja; Jacob, Jens; Reil, Daniela; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate 2,017 cases of hantavirus disease in Germany, we compared 38 new patient-derived Puumala virus RNA sequences identified in 2010 with bank vole–derived small segment RNA sequences. The epidemic process was driven by outbreaks of 6 Puumala virus clades comprising strains of human and vole origin. Each clade corresponded to a different outbreak region. PMID:22932394

  12. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  13. Green roofs in Germany : yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, R. [Anhalt Univ., Bernburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation provided a historical overview of the development of green roofs in Germany. Real interest in green roof technology in Germany began in the 1970s at which time specific guidelines for correct installation were established. In the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of green roofs. The main market drivers were ecological concerns, energy and cost saving potential, as well as the need to manage storm water. Green roofs have an insulating effect, leading to energy savings. Some cities in Germany have implemented an incentive program whereby reductions on city water fees are allocated to owners of green roofs. Many business opportunities have been created by an increased interest in green roofs. The demand for lava, pumice, expanded clay, recycled roof tiles, crushed brick and other materials is being met by a new industry. There has been a noted increase in green roof systems and components, as well as installation and maintenance companies. It is expected that the ever increasing price for land in German cities along with an increasing population density will spur an even greater demand for green roofs. Germany is considered one of the greenest countries in the world, due to public concern for all forms of pollution, the maintenance of ecological balance, the preservation of flora and fauna, and a respect for nature. 6 refs.

  14. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  15. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  16. The neuropathology of morality: Germany 1930–1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes brain scientists' attempts to trace morality in the brain in Germany from 1930 to 1960. The debate around Karl Kleist's localization of the Gemeinschafts-Ich [community-I] in the 1930s is depicted in order to illustrate the central arguments for and against localizations of

  17. The Acceptance of the Social Market Economy in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…

  18. Lifelong Learning: Further Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Michael; Jones, Brangwyn

    1986-01-01

    Describes the situation of further education in the Federal Republic of Germany, examining its interrelation with (1) recent history, (2) the new technology, (3) legislation, (4) educational philosophy and public policy of supporting institutions, (5) labor, (6) changing social structures, and (7) international relations. (Author/CH)

  19. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  20. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  1. Children's School Placement in Germany: Does Kindergarten Attendance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Buchel, Felix; Wagner, Gert G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between kindergarten attendance and seventh-grade school placement of children in West Germany, differentiating associations for children of citizens from those of immigrants' children. Found a significant relationship between kindergarten attendance and later school placement for children in immigrant households but not…

  2. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  3. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  4. Modeling the hydrological effect on local gravity at Moxa, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, S.; Troch, P.A.A.; Boll, J.; Kroner, C.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting gravimeter has observed with high accuracy (to within a few nm s¿2) and high frequency (1 Hz) the temporal variations in the earth¿s gravity field near Moxa, Germany, since 1999. Hourly gravity residuals are obtained by time averaging and correcting for earth tides, polar motion, b

  5. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany. Design/methodology/appro

  6. Environmental Education in Germany: Concepts, History, Projects, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the history of environmental education in Germany and reports on the diversions and solutions in the search for sustainable education. Five sections include: (1) "Environmental Education: Learning with All One's Senses"; (2) "Sustainability as the New Model: Knowledge of a New Quality"; (3) "Tomorrow's Education in…

  7. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  8. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  9. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  10. Germany in Europe, 1945-92: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, David Clay

    1993-01-01

    Presents a historical review of German relations with European nations from the end of World War II until 1992. Claims that Chancellor Willy Brandt's efforts to improve East-West relations set the stage for German reunification. Contends that Germany's role in a united Europe has yet to be determined. (CFR)

  11. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  12. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  13. CIFCA Delegation Visits Germany,Romania and Macedonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Bo

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of INTERKULTUR,Association of Communes of Romania(ACOR)and Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe(NALAS),a China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA)delegation led by CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan visited Germany,

  14. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  15. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    , I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible...

  16. Coordination of EU Policy Positions in Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Jopp, Mathias; Nedergaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the coordination mechanisms, in Germany and Denmark, which develop negotiation positions for the Council in the European Union (EU). The analysis studies these mechanisms through the lens of the ‘politics of institutional choice’ approach, which previous scholars have applie...

  17. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  18. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  19. Participant report for Fraunhofer IPT (Germany) Hole Plate No. 136

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    International pour l’Etude Scientifique des Techniques de Production Mécanique (CIRP). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole...

  20. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases