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Sample records for karl friedrich gauss

  1. Carl Friedrich Gauss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathryn; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777, in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick). He was the only child of Gebhard Dietrich Gauss and Dorothea Benze. Neither of Gauss's parents had much education, his father could read and write, but earned his living doing menial jobs such as…

  2. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology.

  3. Human and animal health on three continents--a biography of the early life of Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Karl Friedrich Meyer (KF) was born and educated as a veterinarian in Europe; he researched infectious diseases in Europe, South Africa and the United States. He is one of the true forefathers of the 'one health-one medicine' concept. The broad scope of his research covered botulism, leptospirosis, brucellosis, plague, ornithosis, Western equine encephalitis, mussel poisoning and clostridia. This manuscript adds some more details of his early biography.

  4. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  5. Karl Marx' glemte arvtager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    1988-01-01

    For 50 år siden hyldede avisen 'Social-Demokraten' Karl Kautsky (1854-1938) som "den største Tænker inden for den socialdemokratiske Arbejderbevægelse". I perioden fra Friedrich Engels' død i 1895 til 1. Verdenskrigs udbrud i 1914 blev Karl Kautsky alment anset som Karl Marx's arvtager inden for ...

  6. 试论马克思和恩格斯的实践正义观及其理论构建%Theoretical Construction of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' Practical Justice Viewpoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩斌

    2009-01-01

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in fact became the fundamental viewpoints about equity and justice on the process of criticizing capitalist social irregularity; Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels'practical justice viewpoints are very practical, which are the practical justice viewpoints. Around the corpus, social and historic, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels completed the theoretical construction of practical justice viewpoints about the individual freedom, social equality,and historical progresses.%马克思和恩格斯在批判资本主义社会制度弊端的基础上,形成了对于平等、公平及正义的基本观点;马克思和恩格斯的正义观具有很强的实践性,是一种实践正义观.围绕着实践的主体性、社会性以及历史性,马克思和恩格斯完成了基于个体自由、社会平等以及历史进步的实践正义观的理论构建.

  7. Due lettere di Friedrich Hölderlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Hölderlin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here's the first italian translation of two letters by Friedrich Hölderlin, written between November 1798 and January 1799 and adressed respectively to Christian Ludwig Neuffer (the first one and to Hölderlin's youngest brother Karl (the second one. Aim of these two letters is to clarify and to take a deeper look into the notion of lebendiges, the “living element”, which is at the heart of Hölderlins' poetics. Translated by Mariagrazia Portera.

  8. An inequality of Gauss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, G.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerard Hooghiemstra and Piet van Mieghem explain why the Gauss inequality is overshadowed by the Chebychev inequality. Furthermore, they present a proof of the Gauss inequality in modern notation.

  9. An inequality of Gauss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, G.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerard Hooghiemstra and Piet van Mieghem explain why the Gauss inequality is overshadowed by the Chebychev inequality. Furthermore, they present a proof of the Gauss inequality in modern notation.

  10. [Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images. Eesti kunstimuuseum, Kadrioru kunstimuuseum. Tallinn 2013

  11. [Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images. Eesti kunstimuuseum, Kadrioru kunstimuuseum. Tallinn 2013

  12. Gauss: The Last Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present one of the shortest examples of a statement with a visionary impact: we discuss an expectation by Gauss. His idea preludes developments only started more than a century later. Several proofs were given for the prediction by Gauss. We show where this statements fits into modern mathematics

  13. Friedrich Ernst Krukenberg生平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严庆汉

    2009-01-01

    @@ 德国医学家Friedrich Ernst Krukenberg(FE克鲁根博格)1871年4月1 13出生.虽然他的父亲是一个律师,但是他是出生于一个医学世家.他的曾祖父Johann Christian Reil是一位神经病理学家,脑中的瑞尔(Reil)岛叶就是以他的名字命名的.

  14. Karl Ristikivi prantsuse keeles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    29. ja 30. mail Tallinna Kirjanike Majas ja 31. mail Tartu Kirjanduse Majas esinevad näitlejad Ene Rämmeld ja Claude Merlin Karl Ristikivi luulekavaga "Inimese teekond" (tõlkija Tarah Montbélialtz). Vt. ka Looming, 2003, nr. 6, lk. 953

  15. Kalevipojad tulevad / Karl Kello

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kello, Karl, 1950-

    2004-01-01

    Kuressaare Kuursaalis näidatakse kadripäeval nelja Ruta Celma ja Karl Kello kultuuriloolist dokumentaalfilmi : "Narr Jumala kojas" (2000), "Phaetonit otsides" (1999), "Eestlased Lätis" (2004) ja Kalevipoja temaatikat arendav "Küll siis Kalev..." (2004). Filmide operaator on Arvo Vilu. Artikli autor kõneleb ka nende filmide seostest Saaremaaga

  16. Karl Ristikivi prantsuse keeles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    29. ja 30. mail Tallinna Kirjanike Majas ja 31. mail Tartu Kirjanduse Majas esinevad näitlejad Ene Rämmeld ja Claude Merlin Karl Ristikivi luulekavaga "Inimese teekond" (tõlkija Tarah Montbélialtz). Vt. ka Looming, 2003, nr. 6, lk. 953

  17. Karl Lagerfeld obidelsja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Moekunstnik Karl Lagerfeld kaebas kohtusse raamatu "The Beautiful Fall : Fashion, Genius and Glorious Excess in 1970s Paris" autori Alicia Drake'i. Raamat räägib Lagerfeldi noorusajast ja tema konkurentsist moekunstnik Yves Saint Laurent'iga 1970. aastate Pariisis

  18. Carl eller Karl?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    I den danske fornavnemode findes en række navne i flere forskellige stavemåder som ikke har indflydelse på navnenes udtale. Navnene udtales ens hvad enten de staves Carl eller Karl og Camilla eller Kamilla. Med udgangspunkt i de 50 mest populære pige- og drengenavne hvert år siden 1985 har jeg set...

  19. Karl Lagerfeld obidelsja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Moekunstnik Karl Lagerfeld kaebas kohtusse raamatu "The Beautiful Fall : Fashion, Genius and Glorious Excess in 1970s Paris" autori Alicia Drake'i. Raamat räägib Lagerfeldi noorusajast ja tema konkurentsist moekunstnik Yves Saint Laurent'iga 1970. aastate Pariisis

  20. Mu süda on mägedes : [luuletused] / Robert Burns ; tlk. Ralf Parve, Ants Oras, Urmas Tõnisson, Kullo Vende, Mart Mäger, Georg Eduard Luiga, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald, Karl August Hermann, Johannes Vau, Lydia Koidula, Ado Grenzstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burns, Robert, 1759-1796

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Mu süda on mägedes ; Hing mägises Shotis ; Mu isa oli farmer ; Künnipoiss ; Noor neiu vanal mehel ; Vana Rob Morris ; Meg veskilt ; Veski-Meg ; Willie pruulis õlut ; John Odratera ; Hägisele ; Shotlased, nüüd seiske kindlad! ; Invernessi neid ; Kuradi tants aktsiisiametnikuga ; Macphersoni hüvastijätt / tlk. Ralf Parve ; Macphersoni hüvastijätt / / tlk. Ants Oras ; Nii ja naa ; Hiirele ; Eleegia Peg Nicholsoni surma puhul ; Vaga Willie palve ; Epitaaf vagale Willièle ; Värsid poeet Fergussoni portree alla ; Lõikuskuu laul ; On kaldal kõrkjad reas ; Mu arm on nagu ruske roos ; Mu arm... ; Oo, mu arm on verev, verev roos ; Esimene suudlus lahkudes ; Mõte karmist saatusest ; Oh näeksin tühja nõmme peal ; Kui näeksin ; "Kui üksi olles näeksid, neid..." ; Käies pikas rohus ; Värsiread ; Mind naine tihti taob ; Rõõmus lesk ; Willie Wastleì naine ; Mul on naine ; John Anderson / tlk. Urmas Tõnisson ; Jaan Anderson / tlk. Karl August Hermann ; Sügiselaul ; Kündja ja lill ; Kodu ; Ometi ; Kõige kiuste ; Kui õis, mis õitseb heinamaal ; Põlev armastus ; Hans ja Krõõt : [luuletused]. Epigramme: Raamatukoi ; Impromptu ; Puudus. Ammustele aegadele : [luuletus]. Autori kohta eluloolisi andmeid lk. 179

  1. Mu süda on mägedes : [luuletused] / Robert Burns ; tlk. Ralf Parve, Ants Oras, Urmas Tõnisson, Kullo Vende, Mart Mäger, Georg Eduard Luiga, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald, Karl August Hermann, Johannes Vau, Lydia Koidula, Ado Grenzstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burns, Robert, 1759-1796

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Mu süda on mägedes ; Hing mägises Shotis ; Mu isa oli farmer ; Künnipoiss ; Noor neiu vanal mehel ; Vana Rob Morris ; Meg veskilt ; Veski-Meg ; Willie pruulis õlut ; John Odratera ; Hägisele ; Shotlased, nüüd seiske kindlad! ; Invernessi neid ; Kuradi tants aktsiisiametnikuga ; Macphersoni hüvastijätt / tlk. Ralf Parve ; Macphersoni hüvastijätt / / tlk. Ants Oras ; Nii ja naa ; Hiirele ; Eleegia Peg Nicholsoni surma puhul ; Vaga Willie palve ; Epitaaf vagale Willièle ; Värsid poeet Fergussoni portree alla ; Lõikuskuu laul ; On kaldal kõrkjad reas ; Mu arm on nagu ruske roos ; Mu arm... ; Oo, mu arm on verev, verev roos ; Esimene suudlus lahkudes ; Mõte karmist saatusest ; Oh näeksin tühja nõmme peal ; Kui näeksin ; "Kui üksi olles näeksid, neid..." ; Käies pikas rohus ; Värsiread ; Mind naine tihti taob ; Rõõmus lesk ; Willie Wastleì naine ; Mul on naine ; John Anderson / tlk. Urmas Tõnisson ; Jaan Anderson / tlk. Karl August Hermann ; Sügiselaul ; Kündja ja lill ; Kodu ; Ometi ; Kõige kiuste ; Kui õis, mis õitseb heinamaal ; Põlev armastus ; Hans ja Krõõt : [luuletused]. Epigramme: Raamatukoi ; Impromptu ; Puudus. Ammustele aegadele : [luuletus]. Autori kohta eluloolisi andmeid lk. 179

  2. Gauss y el polígono regular de 17 lados

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    El 18 de febrero de 1792, antes de cumplir los 15 años el joven Carl Friedrich Gauss hace su inscripción en el Collegium Carolinum de Brunswick. En este colegio da clases de matemáticas y ciencias naturales E. A. W. Von Zimmermann (1743-1815) su valedor ante el duque de Brunswick. Gauss permanecerá en él hasta 1795, estudiando lenguas clásicas, literatura, filosofía y, por supuesto, matemáticas superiores, siendo un alumno brillante en todas ellas. Entre sus lecturas de matemáticas de esta ép...

  3. Gauss y el polígono regular de 17 lados

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    El 18 de febrero de 1792, antes de cumplir los 15 años el joven Carl Friedrich Gauss hace su inscripción en el Collegium Carolinum de Brunswick. En este colegio da clases de matemáticas y ciencias naturales E. A. W. Von Zimmermann (1743-1815) su valedor ante el duque de Brunswick. Gauss permanecerá en él hasta 1795, estudiando lenguas clásicas, literatura, filosofía y, por supuesto, matemáticas superiores, siendo un alumno brillante en todas ellas. Entre sus lecturas de matemáticas de esta ép...

  4. Stochastic Gauss equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    We derived the equations of Celestial Mechanics governing the variation of the orbital elements under a stochastic perturbation, thereby generalizing the classical Gauss equations. Explicit formulas are given for the semimajor axis, the eccentricity, the inclination, the longitude of the ascending node, the pericenter angle, and the mean anomaly, which are expressed in term of the angular momentum vector H per unit of mass and the energy E per unit of mass. Together, these formulas are called the stochastic Gauss equations, and they are illustrated numerically on an example from satellite dynamics.

  5. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  6. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computin

  7. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computing perspective. An implementation scheme for normal covolution and f

  8. Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot / Tõivo Sarmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarmet, Tõivo

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli rektorit Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot loetakse Venemaa alpinismiajaloo alusepanijaks ja tema tähelepanuväärseimaks mägironimisalaseks teoks oli tõus Suur-Araratile 1829. aastal

  9. Educational Theory as Topological Rhetoric: The Concepts of Pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenklies, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The debate concerning the relation of the theory of education and the practice of education is not new. In Germany, these discussions are an integral part of the development of educational science in the eighteenth century which is closely connected to Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher. Their concepts illustrate different…

  10. GAUSS Project Trials Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fazio, Antonella; Vernucci, Antonio; Rossini, Eugenio

    2003-07-01

    GAUSS is a Research and Technological Development project co-funded by European Commission, within the frame of the IST (Information Society Technologies) V Programme. It is a two-year project, starting from December 2000, and successfully completed.The GAUSS Team involves a Consortium of nine European companies, including ARNI (Azienda Regionale per la Navigazione Interna, I), ASCOM (CH), ERICSSON Telecomunicazioni (I), GMV (E), TELEFONICA (E), THALES Navigation (F), TTI Norte (E), Space Engineering (I) and TELESPAZIO (I) as project co-ordinator.GAUSS objective was to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a system providing Location-based services, from the integration of Satellite Navigation and Communications, within the contexts of GALILEO and the UMTS technology. The GAUSS proposed solution supports highly reliable, near real-time two-way communication between Mobile Users and Service Centre/Provider. The services considered for GAUSS are based on exchange at low data rate transmission of small data packets carrying very accurate positioning & timing information, as typically required by Info-Mobility and Inter-Modality oriented applications. These services are characterised by bursty and unbalanced traffic, generated by a large number of Mobile Users towards a relatively small number of Service Providers, and viceversa from the Service Providers towards widely geographically sparse Mobile Users (i.e. greater amount of traffic in the return link with respect to the forward link). The GAUSS system supports both asynchronous and synchronous communication, based on: ß broad-casting (i.e. data distribution from a Service Provider to Mobile Users)ß broad-catching (i.e. data collection from MUs to a SP)ß point-to-point schemes.Resource access is based on CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), according to the UMTS standard. A Demonstrator was built up by combining existing facilities with innovative hardware and software components, ad-hoc developed by some of

  11. Karl Jaspers' multiperspectivalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Osborne P; Schwartz, Michael Alan

    2013-01-01

    In later editions of his General Psychopathology, Karl Jaspers prescribes many different methods and theoretical points of view for psychopathologists to utilize. Each of these perspectives on the subject matter of psychopathology, however, gives the investigator access to only one dimension of the patient's being. Hence, Jaspers insists that several different perspectives must be employed in order to avoid a one-sided and partial comprehension of the patient and his or her problem. He advocates a multiperspectival approach in psychopathology. Nevertheless, Jaspers remains aware that the patient is a unified whole. This unified whole, however, is not knowable as such, but can rather be approached only under the guidance of an 'idea' of the whole. Jaspers takes the basic notion of 'idea' (Idee) from Kant, but he modifies and uses it for his own purposes. Jaspers' multiperspectivalism may seem to invite charges of relativism because it leaves the psychopathologist to 'pick and choose' any method or theory he or she prefers. This charge is addressed by admitting that there does exist a certain relativism in Jaspers' position in that any one perspective does provide only one approach to the reality of the patient and that other equally useful perspectives could have been chosen. However, each perspective itself can be subjected to test by evidence, and in such tests, claims made from that perspective can be found to be true or false. Helen Longino's theory of scientific knowledge helps support such a thesis.

  12. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  13. On Gauss-Bonnet Curvatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Larbi Labbi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The $(2k$-th Gauss-Bonnet curvature is a generalization to higher dimensions of the $(2k$-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet integrand, it coincides with the usual scalar curvature for $k = 1$. The Gauss-Bonnet curvatures are used in theoretical physics to describe gravity in higher dimensional space times where they are known as the Lagrangian of Lovelock gravity, Gauss-Bonnet Gravity and Lanczos gravity. In this paper we present various aspects of these curvature invariants and review their variational properties. In particular, we discuss natural generalizations of the Yamabe problem, Einstein metrics and minimal submanifolds.

  14. Rediscover Karl Friedrich Neumann ——On a Little-known German Sinologist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Wei

    2013-01-01

    <正>A small-scale exhibition of the Books of the Last Empire was held in the Nuremberg University Library, Germany, in the winter of 2012. On display were ancient Chinese literature works, books on history, art, philosophy, Chinese medicine, religion, etc., including the Chinese pharmacological

  15. Friedrich Karl Von Savigny e o direito internacional privado: vigência de sua doutrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruíz Díaz Labrano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available De certo, o Direito Internacional Privado posterior a Savigny poderá encontrar ou desenvolver novas correntes, mas será impossível furtar-se dos princípios fundamentais que ele deixou. Grande parte da estrutura de pensamento doutrinária e dos fundamentos gerais da disciplina na atualidade encontram raiz em seus escritos e formulações. O presente estudo busca, inicialmente, resgatar o contexto sócio-cultural do autor, analisando sua vida e obra, e, também, o ambiente jurídico de sua época. Em um segundo momento, faz-se uma análise da escola histórica de direito e da contribuição de Savigny ao direito internacional privado através das novas perspectivas que desenvolveu como, por exemplo, aquelas que justificam teoricamente a aplicação do direito estrangeiro. Conclui-se a pesquisa, finalmente, com breve tentativa de determinar o legado deixado por esse grande doutrinador ao Direito Internacional Privado.

  16. In memoriam : Karl R. Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tohăneanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated to Karl Popper’s memory, this essay aims at following the echo of his critical rationalism and how it has been received by Mario Bunge, one of the most prominent contemporary philosopher of science – an admirer, later a critic of Popper’s social and political philosophy. The main goal of such an endeavor is to find out where could have been Popper wrong – from Bunge’s view point – and take note of the arguments of both of them, thus hoping to get closer to the truth, as Sir Karl said.

  17. WEIERSTRASS REPRESENTATION FOR SURFACES WITH PRESCRIBED NORMAL GAUSS MAP AND GAUSS CURVATURE IN H3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI SHUGUO

    2004-01-01

    The author obtains a Weierstrass representation for surfaces with prescribed normal Gauss map and Gauss curvature in H3. A differential equation about the hyperbolic Gauss map is also obtained, which characterizes the relation among the hyperbolic Gauss map, the normal Gauss map and Gauss curvature. The author discusses the harmonicity of the normal Gauss map and the hyperbolic Gauss map from surface with constant Gauss curvature in H3 to S2 with certain altered conformal metric.Finally, the author considers the surface whose normal Gauss map is conformal and derives a completely nonlinear differential equation of second order which graph must satisfy.

  18. Sõrmuste isand Karl Fritsch / Merike Alber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alber, Merike

    2008-01-01

    Saksa ehtekunstniku Karl Fritschi (sünd. 1963) näitus "Metrosideros robusta. Ehted" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis kuni 29. VI. Karl Fritsch pälvis 2006. a. Francoise van den Boschi (hollandi ehtekunstnik, 1944-1977) auhinna, 1995. ja 2007. a. Herbert Hoffmanni preemia. Darling Publications kirjastas Karl Fritschist raamatud "Metrosideros Robusta" ja "Baby Brick"

  19. Sõrmuste isand Karl Fritsch / Merike Alber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alber, Merike

    2008-01-01

    Saksa ehtekunstniku Karl Fritschi (sünd. 1963) näitus "Metrosideros robusta. Ehted" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis kuni 29. VI. Karl Fritsch pälvis 2006. a. Francoise van den Boschi (hollandi ehtekunstnik, 1944-1977) auhinna, 1995. ja 2007. a. Herbert Hoffmanni preemia. Darling Publications kirjastas Karl Fritschist raamatud "Metrosideros Robusta" ja "Baby Brick"

  20. Stochastic Gauss Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Frédéric, Pierret

    2014-01-01

    The equations of celestial mechanics that govern the variation of the orbital elements are completely derived for stochastic perturbation which generalized the classic perturbation equations which are used since Gauss, starting from Newton's equation and it's solution. The six most understandable orbital element, the semi-major axis, the eccentricity, the inclination, the longitude of the ascending node, the pericenter angle and the mean motion are express in term of the angular momentum vector $\\textbf{H}$ per unit of mass and the energy $E$ per unit of mass. We differentiate those expressions using It\\^o's theory of differential equations due to the stochastic nature of the perturbing force. The result is applied to the two-body problem perturbed by a stochastic dust cloud and also perturbed by a stochastic dynamical oblateness of the central body.

  1. Karl Ove Knausgaard's My Struggle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Arnaud; Kjerkegaard, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this study of Karl Ove Knausgaard’s My Struggle, the authors theorize what paratextual information does to one’s reading, especially in autobiography informed literature. Although My Struggle can be read both as memoir and novel, and even as autofiction, Knausgaard is aiming at a higher truth...

  2. Karl Marx 1864 og forsigtighedsprincippet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer divergerende versioner af den tekst, som Karl Marx efter dannelsen af den 1.Internationale Arbejderassociation i London september 1864 har oversat fra sit engelske original (Inaugural Address...), der udkom i november, til en tysk version med overskriften 'Manifest an die arbe...

  3. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation.

  4. On Friedrichs Model with Two Continuum States

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    The Friedrichs model with one discrete state coupled to more than one continuum is studied. The exact eigenstates for the full Hamiltonian can be solved explicitly. The discrete state is found to generate more than one virtual state pole or more than one pair of resonance poles in different Riemann sheets in different situations. The form factors could also generate new states on different sheets. All these states can appear in the generalized completeness relation.

  5. The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelsoet, D; Hemelsoet, K; Devreese, D

    2008-03-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), one of the most profound and influential modern philosophers, suffered since his very childhood from severe migraine. At 44 he had a mental breakdown ending in a dementia with total physical dependence due to stroke. From the very beginning, Nietzsche's dementia was attributed to a neurosyphilitic infection. Recently, this tentative diagnosis has become controversial. To use historical accounts and original materials including correspondence, biographical data and medical papers to document the clinical characteristics of Nietzsche's illness and, by using this pathography, to discuss formerly proposed diagnoses and to provide and support a new diagnostic hypothesis. Original letters from Friedrich Nietzsche, descriptions by relatives and friends, and medical descriptions. Original German sources were investigated. Biographical papers published in medical journals were also consulted. Nietzsche suffered from migraine without aura which started in his childhood. In the second half of his life he suffered from a psychiatric illness with depression. During his last years, a progressive cognitive decline evolved and ended in a profound dementia with stroke. He died from pneumonia in 1900. The family history includes a possible vascular-related mental illness in his father who died from stroke at 36. Friedrich Nietzsche's disease consisted of migraine, psychiatric disturbances, cognitive decline with dementia, and stroke. Despite the prevalent opinion that neurosyphilis caused Nietzsche's illness, there is lack of evidence to support this diagnosis. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) accounts for all the signs and symptoms of Nietzsche's illness. This study adds new elements to the debate and controversy about Nietzsche's illness. We discuss former diagnoses, comment on the history of a diagnostic mistake, and integrate for the first time Nietzsche's medical problems.

  6. Karl Stern (1906-1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Pow, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The forced migration process of German-speaking neurologists and psychiatrists under the Nazis during the 1930s and 40s is often preoccupied solely with "successful" concepts and therapeutic approaches. The case of German-Canadian neurologist Karl Stern (1906-1975) is very instructive, however, since the process of forced migration, for him, proved to be a transitionary process from his former cutting edge work in neuropathology and holist neurology in Germany to clinical psychiatry and the development of the new discipline of geriatric medicine in Canada.

  7. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  8. Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss beams propagation through turbulence: analysis of channel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doster, Timothy; Watnik, Abbie T

    2016-12-20

    As a means of increasing the channel capacity in free-space optical communication systems, two types of orbital angular momentum carrying beams, Bessel-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss, are studied. In a series of numerical simulations, we show that Bessel-Gauss beams, pseudo-nondiffracting beams, outperform Laguerre-Gauss beams of various orders in channel efficiency and bit error rates.

  9. Gauss decomposition for quantum groups and duality

    CERN Document Server

    Damaskinsky, E V; Lyakhovsky, V D; Sokolov, M A

    1995-01-01

    The Gauss decomposition of quantum groups and supergroups are considered. The main attention is paid to the R-matrix formulation of the Gauss decomposition and its properties as well as its relation to the contraction procedure. Duality aspects of the Gauss decomposition are also touched. For clarity of exposition a few simple examples are considered in some details.

  10. Arbeitstagung 2013 : in Memory of Friedrich Hirzebruch

    CERN Document Server

    Blohmann, Christian; Faltings, Gerd; Teichner, Peter; Zagier, Don

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains selected papers authored by speakers and participants of the 2013 Arbeitstagung, held at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn, Germany, from May 22-28. The 2013 meeting (and this resulting proceedings) was dedicated to the memory of Friedrich Hirzebruch, who passed away on May 27, 2012. Hirzebruch organized the first Arbeitstagung in 1957 with a unique concept that would become its most distinctive feature: the program was not determined beforehand by the organizers, but during the meeting by all participants in an open discussion. This ensured that the talks would be on the latest developments in mathematics and that many important results were presented at the conference for the first time. Written by leading mathematicians, the papers in this volume cover various topics from algebraic geometry, topology, analysis, operator theory, and representation theory and display the breadth and depth of pure mathematics that has always been characteristic of the Arbeitstagung.

  11. Gauss-Bonnet Gravitational Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Odintsov, S D

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we study some variant forms of gravitational baryogenesis by using higher order terms containing the partial derivative of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupled to the baryonic current. This scenario extends the well known theory that uses a similar coupling between the Ricci scalar and the baryonic current. One appealing feature of the scenario we study is that the predicted baryon asymmetry during a radiation domination era is non-zero. We calculate the baryon to entropy ratio for the Gauss-Bonnet term and by using the observational constraints we investigate which are the allowed forms of the $R+F(\\mathcal{G})$ gravity controlling the evolution. Also we briefly discuss some alternative higher order terms that can generate a non-zero baryon asymmetry, even in the conformal invariance limit.

  12. Gauss-Bonnet gravitational baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this letter we study some variant forms of gravitational baryogenesis by using higher order terms containing the partial derivative of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupled to the baryonic current. This scenario extends the well known theory that uses a similar coupling between the Ricci scalar and the baryonic current. One appealing feature of the scenario we study is that the predicted baryon asymmetry during a radiation domination era is non-zero. We calculate the baryon to entropy ratio for the Gauss-Bonnet term and by using the observational constraints we investigate which are the allowed forms of the R + F (G) gravity controlling the evolution. Also we briefly discuss some alternative higher order terms that can generate a non-zero baryon asymmetry, even in the conformal invariance limit.

  13. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  14. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  15. KARL MAYER Aims to Shape The Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Review of KARL MAYER at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012 in Shanghai This June, during the ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012 exhibition that was held on June 12th-16th in the city of Shanghai, the exhibition stand of Karl Mayer without doubt spotlighted all the attention in the entire warp knitting sector, bringing its clever and innovative solutions to global visitors, particularly the customers in Asia.

  16. Karl Kello - elukutse olla saarlane / Aare Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Aare, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Kuressaare Kuursaalis näidati kadripäeval nelja Ruta Celma ja Karl Kello kultuuriloolist dokumentaalfilmi : "Narr Jumala kojas" (2000), "Phaetonit otsides" (1999), "Eestlased Lätis" (2004) ja Kalevipoja temaatikat arendav "Küll siis Kalev..." (2004). Filmide operaator on Arvo Vilu. Artikli autor kõneleb Karl Kellost, tema Karja kiriku ja Kaali järve problemaatika arendustest peale filmide ka kirjasõnas

  17. Karl Kello - elukutse olla saarlane / Aare Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Aare, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Kuressaare Kuursaalis näidati kadripäeval nelja Ruta Celma ja Karl Kello kultuuriloolist dokumentaalfilmi : "Narr Jumala kojas" (2000), "Phaetonit otsides" (1999), "Eestlased Lätis" (2004) ja Kalevipoja temaatikat arendav "Küll siis Kalev..." (2004). Filmide operaator on Arvo Vilu. Artikli autor kõneleb Karl Kellost, tema Karja kiriku ja Kaali järve problemaatika arendustest peale filmide ka kirjasõnas

  18. Laplace-Gauss and Helmholtz-Gauss paraxial modes in media with quadratic refraction index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Aleksei P; Plachenov, Alexandr B

    2016-04-01

    The scalar theory of paraxial wave propagation in an axisymmetric medium where the refraction index quadratically depends on transverse variables is addressed. Exact solutions of the corresponding parabolic equation are presented, generalizing the Laplace-Gauss and Helmholtz-Gauss modes earlier known for homogeneous media. Also, a generalization of a zero-order asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beam is given.

  19. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  20. Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Ralf

    2005-02-15

    Over the past 60 years, DNA has risen from being an obscure molecule with presumed accessory or structural functions inside the nucleus to the icon of modern bioscience. The story of DNA often seems to begin in 1944 with Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty showing that DNA is the hereditary material. Within 10 years of their experiments, Watson and Crick deciphered its structure and yet another decade on the genetic code was cracked. However, the DNA story has already begun in 1869, with the young Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher. Having just completed his education as a physician, Miescher moved to Tübingen to work in the laboratory of biochemist Hoppe-Seyler, his aim being to elucidate the building blocks of life. Choosing leucocytes as his source material, he first investigated the proteins in these cells. However, during these experiments, he noticed a substance with unexpected properties that did not match those of proteins. Miescher had obtained the first crude purification of DNA. He further examined the properties and composition of this enigmatic substance and showed that it fundamentally differed from proteins. Due to its occurrence in the cells' nuclei, he termed the novel substance "nuclein"--a term still preserved in today's name deoxyribonucleic acid.

  1. Obituary: Ludwig Friedrich Oster, 1931-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Sabatino; Altschuler, Martin D.

    2003-12-01

    Ludwig Friedrich Oster died at the Anchorage Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Salisbury, MD on 28 February 2003, of complications from advanced Alzheimer's disease. He is survived by his wife Cheryl M. (Oroian) and his two children by a previous marriage, Ulrika and Mattias Oster. He had a distinguished career both as a researcher in solar physics and as a science administrator in the National Science Foundation. Ludwig was born on 8 March 1931 in Konstanz, Germany and emigrated to the U.S. in 1958, acquiring American citizenship in 1963. His mother and father were Emma Josefine (Schwarz) and Ludwig Friedrich Oster. He got a BS degree in physics at the University of Freiburg under the guidance of Prof. K. O. Kiepenheuer in 1951, and a MS (1954) and PhD from the University of Kiel in 1956 under the guidance of Prof. A. Unsold. From 1956 to 1958 he was a Fellow of the German Science Council at Kiel and, upon his arrival to the US in 1958, he became a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Physics Department of Yale University. He became an Assistant Professor of Physics and Astrophysics at Yale in 1960 and five years later he was promoted to Associate Professor. In 1967 he became an Associate Professor of Physics and Astrophysics at the University of Colorado and a Fellow of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics; he was promoted to Full Professor in 1970. In 1981 he was a Visiting Professor at Johns Hopkins University, and shortly thereafter became a National Research Council Senior Associate at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, where he worked on solar variability. He joined the National Science Foundation in 1983, where he became the Program Manager for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the Division of Astronomical Sciences of the Foundation; he remained there until his retirement in 1996. His early work, started in Germany and continued at Yale, concerned radiation mechanisms related to solar phenomena. His works on

  2. Cosmic backreaction and Gauss's law

    CERN Document Server

    Fleury, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic backreaction refers to the general question of whether a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model is able to predict the correct expansion dynamics of our inhomogeneous Universe. One aspect of this issue concerns the validity of the continuous approximation: does a system of point masses expand the same way as a fluid does? This article shows that it is not exactly the case in Newtonian gravity, although the associated corrections vanish in an infinite Universe. It turns out that Gauss's law is a key ingredient for such corrections to vanish. Backreaction therefore generically arises in alternative theories of gravitation, which threatens the trustworthiness of their cosmological tests. This phenomenon is illustrated with a toy-model of massive gravity.

  3. Cosmic backreaction and Gauss's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Cosmic backreaction refers to the general question of whether a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model is able to predict the correct expansion dynamics of our inhomogeneous Universe. One aspect of this issue concerns the validity of the continuous approximation: does a system of point masses expand the same way as a fluid does? This article shows that it is not exactly the case in Newtonian gravity, although the associated corrections vanish in an infinite Universe. It turns out that Gauss's law is a key ingredient for such corrections to vanish. Backreaction, therefore, generically arises in alternative theories of gravitation, which threatens the trustworthiness of their cosmological tests. This phenomenon is illustrated with a toy model of massive gravity.

  4. Meenutusi tuntud kultuuritegelasest ja restauraatorist Friedrich Fred Raimond Allikust / Riho Illak, Peeter Tulviste, Indrek Martinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Illak, Riho, 1955-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli auliikmest Friedrich Fred Raimond Allikust, kes annetas Tartu Ülikoolile oma kinnistud Tartus ja Elvas. Friedrich Fred Raimond Allik oli Rootsis tegev restauraatori, antikvaari ja eestlaste seltsielu edendajana

  5. Meenutusi tuntud kultuuritegelasest ja restauraatorist Friedrich Fred Raimond Allikust / Riho Illak, Peeter Tulviste, Indrek Martinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Illak, Riho, 1955-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli auliikmest Friedrich Fred Raimond Allikust, kes annetas Tartu Ülikoolile oma kinnistud Tartus ja Elvas. Friedrich Fred Raimond Allik oli Rootsis tegev restauraatori, antikvaari ja eestlaste seltsielu edendajana

  6. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A

    2014-09-01

    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  7. Traslaciones culturales británicas : "The English Journey" (1826) : de Karl Friedrich Schinkel a Louis I. Kahn

    OpenAIRE

    González Peña, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    El lenguaje de la arquitectura se retroalimenta de si mismo en un canibalismo que acaba siendo estéril. La intención de entender el comportamiento de materiales y elementos de construcción llevó a los arquitectos a convertirse primero en teóricos y después en historiadores. Agotadas las fuentes clásicas el arquitecto se siente perdido en su propio tiempo tratando de conciliar los métodos con el pasado y el presente. Vitruvio, Alberti y Schinkel se encontraron con el mismo problema. Esta inves...

