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Sample records for kariesh cheese samples

  1. Sampling and farm stories prompt consumers to buy specialty cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Barbara A.; Bruhn, Christine M.

    2003-01-01

    California specialty cheese makers need information on what drives product sales so they can effectively market their products. Focus group and telephone research revealed that specialty cheese consumers have a strong preference for sampling cheese before making a purchase. Consumers also rely heavily on staff recommendations to select cheese. They appreciate unlimited sampling in an unhurried, low-pressure environment. Specialty cheese consumers consider themselves “food experimenters”; they...

  2. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

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    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cheese samples treated with Honey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control treatment (A) was cheese kept in the whey, while Treatments B and C were cheese samples kept in Thyme and Honey solutions respectively. ... The crude protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Treatment B, then treatment A and least for treatment C. The ether extract followed the same trend as crude ...

  4. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  5. Assessment of hygienic quality of some types of cheese sampled from retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Migliorati, Giacomo; Matteucci, Osvaldo; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and staphylococcal enterotoxin, in 2,132 samples selected from six types of cheese on the basis of recorded consumption in Italy in 2004. In L. monocytogenes-positive samples the precise level of contamination was determined. To define the physical-chemical characteristics of the selected natural cheeses, the pH values, water activity and sodium chloride content were determined. The results suggest that blue and soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola and Taleggio) are more likely to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the six types of cheese was 2.4% (from 0.2% in Asiago and Crescenza to 6.5% in Taleggio), with contamination levels of up to 460 MPN/g. No presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157 was found in any sample. Staphylococcus enterotoxin was found in 0.6% of the samples examined. Physical and chemical parameter values confirmed that all types of cheese are considered capable of supporting the growth of L. monocytogenes. The study confirmed the need to apply effective control at production and sales levels to reduce the probability of contamination by L. monocytogenes. This micro-organism can attain high levels of contamination in food products, such as cheeses that have a long shelf-life when associated with difficulties of maintaining appropriate storage temperatures in both sales points and in the home.

  6. Assessment of hygienic quality of some types of cheese sampled from retail outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus enterotoxin, in 2 132 samples selected from six types of cheese on the basis of recorded consumption in Italy in 2004. In L. monocytogenes-positive samples the precise level of contamination was determined. To define the physical-chemical characteristics of the selected natural cheeses, the pH values, water activity and sodium chloride content were determined. The results suggest that blue and soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola and Taleggio are more likely to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the six types of cheese was 2.4% (from 0.2% in Asiago and Crescenza to 6.5% in Taleggio, with contamination levels of up to 460 MPN/g. No presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157 was found in any sample. Staphylococcus enterotoxin was found in 0.6% of the samples examined. Physical and chemical parameter values confirmed that all types of cheese are considered capable of supporting the growth of L. monocytogenes. The study confirmed the need to apply effective control at production and sales levels to reduce the probability of contamination by L. monocytogenes. This micro-organism can attain high levels of contamination in food products, such as cheeses that have a long shelf-life when associated with difficulties of maintaining appropriate storage temperatures in both sales points and in the home.

  7. Krcki cheese

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    Zvonimir Prpić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production, the quality of whey (as the material for production of albumin cheese quargs and Krčki cheese, as well as the technology of Krčki cheese production on family farms on the island of Krk. Results of the composition and characteristics analyses of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production were as follows: milk fat 7.81%; proteins 5.59%; lactose 4.97%; total solids 19.04%; non-fat dry matter 11.06%; pH 6.66; titratable acidity 9.41 °SH, and freezing point –0.555 °C. Somatic cell count (SCC was 407 000 cells/ml and total bacterial count (cfu was 950 000/mL. Average composition of Krčki cheese was as follows: fat 37.38%; protein 23.24%; total solids 63.22%; moisture in solid non-fat 57.36%; fat in total solids 54.38%; salt 1.97%; pH 5.78; lactic acid content 1.216%; WSN/TN 10.15%, and TCASN/TN 6.28%. Microbiological analyses of Krčki cheese showed that only 55% of analysed samples were hygienically acceptable according to the Regulations of Microbial Standards for Foods (NN 46/94.. Therefore, the necessary modifications have to be introduced into technology of production of sheep′s milk and Krčki cheese in order to increase microbiological quality and to reduce variability in composition and quality of Krčki cheese between family farms. These are necessary for preparing the Krčki cheese for Protection Geographical Indication (PGI.

  8. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

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    B. Tremlová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  9. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 in honey bees and cheese samples collected in the U. S. after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, B C; Jester, W A; Griffith, S M; Morse, R A; Zall, R R; Lisk, D J; Burgett, D M; Bodyfelt, F W

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 25, 1986, possible radioactive contamination of honey bees and cheese sampled in several areas of the United States were measured. Of bees collected in May and June of 1986 in both Oregon and New York, only those from Oregon showed detectable levels of cesium-134 (T1/2 = 2.05 years), a radionuclide which would have originated from the Chernobyl incident. Cheese produced in Oregon and New York before the accident showed only cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30.23 years) but cheese produced afterwards (May and September, 1986) in Oregon contained cesium-134. Cheese produced in Ohio and California at the time of the accident and thereafter contained only cesium-137. In general, the levels of radioactivity were higher in the West coast samples as compared to those taken in the East. The levels of radioactivity detected were considered to be toxicologically of no consequence.

  10. L. monocytogenes in a cheese processing facility: Learning from contamination scenarios over three years of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückerl, I; Muhterem-Uyar, M; Muri-Klinger, S; Wagner, K-H; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changing patterns of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cheese processing facility manufacturing a wide range of ready-to-eat products. Characterization of L. monocytogenes isolates included genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Disinfectant-susceptibility tests and the assessment of L. monocytogenes survival in fresh cheese were also conducted. During the sampling period between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1284 environmental samples were investigated. Overall occurrence rates of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were 21.9% and 19.5%, respectively. Identical L. monocytogenes genotypes were found in the food processing environment (FPE), raw materials and in products. Interventions after the sampling events changed contamination scenarios substantially. The high diversity of globally, widely distributed L. monocytogenes genotypes was reduced by identifying the major sources of contamination. Although susceptible to a broad range of disinfectants and cleaners, one dominant L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 5 could not be eradicated from drains and floors. Significantly, intense humidity and steam could be observed in all rooms and water residues were visible on floors due to increased cleaning strategies. This could explain the high L. monocytogenes contamination of the FPE (drains, shoes and floors) throughout the study (15.8%). The outcome of a challenge experiment in fresh cheese showed that L. monocytogenes could survive after 14days of storage at insufficient cooling temperatures (8 and 16°C). All efforts to reduce L. monocytogenes environmental contamination eventually led to a transition from dynamic to stable contamination scenarios. Consequently, implementation of systematic environmental monitoring via in-house systems should either aim for total avoidance of FPE colonization, or emphasize a first reduction of L. monocytogenes to sites where

  11. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was approximately 90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were camembert, cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC(eq)) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively.