  8. Alexander von Humboldt und Carl Friedrich Gauß als Wegbereiter der neuen Disziplin Erdmagnetismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThough Alexander von Humboldt was motivated for the first time to deal with earthmagnetism during his stay in Freiberg, it was in France that he really became a specialist in this respect. During most of his journeys he made earthmagnetic measurements. His collaboration with Arago was of great importance, it was in Paris that the first magnetic observatory was built. Humboldt rendered outstanding services to the investigation of earth magnetism by two major achievements: 1. He emphasized intensity measurements and 2. he put forward the law that the magnetic intensity is increasing from the magnetic equator toward the magnetic poles. At least since 1803 Carl Friedrich Gauss was interested in earthmagnetism and especially in Humboldt’s early published data. That Wilhelm Weber became professor of physics at the University of Göttingen in 1831 was a turning point for Gauss. In 1833 Göttingen was the centre of investigating earthmagnetism, a new era began which lasted only until 1843. Gauss’ main contributions were more or less theoretical, in 1832/3 he transformed Humboldt’s relative intensity measurements into absolute ones which were independent of the instrument’s needle. A new epoch began with Gauss’ publication „Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus” (1839. The main point was the newly defined notion of „potential“. Gauss was the first to present the surface of the earth with equipotential lines. ZusammenfassungAlexander von Humboldt hatte sich bereits in Freiberg mit dem Erdmagnetismus beschäftigt; jedoch erst in Frankreich lernte er die entsprechenden Beobachtungsmethoden kennen. Auf allen seinen Reisen machte er erdmagnetische Messungen. Seine Zusammenarbeit mit Arago in Paris war besonders fruchtbar, hier wurde das erste magnetische Observatorium gebaut. Humboldt beschäftigte sich vor allem mit Intensitätsmessungen; sein wichtigster Beitrag war die Feststellung, dass die magnetische Intensität vom

  9. Cylindrically polarized Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Madhi, Daena; Aiello, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of radially and azimuthally polarized Bessel-Gauss beams in both the paraxial and nonparaxial regimes. We discuss the validity of the paraxial approximation and the form of the nonparaxial corrections for Bessel-Gauss beams. We show that, independently from the ratio between the Bessel aperture cone angle $\\vartheta_0$ and the Gauss beam divergence $\\theta_0$, the nonparaxial corrections are always very small and therefore negligible. Explicit expressions for the nonparaxial vector electric field components are also reported.

  10. Seitse võistlusromaani / Karl Ristikivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ristikivi, Karl, 1912-1977

    1996-01-01

    Kask, Agu. Unustatud sugpõlv; Rajamaa, Helmi. Varjutatud südamed; Thoen, Aino. Võlaraamat; Veskimäe, Viktor. Kolmas võimalus; Timmukuru, Juhan. Esimesed read; Einer, Karl. Ainult üks valge liblikas; Timmukuru, Juhan. Peep Koordipoja põlistalu

  11. [Karl Landsteiner discovers the blood groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, J-J; Berche, P

    2010-02-01

    The discovery of ABO blood group was a major step in mastering transfusion therapy. Karl Landsteiner (1868-1843) was the author of this discovery. This paper retraces the hard career of this American scientist of Austrian origin, and describes the circumstances that led his research to the discoveries, which were turning points in the history of the immunology.

  12. Complex source point theory of paraxial and nonparaxial cosine-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J R

    2013-02-15

    It shown how cosine-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss beams can be generated using the complex source point theory. Paraxial beams are treated first. An analytic expression is derived for the nonparaxial cosine-Gaussian beam, based on the complex source point approach, and numerical results are presented to illustrate its behavior. A way to generate nonparaxial Bessel-Gauss beams is also indicated.

  13. Friedrich Meinecke : Panentheism and the Crisis of Historicism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Friedrich Meinecke's Die Idee der Staatsr son (1924) is generally seen as the study in which he replaced his monistic-idealistic philosophy of history - as articulated in Weltburgertum und Nationalstaat - by a dualistic worldview. In this article I will argue against this view. I will do so on the

  14. Friedrich Meinecke : Panentheism and the Crisis of Historicism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Friedrich Meinecke's Die Idee der Staatsr son (1924) is generally seen as the study in which he replaced his monistic-idealistic philosophy of history - as articulated in Weltburgertum und Nationalstaat - by a dualistic worldview. In this article I will argue against this view. I will do so on the b

  15. Friedrich Meinecke : Panentheism and the Crisis of Historicism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Friedrich Meinecke's Die Idee der Staatsr son (1924) is generally seen as the study in which he replaced his monistic-idealistic philosophy of history - as articulated in Weltburgertum und Nationalstaat - by a dualistic worldview. In this article I will argue against this view. I will do so on the b

  16. Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formulae for the Jacobi weight and Gori-Micchelli weight functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士俊

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to find for any non-negative measure, the relations between the Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formula and Gauss formula e for the same measure. As applications, the author obtained the explicit Gauss-Radau and Gaus s-Lobatto formulae for the Jacobi weight and the Gori-Micchelli weight.

  17. Gauss's theorem on sums of 3 squares, sheaves, and Gauss composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Gauss's theorem on sums of 3 squares relates the number of primitive integer points on the sphere of radius the square root of n with the class number of some quadratic imaginary order. In 2011, Edixhoven sketched a different proof of Gauss's theorem by using an approach from arithmetic geometry. He

  18. Gauss's theorem on sums of 3 squares, sheaves, and Gauss composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Gauss's theorem on sums of 3 squares relates the number of primitive integer points on the sphere of radius the square root of n with the class number of some quadratic imaginary order. In 2011, Edixhoven sketched a different proof of Gauss's theorem by using an approach from arithmetic geometry. He

  19. Karl Popper and Evolutionary Concept of Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Ashni Alvandi; Majid Akbari Dehagi

    2008-01-01

    Epistemology and its formational trend have been always one of the discussions in various parts of science; and nowadays modern sciences have plentiful effects on the process of epistemological studies. Different men of letters from various fields have also studied and scrutinized it. Among these researches, evolutionary epistemology wants to explain the process of formation of epistemology by modeling it through evolution theory. Here I do effort to investigate Karl Poppers’ view point of ep...

  20. On psychodynamics of personal value-judgements - Nietzsche's theory of resentment and its reception by Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    A hundred years ago when Karl Jaspers was introducing psychological understanding to psychiatry the founder of the school of Heidelberg spoke of Friedrich Nietzsche as one of the "greatest" psychologists. Especially his theory of resentment with its core thesis unconscious prejudices were influencing our behaviour was able to illuminate the complex structure of human will. Taking into account this horizon of psychiatric history of ideas the presentation wants to persecute the following three questions: 1) Why the postulate which Nietzsche was giving on cultural prejudices of our thoughts, feelings and acts was so provocative so that many of the classical thinkers of psychological understanding were taking it up according to the needs of their disciplines sociology, psychology, psychiatry and philosophy? 2) What were the results of this inspiring theory which could be especially seen in the works of Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider? In other words: What were the aspects in which they agreed in their reception of Nietzsche and what were the points in which the two psychiatrists of the school of Heidelberg differed in the way they took the theory of resentment into account for their psychological understanding? 3) What could be the actual significance of the historical fact that Nietzsche and in his footsteps Max Weber were taking deep influence on psychiatric thinking around 1900?

  1. On virtual states and generalized completeness relation in Friedrichs Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    We study the well-known Friedrichs model, in which a discrete state is coupled to a continuum state. By examining the pole behaviors of the Friedrichs model in a specific form factor thoroughly, we find that, in general, when the bare discrete state is below the threshold of the continuum state, there should also be a virtual-state pole accompanying the bound-state pole originating from the bare discrete state as the coupling is turned on. There are also other second-sheet poles originating from the singularities of the form factor. We give a general argument for the existence of these two kinds of states. As the coupling is increased to a certain value, the second-sheet poles may merge and become higher-order poles. We then discuss the completeness relations incorporating bound states, virtual states, and resonant states corresponding to higher-order poles.

  2. [God is dead--Friedrich Nietzsche's Oedipus complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J

    1997-04-01

    The early psychoanalysts were influenced by the philosophical ideas of FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE. The work of SIGMUND FREUD was partly based on NIETZSCHE'S literary world. Just before his mental disaster NIETZSCHE radically destroyed once precious ideals. The roots of this provocative development will be elucidated by analyzing NIETZSCHE'S childhood. A main aspect is NIETZSCHES close mother-tie and especially his father's early death. The father-image of NIETZSCHE'S late years is an essential of this paper.

  3. Friedrich Trendelenburg: historical background and significant medical contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Lindsey; Bandela, Sujani; Wooten, Candace; Jennifer, Coira; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-09-01

    Friedrich Trendelenburg's name is widely known today because it is associated with the Trendelenburg position. However, Trendelenburg made many other valuable contributions to the field of medicine, including a test, a gait, and a sign. A historical review of his life helps to elucidate the factors that contributed to his innovative approaches and techniques. Both Trendelenburg's mentors in his early years and the influences upon him throughout his professional career contributed to his development as a pioneer of surgery, anesthesia, and clinical diagnostics.

  4. The Friedrichs-Model with fermion-boson couplings II

    CERN Document Server

    Civitarese, O; Pronko, G P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present a formal solution of the extended version of the Friedrichs Model. The Hamiltonian consists of discrete and continuum bosonic states, which are coupled to fermions. The simultaneous treatment of the couplings of the fermions with the discrete and continuous sectors of the bosonic degrees of freedom leads to a system of coupled equations, whose solutions are found by applying standard methods of representation of bound and resonant states.

  5. Student understanding of Symmetry and Gauss' law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Helping students learn why Gauss' law can or cannot be easily applied to determine the strength of the electric field at various points for a particular charge distribution, and then helping them learn to determine the shape of the Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists can develop their reasoning and problem solving skills. We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field and electric flux that are pivotal to Gauss' law of electricity. Determination of the electric field using Gauss' law requires discerning the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and being able to predict the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. It requires a good grasp of how to add the electric field vectors using the principle of superposition, and the concepts of area vector and electric flux. We administered free response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual s...

  6. General Gauss-Bonnet brane cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmousis, Christos; Dufaux, Jean-Francois [LPT, Universite de Paris-Sud, Bat 210, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2002-09-21

    We consider five-dimensional spacetimes of constant three-dimensional spatial curvature in the presence of a bulk cosmological constant. We find the general solution of such a configuration in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Two classes of non-trivial bulk solutions are found. The first class is valid only under a fine-tuning relation between the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant and the cosmological constant of the bulk spacetime. The second class of solutions are static and are the extensions of the AdS-Schwarzchild black holes. Hence in the absence of a cosmological constant or if the fine-tuning relation is not true, the generalized Birkhoff's staticity theorem holds even in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms. We examine the consequences in braneworld cosmology obtaining the generalized Friedmann equations for a perfect fluid 3-brane and discuss how this modifies the usual scenario.

  7. General Gauss-Bonnet brane cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Charmousis, C; Charmousis, Christos; Dufaux, Jean-Francois

    2002-01-01

    We consider 5-dimensional spacetimes of constant 3-dimensional spatial curvature in the presence of a bulk cosmological constant. We find the general solution of such a configuration in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Two classes of non-trivial bulk solutions are found. The first class is valid only under a fine tuning relation between the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant and the cosmological constant of the bulk spacetime. The second class of solutions are static and are the extensions of the AdS-Schwarzchild black holes. Hence in the absence of a cosmological constant or if the fine tuning relation is not true, the generalised Birkhoff's staticity theorem holds even in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms. We examine the consequences in brane world cosmology obtaining the generalised Friedmann equations for a perfect fluid 3-brane and discuss how this modifies the usual scenario.

  8. Holographic Isotropisation in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas; Ficnar, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    We study holographic isotropisation of homogeneous, strongly coupled, non-Abelian plasmas in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We focus on small values of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter $\\lambda_{GB}$ and linearise the equations of motion around a time-dependent background solution with $\\lambda_{GB}=0$. We numerically solve the linearised equations and show that the entire time evolution of the pressure anisotropy can be well approximated by the linear in $\\lambda_{GB}$ corrections to the quasinormal mode expansion, even in the cases of high anisotropy. We finally show that, quite generally, the time evolution of the pressure anisotropy with the Gauss-Bonnet term is approximately {\\it shifted} with respect to the evolution without it, with the sign of the shift being directly related to the sign of the $\\lambda_{GB}$ parameter. This suggests that finite coupling corrections generically {\\it increase} the isotropisation time of strongly coupled plasmas.

  9. Anisotropic inflation in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Sayantani [ZARM, University of Bremen,Am Falltrum, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-09-19

    We study anisotropic inflation with Gauss-Bonnet correction in presence of a massless vector field. In this scenario, exact anisotropic power-law inflation is realized when the inflaton potential, gauge coupling function and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling are exponential functions. We show that anisotropy becomes proportional to two slow-roll parameters of the theory and hence gets enhanced in presence of quadratic curvature corrections. The stability analysis reveals that anisotropic power-law solutions remain stable over a substantially large parameter region.

  10. p-adic Gauss integrals from the Poison summarizing formula

    CERN Document Server

    Prokhorenko, D V

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we show how to obtain the well-known formula for Gauss sums and the Gauss reciprocity low from the Poison summarizing formula by using some ideas of renormalization and ergodic theories. We also apply our method to obtain new simple derivation of the standard formula for p-adic Gauss integrals.

  11. Transformations of some Gauss hypergeometric functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vidûnas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents explicit algebraic transformations of some Gauss hypergeometric functions. Specifically, the transformations considered apply to hypergeometric solutions of hypergeometric differential equations with the local exponent differences 1/k,1/l,1/m such that k,l,m are positive integers

  12. ON A GENERALIZED GAUSS CONVERGENCE CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA BUCUR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we combine the well known Raabe-Duhamel, Kummer, Bertrand . . . criterions of convergence for series with positive terms and we obtain a new one which is more powerful than those cited before. Even the famous Gauss criterion,which was in fact our starting point, is a consequence of this new convergence test.

  13. Demystifying Electric Flux and Gauss's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Many physics students have experienced the difficulty of internalizing concepts in electrostatics. After studying concrete, measurable details in mechanics, they are challenged by abstract ideas such as electric fields, flux, Gauss's law, and electric potential. There are a few well-known hands-on activities that help students get experience with…

  14. Galileo, Gauss, and the Green Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Dan; Teague, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Galileo dropped cannonballs from the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate something about falling bodies. Gauss was a giant of mathematics and physics who made unparalleled contributions to both fields. More contemporary (and not a person), the Green Monster is the left-field wall at the home of the Boston Red Sox, Fenway Park. Measuring 37 feet…

  15. Galileo, Gauss, and the Green Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Dan; Teague, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Galileo dropped cannonballs from the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate something about falling bodies. Gauss was a giant of mathematics and physics who made unparalleled contributions to both fields. More contemporary (and not a person), the Green Monster is the left-field wall at the home of the Boston Red Sox, Fenway Park. Measuring 37 feet…

  16. Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tatsuaki

    2011-05-01

    Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles.

  17. "Unmapped Territories": The Career of Karl Kroeber (1926-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. Lavonne Brown

    2012-01-01

    Jean Taylor Kroeber, widow of Karl Kroeber, has granted permission for "SAIL" to reprint his "Address to Columbia College Students Elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society, 18 May 2009" and "An Interview with Karl Kroeber." Conducted by Michael Mallick, the interview was published in the newsletter of the Department of English and Comparative…

  18. Profiles in Research: An Interview with Karl Gustav Joreskog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karl Gustav Joreskog. Karl Gustav Joreskog was born in Amal, Sweden, on April 25, 1935. He did his undergraduate studies at Uppsala University from 1955 to 1957, with a major in mathematics and physics. He received a PhD in statistics at Uppsala University in 1963, and he was a research statistician at…

  19. Analytical calculation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes on a bullseye photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Charlotte; Freise, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This note describes the analytical derivation of the response of bullseye detectors to optical beats between higher-order spatial modes of the Laguerre-Gauss form, and subsequently the Hermite-Gauss form. Also included is a comparison with numerically calculated beat coefficients, and a simple example of the use of the resulting beat coefficients in simulating a mode mismatch sensor for a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  20. Fast and Accurate Computation of Gauss--Legendre and Gauss--Jacobi Quadrature Nodes and Weights

    KAUST Repository

    Hale, Nicholas

    2013-03-06

    An efficient algorithm for the accurate computation of Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Jacobi quadrature nodes and weights is presented. The algorithm is based on Newton\\'s root-finding method with initial guesses and function evaluations computed via asymptotic formulae. The n-point quadrature rule is computed in O(n) operations to an accuracy of essentially double precision for any n ≥ 100. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. On the Space Gauss-Kruger Projection%空间Gauss-Kruger投影研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任留成; 杨晓梅

    2004-01-01

    研究了适合于星下点轨迹是某一经线的卫星图像数据投影选择的空间Gauss-Kruger投影,推导了空间Gauss-Kruger投影公式及其变形情况,并证明了该投影是等角空间投影,最后给出了算例.

  2. The Goos-Hanchen shift in Helmholtz-Gauss beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini, Moises A.; Gutierrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2006-08-01

    We present a study of the total internal reflection of a Helmholtz-Gauss beam at a plane interface between two dielectric media. The derivation is based on the decomposition of the Helmholtz-Gauss beams in terms of its constituent plane waves components. We determine the shift predicted by the classical theory of the Goos- Hänchen shift and analyze the transverse intensity patterns of the reflected waves for a variety of Helmholtz-Gauss beam including Bessel-Gauss and Cosine-Gauss beams.

  3. Friedrich Nietzsche and his illness: a neurophilosophical approach to introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Perrig, Stephen; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2013-01-01

    There are some arguments that Friedrich Nietzsche suffered from the autosomal dominant vascular microangiopathy: Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Here, a hypothesis is formulated supporting that CADASIL presenting with symptoms of bipolar disorder and Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome would contribute to the increased insight and creativity of a philosopher whose perceptions and intuitions often bear out the results of modern neuroscience. Alterations of the brain default and reward networks would account for such an increased level of introspection and creativity. A new framework on approaching illness is proposed, which, in conformity with Nietzsche's positive view, outlines the enabling aspects of some otherwise highly disabling neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Lembitu : Eesti muistepõlve mälestustest kasvanud luuletus / Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreutzwald, Friedrich Reinhold, 1803-1882

    2003-01-01

    Faksiimileväljaanne: Kreutzwald, Friedrich Reinhold. Lembitu : Eesti muistepõlwe mälestustest kaswanud luuletus / Puhkama läinud lauliku Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi järel jäetud paberitest wälja antud. Tartu : G. Blumberg, 1885

  5. Friedrich Nikolai Russowi ja Wilhelm Friedrich Tuglase osalus "Pöllumehhe nöuandja" väljaandmisel / Liivi Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarma, Liivi, 1948-

    2012-01-01

    "Pöllumehhe nöuandja" koostajate ja tekstiautorite kohta otsest teavet säilinud pole. Võimalik, et kirjastajal oligi kokkulepe raamatu tegijaid mitte kirja panna. Jaan Eilart on oletanud, et raamatuga võis seotud olla literaat Friedrich Nikolai Russow. Fiedrich Nikolai Russowvi perekonnaloost. Eelnenud uurimisele toetudes võib väita, et raamatu "Põllumehe nõuandja" teksti kokkupanijaks oli Järvamaa juurtega kirjamees Wilhelm Friedrich Tuglas. Tuglasest ja tema suguvõsast

  6. Friedrich Nikolai Russowi ja Wilhelm Friedrich Tuglase osalus "Pöllumehhe nöuandja" väljaandmisel / Liivi Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarma, Liivi, 1948-

    2012-01-01

    "Pöllumehhe nöuandja" koostajate ja tekstiautorite kohta otsest teavet säilinud pole. Võimalik, et kirjastajal oligi kokkulepe raamatu tegijaid mitte kirja panna. Jaan Eilart on oletanud, et raamatuga võis seotud olla literaat Friedrich Nikolai Russow. Fiedrich Nikolai Russowvi perekonnaloost. Eelnenud uurimisele toetudes võib väita, et raamatu "Põllumehe nõuandja" teksti kokkupanijaks oli Järvamaa juurtega kirjamees Wilhelm Friedrich Tuglas. Tuglasest ja tema suguvõsast

  7. Entanglement Temperature With Gauss-Bonnet Term

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Shesansu Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    We compute the entanglement temperature using the first law-like of thermodynamics, $\\Delta E=T_{ent} \\Delta S_{EE}$, up to Gauss-Bonnet term in the Jacobson-Myers entropy functional in any arbitrary spacetime dimension. The computation is done when the entangling region is the geometry of a slab. We also show that such a Gauss-Bonnet term, which becomes a total derivative, when the co-dimension two hypersurface is four dimensional, does not contribute to the finite term in the entanglement entropy. We observe that the Weyl-squared term does not contribute to the entanglement entropy. It is important to note that the calculations are performed when the entangling region is very small and the energy is calculated using the normal Hamiltonian.

  8. Demystifying electric flux and Gauss's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Many physics students have experienced the difficulty of internalizing concepts in electrostatics. After studying concrete, measurable details in mechanics, they are challenged by abstract ideas such as electric fields, flux, Gauss's law, and electric potential. There are a few well-known hands-on activities that help students get experience with these ideas. Perhaps the most popular are field-mapping activities in many forms ranging from metal electrodes in a shallow dish of water to metal pens and conductive paper. My experience of teaching with these activities in my AP Physics course left me disappointed and my students still mystified. Over the last several years, I have developed some hands-on activities that have helped my students better understand and apply these concepts. In this column, I will describe one such activity, a flux calculation that presents an opportunity to apply Gauss's law.

  9. Karl Kautsky e as origens do Cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Moniz Bandeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Prólogo à obra “A Origem do Cristianismo”, de Karl Kautsky (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2010, p. 07-19

  10. Kernaspekte van die kennissosiologie van Karl Mannheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Louw

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with certain crucial aspects of the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim in view of the fact that he finds that the increase, worldwide, of interest in ideological difficulties in South Africa can fruitfully be dealt with in terms of this form of sociology. This is justified in part by Mannheim's viewpoint that thought is a function of human existence, and this function emanates from needs based on social factors. He traces Mannheim's use of the term ideology (in Sociology, culminating With the Idea that “the birth and death of ideology depends on certain social, economic and 'ecological' factors”. Subsequently he deals with a whole line of aspects of the sociology of knowledge as expounded by Mannheim, culminating in the idea that shifts in views with regard to lifeview and underlying values take place when there is a rapid upward (vertical mobility, leading to uncertainties and a lack of trust in established values.

  11. Karl Korsch e a Comuna de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cavini Martorano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apesar de haver escrito uma extensa obra que ainda vem sendo editada no seu país natal, o marxista alemão Karl Korsch é praticamente desconhecido no Brasil – exceção feita a alguns poucos pesquisadores. Além da recente edição brasileira de seu importante trabalho Marxismo e filosofia (Editora UFRJ, e de alguns outros textos e artigos que podem ser encontrados em diferentes sites, o acesso ao conjunto de sua obra ainda é bastante difícil.

  12. Divining and knowing: Karl Sudhoff's historical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the historical method of Karl Sudhoff (1853- 1938), Germany's first professor of medical history. It argues that in order to understand his ideas more fully, we need to step outside the historiography of medical history and assess his methodology in relation to the norms and ideals of German academic history writing in general. The article demonstrates that the philology-based "critical method" of Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886) was central to Sudhoff's methodological thinking. It investigates the underlying philosophical and epistemological assumptions of Ranke's method, which tend to be less appreciated than his overt empiricism and explores how Sudhoff applied these to the new professionalizing subdiscipline of the history of medicine. The article argues that Sudhoff's concerns with the methodology of history, which involved a particular conception of the relationship between the human sciences and the medical sciences, offers compelling addresses to our times.

  13. Vorticity, Stokes' Theorem and the Gauss's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Vorticity is a property of the flow of any fluid and moving fluids acquire properties that allow an engineer to describe that particular flow in greater detail. It is important to recognize that mere motion alone does not guarantee that the air or any fluid has vorticity. Vorticity is one of four important quantities that define the kinematic properties of any fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. However, the divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that, in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter, the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into, or away from the region through its boundary. This is also known as Gauss's Theorem. It should also be noted that there are many useful extensions of Gauss's Theorem, including the extension to include surfaces of discontinuity in V. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. Integral (Surface) [(DEL X V)] . dS = Integral (Contour) [V . dx] In this paper, the author outlines and stresses the importance of studying and teaching these mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. References Arfken, G. "Gauss's Theorem." 1.11 in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 57-61, 1985. Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. "Gauss's Theorem." In Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 37-38, 1953. Eric W. Weisstein. "Divergence Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DivergenceTheorem.html

  14. Causal Structures in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    We analyze causal structures in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. It is known that Gauss-Bonnet gravity potentially has superluminal propagation of gravitons due to its non-canonical kinetic terms. In a theory with superluminal modes, an analysis of causality based on null curves makes no sense, and thus, we need to analyse them in a different way. In this paper, using the method of the characteristics, we analyze the causal structure in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We have the result that, on a Killing horizon, gravitons can propagate in the null direction tangent to the Killing horizon. Therefore, a Killing horizon can be a causal edge as in the case of general relativity, i.e. a Killing horizon is the "event horizon" in the sense of causality. We also analyze causal structures on dynamical solutions with $(D-2)$-dimensional maximal symmetry, including spherically symmetric and flat spaces. If the geometrical null energy condition, $R_{AB}N^AN^B \\ge 0$ for any null vector $N^A$, is satisfied, the radial velocity of gravitons ...

  15. Efficient generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams through kinoform phase elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, David; Arrizón, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams employing phase elements whose transmittances coincide with the phase modulations of such beams. A scaled version of the desired field appears, distorted by marginal optical noise, at the element's Fourier domain. The motivation to perform this study is that, in the context of the proposed approach, the desired beams are generated with the maximum possible efficiency. A disadvantage of the method is the distortion of the desired beams by the influence of several nondesired beam modes generated by the phase elements. We evaluate such distortion employing the root mean square deviation as a figure of merit.

  16. 15 aastat hiljem ehk Karl Ristikivi 90 / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    XV Ristikivi päeva tähistamisest Ristikivi muuseumis. Karl Ristikivi Seltsi ja Eesti Võrdleva Kirjandusteaduse Assotsiatsiooni konverentsist "Eesti romaan 21. sajandi algul". Ka meenutusi K. Ristikivi loomingule pühendatud konverentsist 1987. a

  17. Märkmeid uusima Preisi tsensuuriinstruktsiooni kohta / Karl Marx

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marx, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Preisi uue (1841. aasta) tsensuuriinstruktsiooni tõusikliku vaimu vastuolust vana (1818. aasta) tsensuurimääruse ratsionalismiga. Moraali ja religiooni vastuolust. Vt. ka Ain Kaalepi artiklit "Veel Karl Marxist ja tsensuurist

  18. Kes oli rännumees Karl Feyerabend? / Urmas Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Urmas, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    Feyerabend, Karl. Kosmopolitische Wanderungen durch Preussen, Curland, Liefland, Litthauen, Vollhynien, Podolien und Schlesien, in der jahren 1795 bis 1798. In Briefen an einen Freund. Bd. 3. 1801. Eestile on pühendatud reisiraamatu 40. kiri

  19. Karl Popper at ninety: Highlights of a lifelong intellectual quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Franco; van der Merwe, Alwyn

    1991-12-01

    On the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, Karl Popper's lifelong pursuit of answers in several areas of scientific and philosophical thinking is briefly traced, mainly with reference to excerpts from his own writings.

  20. Karl Timoleon v. Neff / Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vogel von Vogelstein, Carl Christian, 1788-1868

    2004-01-01

    "Ruskii Bibliofil", 1912, nr. 4, lk. 34; fotol tekst: "Piano di Sorrento, Villa Pisani, 20. Juli 1843". Neffi käega kirjutatud: "Karl Timoleon v. Neff geboren in Pühs in Estland im Jahre 1804 d. 2. October"

  1. Balti Maailmanõukogu aktsioonid Helsingis 1975 / Karl Laantee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laantee, Karl, 1927-2007

    2006-01-01

    1975. a. Helsingis peetud Euroopa Julgeoleku ja Koostöö Konverentsi Balti delegatsiooni liikme Karl Laantee tekst, mille ta esitas 4. augustil 1975 Balti Maailmanõukogu pressikonverentsil "Continental"hotellis Stockholmis Rootsi Eestlaste Esinduse pressiinfona

  2. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  3. Märkmeid uusima Preisi tsensuuriinstruktsiooni kohta / Karl Marx

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marx, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Preisi uue (1841. aasta) tsensuuriinstruktsiooni tõusikliku vaimu vastuolust vana (1818. aasta) tsensuurimääruse ratsionalismiga. Moraali ja religiooni vastuolust. Vt. ka Ain Kaalepi artiklit "Veel Karl Marxist ja tsensuurist

  4. Kes oli rännumees Karl Feyerabend? / Urmas Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Urmas, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    Feyerabend, Karl. Kosmopolitische Wanderungen durch Preussen, Curland, Liefland, Litthauen, Vollhynien, Podolien und Schlesien, in der jahren 1795 bis 1798. In Briefen an einen Freund. Bd. 3. 1801. Eestile on pühendatud reisiraamatu 40. kiri

  5. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  6. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  7. LOGARITHMIC GAUSS NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF MICROLATEX PARTICLE OF EMULSION EXPLOSIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国财

    1998-01-01

    Microlatex particles of emulsion explosives determined by microphotography were studied with the law of logarithmic Gauss normal distribution, and results obtained showed that the microlatex particle just possessed the law of logarithmic Gauss normal distribution. The particlediameter in statistical average value, such as ONE, ONS, DES, OSV and DVM was calculated through the diagram of logarithmic Gauss normal distribution of microlatex particles of emulsion explosives, so was Sw.

  8. Experimental generation of Bessel-Gauss coherence functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Singh, R. P.; Miyamoto, Yoko

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally generate the Bessel-Gauss coherence functions using the cross-correlations between the two speckle patterns obtained using the perfect optical vortices (POV) of different orders. POV beams are generated using the Fourier transform of Bessel-Gauss beams by displaying the axicon hologram on spatial light modulator. A ground glass plate is used for scattering POV beams and the speckles are recorded. The cross-correlation function of two speckle patterns is Bessel-Gauss functions whose order is given by the difference in the orders of two POV beams used for scattering. The auto-correlation function of these speckles is Bessel-Gauss function of order zero.

  9. Inflationary attractor in Gauss-Bonnet brane cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, X H; Meng, Xin-He; Wang, Peng

    2003-01-01

    The inflationary attractor properties of the canonical scalar field and Born-Infeld field are investigated in the Randall-Sundrum II scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk action. We find that the inflationary attractor property will always hold for canonical scalar fields for any allowed non-negative Gauss-Bonnet coupling. However, for Born-Infeld field, the Gauss-Bonnet coupling will be highly constrained for the inflationary attractor property to hold. We also briefly discuss the possibility of explaining the suppressed lower multiples and running scalar spectral index simultaneously in the scenario of Gauss-Bonnet brane inflation.

  10. Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2015-11-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health. Issues about his wandering/disruptive behavior that might be a consequence and/or protection against his cognitive decline and multifaceted disease are presented. The life complex that raises speculations about its etiology is constituted by: insight, creativity and wandering behavior besides several symptoms and signs of disease(s), mainly neurological one. The most important issue to be considered at the moment is not the disease diagnosis (Lissauer's general paresis or CADASIL, e.g.), but the probable Nietzsche's great cognitive reserve linked to the multifactorial etiology (genetic and environmental), and shared characteristics both to creativity and psychopathology. This makes any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche's unique background to express any disease(s).

  11. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Blessing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945 is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic art when he ventured into it. Crucially, Sarre’s study of Seljuk architecture is rooted in the late nineteenth-century appreciation of Persian art, rather in the later focus on a unified Turkish identity that became pervasive in the late 1920s, following ideological shifts after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

  12. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  13. Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900 was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health. Issues about his wandering/disruptive behavior that might be a consequence and/or protection against his cognitive decline and multifaceted disease are presented. The life complex that raises speculations about its etiology is constituted by: insight, creativity and wandering behavior besides several symptoms and signs of disease(s, mainly neurological one. The most important issue to be considered at the moment is not the disease diagnosis (Lissauer’s general paresis or CADASIL, e.g., but the probable Nietzsche’s great cognitive reserve linked to the multifactorial etiology (genetic and environmental, and shared characteristics both to creativity and psychopathology. This makes any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche’s unique background to express any disease(s.

  14. Overcoming state within the Friedrich Nietzsche’s irrational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zakharchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the views of Nietzsche on the nature and significance of the state in the context of socio-political issues. Examines how the criticism of Nietzsche for the state’s phenomenon is related to his irrational approach to the socio-political sphere, and therefore also raises the question of the possibility of attracting these Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas regarding the institution of the state to understanding contemporary socio-political processes. For the disclosure of the above tasks in the work undertaken analysis of the Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas in terms of their correlation with some general philosophical ideas of the German philosopher. In particular understanding of Nietzsche role of the state has been analyzed in the context of ideas like the idea of a hierarchical society, the idea of the superman, the idea of true morality. These ideas go beyond the purely social and philosophical beliefs of the thinker, but they are essential for understanding the logic and purposes of the consideration of the Nietzschean idea of the state. These ideas have been analyzed in the study mainly critically, in particular given the Nietzsche’s controversial assessment of state as a negative phenomenon and situational positive assessment of the state’s role. It is noted that this duality of Nietzsche in this issue is just due to the formulation of more general philosophical problems then was stated above. At the same time, the work focuses on the possibility of positive reading Nietzsche’s position on the state, which is associated with the idea of the free will of the individual opposed to the dictates of the enslaved majority.

  15. Higher-Order Gauss-Bonnet Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Makarenko, Andrey N

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmological models derived from higher-order Gauss-Bonnet gravity $F(R,G)$ by using the Lagrange multiplier approach without assuming the presence of additional fields with the exception of standard perfect fluid matter. The presence of Lagrange multipliers reduces the number of allowed solutions. We need to introduce compatibility conditions of the FRW equations, which impose strict restrictions on the metric or require the introduction of additional exotic matter. Several classes of $F(R,G)$ models are generated and discussed.

  16. Multivariate curve-fitting in GAUSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunck, C.M.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Multivariate curve-fitting techniques for repeated measures have been developed and an interactive program has been written in GAUSS. The program implements not only the one-factor design described in Morrison (1967) but also includes pairwise comparisons of curves and rates, a two-factor design, and other options. Strategies for selecting the appropriate degree for the polynomial are provided. The methods and program are illustrated with data from studies of the effects of environmental contaminants on ducklings, nesting kestrels and quail.

  17. A Conversation with Karl K. Turekian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Note Each year, the editorial board invites a distinguished member of the oceanographic community to contribute a prefatory chapter; this year, we were delighted when Karl Turekian, Sterling Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale, accepted our invitation. Over the course of a long and productive career, Dr. Turekian has pursued his interests in marine and atmospheric geochemistry by using natural radioactive and radiogenic isotopes to study Earth's evolution and the impacts of global change. He has also directed both the Center for the Study of Global Change at Yale and the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies. In this interview, conducted by his former student Kirk Cochran, Dr. Turekian tells the story of his early career and discusses some of the major scientific challenges and opportunities faced along the way. His personal account of the rise of geochemistry is a charming story of how chance events and personalities impact scientific careers. His technical insight into the future of this field is illuminating, particularly for scientific outsiders who appreciate the central role of geochemistry in discerning and understanding patterns of global change. Craig A. Carlson and Stephen J. Giovannoni, Editors [Figure: see text

  18. Karl Marx dan Konsep Perjuangan Kelas Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriaty Ismail

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ¬¬This article explores the history of the renowned world economic and political reformist, Karl Marx with a special focus on the social class concept. It also discusses to what extent that the Marx’s concept of social class struggle is capable to provide a way out to the proletariats, to free themselves from the chains of cruelty, violence and alienation in the capitalist system. Our main focal point is to scrutinize the relationship between the concepts of social class struggle and the need for a social revolution as a catalyst for the formation of a classless society. Along the way, we studied and analyzed the documents produced on the primary sources covering major works of Marx and the secondary sources consisting reviews of the Marx’s class concept. As a result, we found out that Marx’s concept of class fight is competent to represent the oppressed group to battle for their freedom rights. The Proletariat dictatorship attitude was used as their main shield to face the threat of the capitalist class. Marx’s ultimate success is realized through a burst of ideas and beliefs that supports the ideas of egalitarian Communism although many contradictions arise between the ideas of Marx and the 20th centuries Communism when they are translated into practice.