  12. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was ∼90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were eq ) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively

  13. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, Simone [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was {approx}90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were <0.002-0.29% of total lipids from camembert, <0.002-0.12% of total lipids from mozzarella, and <0.002-0.18% of total lipids in a goat cream cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC{sub eq}) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese

  14. Physical sample structure as predictive factor in growth modeling of Listeria innocua in a white cheese model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie M.; Bertram, Hanne C.; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Growth of Listeria innocua at 9 °C was investigated in white cheeses manufactured from ultra-filtrate milk concentrate added varying amounts of skimmed milk powder, NaCl and glucono-delta-lactone. Characterization of the white cheese structures was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T...

  15. Lecevacki cheese

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    Siniša Matutinović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have significant potential due to the fact that high value raw material - sheep milk produced from breed with very extensively management using natural pasture with characteristic botanical composition consisting aromatic Mediteranean plants, is used in their production. This milk is characterized with high percentage of some chemical components, especially fat and protein. Considering that fact, this milk represents the best material especially for hard cheese production. In this paper the review of milk chemical composition of the most important Croatian sheep breeds which milk is used for production of hard cheeses, was performed. The review of basic technological parameters in production of hard traditional cheeses considering type, standardization and heat treatment of milk, renneting, curd cutting and drying, dimension, salting and ripening is represented. Characterization parameters of cheese, considering chemical and physical composition, biochemical changes, dominant microflora which dominates in technological production procedure and determines taste and odour of mature cheese, are shown. The basic characteristics and technology of Lecevacki cheese production was described too, as the most important traditional cheese from Split area surroundings. This cheese type was produced on family farms as well as on industrial level for some time. Its sensory characteristics are described in the paper.

  16. Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria populations in Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese samples submitted to environmental conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract: evaluation by means of a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Annamaria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Succi, Mariantonietta; Aponte, Maria

    2014-06-02

    The survival of the autochthonous microflora, of samples collected during Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese manufacturing, was evaluated along the passage through a model mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract. The aim was the selection of lactic acid bacteria potentially able to arrive alive and metabolically active to the colon. The dynamics of lactic microbiota, throughout simulated digestion of cheese samples, were evaluated by means of an approach PCR-DGGE-based. Dominant species after cheese digestion could be related to the Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei groups. Sixty-three strains, which survived to simulated gastro-intestinal transit, were further evaluated for technological features and tolerance to human digestion in several experimental conditions, according to routinely used protocols. Bacterial survival appeared to be, more than strain-specific, strongly affected by experimental conditions, i.e. some strains showed an acceptable survival when resuspended in skim milk but not in ewe milk and vice versa. Nevertheless according to data, one gram of fresh Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese may convey to human colon about the same amount of viable LAB of a probiotic drink. Although it cannot be assumed that lactobacilli introduced with Pecorino have beneficial effects on the host, the healthy impact of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria of naturally fermented food has a broad consensus in the current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative PCR for the specific quantification of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei and its interest for Lactococcus lactis in cheese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Christine; Berthier, Françoise

    2013-12-01

    The first objective of this work was to develop real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to quantify two species of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria technologically active in food fermentation, including cheese making: Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei. The second objective was to compare qPCR and plate counts of these two species in cheese samples. Newly designed primers efficiently amplified a region of the tuf gene from the target species. Sixty-three DNA samples from twenty different bacterial species, phylogenetically related or commonly found in raw milk and dairy products, were selected as positive and negative controls. Target DNA was successfully amplified showing a single peak on the amplicon melting curve; non-target DNA was not amplified. Quantification was linear over 5 log units (R(2) > 0.990), down to 22 gene copies/μL per well for Lc. lactis and 73 gene copies/μL per well for Lb. paracasei. qPCR efficiency ranged from 82.9% to 93.7% for Lc. lactis and from 81.1% to 99.5% for Lb. paracasei. At two stages of growth, Lc. lactis was quantified in 12 soft cheeses and Lb. paracasei in 24 hard cooked cheeses. qPCR proved to be useful for quantifying Lc. lactis, but not Lb. paracasei. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

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    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  19. The effect of quality properties on Tulum cheese using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese samples produced from pasteurized milk were found to have higher dry matter, fat and protein contents and acidity values than cheese samples produced from raw milk. No significant difference was found in the sensory properties of cheese produced from raw and pasteurized milk. In view of these findings, the use ...

  20. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

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    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  1. Comparison of susceptibility to antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cheeses and clinical samples from the Area Metropolitana and evaluation of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the same foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedra Ramirez, Hiryna

    2014-01-01

    60 samples of fresh cheeses were analyzed from the central markets of Alajuela, Heredia, Cartago and San Jose. Staphylococcus aureus, total coliform and thermotolerant counts were performed, as well as Escherichia coli by the NMP technique. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in 25 g of cheese. The confirmatory identification and sensitivity profile of S. aureus strains were obtained using the Vitek system. L. monocytogenes were identified by means of biochemical tests. The statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excell were used to analyze the data. The presence of fecal contamination was identified as well as S. aureus in fresh cheeses from the four provinces studied. The comparative analysis of S. aureus antibiotic susceptibility profiles from clinical specimens and cheeses, for the majority of antibiotics under study was able to determine that the sensitivity patterns shown have been different. The clinical strains of origin could be observed with a pattern of multiresistance more marked than the strains of alimentary origin. The presence of L. monocytogenes was identified in an important percentage of cheese samples. (author) [es

  2. Análises físico-químicas de pré-misturas de pães de queijo e produção de pães de queijo com adição de okara Physicochemical analyses of commercial samples of cheese bread premix and production of cheese breads with addition of okara

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    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Okara, ou resíduo de soja, é um subproduto do processamento do extrato aquoso de soja e do tofu. Pão de queijo é um produto assado ao forno obtido a partir da mistura de polvilho com água ou leite, queijo, sal e gordura, podendo ser utilizados polvilho doce, azedo ou a mistura deles. Objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar pré-misturas comerciais de pão de queijo por intermédio de análises físico-químicas e também avaliar a qualidade de pães de queijo produzidos com a adição de subproduto da obtenção do extrato aquoso de soja. As características de qualidade de pães de queijo suplementados com 5, 10 e 15% de okara foram investigadas. Os pães de queijo suplementados com subproduto okara apresentaram teores de proteínas e de fibras alimentares superiores ao controle. Os produtos panificados foram submetidos à análise sensorial de aceitabilidade utilizando-se a escala hedônica de nove pontos, com provadores não-treinados. Amostras de pães de queijo com 5, 10 e 15% de okara não foram consideradas diferentes significativamente em nível de 5% e tiveram boa aceitação.Okara, or soy residue, is a byproduct of soy aqueous extract and tofu manufacturing. Cheese bread is a Brazilian specialty made by blending cassava starch (cassava starch or sour cassava starch water or milk, cheese, salt and fat and is baked on oven. This study has the objective of characterizing cheese breads made with addition of okara. Additionally in this work commercial samples of cheese bread premix were compared in terms of physicochemical properties. The quality characteristics of cheese breads supplemented with 5, 10 and 15% of okara were investigated. The results showed that the cheese breads supplemented with the byproduct okara had an increase in the protein and dietary fiber contents. The samples were submitted to an acceptability sensory evaluation with a nine point hedonic scale, involving untrained panelists. The cheese breads made with 5