  19. Karl Mannheim’s Jewish Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kettler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore Karl Mannheim’s puzzling failure (or refusal to address himself in any way to questions arising out of the position of Jews in Germany, either before or after the advent of Nazi rule—and this, notwithstanding the fact, first, that his own ethnic identification as a Jew was never in question and that he shared vivid experiences of anti-Semitism, and consequent exile from both Hungary and Germany, and, second, that his entire sociological method rested upon using one’s own most problematic social location—as woman, say, or youth, or intellectual—as the starting point for a reflexive investigation. It was precisely Mannheim’s convictions about the integral bond between thought grounded in reflexivity and a mission to engage in a transformative work of Bildung that made it effectively impossible for him to formulate his inquiries in terms of his way of being Jewish. It is through his explorations of the rise and fall of the intellectual as socio-cultural formation that Mannheim investigates his relations to his Jewish origins and confronts the disaster of 1933. The key to our puzzle is to be found in the theory of assimilation put forward in the dissertation of his student, Jacob Katz.

  20. Information Systems Foundations - Karl Popper's third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McDonald

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The various information professions have matured separately over the years, developing different bodies of theory and practice to meet their evolving purposes and needs. A problem arises however, when different information professions address the same knowledge domain and there is no explicit correspondence between the conceptual structures embedded independently in each. In this situation, a knowledge worker involved in the domain is faced with a range of possibly incompatible structures presented in different forms by a range of information professions. This is a common problem that is being exacerbated by the explosion in information production and the widening access to information distribution technology, notably the World Wide Web. Information Systems now need to combine the best of what the information professions in a domain have to offer the domain’s knowledge workers. This paper examines the problem by exploring one of the foundations of the information disciplines - Karl Popper’s 3 Worlds theory, applying it to a case study and suggesting that the Information Systems discipline alone has a sufficiently broad agenda to integrate the various Informatics themes needed to support today’s knowledge workers.

  1. Reheating in Gauss-Bonnet-coupled inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of models of inflation with a large Gauss-Bonnet coupling at late times, which have been shown to modify and prevent the end of inflation. Despite the potential of Gauss-Bonnet models in predicting favourable power spectra, capable of greatly lowering the tensor-to-scalar-ratio compared to now-disfavoured models of standard chaotic inflation, it is important to also understand in what context it is possible for post-inflationary (p)reheating to proceed and hence recover an acceptable late-time cosmology. We argue that in the previously-studied inverse power law coupling case, reheating cannot happen due to a lack of oscillatory solutions for the inflaton, and that neither instant preheating nor gravitational particle production would avoid this problem due to the persistence of the inflaton's energy density, even if it were to partially decay. Hence we proceed to define a minimal generalisation of the model which can permit perturbative reheating and study the consequences of th...

  2. Reheating in Gauss-Bonnet-coupled inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the feasibility of models of inflation with a large Gauss-Bonnet coupling at late times, which have been shown to modify and prevent the end of inflation. Despite the potential of Gauss-Bonnet models in predicting favorable power spectra, capable of greatly lowering the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared to now-disfavored models of standard chaotic inflation, it is important to also understand in what context it is possible for postinflationary (p)reheating to proceed and hence recover an acceptable late-time cosmology. We argue that in the previously studied inverse power law coupling case, reheating cannot happen due to a lack of oscillatory solutions for the inflaton, and that neither instant preheating nor gravitational particle production would avoid this problem due to the persistence of the inflaton's energy density, even if it were to partially decay. Hence we proceed to define a minimal generalization of the model which can permit perturbative reheating and study the consequences of this, including heavily modified dynamics during reheating and predictions of the power spectra.

  3. Kilplaste töö ei lõpe kunagi / Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreutzwald, Friedrich Reinhold, 1803-1882

    2009-01-01

    Peatükk "Kilplased muretsevad nõukogu maja jaoks palkisid / Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald" lugemikust: Eesti Kooli Lugemiseraamat. 1. jagu. Tallinn : Eesti-kubermangu Kooliõpetajate Vastastikku Abiandmise Selts, 1914

  4. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  5. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  6. A Gauss-Kusmin theorem for optimal continued fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajani, K.; Kraaikamp, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the first – and still one of the most important – results in the metrical theory of continued fractions is the so-called Gauss-Kusmin theorem. Let – and let – be the regular continued fraction (RCF) expansion of – then it was observed by Gauss in 1800 that -

  7. Scalar modified Bessel-Gauss beams and waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, S R

    2007-09-01

    For modified Bessel-Gauss beams, the modulating function for the Gaussian, instead of a Bessel function of real argument, is a Bessel function of imaginary argument. The modified Bessel-Gauss beams and their full wave generalizations are treated with particular attention to the spreading properties on propagation for the azimuthal mode numbers m=0 and m=1. The spreading on propagation of the peak and the null in the radiation pattern obtained in the propagation direction for m=0 and m=1, respectively, is substantially less for the modified Bessel-Gauss waves than that for the corresponding Bessel-Gauss waves. The total power transported by the waves is determined and compared with that of the corresponding paraxial beam to assess the quality of the paraxial beam approximation for the wave. The powers in the Bessel-Gauss wave and the modified Bessel-Gauss wave are finite in contrast to that in the Bessel wave. With respect to both the spreading properties and the quality of the paraxial beam approximation, the modified Bessel-Gauss beam is an improvement over the Bessel-Gauss beam.

  8. Electromagnetic modified Bessel-Gauss beams and waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, S R

    2008-01-01

    The transverse magnetic (TM) modified Bessel-Gauss beams and their full-wave generalizations are treated. Attention is paid to the spreading properties on propagation of the null in the radiation intensity pattern for the azimuthal mode numbers m=0 and 1. The rate of spreading of the null in the propagation direction is significantly less for the TM modified Bessel-Gauss waves than those for the corresponding TM Bessel-Gauss waves. The total power transported by the waves is determined and compared with that of the corresponding paraxial beam to estimate the quality of the paraxial beam approximation of the wave. The dependence of the quality of the paraxial beam approximation on the azimuthal mode number, the beam shape parameter, and the ratio of the beam waist to the wavelength has a regular pattern for the TM Bessel-Gauss wave and not for the TM modified Bessel-Gauss wave.

  9. Parallel multigrid smoothing: polynomial versus Gauss-Seidel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark; Brezina, Marian; Hu, Jonathan; Tuminaro, Ray

    2003-07-01

    Gauss-Seidel is often the smoother of choice within multigrid applications. In the context of unstructured meshes, however, maintaining good parallel efficiency is difficult with multiplicative iterative methods such as Gauss-Seidel. This leads us to consider alternative smoothers. We discuss the computational advantages of polynomial smoothers within parallel multigrid algorithms for positive definite symmetric systems. Two particular polynomials are considered: Chebyshev and a multilevel specific polynomial. The advantages of polynomial smoothing over traditional smoothers such as Gauss-Seidel are illustrated on several applications: Poisson's equation, thin-body elasticity, and eddy current approximations to Maxwell's equations. While parallelizing the Gauss-Seidel method typically involves a compromise between a scalable convergence rate and maintaining high flop rates, polynomial smoothers achieve parallel scalable multigrid convergence rates without sacrificing flop rates. We show that, although parallel computers are the main motivation, polynomial smoothers are often surprisingly competitive with Gauss-Seidel smoothers on serial machines.

  10. Numerical Studies of the Gauss Lattice Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    The difference between the number of lattice points N(R) that lie in x^2 + y^2 ≤ R^2 and the area of that circle, d(R) = N(R) - πR^2, can be bounded by |d(R)| ≤ KR^θ. Gauss showed that this holds for θ = 1, but the least value for which it holds is an open problem in number theory. We have sought numerical evidence by tabulating N(R) up to R ≈ 55,000. From the convex hull bounding log |d(R)| versus log R we obtain the bound θ ≤ 0.575, which is significantly better than the best analyti...

  11. Karl Barth and the future of dogmatic theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair I.C. Heron

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Karl Barth’s contribution to dogmatic theology. It describes Karl Barth’s personality and shows how his theology was put to practice in writing, in teaching, in debate, in conflict, in friendship and in opposition. Some negative comments on Barth are for example levelled at his liturgical insensitivity, unbalanced and exclusive emphasis on preaching, and his individualistic dislike of the established church, its governing structures and baptismal practice. The article focuses on Barth’s impulses for the discipline of dogmatics and demonstrates developments and directions in his work. Critically reservations regarding instances where it might seem better for theologians not to follow Barth, are  specified.    The  article  also  offers  a  glimpse  into  the  future  of  dogmatic theology seen through the lens of Karl Barth.

  12. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - physicist and philosopher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the philosopher Carl Friedrich von weizsäcker, especially under the aspect of the relation between physics and philosophy in his works. The decisive role of time in physics as well as in philosophy is described, and thereof is derived the comprehension of probability as a predicted relative frequency. Consequently quantum mechanics is interpreted as a theory of probability that uses "quantum logic" instead of classical propositional logic that is used in "normal" probability. The philosophical fruit of that is the interpretation of potentiality as the modality of the future. Weizsäcker's proposals for a justification of physics a priori are dealt with as well as his approach to a theory of "ur-objects", which are atoms in the strictest sense: q-bits.--Questions of Weizsäcker's personality are addressed: His role in the development of the nuclear reactor and atomic bomb in Nazi time, his enthusiasm and his religiousness as well as his efforts towards world peace.

  13. Constructing Marxism: Karl Kautsky and the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2009-01-01

    Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...

  14. Mozart, Karl Barth, og den kristne troslæren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ......En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ...

  15. The Gauss-Seidel Numerical Procedure for Markov Stochastic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    assumptions on the nondegeneracy of the diffusion in [6]. To date, there have not been proofs of the convergence of the Gauss- Seidel method for...Taking the sup inf in (2.3) is equivalent to solving a ma- trix game. Except for this sup inf, it is just the standard Gauss- Seidel method for iteratively...control and games for finite-state Markov chain models via value it- eration, the Gauss- Seidel method is faster than the Ja- cobi procedure. The proof of

  16. Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Tatsuaki, E-mail: wada@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2011-05-16

    Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles. - Highlights: Nonextensive entropies are derived from Gauss' principle and ensemble equivalence. Gauss' principle is generalized for a q-exponential distribution. I have found the condition for satisfying Greene-Callen principle. The associated statistical q-entropy is found to be normalized Tsallis entropy.

  17. A Study of Gauss-Seidel-Type Methods for Simulating Large-Scale Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    standard Gauss-Seidel and of a modified Gauss- Seidel method with prediction are compared; and a new modified Gauss- Seidel method is proposed which...the timing analysis of MOS circuits. Keywords include: Integrated Circuits; Time-domain simulation of MOS LSI circuits; and Gauss- Seidel Method .

  18. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  19. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  20. "Art, Imagination, Storytelling": An Interview with Karl Kroeber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karl Kroeber that was originally published in "English Department Updates" (Fall 2009), a semiannual alumni newsletter of the Columbia University Department of English & Comparative Literature. In this interview, Kroeber, who taught at Columbia for 57 years, discusses the range of courses he…

  1. Chef's Signature - Karl Breen, Locks Brasserie, Dublin : Video

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    12 Hour Octopus, Black Garlic, Calamansi Mayo, Tamarind and Salted Celeriac is one of the dishes on Karl Breen's menu at Locks Brasserie in Dublin, and it's a dish that shows a cook in control of his art. Reproduced with kind permission from John & Sally McKenna. 3.16 mins

  2. Kokast ja Eesti Naisest / Karl Martin Sinijärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Sisaldab retsepte: Ilmar Laabani lintnuudlid põdralihaga ; Jan Kausi krevetipasta ; Kauksi Ülle liharullid ; Jürgen Rooste banaanikana ; KMSi [Karl Martin Sinijärve] öine lugemisliud ; Asko Künnapi suvikõrvits ; Ilmar Laabani Margarita

  3. KARL MAYER——We Care about Your Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As one of the leading manufacturers of warp knitting and warp preparation machines,KARL MAYER will be presenting at this year's ITMA 2011 in Barcelona.For the first time,all the company's business units will be represented on the same stand in hall 3,stand B 153-157,on an area of 1400 square-meter.

  4. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  5. The Reference Process and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to reference process: process is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. Reference interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…

  6. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, K

    2002-01-01

    Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading. If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and (peer) review, they would seriously hamper progress.

  7. Karl XII rootsi kirjanduses / Anu Saluäär

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saluäär, Anu, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Valikuline ülevaade Karl XII-st rootsi kirjanduses: Israel Holmström, Esaias Tegner, Zacharias Topelius, Carl Snoilsky, Anders Fryxell, Verner von Heidenstam, Harald Hiärne, Frans G. Bengtsson. Sisaldab märkusi joonealustes viidetes

  8. The madness of Dionysus: a neurosurgical perspective on Friedrich Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Christopher M; Schaller, Carlo; Binder, Devin K

    2007-09-01

    To examine the possibility that an intracranial mass may have been the etiology of the headaches and neurological findings of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and the cause of his ultimate mental collapse in 1889. The authors conducted a comprehensive English and German language literature search on the topic of Nietzsche's health and illness, examining Nietzsche's own writings, medical notes from his physicians, contemporary medical literature, biographical texts, and past attempts at pathography. We also examined archived portraits and engravings of the philosopher from 1864 onward. An English language search in the modern literature on the topic of psychiatric presentations of intracranial mass lesions was also conducted. From his late 20s onward, Nietzsche experienced severe, generally right-sided headaches. He concurrently suffered a progressive loss of vision in his right eye and developed cranial nerve findings that were documented on neurological examinations in addition to a disconjugate gaze evident in photographs. His neurological findings are consistent with a right-sided frontotemporal mass. In 1889, Nietzsche also developed a new-onset mania which was followed by a dense abulia, also consistent with a large frontal tumor. A close examination of Nietzsche's symptomatic progression and neurological signs reveals a clinical course consistent with a large, slow growing, right-sided cranial base lesion, such as a medial sphenoid wing meningioma. Aspects of his presentation seem to directly contradict the diagnosis of syphilis, which has been the standard explanation of Nietzsche's madness. The meningioma hypothesis is difficult, though not impossible, to prove; imaging studies of Nietzsche's remains could reveal the bony sequelae of such a lesion.

  9. Charged black hole solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-massive gravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S; Panah, B Eslam

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by high interest in the close relation between string theory and black hole solutions, in this paper, we take into account the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian in the context of massive gravity...

  10. Bessel–Gauss resonator with internal amplitude filter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a conventional resonator configuration, using only spherical curvature optical elements, for the generation of Bessel–Gauss beams. This is achieved through the deployment of a suitable amplitude filter at a Fourier plane...

  11. Student understanding of symmetry and Gauss's law of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field, and electric flux which are important for applying Gauss's law. The determination of the electric field using Gauss's law requires determining the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and predicting the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. Effective application of Gauss's law implicitly requires understanding the principle of superposition for electric fields. Helping students learn when Gauss's law can be readily applied to determine the strength of the electric field, and then helping them learn to determine the appropriate shape of Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists, can help develop their reasoning and problem-solving skills. We administered free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual students using a think-aloud protocol to elucidate the difficulties that students have...

  12. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Coverings and integrability of the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi equations

    CERN Document Server

    Krasilchchik, I; Krasil'shchik, Joseph; Marvan, Michal

    1998-01-01

    Using covering theory approach (zero-curvature representations with the gauge group SL2), we insert the spectral parameter into the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi equations in Tchebycheff and geodesic coordinates. For each choice, four integrable systems are obtained.

  14. Formalism of operators for Laguerre-Gauss modes

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, A L F; Pazetti, M; Lopes, C E F

    2011-01-01

    In this work apply the algebra of operators of quantum mechanics in the Helmholtz wave equation in cylindrical coordinates in paraxial approximation to describe the raising and lowering operators for the Laguerre-Gauss modes.

  15. Holographic phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The Van der Waals-like phase transition is observed in temperature-thermal entropy plane in spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole background. In terms of AdS/CFT, the non-local observables such as holographic entanglement entropy, Wilson loop, and two point correlation function of very heavy operators in the field theory dual to spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole have been investigated. All of them exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition for a fixed charge parameter or Gauss-Bonnet parameter in such gravity background. Further, with choosing various values of charge or Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the equal area law and the critical exponent of the heat capacity are found to be consistent with that in temperature-thermal entropy plane.

  16. On thermodynamics second law in the modified Gauss Bonnet gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Sadjadi, H. Mohseni

    2010-01-01

    The second law and the generalized second law of thermodynamics in cosmology in the framework of the modified Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity are investigated. The conditions upon which these laws hold are derived and discussed.

  17. Indeterminacy points for superposed Yukawa and Gauss potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, J.; Sharma, L.K. (Government Engineering Coll., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1981-04-01

    Eigenenergy expansion for the superposition of Yukawa and Gauss potentials for calculating the first indeterminacy points is derived. Behaviour of Regge trajectories for the superposed potential is also studied.

  18. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. On thermodynamics second law in Gauss Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, H Mohseni

    2010-01-01

    Validity of the second and the generalized second law of thermodynamics in cosmology in the frame work of Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity is investigated. The necessary conditions upon which these laws hold are derived and discussed.

  20. Several differences between Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' philosophy thoughts%论马克思和恩格斯哲学思想的几点区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何中华

    2004-01-01

    正视马克思同恩格斯在思想上尤其在哲学思想上的区别,对于恢复马克思和恩格斯各自思想的本来面目,无疑具有积极的意义.马克思和恩格斯在哲学上的区别主要表现在:1."超验"视野与"经验"视野的分别;2."存在决定意识"与"物质决定精神"的不同;3.大写的"真理"与小写的"真理"的距离;4."彼岸"的"自由王国"与"此岸"的"自由王国"的差异;5.马克思与恩格斯之间个性分野及其影响.

  1. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's Views on Goethe and Schiller%马克思恩格斯论歌德和席勒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凯华

    2010-01-01

    歌德和席勒同是18世纪德国狂飙运动的主将和启蒙主义文学的代表,被公认为德国文学史上的双子星座.马克思、恩格斯在他们的有关文章和书信中谈论过这两位伟大的作家,其主要内容:一是用美学的和历史的观点精辟地论述了歌德世界观和创作的两重性;二是明确肯定席勒的早期创作和的意义和价值,指出前者"歌颂一个向全社会公开宣战的豪侠青年",后者是"德国第一部有政治倾向的戏剧".同时对"席勒式"的唯心主义的观念化的创作倾向进行了批评,提出了要"莎士比亚化"不要"席勒式"两种不同的美学范式.

  2. 论马克思和恩格斯对民族主义的态度%The Attitude of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels towards Nationalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孝刚

    2016-01-01

    马克思主义对民族问题的理解是一套逻辑严密的理论体系,它不是僵化的理论,而是立足于具体的革命阶段、用历史的和发展的眼光来看待民族和民族主义.马克思和恩格斯对波兰和南方斯拉夫人的区别对待,充分表明马克思和恩格斯对具体的民族主义运动的评判标准是它是否有利于社会进步和无产阶级革命的实现.

  3. Karl Popper Y Friedrich Hayek: una luz sobre la naturaleza, objeto y método de la administración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Gallego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el reconocimiento de la existencia de un conocimiento objetivo sin sujeto cognoscente, propio del llamado “tercer mundo” poperiano, en primera instancia se intenta someter a examen el discurso administrativo –en tanto sistema de conocimientos– para determinar hasta qué punto es susceptible de ser construido mediante un método válido, con lo cual se aspira a establecer una discusión en torno a su naturaleza. En un segundo momento, se continúa con la presentación del método que Popper reclama para las ciencias sociales en general, devenido de la economía, el cual sería también el apropiado para nuestra disciplina. Finalmente, se pretende delimitar un objeto de estudio propio de dicho sistema de conocimientos, a partir de la diferencia que F. Hayek establece entre los órdenes sociales artificiales y espontáneos.

  4. Noether Symmetry Approach in Gauss-Bonnet Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the Noether Symmetry Approach in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet cosmology showing that the functional form of the $F(R, {\\cal G})$ function, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and ${\\cal G}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant, can be determined by the presence of symmetries. Besides, the method allows to find out exact solutions due to the reduction of cosmological dynamical system and the presence of conserved quantities. Some specific cosmological models are worked out

  5. Some projective properties of Gauss conformal representation; Alcune proprieta` proiettive della rappresentazione conforme di Gauss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminti, Paolo [Istituto Tecnico Statale Commerciale e per Geometri ``P. Calamandrei``, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    Some geometric implications of Gauss representation are reported, showing how north coordinate and linear deformation module may be considered generated through the projection of the points on the ellipsoidal surface by means of corresponding normal lines over the cylinder tangent to the zone central meridian. This consideration permits to limit the formal complexity of coordinates calculations by allowing the use of finite increments methods which result particularly suitable in computer aided solutions. This work illustrates a simplified method and the precision that may be obtained in comparison with usual algorithms.

  6. Kroonupatriotism või rahvuslik mõtlemine? Friedrich Nikolai Russowi ja Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi Krimmi sõja ainelised teosed / Ljubov Kisseljova ; venekeelsest käsikirjast tõlkinud Mall Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kisseljova, Ljubov, 1950-

    2016-01-01

    Analüüsitakse kahe rahvusliku liikumise varase etapi kirjamehe, Friedrich Nikolai Russowi ja Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi Krimmi sõja aineliste tekstide pragmaatikat. Tekstid on: Tallinna koddaniko ramat omma söbbradele male (Tallinn, 1854-1857), Russowi poeem "Söalaul" (1854), Kreutzwaldi poeem "Sõda" (1854)

  7. Kroonupatriotism või rahvuslik mõtlemine? Friedrich Nikolai Russowi ja Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi Krimmi sõja ainelised teosed / Ljubov Kisseljova ; venekeelsest käsikirjast tõlkinud Mall Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kisseljova, Ljubov, 1950-

    2016-01-01

    Analüüsitakse kahe rahvusliku liikumise varase etapi kirjamehe, Friedrich Nikolai Russowi ja Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi Krimmi sõja aineliste tekstide pragmaatikat. Tekstid on: Tallinna koddaniko ramat omma söbbradele male (Tallinn, 1854-1857), Russowi poeem "Söalaul" (1854), Kreutzwaldi poeem "Sõda" (1854)

  8. Product and Quotient of Independent Gauss Hypergeometric Variables Producto y Cociente de Variables Independientes Hipergeométrica de Gauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bedoya Valencia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have derived the probability density functions of the productand the quotient of two independent random variables having Gauss hypergeometricdistribution. These densities have been expressed in terms of Appell'srst hypergeometric function F1. Further, Renyi and Shannon entropies havealso been derived for the Gauss hypergeometric distribution.En este artículo, hemos derivado las funciones de densidad de probabilidad del producto y el cociente de dos variables aleatorias independientes que tienen una distribución hipergeométrica de Gauss. Estas densidades se han expresada en términos de la primera función hipergeométrica de Appell F1. Además, entropías Rényi y Shannon también se han derivado de la distribución hipergeométrica de Gauss

  9. Sternschnuppen und Erdmagnetismus, ein von Alexander von Humboldt und Carl Friedrich Gauß während der Universitätsfeierlichkeiten in Göttingen im September 1837 initiiertes Projekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn September 1837 the centennial celebrations of Göttingen university took place; Alexander von Humboldt, who visited Göttingen for this purpose, and Carl Friedrich Gauss created the project: Do showers of meteors influence the terrestrial magnetic phaenomena, comparable to the aurora borealis? The investigation should take place in November 1837, when strong meteor showers were once again expected. In this context the letter of Humboldt to Gauss from November 30, 1837 is of great importance; in this letter two enclosures were mentioned which still exist, but which were not presented in the edition of the letters between Humboldt and Gauss.One of these enclosures is a letter from Boguslawski to Humboldt from November 15, 1837, on which Humboldt made several remarks. Boguslawski was astronomer at the observatory of Breslau. The other enclosure was a document, containing the observation data of Humboldt and Herter, which were made in Berlin during November 12 to 15 and 21. These two documents together with the historical context are presented here for the first time, accompanied by the report by Gerling on meteor showers observed in Marburg from November 12 to 14.ZusammenfassungWährend der im September 1837 in Göttingen stattfindenden Universitätsfeierlichkeiten initiierten Alexander von Humboldt und Carl Friedrich Gauß gemeinsam ein Projekt; es ging dabei um die Frage, ob Sternschnuppen die erdmagnetischen Erscheinungen beeinflussen würden, dem Nordlicht vergleichbar. Dies sollte im folgenden November, anlässlich des zu erwartenden großen Sternschnuppenschauers, überprüft werden.Im Zentrum dieser Untersuchung steht der Brief von Alexander von Humboldt an Gauß vom 30. November 1837 (Briefwechsel Humboldt-Gauß, S. 63–65; in diesem wurden zwei Beilagen bzw. Anlagen angesprochen, die zwar noch existieren, die aber bei der Ausgabe des Humboldt-Gaußschen Briefwechsels fast ganz unberücksichtigt blieben. Es handelt sich erstens

  10. Kuninganna Kristiina ning kunungas Karl XI : rootsiaegsed portreed raekojas = Queen Christina and King Karl XI : portraits of the Swedish period in the Town Hall / Pia Ehasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehasalu, Pia, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Kuninganna Kristiina portreest lapsena (1638). Arvatav autor: Rootsi tolleaegne õuekunstnik Jacob Heinrich Elbfas või tema töökoda. Rootsi kuninga Karl XI noorpõlveportreest (1670). Autor: Karl XI õuekunstnik David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl (1628-1698)

  11. Kuninganna Kristiina ning kunungas Karl XI : rootsiaegsed portreed raekojas = Queen Christina and King Karl XI : portraits of the Swedish period in the Town Hall / Pia Ehasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehasalu, Pia, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Kuninganna Kristiina portreest lapsena (1638). Arvatav autor: Rootsi tolleaegne õuekunstnik Jacob Heinrich Elbfas või tema töökoda. Rootsi kuninga Karl XI noorpõlveportreest (1670). Autor: Karl XI õuekunstnik David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl (1628-1698)

  12. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders.

  13. 1st Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings collect the selected contributions of participants of the First Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics, held in Frankfurt, Germany to celebrate the 140th anniversary of Schwarzschild's birth. They are grouped into 4 main themes: I. The Life and Work of Karl Schwarzschild; II. Black Holes in Classical General Relativity, Numerical Relativity, Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Alternative Theories of Gravity; III. Black Holes in Quantum Gravity and String Theory; IV. Other Topics in Contemporary Gravitation. Inspired by the foundational principle ``By acknowledging the past, we open a route to the future",  the week-long meeting, envisioned as a forum for exchange between scientists from all locations and levels of education, drew participants from 15 countries across 4 continents. In addition to plenary talks from leading researchers, a special focus on young talent was provided, a feature underlined by the Springer Prize for the best student and junior presentations.

  14. Karl Raimund Popper: Problem Neopositivistik dan Teori Kritis Falsifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper once criticizes the positivistic paradigm by means of what he calls the theory of falsification. To him, the positivistic paradigm constitutes a failure simply because it cannot distinguish between science and prude science, that is, between empirical method and non-empirical method. In the scientific knowledge, empirical science, mathematics and logic must be differentiated, something that the positivistic paradigm has failed to do. This paradigm furthermore, did not have a clear picture what logic-based science is, empirical knowledge and psychology of knowledge. It also fails to properly understand knowledge that springs from tradition, emotion, authority and so forth. All positivistic paradigms such as that of Karl Max’s Historicism, Freud’s theory of Psycho Analysis, Adler’s theory of Individual Analysis and Newton’s theory of Gravitation fall into this trap of failure.

  15. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  16. Gauss images of hyperbolic cusps with convex polyhedral boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Fillastre, François

    2009-01-01

    We prove that a 3--dimensional hyperbolic cusp with convex polyhedral boundary is uniquely determined by its Gauss image. Furthermore, any spherical metric on the torus with cone singularities of negative curvature and all closed contractible geodesics of length greater than $2\\pi$ is the metric of the Gauss image of some convex polyhedral cusp. This result is an analog of the Rivin-Hodgson theorem characterizing compact convex hyperbolic polyhedra in terms of their Gauss images. The proof uses a variational method. Namely, a cusp with a given Gauss image is identified with a critical point of a functional on the space of cusps with cone-type singularities along a family of half-lines. The functional is shown to be concave and to attain maximum at an interior point of its domain. As a byproduct, we prove rigidity statements with respect to the Gauss image for cusps with or without cone-type singularities. In a special case, our theorem is equivalent to existence of a circle pattern on the torus, with prescrib...

  17. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  18. A Reflective Conversation with Terry Friedrichs on Teaching Academics to Gifted Students with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Terence Paul; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective interview with Terry Friedrichs--a hands-on academic-learning specialist and researcher with gifted students with Asperger Syndrome--he defines these pupils, describes their "straightforward" and confusing traits, and recounts his initial and later instructional experiences with them over several decades. The piece…

  19. Kuressaare Laurentsiuse kirik / Heinrich Löwener, Johann Friedrich Schrader, Urmo Raus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Löwener, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    välis- ja sisevaade; hoone sai nüüdse klassitsistliku välis- ja sisekuju 1836 (Heinrich Löwener), samast ajast on peenike tornikiiver (Johann Friedrich Schrader); altarimaal "Kristus ristil" (1836) - Carl Siegismund Walter; vitraažaknad (2003) - Urmo Raus

  20. The First Red Clausewitz: Friedrich Engels and Early Socialist Military Theory, 1848-1870

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Between the European revolutions of the mid-nineteenth century and the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Friedrich Engels functioned as a writer, analyst...the development of his concepts from his earliest writings until the Franco-Prussian War. This project will demonstrate that Engels possessed a

  1. On H. Friedrich's formulation of Einstein'equations with fluid sources

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.

    2002-01-01

    We establish a variant, which has the advantage of introducing only physical characteristics, of the symmetric quasi linear first order system given by H.\\ Friedrich for the evolution equations of gravitating fluid bodies in General Relativity which can be important to solve realistic problems. We explicit the conditions under which the system is hyperbolic and admits a well posed Cauchy problem.

  2. Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

  3. [Friedrich Theodor Althoff (1859-1908) and the German universities around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerknecht, E H

    1988-05-28

    Usually the diplomat Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) is regarded as the creator of German supremacy in academic, especially medical education. Actually this role was played by the "bureaucrat" Friedrich Althoff (1839-1909), who directed German education from 1882 to 1907. His greatest accomplishment was the selection of the best professors.

  4. A Reflective Conversation with Terry Friedrichs on Teaching Academics to Gifted Students with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Terence Paul; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective interview with Terry Friedrichs--a hands-on academic-learning specialist and researcher with gifted students with Asperger Syndrome--he defines these pupils, describes their "straightforward" and confusing traits, and recounts his initial and later instructional experiences with them over several decades. The piece…

  5. Friedrich Frobel, the Profession of Kindergarten Teacher and the Bourgeois Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Jurgen

    1989-01-01

    Appraises the influence that the bourgeois women's movement had on the development of social service professions. Reports how Friedrich Froebel's kindergartens affected this movement. Notes that Froebel's importance to the bourgeois women's movement lies in his assigning value to a feminine role that already existed. (KO)

  6. Inspiration to Teach--Reflections on Friedrich Froebel and Why He Counts in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Ruth; Campos, David

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the 238th anniversary of Friedrich Froebel's birth, yet his spirit and philosophy of teaching are alive in the hearts and minds of 14 Texas early childhood teachers. In 2006, teacher education students at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), San Antonio, were inspired by Froebel, the founder of early kindergartens. Wanting…

  7. Friedrich Froebel's Gifts: Connecting the Spiritual and Aesthetic to the Real World of Play and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Friedrich Froebel, the German educator and founder of the Kindergarten Movement, developed a series of play materials including geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks designed to teach children about forms and relationships found in nature. Froebel's notions about using activity and play in preschool education complement many…

  8. Venuti’s "foreignization": the legacy of Friedrich Schleiermacher in translation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Snell-Hornby

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the reception of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s main concepts influenced by Lawrence Venuti. Some important aspects of Schleiermacher’s theory that have not been duly considered by the American researcher are discussed.

  9. Kuressaare Laurentsiuse kirik / Heinrich Löwener, Johann Friedrich Schrader, Urmo Raus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Löwener, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    välis- ja sisevaade; hoone sai nüüdse klassitsistliku välis- ja sisekuju 1836 (Heinrich Löwener), samast ajast on peenike tornikiiver (Johann Friedrich Schrader); altarimaal "Kristus ristil" (1836) - Carl Siegismund Walter; vitraažaknad (2003) - Urmo Raus

  10. Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

  11. The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

    2006-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the…

  12. Warm-tachyon Gauss-Bonnet inflation and cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Motaharfar, Maysam

    2016-01-01

    We study a warm-tachyon inflationary model non-minimally coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet term. The general conditions required for reliability of the model are obtained by considerations of a combined hierarchy of Hubble and Gauss-Bonnet flow functions. The perturbed equations are derived in the longitudinal gauge in the presence of slow-roll and quasi-stable conditions. General expressions for observable quantities of interest such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are found in the high dissipation regime. Finally, the model is solved using exponential and inverse power-law potentials with parameters of the model being constrained within the framework of the Planck 2015 data. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant controls termination of inflation in such a way as to be in good agreement with Planck 2015 data.

  13. Gravitational perfect fluid collapse in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, G.; Tahir, M.

    2017-08-01

    The Einstein Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity is the low-energy limit of heterotic super-symmetric string theory. This paper deals with gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity by considering the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. For this purpose, the closed form of the exact solution of the equations of motion has been determined by using the conservation of the stress-energy tensor and the condition of marginally bound shells. It has been investigated that the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet coupling term α >0 and the pressure of the fluid modifies the structure and time formation of singularity. In this analysis a singularity forms earlier than a horizon, so the end state of the collapse is a naked singularity depending on the initial data. But this singularity is weak and timelike, which goes against the investigation of general relativity.

  14. Bouncing cosmology in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Myagky, Alexandr N; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2014-01-01

    We explore bounce cosmology in $F(\\mathcal{G})$ gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant $\\mathcal{G}$. We reconstruct $F(\\mathcal{G})$ gravity theory to realize the bouncing behavior in the early universe and examine the stability conditions for its cosmological solutions. It is demonstrated that the bouncing behavior with an exponential as well as a power-law scale factor naturally occurs in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We also derive the $F(\\mathcal{G})$ gravity model to produce the ekpyrotic scenario. Furthermore, we construct the bounce with the scale factor composed of a sum of two exponential functions and show that not only the early-time bounce but also the late-time cosmic acceleration can occur in the corresponding modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Also, the bounce and late-time solutions in this unified model is explicitly analyzed.

  15. Magnetic brane solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram; Momennia, Mehrab

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic branes of Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell theory in the context of massive gravity is studied in detail. Exact solutions are obtained and their interesting geometrical properties are investigated. It is argued that although these horizonless solutions are free of curvature singularity, they enjoy a cone-like geometry with a conic singularity. In order to investigate the effects of various parameters on the geometry of conic singularity, its corresponding deficit angle is studied. It will be shown that despite the effects of Gauss-Bonnet gravity on the solutions, deficit angle is free of Gauss-Bonnet parameter. On the other hand, the effects of massive gravity, cosmological constant and electrical charge on the deficit angle will be explored. Also, a brief discussion related to possible geometrical phase transition of these topological objects is given.

  16. Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen

    2011-04-15

    We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.

  17. From Equivalent Linear Equations to Gauss-Markov Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępniak Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gauss-Markov theorem reduces linear unbiased estimation to the Least Squares Solution of inconsistent linear equations while the normal equations reduce the second one to the usual solution of consistent linear equations. It is rather surprising that the second algebraic result is usually derived in a differential way. To avoid this dissonance, we state and use an auxiliary result on equivalence of two systems of linear equations. This places us in a convenient position to attack on the main problems in the Gauss-Markov model in an easy way.

  18. On the Sz\\"usz's Solution to Gauss' Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Lascu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with Gauss' problem on continued fractions. We present a new proof of a theorem which Sz\\"usz applied in order to solve this problem. To be noted, that we obtain the value $0.7594...$ for $q$, which has been optimized by Sz\\"usz in his 1961 paper "\\"Uber einen Kusminschen Satz", where the value 0.485 is obtained for $q$. In our proof, we make use of an important property of the Perron-Frobenius operator of $\\tau$ under $\\gamma$, where $\\tau$ is the continued fraction transformation, and $\\gamma$ is the Gauss' measure.

  19. Lorentz-to-Gauss multiplication (LGM) in FT NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhiyanov, N. [Production Association ``Nizhnekamskneftekhym``, Nizhnekamsk, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Kupka, T. [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland)]|[Zaklad Fizyki Ciala Stalego, Polska Akademia Nauk, Zabrze (Poland); Pasterna, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Dziegielewski, J.O. [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    High resolution proton and carbon NMR spectra of macromolecules and biomolecules are often overcrowded and with many partly overlapped signals. Several data processing methods to resolve partly overlapped NMR peaks have been reported. Among the Lorentz-to-Gauss and CDRE (Convulsion Difference Resolution Enhancement) methods are wide used. In this work calculation of the best set of parameters were carried out from a raw spectral data (initial FID and the corresponding untreated spectrum) and a method of prediction of optimal Lorentz-to-Gauss method parameters are suggested. The feasibility of this approach to improve the quality of NMR spectra from various resonating nuclei was shown too. 8 refs, 1 fig.

  20. Gauss-Bonnet's Theorem and Closed Frenet Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    curves are found using Gauss-Bonnet's Theorem after cutting the curve into simple closed sub-curves. At this point an error in the litterature is corrected. If the spherecal curve is the tangent indicatrix of a space-curve we obtain a new short proof of a formula for integrated torsion presented...

  1. On the pure Gauss-Bonnet vacuum solution

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    For the matter fields remaining confined to the usual four dimensional spacetime, if the gravitational dynamics in higher dimensions is purely governed by the Gauss-Bonnet vacuum equation, it turns out that it has non flat solution for spherically symmetric spacetime only in five dimensions. Does it indicate that the gravity cannot go beyond five dimensions?

  2. On Equalities for BLUEs under Misspecified Gauss-Markov Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ge TIAN

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies relationships between the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) of an estimable parametric functions Kβ under the Gauss-Markov model {y, Xβ, σ~22∑} and its misspecified model {y, X_0β, σ~2∑_0}. In addition, relationships between BLUEs under a restricted Ganss-Markov model and its misspecified model are also investigated.

  3. Understanding Gauss's Law Using Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the results from the electrostatics portion of introductory physics are particularly difficult for students to understand and/or believe. For students who have yet to take vector calculus, Gauss's law is far from obvious and may seem more difficult than Coulomb's. When these same students are told that the minimum potential…

  4. Composite Gauss-Legendre Formulas for Solving Fuzzy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two numerical integration rules based on composition of Gauss-Legendre formulas for solving integration of fuzzy numbers-valued functions are investigated in this paper. The methods' constructions are presented and the corresponding convergence theorems are shown in detail. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed algorithms finally.

  5. Gauss-Legendre Sky Pixelization (glesp) for CMB Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Naselsky, P. D.; Verkhodanov, O. V.; Novikov, D. I.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Novikov, I. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chiang, L.-Y.

    A new scheme of sky pixelization is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss-Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done.

  6. Gauss--Legendre Sky Pixelization (GLESP) for CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G; Verkhodanov, O V; Novikov, D I; Turchaninov, V I; Novikov, I D; Christensen, P R

    2003-01-01

    A new scheme of sky pixelization is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss--Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done.

  7. An Exodus II specification for handling gauss points.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David C.; Jortner, Jeffrey N.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2007-11-01

    This report specifies the way in which Gauss points shall be named and ordered when storing them in an EXODUS II file so that they may be properly interpreted by visualization tools. This naming convention covers hexahedra and tetrahedra. Future revisions of this document will cover quadrilaterals, triangles, and shell elements.

  8. The Associated Map of the Nonabelian Gauss-Manin Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ting

    2011-01-01

    The Gauss-Manin connection for nonabelian cohomology spaces is the isomonodromy flow. We write down explicitly the vector fields of the isomonodromy flow and calculate its induced vector fields on the associated graded space of the nonabelian Hogde filtration. The result turns out to be intimately related to the quadratic part of the Hitchin map.

  9. Understanding Gauss's Law Using Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the results from the electrostatics portion of introductory physics are particularly difficult for students to understand and/or believe. For students who have yet to take vector calculus, Gauss's law is far from obvious and may seem more difficult than Coulomb's. When these same students are told that the minimum potential…

  10. Automatic classification of protein structure by using Gauss integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter; Fain, B.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a method of looking at, analyzing, and comparing protein structures. The topology of a protein is captured by 30 numbers inspired by Vassiliev knot invariants. To illustrate the simplicity and power of this topological approach, we construct a measure (scaled Gauss metric, SGM...

  11. The Affine Complete Hypersurfaces of Constant Gauss-Kronecker Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fu WANG

    2009-01-01

    Given a bounded convex domain Ω with C∞ boundary and a function φ∈ C∞ ( partial deriv Ω), Li-Simon-Chen can construct an Euclidean complete and W-complete convex hypersurface M with constant affine Gauss-Kronecker curvature, and they guess the M is also affine complete. In this paper, we give a confirmation answer.

  12. CLOSED FORM OF THE STEERED ELONGATED HERMITE-GAUSS WAVELETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Campisi, Patrizio; Petkov, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    We provide a closed form, both in the spatial and in the frequency domain, of a family of wavelets which arise from steering elongated Hermite-Gauss filters. These wavelets have interesting mathematical properties, as they form new dyadic families of eigenfunctions of the 2D Fourier transform, and

  13. El racionalismo crítico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Delio Machado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, pretende acercar algunos de los aspectos más importantes del pensamiento de uno de los filósofos más destacados de nuestro tiempo: Sir Karl Popper. Su presencia atraviesa nuestro siglo, presentándose como una de las voces visionarias y anticipadoras que se alzaron críticamente, contra toda actitud o acción que estuviese fundada en lo dogmático y que tuviese como finalidad, el olvido o la superación del individuo, aunque dicho olvido estuviese "justificado" por oraculares "bienes o fines superiores". (... 

  14. Karl Nagel : Pain things = Pain things / Eha Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Eha, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Maali- ja videokunstnik Karl Nagelist kui probleemsest nüüdisaegsest kunstnikust, kes võtab provokatiivseid positsioone ideoloogiate ja poliitika küsimustes. Tema kunstnikupositsioon keerleb terrorismi, fašismi ja natsionalismi ümber, dissidendi positsioonile asununa on ta käsitlenud surma ja vägivalla teemat (Tšetšeenia sõda) ja üritanud sõna võtta ka kodanikuvabaduste laiendamise nimel. Sotsiaalse tegelikkuse ja kunsti vastandlikkuse küsimuses on ta võtnud nulltoleratsi taotleva seisukoha, võrdlemata kunsti tegelikkusega

  15. Karl Nagel : Pain things = Pain things / Eha Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Eha, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Maali- ja videokunstnik Karl Nagelist kui probleemsest nüüdisaegsest kunstnikust, kes võtab provokatiivseid positsioone ideoloogiate ja poliitika küsimustes. Tema kunstnikupositsioon keerleb terrorismi, fašismi ja natsionalismi ümber, dissidendi positsioonile asununa on ta käsitlenud surma ja vägivalla teemat (Tšetšeenia sõda) ja üritanud sõna võtta ka kodanikuvabaduste laiendamise nimel. Sotsiaalse tegelikkuse ja kunsti vastandlikkuse küsimuses on ta võtnud nulltoleratsi taotleva seisukoha, võrdlemata kunsti tegelikkusega

  16. Karl pearson the scientific life in a statistical age

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, Theodore M

    2010-01-01

    Karl Pearson, founder of modern statistics, came to this field by way of passionate early studies of philosophy and cultural history as well as ether physics and graphical geometry. His faith in science grew out of a deeply moral quest, reflected also in his socialism and his efforts to find a new basis for relations between men and women. This biography recounts Pearson's extraordinary intellectual adventure and sheds new light on the inner life of science. Theodore Porter's intensely personal portrait of Pearson extends from religious crisis and sexual tensions to metaphysical and even m

  17. [Friedrich Nietzsche: history of his illness. On the 100th anniversary of the death of the poet-philosopher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J

    2000-04-01

    The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was one of the most famous patients in the psychiatric hospital Jena. Between 1889 and 1890, Otto Binswanger und Theodor Ziehen treated the progressive paralysis of Friedrich Nietzsche whose 100th anniversary of death is on 25th August 2000. After Nietzsche's death, an animated discussion about his disease arose. Many objected against the syphilitic diagnosis of the disease. Nietzsche's medical fill became a popular object of science, although it ended as a very odd story.

  18. A biographical note on Max Friedrich (1856-1887), Wundt's first PhD student in experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Cezary W

    2004-01-01

    This article unveils some previously unknown facts about the short life of Max Friedrich (1856-1887), the author in 1881 of the first PhD dissertation on experimental psychology, written under the supervision of Wilhelm Wundt: "On the Duration of Apperception for Simple and Complex Visual Stimuli." The article describes Friedrich's family background and life, professional career as a teacher, and works in psychology and mathematics.

  19. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  20. On the Choquet-Bruhat-York-Friedrich formulation of the Einstein-Euler equations

    CERN Document Server

    Disconzi, Marcelo M

    2013-01-01

    Short-time existence for the Einstein-Euler and the vacuum Einstein equations is proven using a Friedrich inspired formulation due to Choquet-Bruhat and York, where the system is cast into a symmetric hyperbolic form and the Riemann tensor is treated as one of the fundamental unknowns of the problem. The reduced system of Choquet-Bruhat and York, along with the preservation of the gauge, is shown to imply the full Einstein equations.

  1. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space.

  2. Reaction rates between water and the Karl Fischer reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1974-04-01

    Reaction rates between water and the Karl Fischer reagent have been determined by potentiometric measurement for various compositions of the Karl Fischer reagent. The study has been made with an iodine complex concentration of 0.3-1.2 mM and sulphur dioxide complex at 0.01-0.5M. The concentration of excess of pyridine had no measurable effect on the rate of the main reaction. The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to iodine complex, to sulphur dioxide complex, and to water. The rate constant was (1.2+/-0.2) x 10(3) 1(2). mole(-2). sec(-1). In an ordinary titration it is therefore essential to keep the sulphur dioxide concentration high for the reaction to go to completion within a reasonable time. The extent of side-reactions was found to be independent of the iodine concentration at low concentrations. The side-reactions increased somewhat with increasing sulphur dioxide pyridine concentrations and decreased to about 60% when the temperature was lowered from 24 degrees to 7 degrees.

  3. Karl Barth’s epistemology: A critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël P. Veldsman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Can the great 20th century systematic theologian Karl Barth justify the fundamental beliefs he holds regarding the priority of God’s revelation in Jesus Christ as put forward in his impressive and comprehensive Kirchliche Dogmatik? Is it enough and thus theologically justifiable to simply state in the words of Barth that the best theology would need no advocates: it would prove itself? In my appraisal of Barth’s epistemological stance, I would like to argue in this article that his stance in the first place, does not only lead to a total isolation of theological reflection, but secondly through his highly exclusive claim, takes on the character of a personal religious credo expanded into a comprehensive doctrine beyond any form of control, and ultimately thirdly, becomes methodologically in essence a specifically Barthian theology from below. Wenn die Theologie sich eine Wissenschaft nennen lässt oder selber nennt, so kann sie damit keinerlei Verpflictung übernehmen, sich an den für andere Wissenschaften gültigen Massstäbem messen zu lassen. (Karl Barth 1947:8

  4. German Astronomer Karl Menten Is 2007 Jansky Awardee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Associated Universities, Inc., (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have awarded the 2007 Karl G. Jansky Lectureship to Professor Karl M. Menten of the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany. The Jansky Lectureship is an honor established by the trustees of AUI to recognize outstanding contributions to the advancement of astronomy. Karl M. Menten Professor Karl M. Menten CREDIT: NRAO/AUI Click on image for high-resolution file (433 KB) Professor Menten is an extraordinarily productive scientist whose research has improved our fundamental understanding in a number of areas of astronomy. He has studied the chemistry of molecular clouds from which new stars are formed, the process of star formation in our own Milky Way Galaxy and in the early Universe, and the outer atmospheres of stars nearing the end of their "normal" lives. In 1991, Menten used NRAO's 140-foot Telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia, to discover strong radio emission from methanol masers in star-forming regions. These masers amplify, or strengthen, radio emission the same way a laser amplifies visible-light emission. Menten developed the observation of these methanol masers into a powerful tool for studying the formation of stars much more massive than our Sun, because the strong maser emission points astronomers to the stellar birthplaces. In addition, Menten pioneered the use of ultra-high-resolution observations with NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array to observe masers to make precision determinations of the structure, size and dynamics of the Milky Way. Menten received his doctoral degree in 1987 from the University of Bonn, Germany. He then joined the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, working there until 1996, when he became the Director for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy. In addition to that position, he also has been a Professor for Experimental Astrophysics at the University of Bonn since

  5. Noether symmetries in Gauss-Bonnet-teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita' di Napoli' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Goethe University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt (Germany); Laboratory of Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR), Tomsk (Russian Federation); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Universita' di Napoli' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    A generalized teleparallel cosmological model, f(T{sub G},T), containing the torsion scalar T and the teleparallel counterpart of the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant T{sub G}, is studied in the framework of the Noether symmetry approach. As f(G, R) gravity, where G is the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant and R is the Ricci curvature scalar, exhausts all the curvature information that one can construct from the Riemann tensor, in the same way, f(T{sub G},T) contains all the possible information directly related to the torsion tensor. In this paper, we discuss how the Noether symmetry approach allows one to fix the form of the function f(T{sub G},T) and to derive exact cosmological solutions. (orig.)

  6. Bounce Loop Quantum Cosmology Corrected Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Haro, J; Myagky, A N; Odintsov, S D; Oikonomou, V K

    2015-01-01

    We develop a Gauss-Bonnet extension of Loop Quantum Cosmology, by introducing holonomy corrections in modified $F(\\mathcal{G})$ theories of gravity. Within the context of our formalism, we provide a perturbative expansion in the critical density, a parameter characteristic of Loop Quantum Gravity theories, and we result in having leading order corrections to the classical $F(\\mathcal{G})$ theories of gravity. After extensively discussing the formalism, we present a reconstruction method that makes possible to find the Loop Quantum Cosmology corrected $F(\\mathcal{G})$ theory that can realize various cosmological scenarios. Specifically, we studied exponential and power-law bouncing cosmologies, emphasizing on the behavior near the bouncing point and in some cases, the behavior for all the values of the cosmic time is obtained. We exemplify our theoretical constructions by using bouncing cosmologies, and we investigate which Loop Quantum Cosmology corrected Gauss-Bonnet modified gravities can successfully reali...

  7. Symmetric Uniformly Accurate Gauss-Runge-Kutta Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda G. YAKUBU

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Symmetric methods are particularly attractive for solving stiff ordinary differential equations. In this paper by the selection of Gauss-points for both interpolation and collocation, we derive high order symmetric single-step Gauss-Runge-Kutta collocation method for accurate solution of ordinary differential equations. The resulting symmetric method with continuous coefficients is evaluated for the proposed block method for accurate solution of ordinary differential equations. More interestingly, the block method is self-starting with adequate absolute stability interval that is capable of producing simultaneously dense approximation to the solution of ordinary differential equations at a block of points. The use of this method leads to a maximal gain in efficiency as well as in minimal function evaluation per step.

  8. Noether symmetries in Gauss-Bonnet-teleparallel cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F

    2016-01-01

    A generalized teleparallel cosmological model, [Formula: see text], containing the torsion scalar T and the teleparallel counterpart of the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant [Formula: see text], is studied in the framework of the Noether symmetry approach. As [Formula: see text] gravity, where [Formula: see text] is the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant and R is the Ricci curvature scalar, exhausts all the curvature information that one can construct from the Riemann tensor, in the same way, [Formula: see text] contains all the possible information directly related to the torsion tensor. In this paper, we discuss how the Noether symmetry approach allows one to fix the form of the function [Formula: see text] and to derive exact cosmological solutions.

  9. Gauss law constraints on Debye–Hückel screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritesh Kumar Dubey; V J Menon; Madhukar Mishra; Mukesh Kumar Pandey; B K Patra

    2007-09-01

    We demand that the Gauss law at the edge must be obeyed by the electric potential () generated within a neutral plasma/electrolyte of strictly finite size by the introduction of a test charge b. Our proposal has the nice features that total ionic numbers are conserved, the point-Coulomb behaviour of () is guaranteed at short-distance, and accumulation of induced charges near the centre and the surface can be demonstrated rigorously. In contrast, the standard Debye–Hückel potential D() applicable to unbounded plasma has the strange features that the Gauss law cannot be obeyed at the plasma's edge, total ionic numbers themselves are altered, the short-distance Coulomb behaviour has to be imposed by hand, and induced charge appearance at the surface cannot be built-in.

  10. Noether symmetries in Gauss-Bonnet-teleparallel cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F.

    2016-11-01

    A generalized teleparallel cosmological model, f(T_{G},T), containing the torsion scalar T and the teleparallel counterpart of the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant T_{{G}}, is studied in the framework of the Noether symmetry approach. As f({G}, R) gravity, where {G} is the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant and R is the Ricci curvature scalar, exhausts all the curvature information that one can construct from the Riemann tensor, in the same way, f(T_{G},T) contains all the possible information directly related to the torsion tensor. In this paper, we discuss how the Noether symmetry approach allows one to fix the form of the function f(T_{G},T) and to derive exact cosmological solutions.

  11. Noether Symmetries in Gauss-Bonnet-teleparallel cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F

    2016-01-01

    A generalized teleparallel cosmological model, $f(T_\\mathcal{G},T)$, containing the torsion scalar $T$ and the teleparallel counterpart of the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant $T_{\\mathcal{G}}$, is studied in the framework of the Noether Symmetry Approach. As $f(\\mathcal{G}, R)$ gravity, where $\\mathcal{G}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant and $R$ is the Ricci curvature scalar, exhausts all the curvature information that one can construct from the Riemann tensor, in the same way, $f(T_\\mathcal{G},T)$ contains all the possible information directly related to the torsion tensor. In this paper, we discuss how the Noether Symmetry Approach allows to fix the form of the function $f(T_\\mathcal{G},T)$ and to derive exact cosmological solutions.

  12. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new rou...

  13. Electromagnetic Perturbations of Black Holes in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly explores the electromagnetic pert urbations of black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and calculates the quasinormal modes for the 5-dimensional,6-dimensional,7-dimensional,and 8-dimensional black holes.When α increases from zero,the imaginary part of ω will increase accordingly till it reaches a maximum value where it starts to decrease.When α reaches zero,the quasinormal modes will approach their Schwarzschild values.If the Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter α is large enough,the quasinormal modes will bc proportional to α and the oscillation frequency will become high consequently .When L is large enough,the minimum value of -Imω will approach a value too.We calculate that value for different dimensions.

  14. Noncommutative Wormhole Solutions in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamaila Rani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions in the framework of n-dimensional Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Our objective is to find out wormhole solutions that satisfy energy conditions. For this purpose, we consider two frameworks such as Gaussian distributed and Lorentzian distributed noncommutative geometry. Taking into account constant redshift function, we obtain solutions in the form of shape function. The fifth and sixth dimensional solutions with positive as well as negative Gauss-Bonnet coefficient are discussed. Also, we check the equilibrium condition for the wormhole solutions with the help of generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. It is interesting to mention here that we obtain fifth dimensional stable wormhole solutions in both distributions that satisfy the energy conditions.

  15. Holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shancheng; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    We construct the holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss-Bonnet gravity via a Maxwell complex vector field model and investigate the effect of the curvature correction on the superfluid phase transition in the probe limit. We obtain the rich phase structure and find that the higher curvature correction hinders the condensate of the vector field but makes it easier for the appearance of translating point from the second-order transition to the first-order one or for the emergence of the Cave of Winds. Moreover, for the supercurrents versus the superfluid velocity, we observe that our results near the critical temperature are independent of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter and agree well with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction.

  16. Laguerre-Gauss beams versus Bessel beams showdown: peer comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernández, Job; Arroyo-Carrasco, Maximino Luis; Iturbe-Castillo, Marcelo David; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino

    2015-08-15

    We present for the first time a comparison under similar circumstances between Laguerre-Gauss beams (LGBs) and Bessel beams (BB), and show that the former can be a better option for many applications in which BBs are currently used. By solving the Laguerre-Gauss differential equation in the asymptotic limit of a large radial index, we find the parameters to perform a peer comparison, showing that LGBs can propagate quasi-nondiffracting beams within the same region of space where the corresponding BBs do. We also demonstrate that LGBs, which have the property of self-healing, are more robust in the sense that they can propagate further than BBs under similar initial conditions.

  17. Gauss Sum of Index 4: (2) Non-cyclic Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing YANG; Shi Xin LUO; Ke Qin FENG

    2006-01-01

    Assume that m≥2,p is a prime number,(m,p(p-1))=1,-1(∈)(∈)((Z)/m(Z))* and [((z)/m(Z)*:]=4.In this paper,we calculate the value of Gauss sum G(χ)=∑x(F)*qχ(x)ζTp(x) over (F)q,where q=pf,(f)=(ψ)(m)/4,χ is a multiplicative character of (F)q and T is the trace map from (F)q to (F)p.Under our assumptions,C(χ) belongs to the decomposition field K of p in (Q)(ζm) and K is an imaginary quartic abelian number field.When the Galois group Gal(K/(Q)) is cyclic,we have studied this cyclic case in another paper:"Gauss sums of index four:(1) cyclic case" (accepted by Acta Mathematica Sinica,2003).In this paper we deal with the non-cyclic case.

  18. The Gauss map and the dual variety of real-analytic submanifolds in a sphere or in a hyperbolic space

    CERN Document Server

    Urabe, T

    1995-01-01

    We study the Gauss map and the dual variety of a real-analytic immersion of a connected compact real-analytic manifold into a sphere or into a hyperbolic space. The dual variety is defined to be the set of all normal directions of the immersion. First, we show that the image of the Gauss map characterizes the manifold. Also we show that the dual variety characterizes the manifold. Besides, duality of the second fundamental form and some results on degeneration are obtained. This LaTeX file is originally devided into the following 8 files: gauss_root.tex gauss1.tex gauss2.tex gauss3.tex gauss4.tex gauss5.tex gauss_bib.bib gauss_root.bbl. To submit to Algebraic Geometry E-prints, I write these 8 files continuously below.

  19. Convergence analysis of a proximal Gauss-Newton method

    CERN Document Server

    Salzo, Saverio

    2011-01-01

    An extension of the Gauss-Newton algorithm is proposed to find local minimizers of penalized nonlinear least squares problems, under generalized Lipschitz assumptions. Convergence results of local type are obtained, as well as an estimate of the radius of the convergence ball. Some applications for solving constrained nonlinear equations are discussed and the numerical performance of the method is assessed on some significant test problems.

  20. Bounce universe from string-inspired Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Myagky, Alexandr N; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2014-01-01

    We explore the bounce cosmology in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a coupling to a dynamical scalar field. Particularly, the potential and Gauss-Bonnet coupling of the scalar field to realize the cosmological bounce are reconstructed for the scale factor with the hyperbolic and exponential forms. Furthermore, we examine the relation between the bouncing behavior in the string (Jordan) and Einstein frames through the conformal transformation. It is shown that in general, the property of the bounce point in the string frame changes after the frame is moved to the Einstein frame. Moreover, it is found that at the corresponding point in the Einstein frame to that of the cosmological bounce in the string frame, the second derivative of the scale factor has an extreme. In addition, it is demonstrated that at the cosmological bounce time in the Einstein frame, the coupling function of the scalar field to the Gauss-Bonnet invariant exists, although it does not exist in the string frame.

  1. Multiresolution Hilbert Approach to Multidimensional Gauss-Markov Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Taillefumier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the multidimensional stochastic processes involves complex computations in intricate functional spaces. In particular, the diffusion processes, which include the practically important Gauss-Markov processes, are ordinarily defined through the theory of stochastic integration. Here, inspired by the Lévy-Ciesielski construction of the Wiener process, we propose an alternative representation of multidimensional Gauss-Markov processes as expansions on well-chosen Schauder bases, with independent random coefficients of normal law with zero mean and unit variance. We thereby offer a natural multiresolution description of the Gauss-Markov processes as limits of finite-dimensional partial sums of the expansion, that are strongly almost-surely convergent. Moreover, such finite-dimensional random processes constitute an optimal approximation of the process, in the sense of minimizing the associated Dirichlet energy under interpolating constraints. This approach allows for a simpler treatment of problems in many applied and theoretical fields, and we provide a short overview of applications we are currently developing.

  2. Karl Polanyi og utopien om det fri marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers the first comprehensive introduction to Karl Polanyi’s The Great Transformation (TGT) from 1944 written in Danish. Relatively unnoticed by the time of its publication, TGT has since received widespread attention, especially after the rise of economic globalisation and of neo-l...... intellectual history, and its historical significance. The article introduces main themes of TGT and the reception of TGT. At the end, it briefly sketches a ‘Polanyian’ account of the world financial crisis of 2008.......-liberal policies. The thesis of TGT is that the great wars and crisis of Western civilization in the 20th century should be seen against the backdrop of the 19th century’s liberal civilisation. Polanyi argues that the attempt to create a liberal, free market world order was crucial for the later breakdown...

  3. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  4. The origin of art according to Karl von den Steinen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Déléage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of the custom, adopted by ethnologists in the early 20th century, of asking Amerindians of Lowland South America to do drawings in pencil in their notebooks, I explore three forgotten fragments of the history of thinking: the intense debates on the origin of ornaments, opposing an evolutionist and a materialist approach at the end of the 19th century; the theories on the origin of figuration, which I show date back to the important work of Karl von den Steinen regarding the populations of central Brazil; and the publications of ethnologists’ portraits drawn by Indians of the lowlands of South America, a little-known tradition of reverse anthropology serving as a counterpoint to the study of the reception of Amerindian art in Western ethnological literature.

  5. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. van Zyl

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Who is the sinner? The view of Karl Barth The previous article dealt with Barth’s view of the knowledge and real essence of sin, while this one focus on his view of the human being as sinner. In accordance with his christological approach to all theological matters, Barth presents us with a description of the image and character of the sinner as mirrored by the obedient suffering and death of Jesus Christ on the cross in the place of all sinners of all times - past, present and future. The price that God paid in surrendering his only Son to such suffering, indicates the enormous guilt and baseness of every sinner. Every human being is utterly insolvent and can only be delivered from sin through God’s graceful remission of siru

  6. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  7. Karl Heinz Göller (1924-2009: in memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is written in memory of Karl Heinz Göller, Professor of English literature at the Regensburg University, who died in Kelheim near Regensburg on 22nd April 2009. University of Regenburg was founded in 1967, and Göller was the first Dean of its Faculty of Philosophy. For more than 40 years he worked for the development of good contacts betwen the universities of Regensburg and Ljubljana. Since 2000 he was member of the Advisory Committee of the review Acta Neophilologica. In 1983 he founded the Society of German Mediaevalists, one of the leading societies of German scholars from the whole Germany, and was elected its first president. The study gives report on the development of Göller as a scholar, and his basic achievement in his research, pedagogical work and in university administration.

  8. Karl Lagerfeld打造天价礼盒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逸轩(编); Holly(译)

    2008-01-01

    著名的Dom Perignon不久前邀请到时装大师Karl Lagerfeld为英国Harrods百货设计了一款Dom Perignon Rose Vintages限量礼盒装。并已在Harrods百货公司开始出售。这款Dom Perignon Rose Vintages限量礼盒外型很似订制吉他盒,粉色蛇纹外表搭配闪耀的金属扣,整体感觉前卫、时髦,盒内衬有同色羔羊皮,并装有六只珍藏的精巧Dom Perignon Rose Vintages与三个香槟杯。

  9. Karl Popper: antes y después de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti, Gabriel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En su último libro sobre Karl Popper, Mariano Artigas plantea una hermenéutica revolucionaria: muestra que la ética de Popper es el fundamento de su epistemología, y que el fundamento de esa ética está lejos del «conjeturalismo» que suele atribuirse a Popper. Artigas analiza qué significa en Popper la «fe irracional en la razón» y utiliza, como fuente inédita, el dramático relato que hace Popper de su relación con W. W. Bartley, por primera vez, en Kyoto, en 1992. Sea cual fuere la opinión del lector, el libro de Artigas divide la hermenéutica de Popper en un antes y un después.

  10. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: First Theorist of Erotic Age Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2017-01-01

    The nomination of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895) as the first theorist of homosexuality may be placed in the oblique light of his eligibility for the nomination as the first theorist of erotic age orientation. In Ulrichs's pamphlets, "man-manly" homosexuality emerged as a particular age orientation, with a subsequent typological breakdown that, importantly, blended gender orientation and age orientation. Into the early 20th century, erotic age orientation remained bound up with the classification and emancipation of what here was demarcated as Urningsliebe. Ulrichs's pioneering and shifting comments on age eventually fed into his legal model of consenting adults in private. They also provide a starting point for the historical understanding of the trope of "grooming pedophile" as it, arguably, crossfaded with that of the "seducing homosexual" after the latter's depsychiatricization across the Western world.

  11. Karl Marx e a Revolução Russa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Segrillo

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa a visão de Karl Marx sobre a possibilidade de ocorrência da revolução na Rússia. Inicialmente concentrando suas esperanças nos países da Europa Ocidental, onde o capitalismo estava mais desenvolvido, com o fracasso das revoluções de 1948 e da Comuna de Paris, Marx se volta para as possibilidades de revolução a partir do Leste, da Rússia, até ali considerada o bastião da reação. Suas ideias são expostas em correspondência com os próprios revolucionários russos. Essa trajetória intelectual de Marx é descrita a partir de seus próprios escritos.

  12. Karl Popper's Conception of Metaphysics and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I intend to thoroughly analyse Karl Popper’s relation to metaphysics. I start with his first writings, where he states the differences between science, pseudoscience and metaphysics. I then describe how his thoughts on the subject evolved to culminate in his reflection on metaphysical research programmes and the need for a revival of natural philosophy. A major concern is Popper’s famous testability criterion to set apart science from non-science. I point at the problems of the conception of metaphysics as non-testable theories (which are similar to the problems of the conception of metaphysics as theories involving unobservables and, in order to avoid these problems, I propose to retain nothing but the traditional conception of metaphysics as the general theories about the nature of the world. This leads me to the conclusion that science is not only an empirical task but also, and in a very important sense, a speculative one.

  13. O marxismo antidogmático de Karl Korsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo Viana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tematiza o marxismo de Karl Korsch, focalizando seu caráter não dogmático. A partir de um resgate do caráter crítico e revolucionário do marxismo de Marx, Korsch realiza uma crítica radical ao revisionismo e leninismo. Para tal, ele não só resgata o verdadeiro caráter da dialética marxista e da concepção materialista da história, como exige a coerência dessa concepção ao defender o princípio de aplicação dela a si mesma. Assim ele lança as bases de um marxismo não dogmático, para o qual é o vínculo com o proletariado que mostra o caráter do marxismo e não ideologias petrificadas. Abstract: This article thematizes Marxism of Karl Korsch, focusing on its non dogmatic. From a rescue of criticality and revolutionary Marxism of Marx, Korsch performs a radical critique of revisionism and Leninism. To do so, he not only rescues the true character of Marxist dialectics and materialist conception of history, as this concept requires consistency in defending the principle of applying it to herself. So he lays the foundations of a non-dogmatic Marxism, to which is the bond with the proletariat that shows the character of Marxism and not petrified ideologies. Key words: Marxism, dogmatism, criticism, historical materialism, dialectical.

  14. Generalizing higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams: analytical description and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Damian N; Schulte, Jan; Putnam, William P; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-11-19

    We report on a novel class of higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams in which the well-known Bessel-Gauss beam is the fundamental mode and the azimuthally symmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams are special cases. We find these higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams by superimposing decentered Hermite-Gaussian beams. We show analytically and experimentally that these higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams resemble higher-order eigenmodes of optical resonators consisting of aspheric mirrors. This work is relevant for the many applications of Bessel-Gauss beams in particular the more recently proposed high-intensity Bessel-Gauss enhancement cavities for strong-field physics applications.

  15. Self-similar propagation of Hermite-Gauss water-wave pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups enable observing the envelope phase evolution of both nonchirped and linearly frequency chirped Hermite-Gauss pulses, hence allowing us to measure Gouy phase shifts of high-order Hermite-Gauss pulses for the first time. Finally, when increasing pulse amplitude, nonlinearity becomes essential and the second harmonic of Hermite-Gauss waves was observed. We further show that these generated second harmonic bound waves still exhibit self-similar Hermite-Gauss shapes along the tank.

  16. Lecture Notes on Engineering Measurement for Software Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    atmospheric pressure, ioniza- tion of either sign equal to one electrostatic unit of charge Nikola Tesla American physi- tesla : magnetic 1 weber per...scale) Charles R. Richter (scale) Michael Faraday (2 answers) Wilhelm Rontgen Enrico Fermi Nikola Tesla Karl Friedrich Gauss Allesandro Volta Joseph... tesla matician, astro- flux density nomer 1777-1855 Joseph Henry American physi- henry: inductance inductance of a circuit in which cist 1797-1878 the

  17. Friedrich Ratzel entre Tradições e Traduções Friedrich Ratzel entre Tradiciones y traducciones: Un Breve Abordaje Contextual Friedrich Ratzel entre traditions et traductions : une courte approche contextuelle Friedrich Ratzel between Traditions and Translations: A Brief Contextual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Seemann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de existir uma vasta literatura sobre a sua vida e obra, o geógrafo alemão Friedrich Ratzel ainda está aguardando uma releitura mais aprofundada para o século XXI. Através de uma abordagem contextual e biográfica apresento vários aspectos do pensamento ratzeliano e comento algumas das suas obras menos conhecidos, sobretudo aquelas que resultaram da sua viagem aos Estados Unidos no começo da sua carreira acadêmica e que foram cruciais para a formulação de suas teorias.A pesar de existir una vasta literatura sobre su vida y obra, el geógrafo alemán Friedrich Ratzel aun está aguardando una re-lectura más profunda para el siglo XXI. A través de un abordaje contextual y biográfico presento varios aspectos del pensamiento ratzeliano y comento algunas de sus obras menos conocidas, sobretodo aquellas que resultaron de su viaje a los Estados Unidos en el comienzo de su carrera académica y que fueron cruciales para la formulación de sus teorías.Malgré l'existence d'une vaste littérature sur sa vie et son œuvre, le géographe allemand Friedrich Ratzel attend encore une relecture plus approfondie pour le 21e siècle. A travers une approche contextuelle et biographique, je vais présenter quelques aspects de la pensée ratzelienne et analyser quelques uns de ses écrits moins connus, notamment ceux qui concernent son voyage aux États-Unis au début de sa carrière académique, fondamentaux pour le futur développement de ses théories.Despite a substantial bibliography on his life and work, the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel is still awaiting a deeper re-reading for the 21st century. By the use of a contextual and biographical approach, I present several aspects of Ratzel´s thoughts and comment on some of his lesser known works, with an emphasis on his travels to the United States at the beginning of his academic career which were crucial for the formulation of his theories.