  3. Fungal growth and the presence of sterigmatocystin in hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northolt, M D; van Egmond, H P; Soentoro, P; Deijll, E

    1980-01-01

    Molds isolated from visibly molded cheeses in shops, households, and warehouses have been identified. Mold flora of cheeses in shops and households consisted mainly of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. On cheeses ripening in warehouses, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus repens, and Enicillium verrucosum var. verrucosum were the dominant mold species. Cheese ripening in warehouses and molded with A. versicolor were examined for sterigmatocystin. Nine of 39 cheese samples contained sterigmatocystin in the surface layer in concentrations ranging from 5 to 600 micrograms/kg.

  4. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  5. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  6. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  7. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  8. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  10. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  13. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... to contain high amounts of SFA. However, cheese also contributes with several nutrients in the diet such as essential amino acids and calcium. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of cheese intake on CVD risk through evidence from both observational, intervention and explorative studies....... By reviewing results from published observational studies it was concluded that cheese does not seem to increase CVD risk, despite of the high SFA content of most cheeses. A human cross-over intervention study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of hard cheese intake on risk markers...

  14. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  15. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-02-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed.

  16. Determination of lactic acid bacteria in Kaºar cheese and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) arise in Kaşar cheese, an artisanal pasta filata cheese produced in Turkey from raw milk without starter addition or pasteurized milk with starter culture. In this study, 13 samples of Kaşar cheese that were produced from raw milk were used as reference materials. LAB were characterized by using ...

  17. Physical, chemical and texture characteristics of Aro cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, Mexico’s total annual production of cheese was 375,181 tons. Cheese is widely consumed among all socioeconomic groups, and the decision to purchase this product is based on income, with a wide variety of cheeses, brands, and styles available. The fresco cheese is the most popular type and is mostly produced according to traditional or artisanal methods in small family businesses, and small and medium-sized enterprises. It is made with the milk of the producers' livestock, giving it an added value. In Mexico, however, there is not enough scientific information related to the characterization of various dairy products of artisanal production, for example, Aro cheese. The aim of the present study was to define the physical, chemical, and rheological characteristics of the Aro cheese that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-four samples of Aro cheese were collected in four establishments with high sales in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, for analysis physical (Diameter, weight, height and color, chemical (pH, acidity, aw, chlorides, moisture, ashes, protein and fat, and texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness. No difference was found in weight, diameter, height, and color (L* and b*. However, differences in hardness and cohesiveness were found. Although Aro cheese is characterized as an enzymatically coagulated cheese, pH values of 5.82 to 6.08 were recorded, and the data relating to moisture, protein, fat, and chlorides are similar to other Mexican fresh cheeses. The cheese of Aro that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, presents similar physical, chemical and texture characteristics to other fresh cheeses of artisanal production.

  18. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  19. [Yeast microbiota in artisanal cheeses from Corrientes, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marina C; Fusco, Ángel J V; Carrasco, Marta S

    The artisanal cheese from Corrientes (from the Spanish acronym QAC-Queso Artesanal de Corrientes/Artisanal Cheese from Corrientes) is a soft cheese elaborated with raw cow milk and an artisanal coagulant agent. Lactic bacteria contitute the main flora of this cheese although yeasts are also present in high quantities as secondary microbiota and might play a relevant role in cheese ripening. The aim of this work was to evaluate yeast occurrence during QAC elaboration and ripening, and the effect of seasonal variation. Yeasts were isolated and purified from raw materials and cheese at different ripening stagesl elaborated during the different seasons. Yeast sample counts were in the order of 10 3 - 10 7 UFC/ml o UFC/g. Ninety yeast strains were classified: 9 from milk, 28 from the coagulant agent, 10 from curd and 43 from cheese. Candida predominated in milk samples while other yeast genera had low incidence. Candida also predominated in the coagulant agent samples, followed by genera Myxozyma and Debaryomyces. The isolates obtained from cheese belonged to the same genera predominating in the coagulant agent, and showed the same order of prevalence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  1. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared by..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either made... ___ cheese”, the name of the cheese filling the blank. (ii) If only parmesan and romano cheeses are used and...

  2. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  3. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  4. Probiotic white cheese production using coculture with Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehsani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the viability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional cheeses and cocultured in Iranian white cheese during ripening. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 samples were isolated from 8 types of traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan, Iran. Isolated species were cocultured with starter bacteria during the production of Iranian white cheese, and their viability was investigated up to 60 days of the refrigerated storage. Results: Of 118 isolates of Lactobacillus, 73 isolates (62% were confirmed as facultative heterofermentative and 45 isolates (38% as obligate homofermentative. Of the facultative heterofermentatives, 28 isolates (24% were Lactobacillus plantarum, 24 isolates (20% were Lactobacillus casei, and 21 isolates (18% were Lactobacillus agilis. Obligate homofermentatives were Lactobacillus delbrueckii (21%, Lactobacillus helveticus (14%, and Lactobacillus salivarius (3%. L. plantarum, L. casei and L. helveticus were found in high enough levels (106 CFU/g. Conclusion: According to the obtained data, it is recommended that complex starters such as L. helveticus, L. plantarum, and L. casei can be used in industrial productions of cheese to obtain exclusive properties of traditional cheeses.

  5. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is... two or more varieties, except cream cheese, neufchatel cheese, cottage cheese, lowfat cottage cheese...

  6. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaqh Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05. White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05. Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods.

  7. Effect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Mona A M; Ahmed, Nawal S; El-Abd, M M; Abd El-Rafee, S

    2012-04-02

    The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA). Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese firmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that cheese made from homogenized milk is smoother and has a finer texture than

  8. Proteolysis in soft cheese, studied on Meshanger cheese and cheese models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, A.

    1978-01-01

    Enzymes predominantly responsible for the primary degradation of protein in soft cheese and for the related changes in consistency were studied. Reconstructed Noordhollandse Meshanger cheese and preserved simulated soft cheeses of different composition were used as models in the

  9. Consensus categorization of cheese based on water activity and pH-A rational approach to systemizing cheese diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Ralyea, R; Meunier-Goddik, L; Donnelly, C; Glass, K; D'Amico, D; Meredith, E; Kehler, M; Tranchina, N; McCue, C; Wiedmann, M

    2017-01-01

    Development of science-based interventions in raw milk cheese production is challenging due to the large diversity of production procedures and final products. Without an agreed upon categorization scheme, science-based food safety evaluations and validation of preventive controls would have to be completed separately on each individual cheese product, which is not feasible considering the large diversity of products and the typically small scale of production. Thus, a need exists to systematically group raw milk cheeses into logically agreed upon categories to be used for food safety evaluations. This paper proposes and outlines one such categorization scheme that provides for 30 general categories of cheese. As a base for this systematization and categorization of raw milk cheese, we used Table B of the US Food and Drug Administration's 2013 Food Code, which represents the interaction of pH and water activity for control of vegetative cells and spores in non-heat-treated food. Building on this table, we defined a set of more granular pH and water activity categories to better represent the pH and water activity range of different raw milk cheeses. The resulting categorization scheme was effectively validated using pH and water activity values determined for 273 different cheese samples collected in the marketplace throughout New York State, indicating the distribution of commercially available cheeses among the categories proposed here. This consensus categorization of cheese provides a foundation for a feasible approach to developing science-based solutions to assure compliance of the cheese processors with food safety regulations, such as those required by the US Food Safety Modernization Act. The key purpose of the cheese categorization proposed here is to facilitate product assessment for food safety risks and provide scientifically validated guidance on effective interventions for general cheese categories. Once preventive controls for a given category have

  10. Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Haiyan; Xi, Xiaoxia; Hou, Qiangchuan; Feng, Shuzhen; Wuri, Laga; Bian, Yanfei; Yu, Zhongjie; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong

    2017-01-09

    In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy. Across the Kazakhstan cheese samples, a total of 238 bacterial species belonging to 14 phyla and 140 genera were identified. Lactococcus lactis (28.93%), Lactobacillus helveticus (26.43%), Streptococcus thermophilus (12.18%) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (12.15%) were the dominant bacterial species for these samples. To further evaluate the cheese bacterial diversity of Kazakhstan cheeses in comparison with those from other geographic origins, 16S rRNA datasets of 36 artisanal cheeses from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy were retrieved from public databases. The cheese bacterial microbiota communities were largely different across sample origins. By principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), the structure of the Kazakhstan artisanal cheese samples was found to be different from those of the other geographic origins. Furthermore, the redundancy analysis (RDA) identified 16 bacterial OTUs as the key variables responsible for such microbiota structural difference. Our results together suggest that the diversity of bacterial communities in different groups is stratified by geographic region. This study does not only provide novel information on the bacterial microbiota of traditional artisanal cheese of Kazakhstan at species level, but also interesting insights into the bacterial diversity of artisanal

  11. The changes of flavour and aroma active compounds content during production of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of flavour of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheese with low heat curd. The cheese samples were produced in dairy MILTRA B, Ltd., Městečko Trnávka.A number of volatile substances contribute to flavour of cheese including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. The development of these components during production was monitored in chosen Edam cheese (fat 30% w/w using headspace-SPME-GC method. The samples were taken from cheesemilk up to technologically ripe cheese. In total 37 various organic compounds belonging to five chemical groups were identified in milk and cheese samples. Their total content increased during production. The first increase was observed after pressing and then especially in last part of ripening. Ethanol (185.8 ± 15.85 mg.kg−1, acetoin (97.7 ± 3.78 mg.kg−1, 2-methylpropanol (71.2 ± 5.23 mg.kg−1, acetic acid (54.4 ± 1.70 mg.kg−1 and acetaldehyde (36.4 ± 10.17 mg.kg−1 were the most abundant in ripened cheeses. The flavour and other organoleptic properties (appearance, texture of Edam cheese samples were also sensorially evaluated during ripening. The five point ordinal scale and profile tests were used for evaluation. The sensory quality was improved during ripening, until the final marked flavour characteristic for these cheese types.

  12. A fast and simple method for quantitative determination of fat-derived medium and low-volatile compounds in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cheese flavour is a mixture of many (volatile) compounds, mostly formed during ripening. The current method was developed to qualify and quantify fat-derived compounds in cheese. Cheese samples were extracted with acetonitrile, which led to a concentrated solution of potential favour compounds,

  13. Morphological, molecular, and mycotoxigenic identification of dominant filamentous fungi from moldy civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Cetin, Bulent; Gurses, Mustafa; Dagdemir, Elif; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2012-11-01

    Moldy Civil is a mold-ripened variety of cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. This cheese is produced with Civil cheese and whey curd cheese (Lor). Civil cheese has had a geographical presence since 2009 and is manufactured with skim milk. In the production of Moldy Civil cheese, Civil cheese or a mixture of Civil and Lor cheese is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and ripened for 3 months or longer. During the ripening period, natural contaminating molds grow on the surface of and inside the cheese. In this study, 186 mold strains were isolated from 41 samples of Moldy Civil cheese, and 165 of these strains were identified as Penicillium roqueforti. Identification and mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using morphotypic and molecular methods. PCR amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region were subjected to sequence analysis. This research is the first using molecular methods on Moldy Civil cheese. Mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using thin-layer chromatography, and random amplified polymorphic DNA genotypes were determined using the ari1 primer. Of 165 isolates, only 28 produced no penicillic acid, P. roqueforti toxin, or roquefortine.

  14. Manufacturing of Camembert type cheese made from goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Tonković

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures on the quality of the Camembert type cheese within 30 days of its preservation. Cheeses were made of a mixture of goat's and cow's milk in the following ratios: 0:100, 30:70, 50:50, 80:20 and 100:0. They were analysed on the twelfth and thirtieth day of the cheese production. The chemical analysis of milk for cheese production, as well as the chemical composition, pH and sensorial evaluation of cheeses have been determined. It has been proven that the chemical content and type of milk influencesm sensorial evaluation of cheeses and their shelf life. The analysed cheeses, after 12th day of processing, obtained better sensorial scores than those after the 30th day. Cheeses made of goat's milk have obtained the best sensorial evaluation, although their shelf life was shorter than the rest of the cheese samples made of cow's milk and mixtures of goat's and cow's milk. The chosen storage temperature (10-11 ºC was not adequate for Camembert cheeses. Therefore, in order to prolong the shelf life above the 30-day-period and to preserve sensorial properties of the cheeses, the temperature should be lower, i.e. 5 ºC.

  15. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Sarić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are produced in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are : Travnički cheese, Masni (fat cheese, Presukača, Sirac, Livanjski cheese, Posni (lean cheese, "Suvi" (dry cheese or "Mješinski" full fat cheese matured in sheepskin bag, fresh sour milk cheese "Kiseli" and dried sour milk cheese "Kiseli", Zajednica, Basa, Kalenderovački cheese and goat's milk cheeses (Hard and White soft goat's milk cheese, "Zarica" and Urda. Besides above-mentioned types of cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina some other autochthonous dairy products are produced: Kajmak (Cream, Maslo (Rendered butter and Zimsko kiselo mlijeko (Winter sour milk. The specificity in Bosnia and Herzegovina is that autochthonous dairy products are still mainly both produced and consumed in small rural households. Exceptions are Travnički cheese and Kajmak that are significantly sold at market. Only Livanjski cheese is manufactured as industry dairy product.