  18. Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in the Friedrichs model

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniou, I; Pronko, G P; Yarevsky, E

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the short-time behavior of the survival probability in the frame of the Friedrichs model for different formfactors. We have shown that this probability is not necessary analytic at the time origin. Furthermore, the probability may not be quadratic for the short times while the quantum Zeno effect still exists in such a case. We have found that the time when the quantum Zeno effect could be observed is much smaller than usually estimated. We have also studied the anti-Zeno era and have estimated its duration.

  19. Friedrich Robert Helmert, founder of modern geodesy, on the occasion of the centenary of his death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihde, Johannes; Reinhold, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Friedrich Robert Helmert died in Potsdam in 1917 at the age of 74 after serving for over 30 years as director of the Royal Prussian Geodetic Institute and of the Central Bureau of the Internationale Erdmessung, the forerunner of today's International Association of Geodesy. He dedicated his life and his scientific career to the field of geodesy. His teachings on theoretical and physical geodesy were incorporated into university curricula around the world and hence into international endeavours to measure planet Earth. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the impact he has had on the development of modern geodesy and on the related sciences.

  20. Friedrich Hölderlin and the clandestine society of the Bavarian Illuminati. A plaidoyer

    OpenAIRE

    Macor, Laura Anna

    2013-01-01

    This essay deals with a grossly neglected aspect of Friedrich Hölderlin’s involvement in his historical and intellectual period, namely, his relationship with the secret order of the Bavarian Illuminati. Hölderlin’s native region of Württemberg was one of the organization’s most active colonies, as was almost every other Duchy or city Hölderlin happened to live in. It was therefore not merely coincidental that he was personally acquainted with many Illuminati and read a number of important wr...

  1. Friedrich Fröbel i njegov pogled na ulogu djetinjstva

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Friedrich Fröbel (1782.-1852.) promijenio je način gledanja na rani odgoj i obrazovanje djece. U vrijeme kad su djeca u trenutku navršene sedme godine smatrana odraslima, on je izmislio dječje vrtiće: vrtove za djecu, mjesta na kojima će rasti i razvijati se, promatrati, istraživati i stupati u interakciju s prirodom u slobodnom, harmoničnom odnosu sa sobom i drugima, s prirodom i Univerzumom (kako je Fröbel nazivao Boga).

  2. The \\c{hi}2-test, the Muon AMM and Karl R. Popper

    CERN Document Server

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this very brief note, we only wish to identify a simple but notable epistemological basis, concerning the Karl R. Popper philosophy of science thought, into the realm of the experimental proves of Fundamental Physics.

  3. Karl E. Mundt National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Karl E. Mundt NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  4. Karl E. Mundt National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Karl E. Mundt NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  5. Karl E. Mundt National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Karl E. Mundt NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  6. Nonzonal Expressions of GAUSS-KRÜGER Projection in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmei; Bian, Shaofeng; Liu, Qiang; Li, Houpu; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Yanfeng

    2016-06-01

    With conformal colatitude introduced, based on the mathematical relationship between exponential and logarithmic functions by complex numbers, strict equation of complex conformal colatitude is derived, and then theoretically strict nonzonal expressions of Gauss projection in polar regions are carried out. By means of the computer algebra system, correctness of these expressions is verified, and sketches of Gauss-krüger projection without bandwidth restriction in polar regions are charted. In the Arctic or Antarctic region, graticule of nonzonal Gauss projection complies with people's reading habit and reflects real ground-object distribution. Achievements in this paper could perfect mathematical basis of Gauss projection and provide reference frame for polar surveying and photogrammetry.

  7. Average intensity and spreading of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoquan; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2010-01-18

    The propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and the Hermite-Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz function, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a Lorentz-Gauss beam are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are also discussed in detail.

  8. Gauss-Newton based kurtosis blind deconvolution of spectroscopic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghe Yuan; Ziqiang Hu

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spectroscopic data recorded by dispersion spectrophotometer are usually degraded by the response function of the instrument. To improve the resolving power, double or triple cascade spectrophotometer and narrow slits have been employed, but the total flux of the radiation decreases accordingly, resulting in a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a longer measuring time. However, the spectral resolution can be improved by mathematically removing the effect of the instrument response function. Based on the ShalviWeinstein criterion, a Gauss-Newton based kurtosis blind deconvolution algorithm for spectroscopic data is proposed. Experiments with some real measured Raman spectroscopic data show that this algorithm has excellent deconvolution capability.

  9. More on the dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Iihoshi, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to a dynamical dilaton is examined from the viewpoint of Einstein's equivalence principle. We point out that the usual frame change that applies to the action without curvature correction does not cure the problem of nonminimal couplings by the dynamical nature of a dilaton field. Thus a modification of the Einstein frame is required. It is proposed that the kinetic term of a dilaton should be brought to a canonical form, which completely fixes the additional terms associated with the frame transformation.

  10. Gravity Aided Navigation Precise Algorithm with Gauss Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Chaobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravity compensation of error equation thoroughly should be solved before the study on gravity aided navigation with high precision. A gravity aided navigation model construction algorithm based on research the algorithm to approximate local grid gravity anomaly filed with the 2D Gauss spline interpolation is proposed. Gravity disturbance vector, standard gravity value error and Eotvos effect are all compensated in this precision model. The experiment result shows that positioning accuracy is raised by 1 times, the attitude and velocity accuracy is raised by 1~2 times and the positional error is maintained from 100~200 m.

  11. Gauss's law test of gravity at short range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M. V.; Paik, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    A null test of the gravitational inverse-square law can be performed by testing Gauss's law for the field. We have constructed a three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer and carried out such a test. A lead pendulum weighing 1500 kg was used to produce a time-varying field. This experiment places a new (2-sigma) limit of alpha = (0.9 + or - 4.6) x 10 exp -4 at lambda of 1.5 m, where alpha and lambda are parameters for the generalized potential phi = -(GM/r)(l + alpha e exp -r/lambda).

  12. Extension of Gauss' method for the solution of Kepler's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, R. H.; Fill, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Gauss' method for solving Kepler's equation is extended to arbitrary epochs and orbital eccentricities. Although originally developed for near parabolic orbits in the vicinity of pericenter, a generalization of the method leads to a highly efficient algorithm which compares favorably to other methods in current use. A key virtue of the technique is that convergence is obtained by a method of successive substitutions with an initial approximation that is independent of the orbital parameters. The equations of the algorithm are universal, i.e., independent of the nature of the orbit whether elliptic, hyperbolic, parabolic or rectilinear.

  13. Surface terms and the Gauss-Bonnet Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Antonio [Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-21

    We derive the gravitational Hamiltonian starting from the Gauss-Bonnet action, keeping track of all surface terms. This is done using the language of orthonormal frames and forms to keep things as tidy as possible. The surface terms in the Hamiltonian give a remarkably simple expression for the total energy of a spacetime. This expression is consistent with energy expressions found in Preprint hep-th/0212292. However, we can apply our results whatever the choice of background and whatever the symmetries of the spacetime.

  14. Surface terms and the Gauss-Bonnet Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, A

    2003-01-01

    We derive the gravitational Hamiltonian starting from the Gauss-Bonnet action, keeping track of all surface terms. This is done using the language of orthonormal frames and forms to keep things as tidy as possible. The surface terms in the Hamiltonian give a remarkably simple expression for the total energy of a spacetime. This expression is consistent with energy expressions found in hep-th/0212292. However, we can apply our results whatever the choice of background and whatever the symmetries of the spacetime.

  15. Partially coherent n onpar axial modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zeng-Hui; Lü Bai-Da

    2006-01-01

    The concept of partially coherent nonparaxial modified Bessel-Gauss (MBG) beams is proposed. Based on the generalized Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, the analytical propagation equations of nonparaxial MBG beams in free space are derived and analysed, and some special cases are discussed. In particular, under the paraxial approximation our results reduce to the corresponding paraxial ones. Numerical calculation examples are given to illustrate the dependence of intensity and spectral degree of coherence on the beam order m,ξ and f parameters, and to compare the difference between the paraxial and nonparaxial results.

  16. Improving Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law and Gauss's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development and evaluation of five research-based tutorials on Coulomb's law, superposition, symmetry and Gauss's Law to help students in the calculus-based introductory physics courses learn these concepts. We discuss the performance of students on the pre-/post-tests given before and after the tutorials in three calculus-based introductory physics courses. We also discuss the performance of students who used the tutorials and those who did not use it on a multiple-choice test which employs concepts covered in the tutorials.

  17. Low Scale Higgs Inflation with Gauss-Bonnet Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data provides precise values of coupling constants of the Higgs field, however, these measurements do not determine its coupling with gravity. We explore this freedom to see whether Higgs field non-minimally coupled to Gauss-Bonnet term in 4-dimensions can lead to inflation generating the observed density fluctuations. We obtain analytical solution for this model and that the exit of inflation (with a finite number of e-folding) demands that the energy scale of inflation is close to Electro-weak scale. We compare the scalar and tensor power spectrum of our model with PLANCK data and discuss its implications.

  18. Sumas de Gauss y funciones zeta de hipersuperficies diagonales

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Llanos, Olmo

    2017-01-01

    A lo largo de este trabajo abordaremos algunos casos particulares de las conjeturas de Weil. En primer lugar estudiaremos la definición de función zeta de una variedad y la formulación de las conjeturas de Weil, con su respectiva motivación. Seguidamente, introduciremos toda la teoría de sumas de Gauss y de Jacobi, partiendo de la base de la teoría de caracteres de un grupo abeliano, para obtener resultados sobre el cálculo del número de puntos de ciertas variedades sobre cuerpos de caracterí...

  19. El viaje americano del botánico Carl Friedrich Eduard Otto (1838-1841

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The German naturalist Carl Friedrich Eduard Otto travelled during the 1838-1841 period through the West Indies and the American continent looking for botanical specimen and made a study on the social customs of the inhabitants. He went to Cuba, the United States of America and Venezuela. This work contains a further description of the places he visited and the itineraries he followed. The alive plants he harvested, were sent to the Botanical Garden in Berlin while the dry plants were sent to the Royal Herbarium. This study focuses on Otto and Humbolt’s different criteria regarding the slavery and describes Otto’s ideological class-conscious positions.El naturalista alemán Carl Friedrich Eduard Otto viajó entre los años 1838 a 1841 por las Antillas y el Continente americano en busca de especímenes botánicos y para estudiar las costumbres sociales de sus habitantes. Visitó Cuba, Estados Unidos y Venezuela. El trabajo describe los lugares visitados e itinerarios seguidos. Las plantas vivas recolectadas tuvieron como destino el Jardín Botánico de Berlín y las plantas secas el Real Herbario. El estudio señala las diferencias de criterio entre Otto y Humbolt en el tema de la esclavitud y describe las posiciones ideológicas clasistas del primero.

  20. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  1. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry.

  2. Falsifications and corroborations: Karl Popper's influence on systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G; DeSalle, Rob

    2005-04-01

    Over the last three decades, the philosophy of Karl Raimund Popper has had a strong influence on the field of systematic biology. Unequivocally, no other philosopher's work has had such an influence during this formative period in systematics. Much, but not all, of the early discourse on Popper and systematics dealt with the philosophical basis of systematics as a science. More recently Popper's work has been discussed in the systematics literature in relation to specific methodologies such as parsimony and maximum likelihood. In this paper, we provide the reader with a concise summary of Popper's ideas relevant to systematics, review the systematic literature invoking or declining Popper's importance to the field, and make a recommendation for the future course of philosophical thinking in systematics. We try to make clear various authors' interpretations of Popper's work and how those interpretations have impacted systematic thought. Although the reader may come away from this review with a clearer idea of Popper's relevance or lack thereof, our primary hope is that the reader will be compelled to question him- or herself about the philosophical basis of the systematic work that he or she does, and to delve into the literature herein cited. We begin by presenting a synopsis of Popper's philosophical views to allow those views to be placed in the context of systematics.

  3. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on which approach should be taken and what the role of Karl Marx’s works shall be. The paper argues that Marx’s labour theory of value is especially important for critically analysing the media, culture and communica-tion. Labour is still a blind spot of the study of culture and the media, although this situation is slowly improving. It is maintained that the turn away from Marx in Cultural and Media Studies was a profound mistake that should be reverted. Only an engagement with Marx can make Cultural and Media Studies topical, politically relevant, practical and critical, in the current times of global crisis and resurgent critique.

  4. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work.

  5. Unified solutions of extended Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, A. I.; Açıkgöz, I.

    2016-12-01

    We study some scale factor power-law solutions of the field equations of the extended Gauss Bonnet gravity in the spatial FRW (Friedmann-Robertson-Walker) universe. We consider the lagrangian density given by F ( R, G ) =f ( G ) + R + α R2 which exhibits a modification comparing with the modified Gauss Bonnet gravity. After constructing the Friedmann equations and finding the power-law solution we obtain the real valued of our model describing a mechanism that shows transitions among three stages of the universe (inflation, deceleration, acceleration) in an unified way. In particular, in this unified solution we obtained an inflation model without using any scalar field description when α>0, and also we verified our early time inflationary scenario using observational parameters, i.e. ns, r. Further, we research for the power-law solution of our model when the universe is in the phantom phase. Here, it is observed that the acceleration of the universe in phantom region is composed of two phases which congruent with the recent observations.

  6. Extremal black holes in D=4 Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Orlov, D G; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Galtsov, Dmitri V.; Orlov, Dmitry G.

    2006-01-01

    We show that four-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity allows for asymptotically flat black hole solutions with a degenerate event horizon of the Reissner-Nordstrom type ($AdS_2\\times S^2$). Such black holes exist for the dilaton coupling constant within the interval $0\\leq aGauss--Bonnet coupling $\\alpha$ we have a family of black holes parameterized by their electric charge. Relation between the mass, the electric charge and the dilaton charge at both ends of the allowed interval of $a$ is reminiscent of the BPS condition for dilaton black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory. The entropy of the DGB extremal black holes is twice...

  7. Numerical Simulation of Transient Gauss pulse Coupling through Small Apertures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshi Xiao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient electromagnetic pulse (EMP can easily couple into equipments through small apertures in its shells. To study the coupling effects of transient Gauss pulse to a cubic cavity with openings, coupling course is simulated using sub-gridding finite difference in time domain (FDTD algorithm in this paper. A new grid partition approach is provided to simulate each kind of apertures with complex shapes. With this approach, the whole calculation space is modeled, and six kinds of aperture with different shapes are simulated. Coupling course is simulate in the whole time domain using sub-gridding FDTD approach. Selecting apertures with dimension of several millimeters to research, coupled electric field waveform, power density and coupling coefficient are calculated. The affect on coupling effects by varied incident angle and varied pulse width are also analyzed. The main conclusion includes interior resonance phenomenon, increase effect around rectangle aperture and several distributing rules of coupled electric field in the cavity. The correctness of these results is validated by comparing with other scholars’ results. These numerical results can help us to understand coupling mechanism of the transient Gauss pulse.

  8. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = -1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.

  9. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-07-08

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms.

  10. Driving corrugated donut rotors with Laguerre-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Vincent L Y; Asavei, Theodor; Stilgoe, Alexander B; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-08-11

    Tightly-focused laser beams that carry angular momentum have been used to trap and rotate microrotors. In particular, a Laguerre-Gauss mode laser beam can be used to transfer its orbital angular momentum to drive microrotors. We increase the torque efficiency by a factor of about 2 by designing the rotor such that its geometry is compatible with the driving beam, when driving the rotation with the optimum beam, rather than beams of higher or lower orbital angular momentum. Based on Floquet's theorem, the order of discrete rotational symmetry of the rotor can be made to couple with the azimuthal mode of the Laguerre-Gauss beam. We design corrugated donut rotors, that have a flat disc-like profile, with the help of the discrete dipole approximation and the T-matrix methods in parallel with experimental demonstrations of stable trapping and torque measurement. We produce and test such a rotor using two-photon photopolymerization. With a rotor that has 8-fold discrete rotational symmetry, an outer radius of 1.85 μm and a hollow core radius of 0.5 μm, we were able to transfer approximately 0.3 h̄ per photon of the orbital angular momentum from an LG04 beam.

  11. Phase space of modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Sante; Mimoso, José P

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of non-vacuum Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes with any spatial curvature in the context of Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The analysis employs a new method which enables us to explore the phase space of any specific theory of this class. We consider several examples, discussing the transition from a decelerating into an acceleration universe within these theories. We also deduce from the dynamical equations some general conditions on the form of the action which guarantee the presence of specific behaviours like the emergence of accelerated expansion. As in f(R) gravity, our analysis shows that there is a set of initial conditions for which these models have a finite time singularity which can be an attractor. The presence of this instability also in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity is to be ascribed to the fourth-order derivative in the field equations, i.e., is the direct consequence of the higher order of the equations.

  12. Nonparaxial Bessel and Bessel–Gauss pincers light-sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • Bessel and Bessel–Gauss autofocusing light sheets (i.e. beams in 2D) are developed. • The light-sheets are synthesized based on the angular spectrum decomposition method. • Computations of the scattering, radiation force and torque benefit from the solutions. - Abstract: Nonparaxial optical Bessel and Bessel–Gauss pincers optical-sheets are introduced based upon the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. The angular spectrum function and the beam-shape coefficients are expressed by means of improper integrals computed numerically. The radiated component of the electric field is also evaluated, displaying unique features of the nonparaxial Bessel pincers light-sheets. This new type of auto-focusing light-sheets finds potential applications in the development of novel methods in optical light-sheet tweezers for particle manipulation in opto-fluidics, particle sizing and imaging. Numerical predictions for the scattering, radiation force and torque, and particle dynamics also benefit from the developed beam solution.

  13. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Escofet, Anna

    2015-01-01

    After a short review of the state of the art in Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity, several illustrative examples are introduced and a few original dark energy models with quite interesting properties are discussed which exhibit, in a unified way, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence, and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state parameter, $w$, is a function of time is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with $w=-1$. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are found and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and the accelerated expansion at present which, as a consequence, may be explained by means of a dark energy model inspired by fundamental physics (string theory) a...

  14. 100 anos da 'psicopatologia geral' de Karl Jaspers : Actas do Colóquio 100 Anos da 'Psicopatologia Geral' de Karl Jaspers

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José A. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Publicam-se agora as Actas do Colóquio 100 ANOS DA ‘PSICOPATOLOGIA GERAL’ DE KARL JASPERS, realizado em 19 de Fevereiro de 2014 e organizado pelo Departamento de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde do ISPA – Instituto Universitário.

  15. A New Sum Analogous to Gauss Sums and Its Fourth Power Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind of new sum analogous to Gauss sums and give an interesting fourth power mean and a sharp upper bound estimate for it.

  16. A new sum analogous to Gauss sums and its fourth power mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Shaofeng; Zhang, Wenpeng

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind of new sum analogous to Gauss sums and give an interesting fourth power mean and a sharp upper bound estimate for it.

  17. The convergence of the modified Gauss-Seidel methods for consistent linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we present a convergence analysis for the modified Gauss-Seidel methods given in Gunawardena et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 154-156 (1991) 125) and Kohno et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 267 (1997) 113) for consistent linear systems. We prove that the modified Gauss-Seidel method converges for some values of the parameters in the preconditioned matrix.

  18. A Gauss-Kuzmin theorem for continued fractions associated with nonpositive integer powers of an integer m ≥ 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We consider a family {τ m : m ≥ 2} of interval maps which are generalizations of the Gauss transformation. For the continued fraction expansion arising from τ m , we solve a Gauss-Kuzmin-type problem.

  19. Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816 / Vladimir Sazonov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sazonov, Vladimir, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816, hrsg. von Indrek Jürjo, Sergei Stadnikov, Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Bd. 20. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač 2013, 313 lk.

  20. Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816 / Vladimir Sazonov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sazonov, Vladimir, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816, hrsg. von Indrek Jürjo, Sergei Stadnikov, Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Bd. 20. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač 2013, 313 lk.

  1. ‘Antennas Have Long Since Invaded Our Brains’: Listening to the ‘Other Music’ in Friedrich Kittler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, M.J.; van Maas, S.

    2015-01-01

    "In several articles, Friedrich Kittler addresses the question of music and sound in the age of media. Operating on the intersection between media, art, philology and philosophy, Kittler writes about an "other" music, which was already described by Nietzsche. This music is not concerned with interpr

  2. Bessel-Gauss beam enhancement cavities for high-intensity applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, William P; Schimpf, Damian N; Abram, Gilberto; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-10-22

    We introduce Bessel-Gauss beam enhancement cavities that may circumvent the major obstacles to more efficient cavity-enhanced high-field physics such as high-harmonic generation. The basic properties of Bessel-Gauss beams are reviewed and their transformation properties through simple optical systems (consisting of spherical and conical elements) are presented. A general Bessel-Gauss cavity design strategy is outlined, and a particular geometry, the confocal Bessel-Gauss cavity, is analyzed in detail. We numerically simulate the confocal Bessel-Gauss cavity and present an example cavity with 300 MHz repetition rate supporting an effective waist of 33 μm at the focus and an intensity ratio from the focus to the cavity mirror surfaces of 1.5 × 10(4).

  3. Anisotopic inflation with a non-abelian gauge field in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lahiri, Sayantani

    2016-01-01

    In presence of Gauss-Bonnet corrections, we study anisotropic inflation aided by a massless $SU(2)$ gauge field where both the gauge field and the Gauss-Bonnet term are non-minimally coupled to the inflaton. In this scenario, under slow-roll approximations, the anisotropic inflation is realized as an attractor solution with quadratic forms of inflaton potential and Gauss-Bonnet coupling function. We show that the degree of anisotropy is proportional to the additive combination of two slow-roll parameters of the theory. The anisotropy may become either positive or negative similar to the non-Gauss-Bonnet framework, a feature of the model for anisotropic inflation supported by a non-abelian gauge field but the effect of Gauss-Bonnet term further enhances or suppresses the generated anisotropy.

  4. O pensamento epistemológico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a antiguidade, o critério de demarcação entre o que é ciência e o que não é ciência tem sido discutido. A noção que então se tinha de ciência coincidia com a busca do saber absoluto. Tornava-se necessária, para os pensadores gregos, entre eles, Aristóteles, Pitágoras e Descartes, a consolidação de uma distinção precisa entre o saber contingente e o saber necessário, pois o único discurso que poderia satisfazer às exigências do rigor científico era aquele que apontasse, nos fenômenos, conexões causais cuja necessidade pudesse ser demonstrada. Antes de Popper, o pensamento filosófico ocidental atravessou séculos tentando explicar por que nossas teorias frequentemente estavam erradas. Em sua obra fundamental, A Lógica da Pesquisa Científica, Karl Popper coloca em novos termos a discussão epistemológica ao demonstrar que o erro, em vez de ser um mal que pode ser evitado através do recurso a algum procedimento metodológico específico, constitui componente inevitável de qualquer teoria científica, sendo o motor pelo qual a ciência se move. Buscando captar a lógica do desenvolvimento da ciência, Popper inicia sua exposição destruindo aquele que talvez fosse, de todos os princípios filosóficos, o mais caro aos cientistas e à boa parte dos filósofos de seu tempo: o princípio da indução como método de procedimento científico. Neste artigo, abordam-se alguns dos principais tópicos do pensamento popperiano, como o princípio da indução, a concepção de ciência e a falseabilidade. Também se intenta aduzir alguns debates filosóficos, justapondo às opiniões de Popper e de críticos ao seu pensamento. A contestação aludida ao pensamento popperiano advém do professor Thomas S. Kuhn, da Princeton University. Kuhn objeta à opinião de Popper quando este afirma que o cientista é um solucionador de problemas. Para Kuhn, os cientistas são solucionadores de enigmas e não de problemas. Essa posi

  5. Progress in Karl Fischer coulometry using diaphragm-free cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A; Jonsson, S

    2001-11-15

    Different designs of a semiopen, drainable cathode compartment of a medium-sized coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) cell for the determination of water in the range 0.1-500 microg were evaluated. The main criterion for the design was to keep the resistance between the anolyte and catholyte low enough to permit the generation of currents larger than 20 mA (for an output voltage of 28 V). It was found that a good compromise between the size of this current and a minimal influence from diffusing/migrating oxidizable reduction products from the catholyte was achieved by means of an interface having a channel length and diameter of 8 and 2.1 mm, respectively (catholyte volume, approximately 1 mL). To show the general applicability of the concept, the following different types of coulometric reagents suitable for nonpolar and polar samples, as well as for samples containing active carbonyl compounds, were investigated: Hydranal Coulomat A, AD, AK, AG-H (modified with chloroform, Merck), and two homemade methanolic reagents modified with 40% (v/v) chloroform and 50% (v/v) formamide, respectively. Except for Hydranal Coulomat A, the mean value of five consecutive titrations of 50 microg water did not deviate by more than 0.2% from the expected value for all reagents. Draining after every titration was sufficient to obtain accurate results, even for Coulomat A which, when used in the commercial diaphragm-free system of Metrohm, gave values which were about 10% too high. As compared to earlier reported results for diaphragm-free coulometry, the descibed modified cell represents a significant improvement, mainly because of the high accuracy achieved for all types of reagents.

  6. Friedrich Nietzsche's mental illness--general paralysis of the insane vs. frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Trimble, M R

    2006-12-01

    For a long time it was thought that Nietzsche suffered from general paralysis of the insane (GPI). However, this diagnosis has been questioned recently, and alternative diagnoses have been proposed. We have charted Friedrich Nietzsche's final fatal illness, and viewed the differential diagnosis in the light of recent neurological understandings of dementia syndromes. It is unclear that Nietzsche ever had syphilis. He lacked progressive motor and other neurological features of a progressive syphilitic central nervous system (CNS) infection and lived at least 12 years following the onset of his CNS signs, which would be extremely rare for patients with untreated GPI. Finally, his flourish of productivity in 1888 would be quite uncharacteristic of GPI, but in keeping with reports of burgeoning creativity at some point in the progression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We suggest that Nietzsche did not have GPI, but died from a chronic dementia, namely FTD.

  7. [Friedrich Nietzsche: life and work in the struggle against his suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Otto

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between the life, sense of mission and suffering in the work of Friedrich Nietzsche. It shows that, as early as his Basel years, he wanted to become a philosopher who was willing to transmit without fear what he considered to be true to everybody, even if he would have to suffer and remain unappreciated. He was afflicted with increasing numbers of headaches and bouts of nausea from the mid-1870s and was further handicapped by constantly deteriorating vision. The ten years before his breakdown were spent as a traveller searching for a place where his suffering could be eased. The isolation imposed on him by the illness gave him the inner freedom to break the old certainties and to offer a new myth as an alternative. His failure as a writer was compensated by an intensified and, finally, gross sense of mission which ended in mental derangement in early January 1889.

  8. [Recurrent depressive disorder in Caspar David Friedrich. A pathographical approach with operationalized diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, C; Dahlenburg, B; Freyberger, H J

    2006-07-01

    Caspar David Friedrich (1774 - 1840) is one of the most important German Romantic painters. In his paintings, he prototypically represents the melancholy, which has been mentioned by his contemporaries and later biographers. Art scientists have also referred to his melancholy for the interpretation of his work. From a medical point of view, there are only two pathographies which remain inconclusive. Having applied diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders to his letters and publications, to statements of his contemporaries and to his art, we propose that he had suffered from a recurrent major depression which occurred in 1799 for the first time. At least three depressive episodes followed before he was struck by a stroke in 1835. There are epidemiological, psychodynamic and personality-typological reasons supporting our diagnostic assumption. The course of his depression corresponds to phases of reduced creativity, to the chosen techniques and motives. Finally we discuss the implications of our approach for the pathographical method in general.

  9. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's design of a unity of physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görnitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As I learned in many conversations with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, he saw his place in the history of science deriving from his "Theory of Urs". This theory will establish the unity of science on the basis of quantum bits. Any attempts to find some "fundamental bricks"--of whatever kind--must fail because of the antinomies of atomism. An abstract quantum bit is a structure quantum that cannot be conceived as a particle in space and time. However, it is clear, solely for logical reasons, that a quantum bit is an ultimate and indecomposable entity. Weizsäcker's revolutionary goal was--already 50 years ago--to unite quantum theory with cosmology and, on these grounds, proceed to a theory of elementary particles. The article gives a short overview of Weizsäcker's approach to the unity of physics, ending with a brief summary of what has been achieved in that endeavour up to now.

  10. The adventurous life of Friedrich Georg Houtermans, physicist (1903-1966)

    CERN Document Server

    Ereditato, Antonio; Scampoli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The physicist Friedrich Houtermans (1903-1966) was an essential promoter and proponent of the development of physics in Berne. He introduced a number of activities in the field of elementary particles, with a special focus on the physics of cosmic rays, and important contributions in applied physics. This biography of Houtermans was written by Edoardo Amaldi and was almost finished just before his unexpected death in 1989. The editors have only corrected typographical errors and have introduced only minimal text changes in order to preserve the original content. Additionally they have collected and included unpublished pictures and memories from Houtermans’ students and collaborators. The text is the result of a thorough and intensive study on Houtermans’ life and character carried out by Edoardo Amaldi. It is more than a biography, since the figure of Houtermans is set in a historical perspective of Europe between the two world wars. This book will be of great interest to historians and historians of sci...

  11. AUTOBIOGRAFISMO E DIALOGO FILOSOFICO: IL CASO STORIOGRAFICO DE LA FESTA DI NATALE DI FRIEDRICH SCHLEIERMACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Weihnachtsfeier. Ein Gespräch di Friedrich Schleiermacher è uno degli esempi più interessanti di come, nel romanticismo, forma letteraria, contesto vitale e autobiografico, tesi filosofiche costituissero un complesso unitario e spesso di difficile interpretazione. Nel caso del dialogo schleiermacheriano sul Natale è possibile distinguere due livelli di lettura storiografica: uno, rivolto soprattutto al contesto, consente di identificare i riferimenti biografici e l'ambiente reale a cui allude l'autore; un secondo, strettamente legato al primo, ma non necessariamente riducibile ad esso, ha invece un valore, per così dire, "autointerpretativo". Alla luce di questo secondo livello di lettura, questa breve opera di Schleiermacher mostra di essere ben più di uno scritto occasionale per il Natale del 1806. Esso nasconde e rivela al contempo, nelle trame di un gioco di rimandi e allusioni biografiche, la volontà...

  12. Malte Friedrich, Urbane Klänge. Popmusik und Imagination der Stadt, Bielefeld: Transcript 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic LaRue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragen der Urbanität rücken seit einigen Jahren vermehrt ins Zentrum des Interesses der Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften und so auch der Musikwissenschaft. Ein aktueller Beitrag zu möglichen Korrelationen von Musik und urbanem Raum ist vorliegende Arbeit des Soziologen Malte Friedrich. Der Autor widmet sich der Frage, "welchen Einfluss die Stadtumgebung auf die Produktion von populärer Musik hat und wie diese die Wahrnehmungsweise und das Erleben von Stadt mit beeinflusst." (S. 14 Dabei geht es ihm um die Schließung einer Lücke in der Stadtforschung, die er in der fehlenden Würdigung musikalischer Klänge als Repräsentationen des Urbanen ausmacht.

  13. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), an extremely important naturalist and scholar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2002-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) belongs to the famous scientists of the 19th century. His research work is enormous. Important termini e.g. diverticulum Meckelii, cartilago Meckelii, Meckel syndrome and Meckel Serres law reflect the scientific results obtained by Meckel. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, a town in the Central Germany. Meckel founded the scientific teratology. In the literature he is also referred to the German Cuvier. On 8 April 1802, J. F. Meckel defended his doctoral thesis "De cordis conditionibus abnormibus". On occasion of the 200th anniversary of this event, we like to honor J. F. Meckel the famous German anatomist. Therefore, during the 97th session of the Anatomische Gesellschaft at Halle, a satellite symposium "From Meck el to genom" was held.

  14. Carl Friedrich Richard Foerster (1825-1902) - the inventor of perimeter and photometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sobolewska, Bianka

    2015-09-01

    Carl Friedrich Richard Foerster (1825-1902) was a German who was born in the Polish city Leszno. He studied medicine at the Medical Faculty of Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) University, and later in Heidelberg and Berlin. From 1855, he worked in Breslau, where he established in 1857 the first ophthalmology clinic. Later, he became a professor in ophthalmology, the first director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Breslau, and even the rector of this University. Forster did many pioneering works on visual fields, invented a photometer and the first perimeter, known for many years as the Foerster perimeter. Moreover, he studied night blindness, visual field changes due to different pathologies, and many eye diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, retinal and choroidal diseases.

  15. A forma do paradoxo: Friedrich Schlegel e a ironia romântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino Luz de Medeiros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Definida como beleza lógica e forma do paradoxo, a ironia romântica de Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829 assimila a antiga ironia socrática e a reinterpreta, inserindo-a como elemento central de sua teorização crítico-literária. O presente artigo analisa a ironia romântica, buscando situar sua alteração e abrangência no final do século XVIII, quando o conceito passa a significar metacrítica, reflexão filosófica, ruptura ficcional, distância estética e forma de exposição da arte literária.

  16. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911.

  17. Instability of Black Holes with a Gauss-Bonnet Term

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Wha-Keun; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the instability of hairy black holes in the theory with a nonminimally coupled Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term in asymptotically flat spacetime. Our approach corresponds to the fragmentation instability in a non-perturbative way. Under this approach, we investigate whether the initial black hole can be broken into two black holes. We compare the entropy of the initial black hole with the sum of those of two fragmented black holes. The relation between black hole instability and GB coupling with dilaton hair are presented. We describe the phase diagrams with respect to the mass of the black hole solutions and coupling constants. We find that perturbatively stable black hole is unstable under fragmentation.

  18. Near infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigs, D. E.; Freelin, J. M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1983-02-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  19. Automatic classification of protein structure by using Gauss integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter; Fain, B.

    2003-01-01

    has only one adjustable parameter. We assign 95.51% of the chains into the proper C (class), A (architecture), T (topology), and H (homologous superfamily) fold, find all new folds, and detect no false geometric positives. Using the SGM, we display a "map" of the space of folds projected onto two......We introduce a method of looking at, analyzing, and comparing protein structures. The topology of a protein is captured by 30 numbers inspired by Vassiliev knot invariants. To illustrate the simplicity and power of this topological approach, we construct a measure (scaled Gauss metric, SGM......) of similarity of protein shapes. Under this metric, protein chains naturally separate into fold clusters. We use SGM to construct an automatic classification procedure for the CATH2.4 database. The method is very fast because it requires neither alignment of the chains nor any chain-chain comparison. It also...