  16. Effect of wild strains used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures on the volatile compounds of the Pecorino Siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Pitino, I; De Luca, S; Scifò, G O; Caggia, C

    2008-03-20

    The effect of six wild strains on the volatile profile of the PS cheese was investigated and compared to that generated from industrial starters generally used to produce PS cheese. All cheeses were subjected to microbiological, physicochemical, and volatile compounds analyses. The DGGE of the 16S rDNA analysis was also applied. The volatile compounds generated during ripening were studied through the SPME and the GC-MS methods. No difference was detected between the experimental and control cheeses throughout chemical and microbiological analyses, while the DGGE results showed the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus in all cheeses, and the dominance of Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus casei in most of the experimental cheeses. Moreover, the presence of Lactococcus lactis species as in the control and in the experimental P2 and P4 cheeses was also revealed. The SPME results showed more pronounced volatile compounds in the experimental cheese samples than in the control ones.

  17. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  18. Selection of Leuconostoc strains isolated from artisanal Serrano Catarinense cheese for use as adjuncts in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Felipe Nael; Rios, Edson Antônio; Martinez de Oliveira, André Luiz; Beloti, Vanerli; Poveda, Justa Maria

    2018-08-01

    Serrano Catarinense cheese is a raw bovine milk cheese produced in the region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twelve representative strains of Leuconostoc isolated from 20 samples of this artisanal cheese were selected and submitted for evaluation of the acidifying, proteolytic, autolytic, aminopeptidase and lipolytic activities, NaCl and acid resistance, production of dextran and biogenic amines and antimicrobial activity. The aim was to genetically and technologically characterize the Leuconostoc strains in order to use them in mixed starter cultures for cheese manufacture. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was the species that accounted for the largest proportion of isolates of Leuconostoc genus. Two leuconostoc isolates stood out in the acidifying activity, with reduction in pH of 1.12 and 1.04 units. The isolates showed low proteolytic and autolytic activity. Most of the isolates were dextran producers, presented good resistance to the salt and pH conditions of the cheese and showed antimicrobial activity against cheese pathogen bacteria, and none of them produced biogenic amines. These results allowed the selection of five strains (UEL 04, UEL 12, UEL 18, UEL 21 and UEL 28) as good candidates for use as adjunct cultures for cheese manufacture. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  20. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  1. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  2. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  3. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, pasteurized or un-pasteurized milk. Data from a total of 130,604 samples were analysed. Mean prevalence for presence during 2005-2015 estimated from scientific literature (2.3% with confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.8%) was more than three times higher than results from EFSA reports (0.7%; CI: 0.......05) for cheeses produced from pasteurized (0.9%; CI: 0.4-1.9%) or un-pasteurized (1.0%; CI: 0.4-2.2%) milk. For cheese samples reported by EFSA 0.2% CI: 0.1-0.4% had concentration of L. monocytogenes above the critical European limits of 100 cfu/g. In addition, this systematic review focused on groups...

  4. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  5. Bacteriological studies on Limburger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Erian, A.F.M.

    1969-01-01

    A study has been made of the ripening process of Limburger cheese, including microbiological investigations of the surface flora and chemical analyses of the cheese during the different stages of ripening. The microbial flora was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to the

  6. Presence of Streptococcus faecalis in the White Cheese Sold in Kahramanmaraş (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay; Dığak, Metin

    2014-01-01

    In this study the presence of Streptococcus faecalis in the white cheeses made from pasteurize milk sold in Kahramanmaraş were examined. For this purpose, 22 cheese samples were taken. At the end of this study, all of the samples have Streptococcus faecalis (100%). It was concluded that the examined white cheese samples were inadequate from in reads of hygienic quality by Streptococcus faecalis.

  7. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  8. Flavour compound production by Yarrowia lipolytica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Gori, Klaus; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2011-01-01

    A simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was developed for the detection of cheese flavour formation of yeasts. A total of 56 flavour compounds were detected by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis. Yarrowia lipolytica CBS2075 primarily...

  9. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  10. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  11. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  12. Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poulopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk as well as in the final product (cheese. Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C and treatment (T group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (α-pinene, limonene and β-caryophyllene was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and α-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while β-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

  13. Consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. A comparative study in France and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Valérie Lengard; Naes, Tormod; Enderli, Géraldine; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-08-01

    This study explores consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese in France (n=120) and Norway (n=119). The respondents were presented with 16 photographs of a traditional cheese from their respective countries, varying according to six factors: pasteurisation, organic production, omega-3, packaging, price and appropriateness. For each of the scenarios the consumers indicated their willingness to buy the cheese on a nine-point scale. Results show that consumers' willingness to buy traditional cheese is highly driven by price, appropriateness and pasteurisation in both countries. However, on average consumers in the French sample prefer buying raw milk cheese, while consumers in the Norwegian sample prefer buying pasteurised cheese. These general trends are led by a pro-raw milk segment in France and a pro-pasteurised milk segment in Norway. Several interaction effects involving appropriateness are detected, indicating the importance of the consumption context on the acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. On a general level, the results indicate that well-accepted innovations in traditional cheese are those that reinforce the traditional and authentic character of the product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival of bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soft cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, H; Chen, J; Brunke, B; Hill, A; Griffiths, M W

    1998-07-01

    Pasteurized and raw milks that had been inoculated at 10(4) cfu/ml with bioluminescent strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used in the manufacture of Camembert and Feta cheeses with or without nisin-producing starter culture. Survival of both organisms was determined during the manufacture and storage of Camembert and Feta cheeses at 2 +/- 1 degree C for 65 and 75 d, respectively. Bacterial bioluminescence was used as an indicator to enumerate the colonies plated on selective Listeria agar and on MacConkey agar. Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived the manufacturing process of both cheeses and was present at the end of the storage period in greater numbers than in the initial inoculum. At the end of 75 d of storage, E. coli O157:H7 was found in the brine of Feta cheese. The counts of L. monocytogenes increased as the pH of the Camembert cheese increased, and there were significant differences between the counts from samples taken from the inside and the counts from samples obtained near the surface of the cheese. The Feta cheese that contained nisin was the only cheese in which L. monocytogenes was at the level of the initial inoculum after 75 d of storage.

  15. Optimization of pH, temperature and CaCl2 concentrations for Ricotta cheese production from Buffalo cheese whey using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul Ahid; Huma, Nuzhat; Zahoor, Tahir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The recovery of milk constituents from cheese whey is affected by various processing conditions followed during production of Ricotta cheese. The objective of the present investigation was to optimize the temperature (60-90 °C), pH (3-7) and CaCl2 concentration (2·0-6·0 mm) for maximum yield/recovery of milk constituents. The research work was carried out in two phases. In 1st phase, the influence of these processing conditions was evaluated through 20 experiments formulated by central composite design (CCD) keeping the yield as response factor. The results obtained from these experiments were used to optimize processing conditions for maximum yield using response surface methodology (RSM). The three best combinations of processing conditions (90 °C, pH 7, CaCl2 6 mm), (100 °C, pH 5, CaCl2 4 mm) and (75 °C, pH 8·4, CaCl2 4 mm) were exploited in the next phase for Ricotta cheese production from a mixture of Buffalo cheese whey and skim milk (9 : 1) to determine the influence of optimized conditions on the cheese composition. Ricotta cheeses were analyzed for various physicochemical (moisture, fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH and acidity indicated) parameters during storage of 60 d at 4 ± 2 °C after every 15 d interval. Ricotta cheese prepared at 90 °C, pH 7 and CaCl2 6 mm exhibited the highest cheese yield, proteins and total solids, while high fat content was recorded for cheese processed at 100 °C, pH 5 and 4 mm CaCl2 concentration. A significant storage-related increase in acidity and NPN was recorded for all cheese samples.

  16. Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Rhoades, J R; Sagoo, S K; Harris, J; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2008-04-01

    Two studies of retail fresh, ripened and semi-hard cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk were undertaken in the UK during 2004 and 2005 to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Using microbiological criteria in European Commission Recommendations 2004/24/EC and 2005/175/EC, 2% of both raw, thermized (37/1819 samples) and pasteurized (51/2618 samples) milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4)cfu g(-1), Escherichia coli at 10(5)cfu g(-1), and/or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(2)cfu g(-1), whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S. aureus at 10(3)cfu g(-1) and/or E. coli at 10(3)cfu g(-1). Salmonella was not detected in any samples. Cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality more frequently when sampled from premises rated as having little or no confidence in management and control systems, and stored/displayed at above 8 degrees C. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were also more likely to be of unsatisfactory quality when they were unripened types, and pasteurized milk cheeses when they were: semi-hard types; from specialist cheese shops or delicatessens; cut to order. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food chain to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  17. Chemical composition in Parmesan cheese marketed in Paranavaí - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Duarte Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grated Parmesan cheese is among the most consumed cheese in the country and also among the most fraudulent, since the fragmentation facilitates the incorporation of various adulterants. Brazilian law establishes as the parameters to be evaluated in grated cheese only the moisture content and the fat content in dry matter (GES. However, it is important to analyze other parameters, in order to characterize the products commercialized in Brazil, as quality can be compromised. The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and presence of starch in different samples of grated Parmesan cheese, commercialized in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná. Fifteen samples were analyzed, being three different batches of five brands. The chemical composition (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differed from one sample to another; however, all samples were in compliance with Brazilian legislation, considering the moisture content. For the GES content, 60% of the samples showed values higher than those established by Brazilian legislation for semi-fat cheese, such as grated Parmesan cheese. One sample showed a high carbohydrate content, however, starch was not detected by the lugol test. It is concluded that 60% of grated cheese commercialized in the city of Paranavaí present disagreement with Brazilian law, because they had higher fat content in the dry matter than the established.

  18. Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Conrado; Millán, Rafael; Saavedra, Pedro; Jaber, José Raduán; Raposo, António; Sanjuán, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate, by statistical analyses, risk factors on cheese farms that can influence the microbial contamination of their products. Various assessment tools, such as cheese production questionnaires, food handlers' knowledge testing, and hygiene assessment system surveys, were used on 39 cheese farms on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. The microbiological status of 773 raw milk and cheese samples from the cheese farms was assessed by enumerating total viable counts and 4 pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. The results revealed that the highest contamination by Staph. aureus (4.39%, >10(5)cfu/mL) was found in milk, and the highest contamination by E. coli (5.18%, >10(3) cfu/mL) was found in cheese. Very few samples (0.52%) were contaminated by L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. The factors associated with any tested microorganism were "handling," "knowledge," and "type of milk." Subsequently, multidimensional logistic analysis for contamination by E. coli showed an independent association for factors "cleaning and disinfection test" and "type of milk." The probability of total aerobic contamination of milk increased with lower hygiene assessment system survey scores. These results emphasize the need to apply and maintain good hygiene practices, and to study risk factors to prevent contamination and bacterial growth. Further research is required in other areas with different cheese farm types to reinforce the validity of these results. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  20. Do consumers from Međimurje region recognize their autochthonous Turoš cheese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Valkaj

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether consumers from the Međimurje region recognise and distinguish the autochthonous cheese called Turoš from similar cheeses like Prgica and Kvargl originating from regions neighbouring to Međimurje. Chemical, textural and microbiological properties of all three cheeses were given. Preference tests with 200 consumers using a face-to-face survey and a two-step procedure were performed. The blind taste test showed that 97 % of the respondents recognised differences between the tasted samples, and almost half of them preferred the Turoš cheese. Similarly, the informed test showed that a significantly higher number of the respondents preferred the Turoš cheese in comparison to Kvargl and Prgica. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences between respondents’ preferences in the blind and the informed tests.

  1. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

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    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  2. Screening and selection of Lactobacillus strains for use as adjunct cultures in production of semi-hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Martin; Ardö, Ylva; Nilsson, Bengt Frans; Molin, Göran

    2002-08-01

    Thirty-three Lactobacillus strains were tested as adjuncts in a cheese model system. Eighteen strains originated from cheese (nine Lactobacillus spp. and nine Lb. paracasei/casei) and 15 from human intestinal mucosa (11 Lb. rhamnosus; three Lb. paracasei; one Lb. plantarum). Model cheeses weighing 120 g were made of cheese grains from full-scale production of washed curd semi-hard cheese (Herrgård). The model system was reproducible and similar to full-scale production with respect to moisture, salt content, pH and microbial flora. The model cheeses were sampled for aerobic and anaerobic plate count and viable counts of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus. The presence of adjuncts in the model cheeses was confirmed by typing isolates with Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The sensory properties of model cheeses were described. In a first trial 23 of the 33 adjuncts were re-isolated from the corresponding model cheeses after 9 or 13 weeks. Adjuncts of Lb. paracasei were re-isolated more frequently than adjuncts of Lb. rhamnosus. Nine strains were selected, on the basis of their ability to grow and be a dominating part of the microflora of model cheese with interesting sensory properties. These strains were further studied together with two commercial cultures. The sensory influences on model cheeses of six of the adjuncts were confirmed, and flavour scores were in the range of 2.9-7.1 for model cheeses with different adjuncts while the control had a flavour score of 5.6 (0-10 scale). Survival and growth of seven out of the nine strains correlated with the results of the first trial. Growth and influence on flavour of four adjunct cultures were confirmed in experimental cheese manufactured in a 400-1 open vat.