  20. Discriminant and Singularities of Logarithmic Gauss Map, Examples and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The study of hypersurfaces in a torus leads to the beautiful zoo of amoebas and their contours, whose possible configurations are seen from combinatorial data. There is a deep connection to the logarithmic Gauss map and its critical points. The theory has a lot of applications in many directions. In this report we recall basic notions and results from the theory of amoebas, show some connection to algebraic singularity theory and discuss some consequences from the well known classification of singularities to this subject. Moreover, we have tried to compute some examples using the computer algebra system SINGULAR and discuss different possibilities and their effectivity to compute the critical points. Here we meet an essential obstacle: Relevant examples need real or even rational solutions, which are found only by chance. We have tried to unify different views to that subject.

  1. Criticality in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity: gravity without graviton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying [Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Bin [Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Peking University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Lue, Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    General Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a cosmological constant allows two (A)dS spacetimes as its vacuum solutions. We find a critical point in the parameter space where the two (A)dS spacetimes coalesce into one and the linearized perturbations lack any bilinear kinetic terms. The vacuum perturbations hence lose their interpretation as linear graviton modes at the critical point. Nevertheless, the critical theory admits black hole solutions due to the nonlinear effect. We also consider Einstein gravity extended with general quadratic curvature invariants and obtain critical points where the theory has no bilinear kinetic terms for either the scalar trace mode or the transverse modes. Such critical phenomena are expected to occur frequently in general higher-derivative gravities. (orig.)

  2. Choptuik's Critical Phenomenon in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Golod, Sveta

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects of higher order curvature corrections to Einstein's Gravity on the critical phenomenon near the black hole threshold, namely the Choptuik phenomenon. We simulate numerically a five dimensional spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of massless scalar field in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity towards a black hole formation threshold. When the curvature is sufficiently large the additional higher order terms, affect the evolution of the whole system. Since high curvature characterizes the region when the critical behavior takes place this critical behavior is destroyed. Both the self similarity and the mass scaling relation disappear. Instead we find a different behavior near the black hole threshold, which depends on the coupling constant of the higher order terms. The new features include a change of the sign of the Ricci scalar on the origin which indicates changes in the local geometry of space-time, and never occurs in classical general relativity collapse, and oscillations wi...

  3. Nonparaxial Bessel and Bessel-Gauss pincers light-sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Nonparaxial optical Bessel and Bessel-Gauss pincers optical-sheets are introduced based upon the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. The angular spectrum function and the beam-shape coefficients are expressed by means of improper integrals computed numerically. The radiated component of the electric field is also evaluated, displaying unique features of the nonparaxial Bessel pincers light-sheets. This new type of auto-focusing light-sheets finds potential applications in the development of novel methods in optical light-sheet tweezers for particle manipulation in opto-fluidics, particle sizing and imaging. Numerical predictions for the scattering, radiation force and torque, and particle dynamics also benefit from the developed beam solution.

  4. Charged Black Hole Solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H; Panah, B Eslam

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by high interest in the close relation between string theory and black hole solutions, in this paper, we take into account the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian in the context of massive gravity. We examine the possibility of black hole in this regard, and discuss the types of horizons. Next, we calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics. In addition, we investigate the stability of these black holes in context of canonical ensemble. We show that number, type and place of phase transitions points may be significantly affected by the different parameters. Next, by considering cosmological constant as thermodynamical pressure, we will extend phase space and calculate critical values. Then, we construct thermodynamical spacetime by considering mass as thermodynamical potential. We study geometrical thermodynamics of these black holes in context of heat capacity and extended phase space. We show that studying heat capacity, geometrical therm...

  5. Epsilon Factors for Meromorphic Connections and Gauss Sums

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Let $E$ is be vector bundle with meromorphic connection on $\\proj^1/k$ for some field $k \\subset \\cplx$, and let $\\mathbf{E}$ be the sheaf of horizontal sections on the analytic points of $X$. The irregular Riemann-Hilbert correspondence states that there is a canonical isomorphism between the De Rham cohomology of $L$ and the `moderate growth' cohomology of $\\mathbf{L}$. Recent work of Beilinson, Bloch, and Esnault has shown that the determinant of this map factors into a product of local `$\\epsilon$-factors' which closely resemble the classical $\\epsilon$-factors of Galois representations. In this paper, we show that $\\epsilon$-factors for rank one connections may be calculated explicitly by a Gauss sum. This formula suggests a deeper relationship between the De Rham $\\epsilon$-factor and its Galois counterpart.

  6. The Gauss-Bonnet Theorem for the noncommutative two torus

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that the value at zero of the zeta function of the Laplacian on the non-commutative two torus, endowed with its canonical conformal structure, is independent of the choice of the volume element (Weyl factor) given by a (non-unimodular) state. We had obtained, in the late eighties, in an unpublished computation, a general formula for this value at zero involving modified logarithms of the modular operator of the state. We give here the detailed computation and prove that the result is independent of the Weyl factor as in the classical case, thus proving the analogue of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for the noncommutative two torus.

  7. Dark matter relic density in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Meehan, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    The relic density of symmetric and asymmetric dark matter in the Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology is investigated. The reduced expansion rate in this scenario delays particle freeze-out, leading to relic abundances which are suppressed by up to $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-3})$. In this case the annihilation cross section must be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude below the canonical value $\\langle\\sigma v\\rangle \\approx 2\\times 10^{-26}$ cm$^3$s$^{-1}$ to reconcile the predicted dark matter density with observation. We use the latest observational bound $\\Omega_{DM}h^2 = 0.1187 \\pm 0.0017$ to constrain the various model parameters and discuss the implications for direct/indirect dark matter detection experiments as well as dark matter particle models.

  8. Gauss-Bonnet dark energy by Lagrange multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2013-01-01

    A string-inspired effective theory of gravity, containing Gauss-Bonnet invariant interacting with a scalar field, is considered in view of obtaining cosmological dark energy solutions. A Lagrange multiplier is inserted into the action in order to achieve the cosmological reconstruction by selecting suitable forms of couplings and potentials. Several cosmological exact solutions (including dark energy of quintessence, phantom or Little Rip type) are derived in presence and in absence of the Lagrange multiplier showing the difference in the two dynamical approaches. In the models that we consider, the Lagrange multiplier behaves as a sort of dust fluid that realizes the transitions between matter dominated and dark energy epochs. The relation between Lagrange multipliers and Noether symmetries is discussed.

  9. Gauss-Manin connection in disguise: Calabi-Yau threefolds

    CERN Document Server

    Alim, Murad; Scheidegger, Emanuel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2014-01-01

    We describe a Lie Algebra on the moduli space of Calabi-Yau threefolds enhanced with differential forms and its relation to the Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa holomorphic anomaly equation. In particular, we describe algebraic topological string partition functions $F_g^{alg}, g\\geq 1$, which encode the polynomial structure of holomorphic and non-holomorphic topological string partition functions. Our approach is based on Grothendieck's algebraic de Rham cohomology and on the algebraic Gauss-Manin connection. In this way, we recover a result of Yamaguchi-Yau and Alim-L\\"ange in an algebraic context. Our proofs use the fact that the special polynomial generators defined using the special geometry of deformation spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds correspond to coordinates on such a moduli space. We discuss the mirror quintic as an example.

  10. Mode structure analysis of a Bessel-Gauss resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available modes under given radius R 0. 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 noitcarffid sessol 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 5 27 Figure 4: The dependence of diffraction losses per pass under expansion from... on mirror L1 of resonator depending on mirror radius L0 (eq. 3) are shown on (fig. 2). 1.44 1.46 1.48 1.5 radius of mirror L1, ´ 10- 4 m edutilpma , r. u. 13 5 7 9 0 6 Figure 2: The dependence of maximums of displaced Gauss intensity...

  11. Gauss-Manin Connection in Disguise: Calabi-Yau Threefolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Murad; Movasati, Hossein; Scheidegger, Emanuel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2016-06-01

    We describe a Lie Algebra on the moduli space of non-rigid compact Calabi-Yau threefolds enhanced with differential forms and its relation to the Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa holomorphic anomaly equation. In particular, we describe algebraic topological string partition functions {{F}g^alg, g ≥ 1}, which encode the polynomial structure of holomorphic and non-holomorphic topological string partition functions. Our approach is based on Grothendieck's algebraic de Rham cohomology and on the algebraic Gauss-Manin connection. In this way, we recover a result of Yamaguchi-Yau and Alim-Länge in an algebraic context. Our proofs use the fact that the special polynomial generators defined using the special geometry of deformation spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds correspond to coordinates on such a moduli space. We discuss the mirror quintic as an example.

  12. Orthogonal functions, discrete variable representation, and generalized gauss quadratures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    , the basis of the generalized weight functions. We review these ideas below and apply then to the generation of the points and weights of the Rys polynomials which have proven useful in the evaluation of multicenter integrals, using Gaussian basis sets in quantum chemistry. In contrast to some approaches....... This three-term recursion can be used to generate the orthogonal functions as well as to generate the points and weights of Gauss quadratures on the basis of these functions. For the classical orthogonal functions, the terms in the three-term recursion are known analytically. For more general weight...... functions, this is not the case. However, they may be computed in a stable numerical fashion, via the recursion. In essence, this is an application of the well-known Lanczos recursion approach. Once the recursion coefficients are known, it is possible to compute the points and weights of quadratures on...

  13. Gauss-Bonnet gravity, relic coherent gravitons and optical chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Crowell, Lawrence B

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the production of massive relic coherent gravitons in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and their possible imprint in Cosmic Microwave Background. In fact, in the very early universe these relic gravitons could have acted as slow gravity waves. They may have then acted to focus the geodesics of radiation and matter. Therefore, their imprint on the later evolution of the universe could appear as filaments and domain wall in the Universe today. In that case, the effect on Cosmic Microwave Background should be analogous to the effect of water waves, which, in focusing light, create optical caustics which are commonly seen on the bottom of swimming pools. We analyze this important issue by showing how relic massive GWs perturb the trajectories of Cosmic Microwave Background photons (gravitational lensing by relic GWs). The consequence of the type of physics discussed is outlined by illustrating an amplification of what might be called optical chaos.

  14. Instability of black holes with a Gauss-Bonnet term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Wha-Keun; Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Wonwoo [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bum-Hoon [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We investigate the fragmentation instability of hairy black holes in the theory with a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term in asymptotically flat spacetime. Our approach is through the non-perturbative fragmentation instability. By this approach, we investigate whether the initial black hole can be broken into two black holes by comparing the entropy of the initial black hole with the sum of those of two fragmented black holes. The relation between the black hole instability and the GB coupling with dilaton hair are presented. We describe the phase diagrams with respect to the mass of the black hole solutions and coupling constants. We find that a perturbatively stable black hole can be unstable under fragmentation. (orig.)

  15. GigaGauss magnetic fields in under-dense plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lecz, Zsolt; Seryi, Andrei; Andreev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields have a crucial role in physics at all scales, from synchrotrons and laser-driven plasma accelerators to astrophysics and nanotechnology. Large field strengths, beside the guiding of relativistic particles along a shorter curvature, allows the investigation of material in extreme conditions existing only in exotic astro-objects like neutron stars or pulsars. Here we propose a method for generating magnetic field on the GigaGauss level in under-dense plasma using high intensity laser pulses with azimuthally non-uniform intensity distribution. The interaction is studied with the help of three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulation code. Beside the standard wake-field and bubble generation, such laser beam induces the rotational motion of electrons at the edge of evacuated plasma region. The combined axial magnetic and electric fields form a compact source of both high frequency radiation, due to coherent synchrotron emission, and low emittance, high density relativistic electron bunches. ...

  16. Inflation in Higher Dimensional Gauss-Bonnet Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pahwa, Isha; Seshadri, T R

    2013-01-01

    A Gauss-Bonnet term naturally appears in the action for gravity when one considers the existence of space time with dimensions more than 1+3. A variety of inflationary models can be obtained within such a framework, once the scale factor for the hidden dimension(s) is not constrained to be the same as that of the visible ones. In particular, the need for an adhoc inflaton field is eliminated. The phase space has a rich structure with different types of solutions, both stable and unstable. For a large class of solutions, the scale factors rapidly approach an asymptotic exponential form. Furthermore, sufficient inflation can be obtained for only a modest compression of the hidden world, if the latter is of a sufficiently large dimension.

  17. The Cousins of Stuxnet: Duqu, Flame, and Gauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márk Félegyházi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuxnet was the first targeted malware that received worldwide attention forcausing physical damage in an industrial infrastructure seemingly isolated from the onlineworld. Stuxnet was a powerful targeted cyber-attack, and soon other malware samples were discovered that belong to this family. In this paper, we will first present our analysis of Duqu, an information-collecting malware sharing striking similarities with Stuxnet. Wedescribe our contributions in the investigation ranging from the original detection of Duquvia finding the dropper file to the design of a Duqu detector toolkit. We then continue with the analysis of the Flame advanced information-gathering malware. Flame is unique in thesense that it used advanced cryptographic techniques to masquerade as a legitimate proxyfor the Windows Update service. We also present the newest member of the family, called Gauss, whose unique feature is that one of its modules is encrypted such that it can onlybe decrypted on its target system; hence, the research community has not yet been able to analyze this module. For this particular malware, we designed a Gauss detector serviceand we are currently collecting intelligence information to be able to break its very specialencryption mechanism. Besides explaining the operation of these pieces of malware, wealso examine if and how they could have been detected by vigilant system administrators manually or in a semi-automated manner using available tools. Finally, we discuss lessonsthat the community can learn from these incidents. We focus on technical issues, and avoidspeculations on the origin of these threats and other geopolitical questions.

  18. Spherically symmetric brane in a bulk of f(R) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2016-11-01

    Effective gravitational field equations on a four-dimensional brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk have been considered. Using the Einstein-Hilbert action along with the Gauss-Bonnet correction term, we have derived static spherically symmetric vacuum solution to the effective field equations, first order in the Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter. The solution so obtained, has one part corresponding to general relativity with an additional correction term, proportional to the Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter. The correction term modifies the spacetime structure, in particular, the location of the event horizon. Proceeding further, we have derived effective field equations for f(R) gravity with Gauss-Bonnet correction term and a static spherically symmetric solution has been obtained. In this case the Gauss-Bonnet term modifies both the event and cosmological horizon of the spacetime. There exists another way of obtaining the brane metric—expanding the bulk gravitational field equations in the ratio of bulk to brane curvature scale and assuming a separable bulk metric ansatz. It turns out that static, spherically symmetric solutions obtained from this perturbative method can be matched exactly, with the solutions derived earlier. This will hold for Einstein-Hilbert plus Gauss-Bonnet as well as for f(R) with the Gauss-Bonnet correction. Implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Coulometric determination of trace water in active carbonyl compounds using modified Karl Fischer reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin-Andersson, I.; Cedergren, A.

    1987-03-01

    Improved conditions for the coulometric determination of trace water in samples containing potentially interfering substances like aldehydes and ketones were obtained by using a formamide-based, rapidly reacting Karl Fischer reagent in which methanol was replaced by 2-methoxyethanol. The shape of the potentiometric titration curves obtained by titrating spent Karl Fischer reagents with iodine indicates a less degree of triiodide formation in the presence of formamide. The corresponding increase in iodine results in a more rapid overall reaction rate since the reaction involving iodine is much more rapid than that with triiodide. For water amounts corresponding to less than 0.1% the stoichiometry of the Karl Fischer reaction was found to be 1:1, relatively independent of the concentration of 2-methoxyethanol. For larger amounts of water this stoichiometric ratio was attained by using a reagent containing 2-methoxyethanol/formamide 80/20 (v/v), 0.6 M imidazole, and 0.4 M sulfur dioxide.

  20. The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven T.; Baum, S. A.; Chandler, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array is a recently completed rejuvenation of the VLA, providing observers with significantly increased continuum sensitivity and spectral survey speeds (by factors of 100 or more in select cases) from 1-50 GHz and in key bands below 1 GHz. Given the potential for new centimeter-wavelength sky surveys with this enhanced facility, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) has been initiated to explore the science and technical opportunities of a new large survey. A community-led Science Survey Group (SSG) will define the science program and key components of VLASS, and NRAO will support its technical design and implementation. The VLASS could start observing in early 2015, with the data available immediately with no proprietary period and science data products provided to the community in a timely manner. The new VLA can image young stars and massive black holes, measure the strength and topology of the cosmic magnetic field, follow the rapid evolution of energetic phenomena, and study the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies, AGN, and the Universe itself. We can follow the evolution of gas and galaxies and particles and fields to bridge the eras from cosmic dawn to the dawn of new worlds. To address these and other key science challenges requires the VLASS to address a number of key challenges in data management, computation, image processing, and analysis. The development and implementation of capable, efficient, and robust pipeline processing of data, and the production of a basic suite of science data products such as images and catalogs, are all high priorities for VLASS. We will describe the salient capabilities of the Jansky VLA, and highlight complementarity with multi-wavelength multi-messenger sky surveys with other facilities, ultimately leading into the era of the LSST. Exemplary VLA science and commissioning observations will illustrate these features. We will also summarize the outcome of the public NRAO VLASS Science Planning

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  2. Reconstruction of the Scalar Field Potential in Inflationary Models with a Gauss-Bonnet term

    CERN Document Server

    Koh, Seoktae; Tumurtushaa, Gansukh

    2016-01-01

    We study inflationary models with a Gauss-Bonnet term to reconstruct the scalar field potentials and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling functions from the observable quantities. Using the observationally favored relations for both $n_s$ and $r$, we derive the expressions for both the scalar field potentials and the coupling functions. The implication of the blue-tilted spectrum, $n_t>0$, of the primordial tensor fluctuations is discussed for the reconstructed configurations of the scalar field potential and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.

  3. Analytical investigation of the phase transition between holographic insulator and superconductor in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Qiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    We employ the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem to analytically study the phase transition between the holographic insulator and superconductor in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We find that this analytic method is more effective to obtain the analytic results on the condensation and the critical phenomena in the AdS soliton background in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Our analytic result can be used to back up the earlier numerical computations in the AdS soliton with Gauss-Bonnet correction.

  4. Wilson Line Response of Holographic Superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li-Fang; Zhang, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2012-01-01

    We study the Wilson line response in the holographic superconducting phase transitions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. In the black brane background case, the Little-Parks periodicity is independent of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, while in the AdS soliton case, there is no evidence for the Little-Parks periodicity. We further study the impact of the Gauss-Bonnet term on the holographic phase transitions quantitatively. The results show that such quantum corrections can effectively affect the occurrence of the phase transitions and the response to the Wilson line.

  5. The time delay in strong gravitational lensing with Gauss-Bonnet correction

    CERN Document Server

    Man, Jingyun

    2014-01-01

    The time delay between two relativistic images in the strong gravitational lensing governed by Gauss-Bonnet gravity is studied. We derive and calculate the expression of time delay due to the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. It is shown that the time delay for two images with larger space each other is longer. We also find that the ratio of Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and the mass of gravitational source changes in the region like $\\frac{\\alpha}{M}\\in[0,2)$. The time delay is divergent with $\\frac{\\alpha}{M}\\longrightarrow 2$.

  6. The time delay in strong gravitational lensing with Gauss-Bonnet correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jingyun; Cheng, Hongbo, E-mail: jingyunman@mail.ecust.edu.cn, E-mail: hbcheng@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The time delay between two relativistic images in the strong gravitational lensing governed by Gauss-Bonnet gravity is studied. We make a complete analytical derivation of the expression of time delay in presence of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. With respect to Schwarzschild, the time delay decreases as a consequence of the shrinking of the photon sphere. As the coupling increases, the second term in the time delay expansion becomes more relevant. Thus time delay in strong limit encodes some new information about geometry in five-dimensional spacetime with Gauss-Bonnet correction.

  7. Crossing w = -1 in Gauss-Bonnet Brane World with Induced Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recent type Ia supernovas data seemingly favor a dark energy model whose equation of state w(z) crosses -1 very recently, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. In this paper we show that it is possible to realize such a crossing without introducing any phantom component in a Gauss-Bonnet brane world with induced gravity, where a four-dimensional curvature scalar on the brane and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk are present. In this realization, the Gauss-Bonnet term and the mass parameter in the bulk play a crucial role.

  8. A Álgebra de Gauss de uma Álgebra Monomial

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos de Araújo, Kalasas

    2007-01-01

    A álgebra de Gauss associada à k-subálgebra de um anel polinomial k[t0; : : : ; td] gerado por um número finito de formas de mesmo grau corresponde ao anel de coordenadas homogêneo da imagem de Gauss de uma variedade projetiva uniracional sobre k. Focaremos o caso onde os geradores são monômios. Por caracterizar os menores da matriz jacobiana de um conjunto de monômios como certos n-produtos tornaremos mais concreta a natureza da álgebra de Gauss associada à subálgebra monomial...

  9. Gauss linear frequency modulation wavelet transforms and its application to seismic phases identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘希强; 周惠兰; 曹文海; 李红; 李永红; 季爱东

    2002-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of gradual change style seismic signal onset which has more high frequency signal components but less magnitude, this paper selects Gauss linear frequency modulation wavelet as base function to study the change characteristics of Gauss linear frequency modulation wavelet transform with difference wavelet and signal parameters, analyzes the error origin of seismic phases identification on the basis of Gauss linear frequency modulation wavelet transform, puts forward a kind of new method identifying gradual change style seismic phases with background noise which is called fixed scale wavelet transform ratio, and presents application examples about simulation digital signal and actual seismic phases recording onsets identification.

  10. Valuing option on the maximum of two assets using improving modified Gauss-Seidel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Wei Sin; Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Sulaiman, Jumat

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the numerical solution for the option on the maximum of two assets using Improving Modified Gauss-Seidel (IMGS) iterative method. Actually, this option can be governed by two-dimensional Black-Scholes partial differential equation (PDE). The Crank-Nicolson scheme is applied to discretize the Black-Scholes PDE in order to derive a linear system. Then, the IMGS iterative method is formulated to solve the linear system. Numerical experiments involving Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Modified Gauss-Seidel (MGS) iterative methods are implemented as control methods to test the computational efficiency of the IMGS iterative method.

  11. [The Hygienist Karl Roelcke, M.D. (1907-1982). Annotations to the family biography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenberger, Florian G

    2016-01-01

    Volker Roelcke, the well-known historian of medicine, wrote a biographical sketch on his father's role in National Socialism. Karl Roelcke (1907-1982) was an important hygienist at the University of Heidelberg and assistant to Ernst Rodenwaldt (1878-1965). Attempts to discuss the Nazi issue with his father directly ended unsuccessfully in the 1970s. In his essay of 2014, Volker Roelcke portrayed his father as quite sophisticated, but did not mention all aspects of his work. The present essay therefore offers new insights into the person of Karl Roelcke which are not constrained by family interests.

  12. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  13. Juha Manninen and Friedrich Stadtler (eds., The Vienna Circle and the Nordic Countries. Networks and Transformations of Logical Empiricism (Vienna: Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook vol.14, Springer, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Penco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of The Vienna Circle and the Nordic Countries. Networks and Transformations of Logical Empiricism, edited by Juha Manninen and Friedrich Stadtler, Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook vol.14, Springer, 2010.

  14. Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

  15. História e filosofia da história na obra do jovem Friedrich Schlegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Maria Furtado Kestler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e comenta dois textos do jovem Friedrich Schlegel, Vom Wert des Studiums der Griechen und Römer (Sobre o valor do estudo dos gregos e romanos, de 1795/1796, e Über das Studium der griechischen Poesie (Sobre o estudo da poesia grega, de 1795, escritos antes de sua ida para Jena, em 1796, nos quais o autor elabora uma teoria original sobre a história e a filosofia da história.This article introduces and comments two texts written by Friedrich Schlegel in his youth, before he moved to Jena in 1796: Vom Wert des Studiums der Griechen und Römer (On the value of the study of Greeks and Romans of 1795/1796 and Über das Studium der griechischen Poesie (On the study of Greek poetry of 1795. In these texts the author develops an original theory concerning history and the philosophy of history.

  16. Floquet resonant states and validity of the Floquet-Magnus expansion in the periodically driven Friedrichs models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The Floquet eigenvalue problem is analyzed for periodically driven Friedrichs models on discrete and continuous space. In the high-frequency regime, there exists a Floquet bound state consistent with the Floquet-Magnus expansion in the discrete Friedrichs model, while it is not the case in the continuous model. In the latter case, however, the bound state predicted by the Floquet-Magnus expansion appears as a metastable state whose lifetime diverges in the limit of large frequencies. We obtain the lifetime by evaluating the imaginary part of the quasienergy of the Floquet resonant state. In the low-frequency regime, there is no Floquet bound state and instead the Floquet resonant state with exponentially small imaginary part of the quasienergy appears, which is understood as the quantum tunneling in the energy space.

  17. Axial quasi-normal modes of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Mojica, Sindy; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate axial quasi-normal modes of realistic neutron stars in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton gravity. We consider 8 realistic equations of state containing nuclear, hyperonic, and hybrid matter. We focus on the fundamental curvature mode and compare the results with those of pure Einstein theory. We observe that the frequency of the modes is increased by the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton, while the impact on the damping time is typically smaller. Interestingly, we obtain that universal relations valid in pure Einstein theory still hold for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton gravity, and we propose a method to use these phenomenological relations to constrain the value of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.

  18. On the Gauss-Weierstrass Summability of Multiple Trigonometric Series at μ-smoothness Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sinem SEZER; Ilham A. ALIEV

    2011-01-01

    The notion of μ-smoothness points of periodic functions of several variables is introduced and the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Weierstrass means of relevant Fourier series at these points is investigated.

  19. Parallel full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain by the Gauss-Newton method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. We first test the inversion ability of three numerical optimization methods, i.e., the steepest-descent method, the Newton-CG method and the Gauss- Newton method, for a simple model. The results show that the Gauss-Newton method performs well and efficiently. Then numerical computations for a benchmark model named Marmousi model by the Gauss-Newton method are implemented. Parallel algorithm based on message passing interface (MPI) is applied as the inversion is a typical large-scale computational problem. Numerical computations show that the Gauss-Newton method has good ability to reconstruct the complex model.

  20. The Gauss-Bonnet-Chern mass of higher codimension graphical manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Girão, Frederico

    2015-01-01

    We give an explicit formula for the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern mass of an asymptotically flat graphical manifold of arbitrary codimension and use it to prove the positive mass theorem and the Penrose inequality for graphs with flat normal bundle.

  1. Configurational entropy as a bounding of Gauss-Bonnet braneworld models

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, R A C; Dutra, A de Souza; de Paula, W; Frederico, T

    2016-01-01

    Configurational entropy has been revealed as a reliable method for constraining some parameters of a given model [Phys. Rev. D \\textbf{92} (2015) 126005, Eur. Phys. J. C \\textbf{76} (2016) 100]. In this letter we calculate the configurational entropy in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld models. Our results restrict the range of acceptability of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar values. In this way, the information theoretical measure in Gauss-Bonnet scenarios opens a new window to probe situations where the additional parameters, responsible for the Gauss-Bonnet sector, are arbitrary. We also show that such an approach is very important in applications that include p and Dp-branes and various superstring-motivated theories.

  2. Higgs Inflation with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the Jordan Frame

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We consider an extension of Higgs inflation in which the Higgs field is coupled to the Gauss-Bonnet term. Working solely in the Jordan frame, we firstly recover the standard predictions of Higgs inflation without a Gauss-Bonnet term. We then calculate the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations in the presence of a coupling to a Gauss-Bonnet term. We show that generically the predictions of Higgs inflation are robust and the contributions to the power spectra coming from the Gauss-Bonnet term are negligible. We find, however, that the end of inflation can be strongly modified and that we hence expect the details of (p)reheating to be significantly altered, leading to some concerns over the feasibility of the model which require further investigations.

  3. Boundary Causality vs Hyperbolicity for Spherical Black Holes in Gauss-Bonnet

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas; Keeler, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We explore the constraints boundary causality places on the allowable Gauss-Bonnet gravitational couplings in asymptotically AdS spaces, specifically considering spherical black hole solutions. We additionally consider the hyperbolicity properties of these solutions, positing that hyperbolicity-violating solutions are sick solutions whose causality properties provide no information about the theory they reside in. For both signs of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling, spherical black holes violate boundary causality at smaller absolute values of the coupling than planar black holes do. For negative coupling, as we tune the Gauss-Bonnet coupling away from zero, both spherical and planar black holes violate hyperbolicity before they violate boundary causality. For positive coupling, the only hyperbolicity-respecting spherical black holes which violate boundary causality do not do so appreciably far from the planar bound. Consequently, eliminating hyperbolicity-violating solutions means the bound on Gauss-Bonnet couplings...

  4. Generation of pulsed Bessel-Gauss beams using passive axicon-theoretical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Shahrzad; Fallah, Hamid Reza; Ramezani, Mohsen; Soltanolkotabi, Mahmood

    2012-10-20

    We studied the conditions for generating passive Bessel-Gauss beams by using an axicon. We designed an appropriate Gaussian resonator and extracted a quasi-fundamental Gaussian mode from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumped by a Xenon flash lamp and measured its parameters, such as propagation factor, divergence angle, and Rayleigh range. Then we generated passive Bessel-Gauss beams using an axicon and investigated their propagation properties, theoretically and experimentally. For example, for the axicon of 1°, the output energy and the Rayleigh range of the generated Bessel-Gauss beams were measured to be 58 mJ and 229.3 mm, respectively. We compared these properties with our results of the Gaussian mode. Finally, by using axicons with different apex angles, and also by changing the beam spot size on the axicon, we generated Bessel-Gauss beams and studied their properties theoretically and experimentally.

  5. GLESP 2.0: Gauss-Legendre Sky Pixelization for CMB Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Naselsky, P. D.; Verkhodanov, O. V.; Novikov, D. I.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Novikov, I. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chiang, L.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    GLESP is a pixelization scheme for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation maps. This scheme is based on the Gauss-Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map.

  6. A decouple conjugate gradient-Gauss-Newton iterative scheme for altimetry assimilation data problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振东; 朱江; 武祎洁

    2003-01-01

    A decouple conjugate gradient-Gauss-Newton's iterative approximate formulation for altimetry data assimilation (ADA) problems are presented and the convergence of the iterative formulations is proved. Some numerical examples are given to check the validity of the iterative formulation.

  7. Generation of J0-Bessel-Gauss Beam by an heterogeneous refractive index map

    CERN Document Server

    Alerigi, Damian P San Roman; Benslimane, Ahmed; Zhang, Yaping; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Ooi, Boon S; 10.1364/JOSAA.29.001252

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical studies of a refractive index map to implement a Gauss to J0-Bessel-Gauss convertor. We theoretically demonstrate the viability of such device by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem. The computed conversion e?ficiency is 90%. The theoretical results, obtained from the beam conversion efi?ciency, self-regeneration, and propagation through an opaque obstruction; demonstrate that a 2D graded index map of the refractive index can be used to transform a Gauss beam into a J0-Bessel-Gauss beam. To the best of our knowledge, this is the ?rst demonstration of such beam transformation by means of a 2D index-mapping which is fully integrable in silicon photonics based planar lightwave circuits (PLC). The concept device is signi?cant for the eventual development of a new array of technologies, such as micro optical tweezers, optical traps, beam reshaping and non-linear beam diode lasers.

  8. Crossing w=1 in Gauss-Bonnet Brane World with Induced Gravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CAI Rong-Gen ZHANG Hong-Sheng WANG An-Zhong

    2005-01-01

    .... In this paper we show that it is possible to realize such a crossing without introducing any phantom component in a Gauss-Bonnet brane worm with induced gravity, where a four-dimensional curvature...

  9. On the totally ramified value number of the Gauss map of minimal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define the totally ramified value number (TRVN) of the Gauss map of a complete minimal surface, and prove that there exist algebraic minimal surfaces that have the TRVN equal to $2.5$.

  10. Gauss-Bonnet corrections to holographic Schwinger effect in confining backgound

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of higher-derivative terms on holographic Schwinger effect by introducing the Gauss-Bonnet term in the gravity sector. Anti-de Sitter (AdS) soliton background is considered which is dual to confining phase of the boundary field theory. By calculating the potential between the produced pair, we find that larger Gauss-Bonnet factor $\\lambda$ makes the pair lighter. We apply numerical method to calculate the production rate for various cases. The results show that the Gauss-Bonnet term enhances the production rate. The critical behaviors near the two critical values of the electric field are also investigated, and it is found that the two critical indexes are not affected by the Gauss-Bonnet term and thus are universal.

  11. Q-bosonization of the quantum group GL$_{q}$(2) based on the Gauss decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Damaskinsky, E V; Damaskinsky, E V; Sokolov, M A

    1995-01-01

    The new method of q-bosonization for quantum groups based on the Gauss decomposition of a transfer matrix of generators is suggested. The simplest example of the quantum group GL_q(2) is considered in some details.

  12. Comparison theorem with modified Gauss-Seidel and modified Jacobi methods by M-matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofigh Allahviranloo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the comparison theorem with modified Gauss-Seidel method and modified Jacobi method, are proved in detail and superiority of MGS method is illustrated by solving some numerical examples.

  13. A New Preconditioner on Gauss-Seidel Method for H-Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M. T.; Azimbeigi, M.

    2009-09-01

    In order to accelerate the convergency of Gauss-Seidel method to solve systems of linear equations when the coefficient matrix is an H-matrix, a new preconditioner is introduced. The convergency of the new preconditioned method is proved.

  14. Holographic Van der Waals-like phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song; Li, Li-Fang; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2017-02-01

    The Van der Waals-like phase transition is observed in temperature-thermal entropy plane in spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole background. In terms of AdS/CFT, the non-local observables such as holographic entanglement entropy, Wilson loop, and two point correlation function of very heavy operators in the field theory dual to spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole have been investigated. All of them exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition for a fixed charge parameter or Gauss-Bonnet parameter in such gravity background. Further, with choosing various values of charge or Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the equal area law and the critical exponent of the heat capacity are found to be consistent with phase structures in temperature-thermal entropy plane.

  15. On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

  16. Curvatures and discrete Gauss-Codazzi equation in (2+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P

    2015-01-01

    We derive the Gauss-Codazzi equation in the holonomy and plane-angle representations and we use the result to write a Gauss-Codazzi equation for a discrete (2+1)-dimensional manifold, triangulated by isosceles tetrahedra. This allows us to write operators acting on spin network states in (2+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity, representing the 3-dimensional intrinsic, 2-dimensional intrinsic, and 2-dimensional extrinsic curvatures.

  17. A Type of Levi-Civita's Solution in Modified Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, M E; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we obtain an exact solution for cylindrically symmetric modified Gauss Bonnet gravity. This metric is a generalization of the vacuum solution of the Levi-Civita in the general relativity. It describes an isotropic perfect fluid one parameter family of the gravitational configurations which can be interpreted as the exterior metric of a cosmic string. By setting the Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter to zero, we recover the vacuum solution in the Einstein gravity as well.