  3. MINERAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD SERUM AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF MILK AND CHEESE OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hrković-Porobija

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plan of research included two Pramenka sheep-breeding family farms producing Livno and Travnik cheese in the traditional ways. The experiment included 117 animals of the Pramenka strain. The serum concentrations of the minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were followed over time. Based on the physical-chemical analysis of the sheep milk, we evaluated the milk parameters (milk fat, protein and lactose and cheese parameters (dry matter, moisture, grease and pH that can be indicative of the cheese milk quality. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the serum minerals to the sheep milk quality, and the Livno and Travnik cheese quality, being the final products. Blood, milk and cheese samples were taken in the summer during the summer grazing of sheep. The results were analyzed using the software package/Program SPSS 15.00. Differences were considered statistically significant at p <0.05. Influence of serum minerals on the quality of milk and cheese was determined by calculating the correlation factor.Analysis of mineral blood components and basic milkand cheese parameters showed variations, wich may be acceptable considering the influence of lactation, climate and botanic quality.Keywords: sheep, mineral components of serum, milk, cheese, correlation

  4. Traditional Cheese Production and an EU Labeling Scheme: The Alpine Cheese Producers’ Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the European Union introduced two optional quality terms (OQT as new tools for the enhancement of food products. Two years later, the requirements for the use of the OQT “mountain product” were defined to enhance agricultural production in harsh environments, such as mountain areas. This new tool aimed at promoting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistributing wealth. The present research aims at understanding if farmers perceived this tool as useful and evaluates their level of awareness. To this aim, a sample of 68 traditional cheese producers from the North West Alpine Arch was interviewed. The results show that some cheese producers have a positive attitude towards the concepts set out in the OQT “mountain product” and consider it a useful tool to promote and enhance their products. Some critical elements are also discussed.

  5. Rheology of spreadable goat cheese made with autochthonous lactic cultures differing in their ability to produce exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frau Silvia Florencia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the rheology of spreadable cheeses elaborated with autochthonous lactic starter cultures without the addition of exopolysaccharide-producing strain in the same starter with exopolysaccharide-producing strain. From a rheological standpoint, both samples were characterized as weak viscoelastic gels and pseudoplastic products. It was concluded that cheese made with exopolysaccharide-producing strain showed smaller G', G", and η* values over the range of frequencies studied and smaller critic stress values than the cheese without exopolysaccharide-producing strain. The results obtained indicate that cheeses without exopolysaccharide-producing strain need to be added with any texture enhancer product.

  6. Potential of nisin-incorporated sodium caseinate films to control Listeria in artificially contaminated cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Hoang, Lan; Chaine, Aline; Grégoire, Lydie; Waché, Yves

    2010-10-01

    A sodium caseinate film containing nisin (1000 IU/cm(2)) was produced and used to control Listeria innocua in an artificially contaminated cheese. Mini red Babybel cheese was chosen as a model semi-soft cheese. L. innocua was both surface- and in-depth inoculated to investigate the effectiveness of the antimicrobial film as a function of the distance from the surface in contact with the film. The presence of the active film resulted in a 1.1 log CFU/g reduction in L. innocua counts in surface-inoculated cheese samples after one week of storage at 4 degrees C as compared to control samples. With regard to in-depth inoculated cheese samples, antimicrobial efficiency was found to be dependent on the distance from the surface in contact with the active films to the cheese matrix. The inactivation rates obtained were 1.1, 0.9 and 0.25 log CFU/g for distances from the contact surface of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Our study demonstrates the potential application of sodium caseinate films containing nisin as a promising method to overcome problems associated with post-process contamination, thereby extending the shelf life and possibly enhancing the microbial safety of cheeses. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Textural and physico-chemical characteristics of white brined goat cheeses made from frozen milk and curd. The use of square I - distance statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kljajevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short term frozen storage of milk and curd on textural properties and physico-chemical composition of white brined goat cheese. Raw milk and curds (at various stages of pressing were frozen and kept for seven days at -27 °C. Following the freezing, all the experimental cheeses were manufactured by the standard procedure, the same that was used for the control cheese sample which did not undergo freezing at any stage of production. The Square I - distance was used in order to rank the cheeses according to their similarity to the control cheese in terms of texture attributes and physico-chemical characteristics. The results show that, in terms of all examined variables, the cheese made from frozen milk is the most similar to the control cheese.

  8. Multi-detection of preservatives in cheeses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Fabio; Guarino, Chiara; La Mantia, Alessandro; Longo, Lucia; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    The incorrect use of preservatives in cheeses may compromise food safety and damage consumers. According to the law, more than one preservative may be contemporarily used in cheeses. So a method for their contemporary detection may be useful for both manufacturers and control agencies quality control. In this research a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for the multi-determination of seven preservatives (benzoic acid, citric acid, hexamethylenetetramine, lysozyme, natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid) in cheese was developed. The preservatives were contemporarily extracted from cheese by a single procedure, and analyzed by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS (Ion Trap) in positive ionization mode, with single reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. Three sample types (hard, pasta filata and fresh cheese) were used for method evaluation. Recoveries were mostly higher than 90%; MDLs ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mgkg(-1), and MQLs were included between 0.07 and 0.88 mgkg(-1). Due to matrix effect, quantitation was performed by referring to a matrix matched calibration curve, for each cheese typology. This method was also applied to commercial cheese samples, with good results. It appears fast, reliable and suitable for both screening and confirmation of the presence and quantitation of the preservatives in a single, multi-detection analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of UHPLC for the determination of free amino acids in different cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Helmut K; Fiechter, Gregor

    2013-10-01

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) protocol for the determination of amino acids as their respective 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatives was successfully applied for assessing free amino acid levels in commercial cheese samples representing typical product groups (ripening protocols) in cheesemaking. Based on the Waters AccQ.Tag™ method as a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amino acid solution designed for hydrolyzate analyses, method adaptation onto UHPLC was performed, and detection of AQC derivatives was changed from former fluorescence (λ(Ex) 250 nm/λ(Em) 395 nm) to UV (254 nm). Compared to the original HPLC method, UHPLC proved to be superior by facilitating excellent separations of 18 amino acids within 12 min only, thus demonstrating significantly shortened runtimes (>35 min for HPLC) while retaining the original separation chemistry and amino acid elution pattern. Free amino acid levels of the analyzed cheese samples showed a high extent of variability depending on the cheese type, with highest total amounts found for original Italian extra-hard cheeses (up to 9,000 mg/100 g) and lowest for surface mold- or bacterial smear-ripened soft cheeses (200-600 mg/100 g). Despite the intrinsic variability in both total and specific concentrations, the established UHPLC method enabled reliable and interference-free amino acid profiling throughout all cheese types, thus demonstrating a valuable tool to generate high quality data for the characterization of cheese ripening.

  10. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  11. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  12. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 133.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It may be... culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set...