  18. Yet another proof from the book: the Gauss theorem on regular polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, A

    2009-01-01

    This note is purely expositional. The statement of the Gauss theorem on the constructibility of regular polygons by means of compass and ruler is simple and well-known. However, its proofs given in textbooks available to the author rely upon much notation. In this note a short elementary proof of the Gauss theorem is presented. The note is accessible for students familiar with polynomials and complex numbers, and could be an interesting easy reading for mature mathematicians.

  19. Generation of higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes in single-pass 2nd harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a realistic method for dynamic simulation of the development of higher order modes in second harmonic generation. The deformation of the wave fronts due to the nonlinear interaction is expressed by expansion in higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes.......We present a realistic method for dynamic simulation of the development of higher order modes in second harmonic generation. The deformation of the wave fronts due to the nonlinear interaction is expressed by expansion in higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes....

  20. PRECONDITIONED GAUSS-SEIDEL TYPE ITERATIVE METHOD FOR SOLVING LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Guang-hui; HUANG Ting-zhu; CHENG Xiao-yu

    2006-01-01

    The preconditioned Gauss-Seidel type iterative method for solving linear systems, with the proper choice of the preconditioner, is presented. Convergence of the preconditioned method applied to Z-matrices is discussed. Also the optimal parameter is presented. Numerical results show that the proper choice of the preconditioner can lead to effective by the preconditioned Gauss-Seidel type iterative methods for solving linear systems.

  1. A new approach to exact solutions construction in scalar cosmology with a Gauss-Bonnet term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, I. V.; Chervon, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    We study the cosmological model based on Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with non-minimal coupling of a scalar field to a Gauss-Bonnet term in four-dimensional (4D) Friedmann universe. We show how constructing the exact solutions by the method based on a confrontation of the Hubble parameter in the model under consideration is achieved with that in a standard scalar field inflationary cosmology.

  2. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KarLE): In Situ Geochronology for Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system depends upon discovering the right moments in planetary evolution: when habitable environments existed, when they declined, and when geologic processes operated to preserve traces of life after death. However, an incomplete knowledge of absolute Martian geochronology limits our ability to understand the timing of Martian evolutionary milestones, major climate changes, and stratigraphic epochs [1, 2]. Absolute dating relates these habitability markers to planetarywide geologic, atmospheric, and climate history places, and ties their occurrence to the history of the solar system, especially the Earth-Moon system and the timescale of evolution of life on Earth. KArLE is being developed to anchor the relative timeline of geological events to an absolute chronology that puts Mars into a wider solar system context. KArLE makes its measurements on rock samples that can be obtained by landers or rovers and inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber. KArLE interrogates the samples using laser-induced breakdown spectrocopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of mission payloads to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  3. Tänapäeva tantsuteatri mitu palet / Heili Einasto, Karl Toepfer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einasto, Heili

    2015-01-01

    Vestlus San Jose ülikooli professori Karl Toepferiga nüüdisaegsest Eesti tantsuteatrist - I. Tuksami "Vassilissa", E. Tubina ja M Kesleri "Kratt", T. Olleski jt. "HTK", G. Reynoldsi ja S. Stubbsi "Gatsby", N. Rota ja G. Madia "La Dolce Vita", A. Toikka "Faust"

  4. Recalling Karl Jaspers' Classic: The Idea of the University. IHE Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    This essay revisits Karl Jaspers' classic, "The Idea of the University." Jaspers was reinstated as president of Heidelberg University in 1945, and he presided over its rebuilding. His book, "The Idea of the University," written in 1946, was published in English 13 years later. It interprets an ideal of the university and emphasizes the purposes…

  5. Vendade Karl ja Artur Säre elukäigu salaniidistik / Valdur Ohmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ohmann, Valdur

    2003-01-01

    EKP I sekretäri Karl Säre ja tema vanema venna Artur Säre (Männi) elu ja tegevuse ülevaade. Artur Säre oli NSVL poliitilise esinduse teenistuses Hiina RV, NSVL Välisasjade Rahvakomissariaadi ja ENSV Ministrite Nõukogu juures

  6. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  7. USA presidendi üks peamisi nõunikke Karl Rove lahkub ametist / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    1993. aastast praeguse USA presidendi George B. Bushiga koos töötanud Karl Rove lahkub ametist perekonna huvides. K. Rove on uurimise all olnud seoses CIA agendi Valerie Plame'i paljastamisega, Senati komitee kuulas teda üle kaheksa föderaalprokuröri vallandamise uurimise raames

  8. El huracán Karl: concepciones sobre su origen en una comunidad de Veracruz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arturo Marinero Heredia; María José García Oramas

    2015-01-01

    ... por el huracán Karl en 2010, en el municipio de La Antigua, Veracruz. Los datos se obtuvieron de entrevistas a informantes claves y grupos focales, además de la revisión de notas periodísticas...

  9. Karl Ristikivi rändav Arkaadia / Janika Kronberg, Brita Melts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2012-01-01

    Artikkel jälgib Arkaadia-motiivi arengut Karl Ristikivi loomingus, toetudes nii autori poolt läbikäidud maastikele kui ka kunstikriitiku ja teoreetiku Simon Schama töödele. Käsitletakse ka Arkaadia motiivi Euroopa kultuuriloos

  10. Lidar - nesbõvshajasja estonskaja "nokia" / Karl Rebane ; interv. Julia Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Karl, 1926-2007

    2006-01-01

    Eesti NSV teadlaste poolt välja töötatud laserseade lidar, seadme ehitamisest, töötamise põhimõttest ja kasutusvaldkonnast. Akadeemik Karl Rebase sõnul ei oleks sellise ulatusega Läänemere saastamist juhtunud, kui Eestil oleks normaalne ökoloogilise kontrolli süsteem. Poliitikute suhtumisest kodumaise teaduse arengusse

  11. The Psychology of Thinking, Animal Psychology, and the Young Karl Popper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. in his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it

  12. The Rejectability of Karl Popper: Why Popper's Ideas Have Had So Little Influence on Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tyrrell; Swann, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the question of why Karl Popper's work has been disregarded or rejected for educational improvement and suggests a series of impediments to an acceptance of Popper's ideas. Outlines a set of principle which if adopted as a basis for practice could lead to significant improvement. (EV)

  13. Ideal i realnost : Karl von Gershelman - poet-hudozhnik / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti päritolu kunstniku Elisabeth Rosendorff-Hoerschelmanni (1898-1984) ja Eestiga seotud kunstniku ja kirjaniku Karl von Hoerschelmanni (1899-1951) elust ja loomingust. 2004. a. augustis-oktoobris oli kunstnike tööde näitus Adamson-Ericu muuseumis

  14. Ideal i realnost : Karl von Gershelman - poet-hudozhnik / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti päritolu kunstniku Elisabeth Rosendorff-Hoerschelmanni (1898-1984) ja Eestiga seotud kunstniku ja kirjaniku Karl von Hoerschelmanni (1899-1951) elust ja loomingust. 2004. a. augustis-oktoobris oli kunstnike tööde näitus Adamson-Ericu muuseumis

  15. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  16. Urea as the basic component in pyridine-free Karl Fischer reagent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution of urea, sulphur dioxide and sodium salicylate in methanol is proposed as the solvent in the Karl Fischer titration, with a separate iodine solution as titrant. Comparison of the performance of this solvent with that of some commercial reagents shows that it is has distinct advantages for

  17. Lidar - nesbõvshajasja estonskaja "nokia" / Karl Rebane ; interv. Julia Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Karl, 1926-2007

    2006-01-01

    Eesti NSV teadlaste poolt välja töötatud laserseade lidar, seadme ehitamisest, töötamise põhimõttest ja kasutusvaldkonnast. Akadeemik Karl Rebase sõnul ei oleks sellise ulatusega Läänemere saastamist juhtunud, kui Eestil oleks normaalne ökoloogilise kontrolli süsteem. Poliitikute suhtumisest kodumaise teaduse arengusse

  18. Reaction rates between water and some modified rapidly-reacting Karl Fischer reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1978-04-01

    Rate constants were determined for the reaction between water and various modified Karl Fischer reagents containing formamide, dimethylformamide or N-methylformamide. It was shown that the reaction rate can be increased by a factor of 100 by using a reagent containing 40% v/v formamide in pyridine compared to that obtained by use of the conventional methanolic reagent.

  19. 17. oktoober 1905 - 1. märts 1917 / Karl Ast Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ast Rumor, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Üheteistkümneaastasest perioodist Karl Asti tagasivaatava isikliku pilgu läbi. Autor vabanes Riia vanglast oktoobrimanifesti põhjal. Ees ootasid uued vangistused. K. Asti isiklik mälestus Aleksandr Kerenskist. Varem ilmunud : "Pealinna Teataja" 9. märts 1917, nr. 3

  20. Developement of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Thus far, radiometric geochronology of planetary samples has only been accomplishable in terrestrial laboratories on samples from dedicated sample return missions and meteorites. In situ instruments to measure rock ages have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6, because isotopic measurements with sufficient resolution are challenging. We have begun work under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) to develop the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), a novel combination of several flight-proven components that will enable accurate KAr isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, measure the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by measuring the volume of the abated pit using a optical methods such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to 100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science. Additional benefits derive from the fact that each KArLE component achieves analyses common to most planetary surface missions.

  1. Tänapäeva tantsuteatri mitu palet / Heili Einasto, Karl Toepfer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einasto, Heili

    2015-01-01

    Vestlus San Jose ülikooli professori Karl Toepferiga nüüdisaegsest Eesti tantsuteatrist - I. Tuksami "Vassilissa", E. Tubina ja M Kesleri "Kratt", T. Olleski jt. "HTK", G. Reynoldsi ja S. Stubbsi "Gatsby", N. Rota ja G. Madia "La Dolce Vita", A. Toikka "Faust"

  2. 17. oktoober 1905 - 1. märts 1917 / Karl Ast Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ast Rumor, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Üheteistkümneaastasest perioodist Karl Asti tagasivaatava isikliku pilgu läbi. Autor vabanes Riia vanglast oktoobrimanifesti põhjal. Ees ootasid uued vangistused. K. Asti isiklik mälestus Aleksandr Kerenskist. Varem ilmunud : "Pealinna Teataja" 9. märts 1917, nr. 3

  3. Mineviku kummitused : Stasi arhiivist leiti Karl-Heinz Kurrase aktid / Aino Siebert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siebert, Aino

    2009-01-01

    On ilmsiks tulnud dokumendid, mis tõestavad, et Saksa DV Riikliku Julgeolekuministeeriumi agent Karl-Heinz Kurras tappis Lääne-Berliinis Iraani monarhi visiidi ajal 1967. aasta 2. juunil toimunud meeleavalduste käigus üliõpilase Benno Ohnesorgi

  4. Charged black hole solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.; Panah, B. Eslam

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by high interest in the close relation between string theory and black hole solutions, in this paper, we take into account the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian in the context of massive gravity. We examine the possibility of black hole in this regard, and discuss the types of horizons. Next, we calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics. In addition, we investigate the stability of these black holes in context of canonical ensemble. We show that number, type and place of phase transition points may be significantly affected by different parameters. Next, by considering cosmological constant as thermodynamical pressure, we will extend phase space and calculate critical values. Then, we construct thermodynamical spacetime by considering mass as thermodynamical potential. We study geometrical thermodynamics of these black holes in context of heat capacity and extended phase space. We show that studying heat capacity, geometrical thermodynamics and critical behavior in extended phase space lead to consistent results. Finally, we will employ a new method for obtaining critical values and show that the results of this method are consistent with those of other methods.

  5. Friedmann dynamics recovered from compactified Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pavluchenko, Sergey A; Toporensky, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper cosmological dynamics in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a perfect fluid source in arbitrary dimension is studied. A systematic analysis is performed for the case that the theory does not admit maximally symmetric solutions. Considering two independent scale factors, namely one for the three dimensional space and one for the extra dimensional space, is found that a regime exists where the two scale factors tend to a constant value via damped oscillations for not too negative pressure of the fluid, so that asymptotically the evolution of the $(3+1)$-dimensional Friedmann model with perfect fluid is recovered. At last, it is worth emphasizing that the present numerical results strongly support a 't Hooft-like interpretation of the parameter $1/D$ (where $D$ is the number of extra dimensions) as a small expansion parameter in very much the same way as it happens in the large $N$ expansion of gauge theories with $1/N$. Indeed, the dependence on $D$ of many of the relevant physical quantities comp...

  6. Efficient modelling of gravity effects due to topographic masses using the Gauss-FFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leyuan

    2016-04-01

    We present efficient Fourier-domain algorithms for modelling gravity effects due to topographic masses. The well-known Parker's formula originally based on the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is modified by applying the Gauss-FFT method instead. Numerical precision of the forward and inverse Fourier transforms embedded in Parker's formula and its extended forms are significantly improved by the Gauss-FFT method. The topographic model is composed of two major aspects, the geometry and the density. Versatile geometric representations, including the mass line model, the mass prism model, the polyhedron model and smoother topographic models interpolated from discrete data sets using high-order splines or pre-defined by analytical functions, in combination with density distributions that vary both laterally and vertically in rather arbitrary ways following exponential or general polynomial functions, now can be treated in a consistent framework by applying the Gauss-FFT method. The method presented has been numerically checked by space-domain analytical and hybrid analytical/numerical solutions already established in the literature. Synthetic and real model tests show that both the Gauss-FFT method and the standard FFT method run much faster than space-domain solutions, with the Gauss-FFT method being superior in numerical accuracy. When truncation errors are negligible, the Gauss-FFT method can provide forward results almost identical to space-domain analytical or semi-numerical solutions in much less time.

  7. Constraining scalar-Gauss-Bonnet inflation by reheating, unitarity, and Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Maity, Debaprasad; Mukherjee, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the inflationary dynamics in detail for theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to scalar functions, in light of the Planck data. Considering the chaotic inflationary scenario, we constrain the parameters of two models involving inflaton-Gauss-Bonnet coupling by current Planck data. For nonzero inflaton-Gauss-Bonnet coupling β , an inflationary analysis provides us a big cosmologically viable region in the space of (m , β ), where m is the mass of the inflaton. However, we study further on constraining β arising from reheating considerations and unitarity of tree-level amplitude involving 2-graviton →2 -graviton (h h →h h ) scattering. Our analysis, particularly on reheating significantly reduces the parameter space of (m , β ) for all models. The quadratic Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter turns out to be more strongly constrained than that of the linear coupling. For the linear Gauss-Bonnet coupling function, we obtain β ≲1 03, with the condition β (m /MP)2≃10-4. However, the study of the Higgs inflation scenario in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term turns out to be completely disfavored.

  8. Hawking radiation via tunneling from a d-dimensional black hole in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu-Qiang; Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2017-04-01

    We extend the Parikh-Wilczek method from Einstein gravity spacetime to Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity and study the tunneling radiation of particles across the event horizon of a d-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet Anti de-Sitter black hole. The emission rate of a particle is calculated. It is shown that the emission rate of massive particles takes the same functional form as that of massless particles although that their motion equations tunneling across the horizon are different. It is also shown that the emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum but is consistent with an underlying unitary theory. In addition, significant but interesting phenomenon is demonstrated when Gauss-Bonnet term is present. The expression of the emission rate for a black hole in Gauss-Bonnet gravity differs from that for a black hole in Einstein gravity. After adopting the conventional tunneling rate, we obtain the expression of the entropy of the Gauss-Bonnet black hole, which is in accordance with the early results but does not obey the area law. So the research of tunneling radiation in this paper may serve as a new perspective of understanding the thermodynamics of black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity.

  9. Fruits without labour: the implications of Friedrich Nietzsche's ideas for the caring professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P W; Brown, B; Crawford, P

    1998-08-01

    Seldom is the work of philosophers invoked by health professionals when examining aspects of care from a philosophical perspective. Instead, students of health care, especially nurses, have been introduced to 'philosophies' which are often superficially examined and poorly understood. This practice fails to develop in students an appreciation of the work of philosophers or to acquire the art of critical thinking. The introduction of models and theories of nursing in the past three decades has alerted nurses to the importance of possessing critical skills in order to identify sound theory and implement good practice. This paper goes beyond mere philosophising and examines aspects of mental health care from the perspectives of one of nineteenth century Europe's most notable philosophers, Friedrich Nietzsche. It argues that understanding his work can enhance one's ability to reflect on nursing practice, as well as bringing a new dimension to how we analyse 'mental health' problems. His work provides many insights into how we can improve our understanding of the effect of mental illness and mental health care on the individual, and how we conceptualise the process of care. This paper provides an overview of his life's work, his impact on the history of ideas and develops some of the more provocative implications of his work for mental health care.

  10. BUILDING A NATIONAL HERITAGE REGISTRY FOR THE SUDAN: THE FRIEDRICH W. HINKEL ARCHIVE DIGITIZATION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lawrenz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of the Sudan is home to outstanding and diverse cultural heritage ranging from Neolithic sites of human activity and settlement to historic sites of the 19th and 20th century. While certain phases of the Sudan’s cultural heritage such as the period of Egyptian influence during the second and first millennium B.C. have been the focus of archaeological research since the 19th century, other aspects of the country’s rich history have remained largely unknown locally and internationally due to a lack of documentation and registration of such sites. Since 2014, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI has been engaged in an effort to support the creation of a national heritage registry in close cooperation with the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM by digitizing the archive of German architect Friedrich W. Hinkel and engaging in capacity building measures focusing on analog and digital data curation. The archive contains structured information (photos, drawings, maps and assembled written documentation regarding over 14,000 archaeological and historical sites in the Sudan using an alphanumeric coding system that allows for easy integration of data in a digital environment such as the DAI’s IT infrastructure, the iDAI.world. As such the data assembled by Hinkel will serve as the basis of the national heritage registry currently in development.

  11. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker major texts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of texts by the German physicist and philosopher Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912-2007), for use in seminars on the history, epistemology and structure of physics. Most texts appear in English for the first time. Weizsäcker became famous through his works in physics, mainly in the early development of nuclear physics. Later he would also become well known as a philosopher and analyst of contemporary culture. Texts include the original publications of the “Weizsäcker-Bethe formula” of nuclear masses and the “Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle,” which explains the source of energy in the sun; both were developed by Bethe at the same time and independently of Weizsäcker. Further texts deal with Weizsäcker’s explanation of the origin of planets, his explanation of the “time arrow” in Statistical Mechanics and his analyses of Quantum Mechanics and the structure of physics in general.

  12. Johann Friedrich Horner and the Repeated Discovery of Oculosympathoparesis: Whose Syndrome Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Mantinderpreet; Belle, Vaijayantee; Chandar, Krishan; Miller, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of cranial sympathetic tone leads to the symptom complex of miosis, ptosis, and hemifacial anhidrosis. It is widely believed that this phenomenon was discovered in 1869 by the Swiss ophthalmologist Johann Friedrich Horner, and as a result, the term Horner syndrome has become synonymous with the clinical presentation. However, the syndrome that would become Horner syndrome had actually been described several times before his report. François Pourfour du Petit documented the ocular effects of sympathetic trunk lesions in animal studies in 1727. Claude Bernard identified the full clinical triad in animal studies in 1852, and as a result, the condition is sometimes called Bernard syndrome. There were also 2 previous reports of ptosis and miosis resulting from sympathetic nerve damage in humans: 1 by Edward Selleck Hare in 1838 associated with brachial plexus tumor, and the other by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1864 associated with a gunshot wound to the neck. Although Horner was the first to objectively characterize the co-occurrence of vasomotor and ocular changes in a human patient, he did not identify the etiology of the condition, discuss its relationship to the sympathetic nervous system, or reference any of the previous studies in animals or humans. It is possible that a lack of familiarity with previous investigations delayed the full appreciation of the mechanism underlying this disorder.

  13. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the interpretations of quantum theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    What are 'interpretations' of quantum theory? What are the differences between Carl Friedrich von Weizsäkcker's approach and contemporary views? The various interpretations of quantum mechanics give diverse answers to questions concerning the relation between measuring process and standard time development, the embedding of quantum objects in space ('wave-particle-dualism'), and the reference of state vectors. Does the wave function describe states in the real world or does it refer to our knowledge about nature? First, some relevant conceptions in Weizsäcker's book The Structure of Physics (Der Aufbau der Physik, 1985) are introduced. In a second step I point out why his approach is not any longer present in contemporary debates. One reason is that Weizsäcker is mainly affected by classical philosophy (Platon, Aristoteles, Kant). He could not esteem the philosophy of science that was developed in the spirit of logical empiricism. So he lost interest in disputes with Anglo-Saxon philosophy of quantum mechanics. Especially his interpretation of probability and his analysis of the collapse of the state function as change in knowledge differ from contemporary standard views. In recent years, however, epistemic interpretations of quantum mechanics are proposed that share some of Weizsäcker's intuitions.

  14. Building a National Heritage Registry for the Sudan: the Friedrich W. Hinkel Archive Digitization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Republic of the Sudan is home to outstanding and diverse cultural heritage ranging from Neolithic sites of human activity and settlement to historic sites of the 19th and 20th century. While certain phases of the Sudan's cultural heritage such as the period of Egyptian influence during the second and first millennium B.C. have been the focus of archaeological research since the 19th century, other aspects of the country's rich history have remained largely unknown locally and internationally due to a lack of documentation and registration of such sites. Since 2014, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) has been engaged in an effort to support the creation of a national heritage registry in close cooperation with the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM) by digitizing the archive of German architect Friedrich W. Hinkel and engaging in capacity building measures focusing on analog and digital data curation. The archive contains structured information (photos, drawings, maps and assembled written documentation) regarding over 14,000 archaeological and historical sites in the Sudan using an alphanumeric coding system that allows for easy integration of data in a digital environment such as the DAI's IT infrastructure, the iDAI.world. As such the data assembled by Hinkel will serve as the basis of the national heritage registry currently in development.

  15. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized.

  16. Genesis idea of the superman in european philosophy: concept Friedrich Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Somov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the concept of Nietzsche superman in the context of development of the idea of European philosophy superman. Based on a study of scientific literature it was proved that Nietzsche was the first in European philosophy who has attempted to move away from its classical forms, creating a special type of superman, the values of which were creative, spiritual self, the victory over himself and the will to develop and adopt values, that multiply the power of life. It can be stated that superman Friedrich Nietzsche – a man who does not exist yet, and when it appears – is unknown. Initial characterization of superman Nietzsche is the power and the will who oppose «reasonableness» that seeks to bring originality to all acts of consciousness and identity. In superman should be personal development, their personal view of the world and its way. The main feature of the superman must be spiritual creativity, the total concentration of the will to power, that is able to completely control the superman himself: to know precisely aspiration, desire and how he organizes his way to the goal.

  17. Partial Wave Analysis in Friedrichs Model With Self-interacting Continua

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    We consider the model of coupling bare discrete states with continuum states in which the continuum states can have interactions among themselves. In both nonrelativistic and relativistic cases, by partial-wave decomposition and constraint to the conserved angular momentum eigenstates, the model can be reduced to the same Friedrichs-like model with interactions between continua. If a kind of factorizable form factor is chosen, the model can be exactly solvable, that is, the generalized discrete eigenstates including bound states, virtual states and resonances, and the in-state and out-state can all be represented using the original bare states. The exact $S$ matrix is thus obtained. We then discuss the behaviors of the dynamically generated $S$-wave and $P$-wave discrete states as the coupling is varying when there is only one self-interacting bare continuum state. We find that even when the potential is repulsive there could also be resonances and virtual states. In the $P$-wave cases when the interaction is...

  18. O Conceito de Imitação no Jovem Friedrich Schlegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Faustino

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Tomando por base o ensaio Über das Studium der griechschen Poesie (Sobre o estudo da poesia grega, este trabalho tem por objetivo investigar o conceito de imitação no pensamento do jovem Friedrich Schlegel. Além de explicitar dois usos distintos do conceito - que aparece ora como imitação do real, ora como imitação dos antigos - pretende-se identificar oscilações e tensões terminológicas que possam esclarecer a postura filosófica do autor, frente à profunda crise de legitimidade, que, naquela época, atinge a concepção da arte como imitação da natureza. É intenção mostrar que, embora reconheça os aspectos negativos que a má aplicação do modelo clássico provoca na produção e na teoria da arte moderna, Schlegel também propõe um sentido positivo, à luz do qual a imitação pode ser harmonizada com os princípios filosóficos basilares de uma estética idealista de feição kantiana.

  19. Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne-Saffran, E; Kinne, R K

    1999-01-01

    In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler, a German physician and chemist by training, published a paper that describes the formation of urea, known since 1773 to be a major component of mammalian urine, by combining cyanic acid and ammonium in vitro. In these experiments the synthesis of an organic compound from two inorganic molecules was achieved for the first time. These results weakened significantly the vitalistic hypothesis on the functioning of living cells, although Wöhler, at that time, was more interested in the chemical consequences of isomerism than in the philosophical implications of his finding. However, the chemical synthesis observed by Wöhler does not represent the reaction which is employed in the mammalian liver for urea synthesis. The mechanism of this process was elucidated by the German physician Hans A. Krebs and his medical student Kurt Henseleit in 1932 and was shown to include the ornithine cycle. This 'urea cycle' is only observed in living cells; this apparently vitalistic phenomenon is caused by the compartmentalization of the various enzymatic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol, respectively.

  20. Inverse Matrix using Gauss Elimination Method by OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madini O. Alassafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OpenMP is an implementation program interface that might be utilized to explicitly immediate multi-threaded and it shared memory parallelism. OpenMP platform for specifications multi-processing via concurrent work between interested parties of hardware and software industry, governments and academia. OpenMP is not needs implemented identically by all vendors and it is not proposed for distributed memory parallel systems by itself. In order to invert a matrix, there are multiple approaches. The proposed LU decomposition calculates the upper and lower triangular via Gauss elimination method. The computation can be parallelized using OpenMP technology. The proposed technique main goal is to analyze the amount of time taken for different sizes of matrices so we used 1 thread, 2 threads, 4 threads, and 8 threads which will be compared against each other to measure the efficiency of the parallelization. The result of interrupting compered the amount of time spent in all the computing using 1 thread, 2 threads, 4 threads, and 8 threads. We came up with if we raise the number of threads the performance will be increased (less amount of time required. If we use 8 threads we get around 64% performance gained. Also as the size of matrix increases, the efficiency of parallelization also increases, which is evident from the time difference between serial and parallel code. This is because, more computations are done parallel and hence the efficiency is high. Schedule type in OpenMP has different behavior, we used static, dynamic, and guided scheme

  1. 准确把握马恩著作中未来社会名称的含义%Names for Future Society in Works of Karl marx and Friedrich Engels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家祥

    2001-01-01

    在《1844年经济学-哲学手稿》中,马克思把社会主义作为理想的社会制度,而共产主义则只是一种运动,是实现社会主义的一个必经的环节.马克思、恩格斯在1847年12月-1848年1月合写的《共产党宣言》中,把未来社会称为共产主义社会,并且摒弃社会主义社会这个名称.在1850年写成的《1848年至1850年的法兰西阶级斗争》中,马克思又把自己的理论称为社会主义理论,把未来社会称为社会主义社会.自此以后,社会主义社会和共产主义社会这两个名称就完全一样了,指的是代替资本主义社会的未来新社会.马克思在1875年写的《哥达纲领批判》中,把共产主义社会分为第一阶段和高级阶段两个阶段,但并没有把第一阶段称为社会主义社会.列宁在1917年8-9月间写的《国家与革命》一书,是把共产主义社会的第一阶段或低级阶段称为社会主义社会的标志.

  2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's Analysis of the Speculation "Mystery" and its Implication%马克思恩格斯对思辨“秘密”的剖析及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦凌; 杨荣荣

    2013-01-01

    马克思恩格斯通过对唯心主义思辨哲学颠倒“普遍和特殊”关系这一错误思维方式的剖析,阐明了“普遍与特殊”的辩证关系:普遍来自于特殊,并通过特殊表现出来.科学把握“普遍和特殊”的辩证关系原理,对于识破“普世价值”的理论谬误、推进社会主义核心价值体系建设有重要启迪.

  3. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' Criticism on Bourgeois Values and Its Contemporary Enlightenment%马克思恩格斯对资产阶级价值观的批判及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦凌

    2010-01-01

    资产阶级一直宣扬"自由、平等、博爱"等价值观念是超阶级的和永恒的.马克思恩格斯从唯物史观出发,批判了资产阶级的"自由、平等、博爱"观,强调"自由、平等、博爱"是随着资本主义生产方式的产生而产生,是为维护资产阶级利益服务的.马克思恩格斯的分析对于科学把握社会主义核心价值体系有重要启示.

  4. 马克思恩格斯文化产业思想探幽%Discovery the metaphorical cultural industry's problem from the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾长秋

    2010-01-01

    在马克思恩格斯的著作中,由于受资本主义生产状况等客观条件的限制,再加上他们的主观预见不足,文化产业并没有作为特有概念提出并展开论述,但是,其中不少论述蕴含着丰富的关于文化产业的有关思想.系统地整理这些思想可为我们今天文化产业建设提供理论依据.

  5. Karl Marx, un periodista en la Era del Capital. Apuntes para una investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Pino, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to criticize the traditional representation of Karl Marx’s journalistic works, usually forgotten by a misleading canon that assumes his articles only as a minor work. One of the problems of this traditional conception is that it dissociates his theoretical and economic contributions from the historical development of the author’s thought (and also from its material roots. We will try to point the importance of Karl Marx’s mature journalism in two areas: in the construction of the central concepts of his critic against the capitalist mode of production (surplus value, a multilineal historical perspective, a global description of the world market, etc. and in the production of political cartographies to intervene in the class conflict. This article poses several hypothesis and tentative affirmations about Karl Marx’s journalism that may serve as a point of departure for a critical research.El objetivo de este artículo es criticar la representación tradicional del trabajo periodístico de Karl Marx, habitualmente olvidado por un canon engañoso que sólo asume sus artículos al precio de convertirlos en una obra menor. Uno de los problemas de esta concepción tradicional es que disocia sus contribuciones teóricas y económicas del desarrollo histórico del pensamiento del autor (y también de sus raíces materiales. Intentaremos señalar la importancia del periodismo maduro de Karl Marx en dos áreas: en la construcción de los conceptos centrales de su crítica contra el capitalismo (plusvalor, un enfoque histórico multilineal, una descripción global del mercado mundial, etc. y en la producción de cartografías políticas para intervenir en el conflicto de clases. Este artículo plantea varias hipótesis y afirmaciones tentativas sobre el periodismo de Karl Marx que pueden servir como punto de partida de una investigación crítica.

  6. Neo-nietzscheanismo y carnaval: Friedrich Nietzsche como símbolo contracultural en el contexto español de los años setenta/Neo-nietzcheanism and Carnival: Friedrich Nietzsche as a symbol for Counter-Culture in the Spanish Cultural Context of the 1970's

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandra Santana Pérez

    2014-01-01

      The influence of Friedrich Nietzsche in the Spanish culture during the final stages of General Franco's dictatorship presents some particular features in relation with the social changes that took place in this period...

  7. Roosna-Alliku mõisa häärber / Karl Kolopka, Nele Rohtla, Johann Schultz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolopka, Karl

    2004-01-01

    12 ill.; peahoone ehitati Johann Schultzi kavandite järgi, siseinterjööri ilmestava Louis XVI stiilis stukitöö tegi Karl Kolopka, häärber restaureeriti Nele Rohtla (OÜ Mõisaprojekt) suunamisel

  8. Holographic thermalization with a chemical potential in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University,Chongqing, 400074 (China); Liu, Xian-Ming [Department of Physics, Hubei University for Nationalities,Enshi, 445000, Hubei (China); Liu, Wen-Biao [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Holographic thermalization is studied in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We use the two-point correlation function and expectation value of Wilson loop, which are dual to the renormalized geodesic length and minimal area surface in the bulk, to probe the thermalization. The numeric result shows that larger the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is, shorter the thermalization time is, and larger the charge is, longer the thermalization time is, which implies that the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient can accelerate the thermalization while the charge has an opposite effect. In addition, we obtain the functions with respect to the thermalization time for both the thermalization probes at a fixed charge and Gauss-Bonnet coefficient, and on the basis of these functions, we obtain the thermalization velocity, which shows that the thermalization process is non-monotonic. At the middle and later periods of the thermalization process, we find that there is a phase transition point, which divides the thermalization into an acceleration phase and a deceleration phase. We also study the effect of the charge and Gauss-Bonnet coefficient on the phase transition point.

  9. Harmonic Gauss maps and self-dual equations in string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, R; Parthasarathy, R; Viswanathan, K S

    1994-01-01

    The string world sheet, regarded as Riemann surface, in background R^3 and R^4 is described by the generalised Gauss map. When the Gauss map is harmonic or equivalently for surfaces of constant mean scalar curvature, we obtain an Abelian self-dual system, using SO(3) and SO(4) gauge fields constructed in our earlier studies. This compliments our earlier result that h\\surd g\\ =\\ 1 surfaces exhibit Virasaro symmetry. The self-dual system so obtained is compared with self-dual Chern-Simons system and a generalized Liouville equation involving extrinsic geometry is obtained. \\vspace{0.2cm} The world sheet in background R^n, \\ n>4 is described by the generalized Gauss map. It is first shown that when the Gauss map is harmonic, the scalar mean curvature is constant. SO(n) gauge fields are constructed from the geometry of the surface and expressed in terms of the Gauss map. It is shown that the harmonic map satisfies a non-Abelian self-dual system of equations for the gauge group SO(2)\\times SO(n-2).

  10. Eliminating chromatic aberration in Gauss-type lens design using a novel genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Tsai, Chen-Mu; Macdonald, John; Pai, Yang-Chieh

    2007-05-01

    Two different types of Gauss lens design, which effectively eliminate primary chromatic aberration, are presented using an efficient genetic algorithm (GA). The current GA has to deal with too many targets in optical global optimization so that the performance is not much improved. Generally speaking, achromatic aberrations have a great relationship with variable glass sets for all elements. For optics whose design is roughly convergent, glass sets for optics will play a significant role in axial and lateral color aberration. Therefore better results might be derived from the optimal process of eliminating achromatic aberration, which could be carried out by finding feasible glass sets in advance. As an alternative, we propose a new optimization process by using a GA and involving theories of geometrical optics in order to select the best optical glass combination. Two Gauss-type lens designs are employed in this research. First, a telephoto lens design is sensitive to axial aberration because of its long focal length, and second, a wide-angle Gauss design is complicated by lateral color aberration at the extreme corners because Gauss design is well known not to deal well with wide-angle problems. Without numbers of higher chief rays passing the element, it is difficult to correct lateral color aberration altogether for the Gauss design. The results and conclusions show that the attempts to eliminate primary chromatic aberrations were successful.

  11. Nonparaxial propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Liu, Zhirong; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-04-01

    Analytical expressions for the three components of nonparaxial propagation of a polarized Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are derived and used to investigate its propagation properties in uniaxial crystal. The influences of the initial beam parameters and the parameters of the uniaxial crystal on the evolution of the beam-intensity distribution in the uniaxial crystal are examined in detail. Results show that the statistical properties of a nonparaxial Lorentz-Gauss beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are closely determined by the initial beam's parameters and the parameters of the crystal: the beam waist sizes-w(0), w(0x), and w(0y)-not only affect the size and shape of the beam profile in uniaxial crystal but also determine the nonparaxial effect of a Lorentz-Gauss beam; the beam profile of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal is elongated in the x or y direction, which is determined by the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index; with increasing deviation of the ratio from unity, the extension of the beam profile augments. The results indicate that uniaxial crystal provides an effective and convenient method for modulating the Lorentz-Gauss beams. Our results may be valuable in some fields, such as optical trapping and nonlinear optics, where a light beam with a special profile and polarization is required.

  12. Alexander von Humboldt und Carl Friedrich Gauß – im Roman und in Wirklichkeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Knobloch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Daniel Kehlmanns Roman „Die Vermessung der Welt“ wird hoch gepriesen und streng kritisiert. Kehlmanns Kritiker lesen seine Satire als eine verfälschte Biographie von Gauss und Humboldt, obwohl der Autor wiederholt selbstironische Bemerkungen eingestreut hat, die sein wahres Ziel offenbaren. Der Aufsatz bemüht sich, Kehlmanns fiktiven Roman angemessen zu beurteilen und einige der wirklichen Aktivitäten und Errungenschaften von Gauss und Humboldt zu charakterisieren, indem Kehlmanns erzählte mit den historischen Tatsachen verglichen werden. Beide Wissenschaftler waren stark am Erdmagnetismus interessiert, was zeitweise zu einigen Spannungen zwischen ihnen führte. Humboldts Messmethoden und seine Überzeugung, dass alles Wechselwirkung ist, waren zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Nur numerische Elemente konnten helfen, die Gesetze zu finden, die die Natur regieren. Humboldts wissenschaftliche Techniken und Ziele (Methode der Mittelwerte waren gut begründet. Humboldts Reisen und Forschen bildeten eine untrennbare Einheit. Humboldts Naturbegriff schloss beide Möglichkeiten ein, das heißt die natura naturans und die natura naturata, die schaffende und herrschende Natur und die Natur, die von bestimmten Gesetzen beherrscht war. Sein überragendes Interesse an Naturgesetzen gründete auf der Überzeugung, dass sie ewig waren und dass sie die Ordnung und Ewigkeit der Welt garantierten. Résumé Le roman de Daniel Kehlmann „Le mesurage du monde“ est célébré et critiqué fortement en même temps. Les critiques de Kehlmann lisent sa satire comme une biographie détériorée de Gauss et de Humboldt quoique l’auteur ait inséré à maintes reprises des remarques autoironiques qui révèlent sa vraie fin. L’article s’efforce de juger justement le roman fictif de Kehlmann et de caractériser quelques-unes des activités et conquêtes réelles de Gauss et de Humboldt en comparant les faits racontés par Kehlmann avec les

  13. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: nuclear disarmament and the search for freedom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuneck, Götz

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's comprehensive contributions to nuclear disarmament and arms control, as well as his peace policy impulses are to be understood primarily in the context of his family origin, his comprehensive thinking and the historical circumstances of the emerging nuclear age. They have a scientific, political and a strong philosophical-moral component. Beside the factual problems (nuclear energy, military strategy) he was interested in political power issues and their ambivalence and perception. His actual work is not only based on general academic knowledge, but also serve the immediate political influence on a scientific basis. Weizsäcker was not committed to nuclear disarmament or arms control per se, but about creating a lasting peace policy in the nuclear age. The paper discusses in chronological order of Weizsäcker's work within the policy field peace and disarmament. Family origin, study and work on the nuclear programme by Nazi-Germany laid the foundations for his later career. As a young physicist, he was directly involved in the political and ethical dilemma of the military and civilian use of nuclear energy. After the war, in Göttingen and Hamburg the reflections of the Nazi phase and the discussion of ways out of the dangers of the Cold War followed. The Max-Planck Institute in Starnberg dealt with the science-based treatment of global world problems, including the dangers of nuclear proliferation. Finally, Weizsäcker initiated a Peace Council in 1985. He urged both the perception of the moral responsibility of scientists as well as an ethics of the scientific-technological age. According to him, a general and profound change in the consciousness of humankind is needed to solve the existing power problems and the problem of war.

  14. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling.

  15. [Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816): remarkable organizer of health service, philosopher, sponsor, and social figure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaller, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816) was one of the most eminent doctors of his time. His name was given not accidentally to one of the largest squares, a street and a bridge across the river Regnitz in Bamberg, the town where he worked more than 40 years. Markus was well-known among the population as an excellent doctor, he also was a personal doctor of Kurfürst bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal. Markus was the first principal to found a hospital affordable to everyone, where medical personnel was taught and many professors worked. He was also founder and principal of the medico-surgical school, whose program of studies was equal to those of an university. On Markus' initiative a birthhouse was founded, as well as a sheltered housing complex for the elderly and a school, as well as a social system for poor citizens. In January 1803 Markus became the head of the health department of the principality of Frankonia. On his initiative a free smallpocks vaccination for all new born was carried out. Markus brought up an annual report of medical science and numerous magazines on therapy. In his scientifical articles in different magazines he wrote about diseases of respiratory tract, skin, liver, as well as typhus and feaver. In many of his published works he appears to be a philosopher supporting a naturalistic philosophy and disagreeing with its idealistic attitude at the same time. He was the head of a literature society called "Harmony", and he supported the construction of the first theatre where E. T. A Hoffmann worked who was a friend of Markus. A. F. Markus' death 1816 put his friends and supporters into a deep grief. According to the newspapers of that time, the whole town followed the funeral procession and all the churches rang their bells goodbye. The name of A. F. Markus has an important place among the extraordinary German physicians of the late 18th and early 19th century.

  16. Dark matter relic density in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, 1 James Cook Dr., Townsville 4811 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    The relic density of symmetric and asymmetric dark matter in a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) modified Randall-Sundrum (RS) type II braneworld cosmology is investigated. The existing study of symmetric dark matter in a GB braneworld (Okada and Okada, 2009) found that the expansion rate was reduced compared to that in standard General Relativity (GR), thereby delaying particle freeze-out and resulting in relic abundances which are suppressed by up to O(10{sup −2}). This is in direct contrast to the behaviour observed in RS braneworlds where the expansion rate is enhanced and the final relic abundance boosted. However, this finding that relic abundances are suppressed in a GB braneworld is based upon a highly contrived situation in which the GB era evolves directly into a standard GR era, rather than passing through a RS era as is the general situation. This collapse of the RS era requires equating the mass scale m{sub α} of the GB modification and the mass scale m{sub σ} of the brane tension. However, if the GB contribution is to be considered as the lowest order correction from string theory to the RS action, we would expect m{sub α} > m{sub σ}. We investigate the effect upon the relic abundance of choosing more realistic values for the ratio R{sub m} ≡ m{sub α}/m{sub σ} and find that the relic abundance can be either enhanced or suppressed by more than two orders of magnitude. However, suppression only occurs for a small range of parameter choices and, overwhelmingly, the predominant situation is that of enhancement as we recover the usual Randall-Sundrum type behaviour in the limit R{sub m} >> 1. We use the latest observational bound Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} = 0.1187 ± 0.0017 to constrain the various model parameters and briefly discuss the implications for direct/indirect dark matter detection experiments as well as dark matter particle models.

  17. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmuck

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der kurze, nicht vollständig erhaltene Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer behandelt sehr verschiedene Themen: Politik, Kriegsgefahr, den Wissenschaftsbetrieb, Auszeichnungen und Tagungen, Embryologie und Cholera. Gemeinsam mit Briefen und Reden ergibt sich dabei ein differenziertes Bild der Beurteilung der beiden Wissenschaftler durch den jeweils anderen. Während Baer sich als Bewunderer Humboldts erweist, erscheint umgekehrt Humboldts Einschätzung Baers als ambivalent. Abstract The short, not completely preserved correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Ernst von Baer deals with a wide range of subjects: politics and the danger of war, academic activities, scientific awards and conferences, aspects of embryology and the cholera. Letters to third persons and speeches, together with the correspondence between Humboldt and Baer show a differentiated pattern of mutual appraisal: While Baer always remained an admirer of the elder naturalist, Humboldt’s estimation was characterized by ambivalence.

  18. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  19. Tartu Ülikooli kümme geeniust / Alo Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Alo

    2007-01-01

    Valik Tartu Ülikoolis 375 aasta jooksul kõige rohkem maailmateadust mõjutanud teadlasi: Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Stuve, Martin Heinrich Rathke, Karl Ernst von Baer, Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer, Juri Lotman, Ludvig Puusepp Nikolai Pirogov, Ernst Öpik, Ivan Kondakov, Karl Bücher, Karl Friedrich Burdach ja Gustav Teichmüller

  20. Tartu Ülikooli kümme geeniust / Alo Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Alo

    2007-01-01

    Valik Tartu Ülikoolis 375 aasta jooksul kõige rohkem maailmateadust mõjutanud teadlasi: Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Stuve, Martin Heinrich Rathke, Karl Ernst von Baer, Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer, Juri Lotman, Ludvig Puusepp Nikolai Pirogov, Ernst Öpik, Ivan Kondakov, Karl Bücher, Karl Friedrich Burdach ja Gustav Teichmüller

  1. Karl Menningu (ja iseenese) päästmiseks / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Vastuseks Karin Hallas-Murula arvustusele "Maja, mis on sümbol" (Sirp, 2007, 5. X, lk. 13) ja Mait Väljase arvustusele "Iseolemise algus arhitektuuris" (Maja, 2008, nr. 1, lk. 86-87) oma 2007. a. ilmunud raamatust "Maja kui sümbol : Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi hoone Tartus" kohta. Georg Hellati ja Karl Menningu osalusest EÜS-i hoone sünniloos. Frank Lloyd Wrightist kui võimalikust eeskujuandjast

  2. Modification of Karl Fischer Method for Determination of Water in light Petroleum Products Including Aviation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Misra

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical Karl Fischer method has been modified so as to make it suitable for determining free and dissolved water present in aviation fuels in excess of 10 ppm which is considered as limiting concentration value for safe fueling of aircrafts particularly in the arduous climatic conditions as encountered in military operations. The modified method employed a special ethylene glyccl solvent mixture and another water saturated fuel sample as blank.

  3. Karl Menningu (ja iseenese) päästmiseks / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Vastuseks Karin Hallas-Murula arvustusele "Maja, mis on sümbol" (Sirp, 2007, 5. X, lk. 13) ja Mait Väljase arvustusele "Iseolemise algus arhitektuuris" (Maja, 2008, nr. 1, lk. 86-87) oma 2007. a. ilmunud raamatust "Maja kui sümbol : Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi hoone Tartus" kohta. Georg Hellati ja Karl Menningu osalusest EÜS-i hoone sünniloos. Frank Lloyd Wrightist kui võimalikust eeskujuandjast

  4. Karl Popper: a propósito de La sociedad abierta y sus enemigos

    OpenAIRE

    Tobón Sanín , Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Este texto pretende llevar a cabo una crítica al racionalismo extremo de Karl Popper, a veces rayano en el subjetivismo, pues racionalismo e irracionalismo en las sociedades son momentos de una totalidad más amplia de la realidad histórica, como quiera que la sociedad se mueve es por los conflictos y las contradicciones, y no por los consensos efímeros de las partes en conflicto. 

  5. Tim, Jan Lucas ja Karl Robert - vennad üheks kuuks / Maris Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri suvelavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" kaks Karli osatäitjat Jan Lucas Videvik ja Tim Leesnurm ning Joonatani osatäitja Karl Robert Saaremäe tegid Loksal Kaldmaa talus ratsasõiduproove. Üllar Saaremäe lavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" (Astrid Lindgreni samanimelise jutustuse järgi) esietendus on 11. juunil Rakvere teatri taga aias

  6. Den første Karl Gustav-krig 1657-58

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den første Karl Gustav-krig i forskellige persketiver og konkluderer, at krigen ikke bør opfattes som et dårligt forberedt og uigennemtænkt forsøg på dansk revanche inden for rammerne af en nordisk rivalisering, men snarere som  en velovervejet satsning og et led i den dansk-s...

  7. Karl E. Weickの組織化概念の基礎的検討

    OpenAIRE

    星井, 進介; Hoshii, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    In The Social Psychology of Organizing, 2nd edition, Karl E. Weiek described an organizing theory based on flows, changes, connections, interdependence, and social interaction. This paper examined the definition and process of organizing proposed by Weick. The process of organizing and how organization emerges in Weick's book are discussed. Organizing was defined by Weick as a consensually validated grammar for reducing equivoeality by means of sensible interlocked behaviors. Weick showed tha...

  8. Tim, Jan Lucas ja Karl Robert - vennad üheks kuuks / Maris Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri suvelavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" kaks Karli osatäitjat Jan Lucas Videvik ja Tim Leesnurm ning Joonatani osatäitja Karl Robert Saaremäe tegid Loksal Kaldmaa talus ratsasõiduproove. Üllar Saaremäe lavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" (Astrid Lindgreni samanimelise jutustuse järgi) esietendus on 11. juunil Rakvere teatri taga aias

  9. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  10. Ventilated external walls, constructed based on the building physics principles developed by Karl Gertis.; Hinterlueftete Aussenwaende, konstruiert aufgrund der von Karl Gertis erarbeiteten bauphysikalischen Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziesielski, Erich [CRP Bauingenieure GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In his postdoctoral thesis Karl Gertis described the basic principles of the function and the geometric boundary conditions for the construction of ventilated external walls. The proposed revision of DIN 18516-1:2008-09 will again based on the fundamental results of his work. Meanwhile, further work has been carried out on various aspects, including the work by Janser and Marquardt on wind load assumptions and the corrosion-inhibiting effect of ventilated external walls. Ventilated external facings can be retrofitted to damaged walls in large-panel buildings to improve thermal insulation, as a remedial measure for joint defects, and in order to improve corrosion protection. This paper discusses the physical mechanisms relating to wind load reduction and corrosion protection. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die grundlegende Arbeit ueber die Wirkungsweise und die geometrischen Randbedingungen bei der Konstruktion hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen hat Karl Gertis mit seiner Habilitationsschrift verfasst. Auch in der geplanten Neufassung von DIN 18516-1:2008-09 wird auf die grundlegenden Ergebnisse seiner Arbeit unveraendert zugegriffen werden. Weiterfuehrende Arbeiten wurden unter anderem ueber die anzusetzenden Windlastannahmen und die korrosionshemmende Wirkung hinterluefteter Aussenwaende von Janser und Marquardt durchgefuehrt. Durch die nachtraegliche Montage von hinterluefteten Aussenwandkonstruktionen auf die geschaedigten Waende des Grosstafelbaus kann sowohl die Waermedaemmung verbessert werden als auch eine Sanierung der Fugen erfolgen; insbesondere wird aber durch das Aufbringen hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen der Korrosionsschutz wesentlich verbessert. Im Folgenden werden die Wirkmechanismen hinsichtlich der Reduzierung der Windlast und des Korrosionsschutzes beschrieben. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Twee vroeë reaksies van Gereformeerde kant op Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Engelbrecht

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1919 het die eerste uitgawe van die epogmakende “Romerbrief” van Karl Barth verskyn. Van die tweede druk in 1922 sê hy dat “kein Stein mehr auf dem andem” gelaat is nie. So opspraakwekkend was hierdie boek dat in 1929 die 5de druk van die tweede, radikaal-hersiene uitgawe verskyn het. Intussen het nog ander werke van Barth en selfs oor Barth verskyn. 0ns noem o.a. sy Der Christ in der Gesellschaft (1920; Das Wort Gottes und die Theologie (1924; Vom Christlichen Leben (1926; Auferstehung der Toten (2. Aufl. 1927, sy preke saam met Eduard Thurneysen Komm Schopfer Geist, (Dritt Aufl., 7-9 Tausend(! 1926. Maar 1927 was veral belangrik vanweë die verskyning van Barth se eerste Dogmatiekboek: “Die Christliche Dogmatik im Entwurf. 1 Die Lehre vom Worte Gottes. Prolegomena zur Christlichen Dogmatik” . Voor dié datum het dwarsoor die wêreld, maar ook in Nederland wye reaksie op sy teologie ontstaan. In 1926 skryf Max Strauch sy “Theologie Karl Barth’s”, terwyl Haitjema in Nederland ook in 1926 sy Barth boek die lig laat sien (Prof. dr. Th. L. Haitjema, Karl Barth, Wageningen 1926. Ander Nederlanders wat gereageer het, was drr. A. H. de Hartog, V. Hepp, Ph. Kohnstamm en di. D. Tromp en 0. Noordmans.

  12. Dynamics of Anisotropic Collapsing Spheres in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, G

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the dynamics of the self gravitating adiabatic and anisotropic source in $5D$ Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity. To this end, the source has been taken as Tolman-Bondi model which preserve inhomogeneity in nature. The field equations, Misner-Sharp mass and dynamical equations have formulated in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity in $5D$. The junction conditions have been explored between the anisotropic source and vacuum solution in Gauss-Bonnet gravity in detail. The Misner and Sharp approach has been applied to define the proper time and radial derivatives. Further, these helps to formulate general dynamical equations. The equations show that the mass of the collapsing system increases with the same amount as the effective radial pressure increases. The dynamical system preserve retardation which implies that system under-consideration goes to gravitational collapse.

  13. Effects of Backreaction on Power-Maxwell Holographic Superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salahi, Hamid Reza; Montakhab, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    We analytically and numerically investigate the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors by considering the effects of scalar and gauge fields on the background geometry in five dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We assume the gauge field to be in the form of the Power-Maxwell nonlinear electrodynamics. We employ the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem for analytical calculation of the critical temperature and the shooting method for the numerical investigation. Our numerical and analytical results indicate that higher curvature corrections affect condensation of the holographic superconductors with backreaction. We observe that the backreaction can decrease the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors, while the Power-Maxwell electrodynamics and Gauss-Bonnet coefficient term may increase the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors. We find that the critical exponent has the mean-field value $\\beta=1/2$, regardless of the values of Gauss-Bonnet coefficient, backre...

  14. Quintessence background for $5D$ Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sushant G; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2016-01-01

    Low energy limits of the string theory suggest gravity action should include quadratic and higher order curvature terms, in the form of dimensionally continued Gauss-Bonnet densities. Lovelock theory is a natural extension of the general relativity to higher dimensions in which the first and second orders correspond, respectively, to general relativity and the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We obtain $5D$ black hole solution with quintessence matter as a source in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and also analyze their thermodynamical properties. Owing to quintessence corrected black hole, the thermodynamic quantities have also been corrected except for the black hole entropy, and phase transition is achievable. The phase transition for the thermodynamic stability, is characterized by a discontinuity in the specific heat at $r=r_C$, with the stable (unstable) branch for $r ) r_C$.

  15. Rapid solution of kriging equations, using a banded Gauss elimination algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J.R. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV (USA))

    1990-12-01

    A crucial concern when implementing computer algorithms for geostatistical analyses on microcomputers is speed of execution. Kriging, in particular, typically relies on a Gauss elimination algorithm to solve for weights. Because such an alogrithm is required for each estimate, the solution for weights can result in very slow program execution speed on a microcomputer. One approach to enhancing the efficiency of Gauss elimination is demonstrated herein. The upper triangle plus diagonal of the intersample covariance matrix is used in a modified banded Gauss elimination algorithm. Results show that such an algorithm yields approximately a two-fold reduction in execution time for kriging when the number of nearest neighbours used for estimation is large. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Warm-tachyon Gauss-Bonnet inflation in the light of Planck 2015 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaharfar, Meysam; Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2016-11-01

    We study a warm-tachyon inflationary model non-minimally coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet term. The general conditions required for reliability of the model are obtained by considerations of a combined hierarchy of Hubble and Gauss-Bonnet flow functions. The perturbed equations are comprehensively derived in the longitudinal gauge in the presence of slow-roll and quasi-stable conditions. General expressions for observable quantities of interest such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are found in the high dissipation regime. Finally, the model is solved using exponential and inverse power-law potentials, which satisfy the properties of a tachyon potential, with parameters of the model being constrained within the framework of the Planck 2015 data. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant controls termination of inflation in such a way as to be in good agreement with the Planck 2015 data.

  17. Effects of backreaction on power-Maxwell holographic superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahi, Hamid Reza; Montakhab, Afshin [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, Ahmad [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We analytically and numerically investigate the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors by considering the effects of scalar and gauge fields on the background geometry in five-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We assume the gauge field to be in the form of the power-Maxwell nonlinear electrodynamics. We employ the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem for analytical calculation of the critical temperature and the shooting method for the numerical investigation. Our numerical and analytical results indicate that higher curvature corrections affect condensation of the holographic superconductors with backreaction. We observe that the backreaction can decrease the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors, while the power-Maxwell electrodynamics and Gauss-Bonnet coefficient term may increase the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors. We find that the critical exponent has the mean-field value β = 1/2, regardless of the values of Gauss-Bonnet coefficient, backreaction and power-Maxwell parameters. (orig.)

  18. Warm-tachyon Gauss-Bonnet inflation in the light of Planck 2015 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaharfar, Meysam; Sepangi, Hamid Reza [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    We study a warm-tachyon inflationary model non-minimally coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet term. The general conditions required for reliability of the model are obtained by considerations of a combined hierarchy of Hubble and Gauss-Bonnet flow functions. The perturbed equations are comprehensively derived in the longitudinal gauge in the presence of slow-roll and quasi-stable conditions. General expressions for observable quantities of interest such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are found in the high dissipation regime. Finally, the model is solved using exponential and inverse power-law potentials, which satisfy the properties of a tachyon potential, with parameters of the model being constrained within the framework of the Planck 2015 data. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant controls termination of inflation in such a way as to be in good agreement with the Planck 2015 data. (orig.)

  19. Sociedade, crítica e liberdade: um cruzamento entre as filosofias de Friedrich Nietzche e Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Filho, Artur Rodrigo Itaqui

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi buscado promover, primeiramente, um resgate das reflexões filosóficas desenvolvidas por Friedrich Nietzsche e Theodor W. Adorno, tendo através do cruzamento de ambas filosofias o instigar de uma discussão sobre a questão da relação entre crítica e sociedade como princípio de liberdade. Sendo assim, buscou-se, no decorrer de quatro ensaios, desenvolver o aprofundamento de temas cruciais referentes à formação social, à formação cultural e às relações desenvolvidas entre os in...

  20. THE EARLY INFLUENCE OF PETER LAX ON COMPUTATIONAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND AN APPLICATION OF LAX-FRIEDRICHS AND LAX-WENDROFF ON TRIANGULAR GRIDS IN LAGRANGIAN COORDINATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Liska; Mikhail Shashkov; Burton Wendroff

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief discussion of some of the contributions of Peter Lax to Computational Fluid Dynamics.These include the Lax-Friedrichs and Lax-Wendroff numerical schemes.We also mention his collaboration in the 1983 HLL Riemann solver. We develop two-dimensional Lax-Friedrichs and Lax-Wendroff schemes for the Lagrangian form of the Euler equations on triangular grids.We apply a composite scheme that uses a LaxFriedrichs time step as a dissipative filter after several Lax-Wendroff time steps.Numerical results for Noh's infinite strength shock problem,the Sedov blast wave problem,and the Saltzman piston problem are presented.

  1. The Gauss Map of Complete Minimal Surfaces with Finite Total Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO A. HINOJOSA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are concerned with the image of the normal Gauss map of a minimal surface immersed in ℝ3 with finite total curvature. We give a different proof of the following theorem of R. Osserman: The normal Gauss map of a minimal surface immersed in ℝ3 with finite total curvature, which is not a plane, omits at most three points of2 Moreover, under an additional hypothesis on the type of ends, we prove that this number is exactly 2.

  2. Chern-Simons effect on the dual hydrodynamics in the Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yapeng, E-mail: huyp@pku.edu.cn [Center for High-Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chanyong, E-mail: cyong21@sogang.ac.kr [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-14

    Following the previous work (arXiv:1103.3773 [hep-th]), we give a more general and systematic discussion on the Chern-Simons effect in the 5-dimensional Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. After constructing the first order perturbative black brane solution, we extract the stress tensor and charge current of dual fluid. From these results, we find out the dependence of some transport coefficients on the Gauss-Bonnet coupling {alpha} and Chern-Simons coupling {kappa}{sub cs}. We also show that the new anomalous term can provide an additional contribution to the anomalous chiral magnetic conductivity.

  3. Gauss-Bonnet theorem in sub-Riemannian Heisenberg space $H^1$

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We prove a version of Gauss-Bonnet theorem in sub-Riemannian Heisenberg space $H^1$. The sub-Riemannian distance makes $H^1$ a metric space and consenquently with a spherical Hausdorff measure. Using this measure, we define a Gaussian curvature at points of a surface S where the sub-Riemannian distribution is transverse to the tangent space of S. If all points of S have this property, we prove a Gauss-Bonnet formula and for compact surfaces (which are topologically a torus) we obtain $\\int_S ...

  4. Topological structure of Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem and (~p)-branes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Miao; Zhang Xin-Hui; Duan Yi-shi

    2009-01-01

    By making use of the φ-mapping topological current theory,this paper shows that the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern densityof δ(φ),which means that only the zeros of φ contribute to X(M).This is the elementary fact of the Hopf theorem.Furthermore,it presents that a new topological tensor current of (~p)-branes can be derived from the Gauss-Bonnet-Chem density.Using this topological current,it obtains the generalized Nambu action for multi (~p)-branes.

  5. No-Go Theorem for Gauss-Bonnet Inflation without Inflaton Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Hikmawan, Getbogi; Suroso, Agus; Zen, Freddy P

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting inflationary scenario, named Gauss-Bonnet inflation, is proposed by Kanti et al.~\\cite{Kanti:2015pda,Kanti:2015dra}. In the model, there is no inflaton potential but the inflaton couples to the Guass-Bonnet term. In the case of quadratic coupling, they find inflation occurs with graceful exit. The scenario is attractive because of the natural set-up. However, we show there exists the gradient instability in the tensor perturbations in this inflationary model. We further prove the no-go theorem for the Gauss-Bonnet inflation without an inflaton potential.

  6. Control of beam halo-chaos by Gauss function in the triangle periodic-focusing channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hai-Jun; Bai Long; Weng Jia-Qiang; Luo Xiao-Shu; Fang Jin-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky (K-V) beam through a triangle periodic-focusing magnetic field by using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of Gauss function controller is proposed based on the strategy of controlling the halo-chaos. It performs multiparticle simulation to control the halo by using the Gauss function control method. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively, and that the radial particle density is uniform at the centre of the beam as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

  7. The value distribution of the Gauss map of improper affine spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Kawakami, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We give the best possible upper bounds for the number of exceptional values and totally ramified value number of the Lagrangian Gauss map of complete improper affine maps in the affine three-space. Moreover, by applying the Fujimoto argument, we also obtain the sharp estimate for them of weakly complete improper affine maps. As an application, from the viewpoint of the value distribution of Lagrangian Gauss map, we provide a new proof of the classification of affine complete improper affine spheres. Furthermore, we get a ramification estimate for the ratio of canonical forms of weakly complete flat fronts in hyperbolic three-space.

  8. Re-creating Gauss's method for non-electrical absolute measurements of magnetic fields and moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baak, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    In 1832, Gauss made the first absolute measurements of magnetic fields and of magnetic moments in experiments that are straightforward and instructive to replicate. We show, using rare-earth permanent magnets and a variation of Gauss's technique, that the horizontal component of the ambient geomagnetic field, as well as the size of the magnetic moments of such magnets, can be found. The method shows the connection between the SI and cgs emu unit systems for these quantities and permits an absolute realization of the Ampere with considerable precision.

  9. Analysis of Nanometer Structure for Chromium Atoms in Gauss Standing Laser Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-Tao; ZHU Bao-Hua; XIONG Xian-Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ The equation of motion of two-level chromium atoms in Gauss standing laser wave is discussed and the distribution of chromium atoms is given under different transverse velocity conditions.The results show that the focusing position of atoms will be affected by the transverse velocity of atoms.Based on the four-order Runge-Kutta method,the locus of chromium atoms in Gauss standing laser wave is simulated.The three-dimensional characteristics of nanometer structures are stimulated under perfect and emanative conditions.

  10. Credit risk evaluation using adaptive Lq penalty SVM with Gauss kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of support vector machine (SVM) applications in the field of credit risk evaluation, an adaptive Lq SVM model with Gauss kernel (ALqG-SVM) is proposed to evaluate credit risks. The non-adaptive penalty of the object function is extended to (0, 2] to increase classification accuracy. To further improve the generalization performance of the proposed model, the Gauss kernel is introduced, thus the non-linear classification problem can be linearly separated in higher dimensio...

  11. ON THE TOPOLOGY, VOLUME, DIAMETER AND GAUSS MAP IMAGE OF SUBMANIFOLDS IN A SPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU BINGYE

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses Gauss map to study the topology, volume and diameter of submanifolds in a sphere. It is proved that if there exist ε, 1 ≥ε≥ 0 and a fixed unit simple p-vector a such that the Gauss map g of an n-dimensional complete to Sn, and the volume and diameter of M satisfy εnvol(Sn) ≤vol(M) ≤ vol(Sn)/εand επ≤diam(M) ≤π/ε, respectively. The author also characterizes the case where these inequalities become equalities. As an application, a differential sphere theorem for compact submanifolds in a sphere is obtained.

  12. Correspondence between entropy-corrected holographic and Gauss-Bonnet dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Setare, M R

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the cosmological implications of the entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE) density in the Gauss-Bonnet framework. This is motivated from the loop quantum gravity corrections to the entropy-area law. Assuming the two cosmological scenarios are valid simultaneously, we show that there is a correspondence between the ECHDE scenario in flat universe and the phantom dark energy model in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet theory with a potential. This correspondence leads consistently to an accelerating universe.

  13. Tachyon Cosmology with Gauss-Bonnet and Non-Minimal Kinetic Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a tachyonic model of dark energy in which scalar field non-minimally coupled with curvature and kinetic part of its Lagrangian density. Additionally the model contains the Gauss-Bonnet coupling to the scalar field through an arbitrary function. The non-minimal Gauss-Bonnet coupling function and scalar field potential have been obtained for power-law solution and then for a dynamically varying equation of state. We have extracted the required condition for the so-called phantom divide line crossing in the model and represented such a crossing numerically.

  14. Quantum Effects on the Deflection of Light and the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we apply the Gauss--Bonnet theorem to calculate the deflection angle by a quantum corrected Schwarzschild black hole in the weak limit approximation. In particular, we calculate the light deflection by two types of quantum corrected black holes: the renormalization group improved Schwarzschild solution and the quantum corrected Schwarzschild solution in Bohmian quantum mechanics. We start from the corresponding optical metrics to use then the Gauss--Bonnet theorem and calculate the Gaussian curvature in both cases. Finally, we calculate the leading terms of the deflection angle and show that quantum corrections modifies the deflection angle in both solutions.

  15. History of cosmic evolution with modified Gauss-Bonnet-dilatonic coupled term

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Subhra; Mandal, Ranajit; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gauss-Bonnet-dilatonic coupling in four dimension plays an important role to explain late time cosmic evolution. However, this term is an outcome of low energy string effective action and thus ought to be important in the early universe too. Unfortunately, phase-space formulation of such a theory does not exist in the literature due to branching. We therefore consider a modified theory of gravity, which contains a nonminimally coupled scalar-tensor sector in addition to higher order scalar curvature invariant term with Gauss-Bonnet-dilatonic coupling. Such an action unifies early inflation with late-time cosmic acceleration. Quantum version of the theory is also well-behaved.

  16. 改进Gauss-Seide方法的收敛速度的单调性%On the Monotonicity of Convergence Rate of Modified Gauss-Seidel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟芬; 卢琳璋

    2004-01-01

    In this note, we prove that the convergence rate of the modified Gauss-Seidel (MGS) method with preconditional I + Sα is a monotonic function of preconditioning parameter a. Based on this result, to achieve better convergence rate we suggest proforming twice preconditoning when applying the MGS method to solve a linear system whose coefficient matrix is an irreducible non-singular M-matrix.

  17. Gauss-Bonnet correction to the R-current correlator in N =4 theory at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yanyan

    2014-04-01

    We consider higher-curvature corrections to the R-current correlator by studying the propagation of a U(1) field in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We numerically solve the Maxwell equations and plot an R-current spectral function with lightlike momenta, which contains pivotal information of thermal photon emission. We also analytically compute the R-current correlator in the long-distance limit by using the holographic membrane paradigm. In the high-energy regime, the inelastic scattering between R-current and gauge theory plasma is expected to happen, which will reveal the structure of the plasma at strong coupling. It turns out that the Gauss-Bonnet correction effectively rescales all physical quantities considered here by some functions of the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient. In particular, the Gauss-Bonnet terms will enhance or weaken signatures calculated here in accordance with the sign of the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient.

  18. La historia de un texto: El problema de la comprensión en el pensamiento de Friedrich Schlegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Verónica Galfione

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo analizamos el problema de la comprensión en el marco de la obra temprana de Friedrich Schlegel. Para ello, tomamos como punto de referencia su interpretación del trabajo filológico de Friedrich August Wolf quien había constatado el carácter tardío de las obras homéricas y atribuido el origen de las mismas a la actividad compilatoria de los filólogos alejandrinos del siglo III. Resulta de nuestro interés resaltar aquí dos elementos de la interpretación schlegeliana del descubrimiento de Wolf. En primer lugar, su adscripción a la valoración wolfiana de trabajo de los filólogos alejandrinos o Diskeuasten. En segundo término, el énfasis schlegeliano en la necesidad de complementar el trabajo totalizador de los Diaskeuasten por medio de la tarea disgregadora o crítica de la Chorizonten. Pues a partir de estos elementos no solo es posible adherir a las críticas de Jure Zovko a la lectura gadameriana del pensamiento de Schlegel, sino también cuestionar aquellas perspectivas que descubren en este último un importante antecedente de la propia hermenéutica filosófica de Gadamer.

  19. CONVERGENCE OF THE LAX-FRIEDRICHS SCHEME AND STABILITY FOR CONSERVATION LAWS WITH A DISCONTINUOUS SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT FLUX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H. KARLSEN; J. D. TOWERS

    2004-01-01

    The authors give the first convergence proof for the Lax-Friedrichs finite difference scheme for non-convex genuinely nonlinear scalar conservation laws of the form ut+ f(k(x, t), u)x = 0,where the coefficient k(x, t) is allowed to be discontinuous along curves in the (x, t)plane. In contrast to most of the existing literature on problems with discontinuous coefficients, here the convergence proof is not based on the singular mapping approach,but rather on the div-curl lemma (but not the Young measure) and a Lax type entropy estimate that is robust with respect to the regularity of k(x, t). Following [14],the authors propose a definition of entropy solution that extends the classical Kruzkov definition to the situation where k(x, t) is piecewise Lipschitz continuous in the (x, t)plane, and prove the stability (uniqueness) of such entropy solutions, provided that the flux function satisfies a so-called crossing condition, and that strong traces of the solution exist along the curves where k(x, t) is discontinuous. It is shown that a convergent subsequence of approximations produced by the Lax-Friedrichs scheme converges to such an entropy solution, implying that the entire computed sequence converges.

  20. Study on internal structure of Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannu, K A; Alexeyev, S O [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetsy Prospect, 13, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Barrau, A, E-mail: rannu@xray.sai.msu.r [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, UJF-INPG-CNRS, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2010-05-01

    The influence of the Maxwell field on a static, asymptotically flat and spherically-symmetric Gauss-Bonnet black hole is considered. Numerical computations suggest that if the charge increases beyond a critical value, the inner determinant singularity is replaced by an inner singular horizon.