  13. Technological Strategies to Preserve Burrata Cheese Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out to extend its shelf life. Different headspace gas compositions (MAP-1 30:70 CO2:N2; MAP-2 50:50 CO2:N2 and MAP-3 65:35 CO2:N2 were firstly tested. To further promote product preservation, a coating was also optimized. Then, antimicrobial compounds in the filling of the burrata cheese (lysozyme and Na2-EDTA and later in the coating (enzymatic complex and silver nanoparticles were analyzed. To evaluate the quality of the samples, in each step headspace gas composition, microbial population, and pH and sensory attributes were monitored during storage at 8 ± 1 °C. The results highlight that the antimicrobial compounds in the stracciatella, coating with silver nanoparticles, and packaging under MAP-3 represent effective conditions to guarantee product preservation, moving burrata shelf life from three days (control sample to ten days.

  14. Effects of highly ripened cheeses on HL-60 human leukemia cells: antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, S; Ohkura, N; Suzuki, K; Yamasaki, M; Nishiyama, K; Kobayashi, H; Hoshi, Y; Kadooka, Y; Igoshi, K

    2010-04-01

    To establish cheese as a dairy product with health benefits, we examined the multifunctional role of cheeses. In this report, we clarify whether different types of commercial cheeses may possess antiproliferative activity using HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines as a cancer model. Among 12 cheese extracts tested, 6 (Montagnard, Pont-l'Eveque, Brie, Camembert, Danablue, and Blue) revealed strong growth inhibition activity and induction of DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells. Based on the quantification of nitrogen contents in different cheese samples, a positive correlation between the ripeness of various cheeses and their antiproliferative activity tested in HL-60 cells was displayed. Four varieties of Blue cheese ripened for 0, 1, 2, or 3 mo demonstrated that the Blue cheese ripened for a long term was capable of causing the strong suppression of the cell growth and the induction of apoptotic DNA damage as well as nucleic morphological change in HL-60 cells. Collectively, these results obtained suggest a potential role of highly ripened cheeses in the prevention of leukemic cell proliferation. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Texture of low-fat Iranian White cheese as influenced by gum tragacanth as a fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, J; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Aziznia, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different concentrations of gum tragacanth on the textural characteristics of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied during ripening. A batch of full-fat and 5 batches of low-fat Iranian White cheeses with different gum tragacanth concentrations (without gum or with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1 g of gum/kg of milk) were produced to study the effects of fat content reduction and gum concentration on the textural and functional properties of the product during ripening. Cheese samples were analyzed with respect to chemical, color, and sensory characteristics, rheological parameters (uniaxial compression and small-amplitude oscillatory shear), and microstructure. Reducing the fat content had an adverse effect on cheese yield, sensory characteristics, and the texture of Iranian White cheese, and it increased the instrumental hardness parameters (i.e., fracture stress, elastic modulus, storage modulus, and complex modulus). However, increasing the gum tragacanth concentration reduced the values of instrumental hardness parameters and increased the whiteness of cheese. Although when the gum concentration was increased, the low-fat cheese somewhat resembled its full-fat counterpart, the interaction of the gum concentration with ripening time caused visible undesirable effects on cheese characteristics by the sixth week of ripening. Cheeses with a high gum tragacanth concentration became very soft and their solid texture declined somewhat.

  16. Quality and safety of artisan cheese produced in the serrana region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Helenita Pontarolo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The serrano artisan cheese produced from raw milk of dairy cattle is a typical product of high-altitude farms in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. However, marketing of the cheeses occurs illegally because they lack the minimum maturation period required for cheese produced from raw milk. The production of artisan cheeses is required to follow strict hygiene standards. This study aimed to test the quality and safety of cheeses that were produced in 31 farms of the Serrana region in Santa Catarina after 14 and 28 days of maturation. Coliform count was measured at 35 °C, and presence of other microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were also tested. Fat and protein percentages, acidity, salt content, and humidity were also evaluated. Data were subjected to statistical analyses using the SAS® software. After 14 and 28 days of maturation, 74.19% (23/31 and 64.52% (20/31 of samples, respectively, showed higher numbers of coliforms at 35 °C than those permissible by law. Higher than permissible numbers of E. coli were observed in 45.16% (14/31 and 48.39% (15/31 of the samples analyzed after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococci values above 103 CFU/g were observed in 54.84% (17/31 and 51.61% (16/31 of cheese samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Contamination with Salmonella spp. was not detected. However, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b was isolated in 3.23% (1/31 and 6.45% (2/31 of samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. The results of humidity tests classified the cheese samples into three categories: low, medium, and high humidity. Semi fat cheeses were predominant in both maturation periods, although the samples were classified in thin, semi fat, and fat cheeses. The main variations in the compositions of analyzed samples occurred for salt and acidity levels. The maturation process has not proven

  17. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2012-01-01

    Flavor production among12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce...

  18. Determination of /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs in grass and cheese after Chernobyl accident in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teherani, D K

    1987-09-14

    Various samples from Styria (grass) and Salzburg (cheese) were analyzed for /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs concentration during April - July 1986 by ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The concentrations are reported in nCi kg/sup -1/ wet weight. The values found for /sup 131/I were 0.2-17.2 (grass), 0.1-0.5 (cheese), for /sup 134/Cs 1.1-6.2 (grass), 0.2-1.3 (cheese), for /sup 137/Cs 1.6-15.7 (grass), 0.3-2.2 (cheese). While radioactivity of /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs in cheese samples increased from May to June, it decreased in grass samples from May to July. (author) 5 refs

  19. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese and ice cream exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisaka, A.E.; Weagant, S.D.; Dong, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes preinoculated into ice cream and mozzarella cheese prior to gamma-irradiation treatment was determined. Samples were maintained at -78 degrees C and exposed to targeted doses of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kGy of gamma-irradiation. The calculated D10 values were 1.4 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 2.0 kGy for ice cream. The effective level of irradiation (12D) for inactivating L. monocytogenes was 16.8 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 24.4 kGy for ice cream

  20. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Hesham M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 o C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: → We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. → Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. → Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  2. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in sheep cheese and dairy desserts by multiplex PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Nurhan; Gonulalan, Zafer; Yildirim, Yeliz; Kum, Erhan

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes in sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples by multiplex PCR (mPCR) technique. A total of 150 samples were analyzed consisting of 50 dairy dessert samples and 100 sheep cheese. Coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) were found in 86 (57.3%) out of 150 analyzed samples. S. aureus were isolated from 60 (60%), 26 (52%) of sheep cheese and from of dairy desserts, respectively. Five suspected colonies were tested from each sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples for phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. A total of 430 isolates from the 86 positive samples were investigated in this study. Eighty (18.6%) isolates were characterized as S. aureus. The enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed) were found in 13 (3.02%) out of 80 isolates. From cheese isolates, sea, seb and sed were detected in 5 (1.6%), 2 (0.6%), 1 (0.3%), respectively. From dairy dessert isolates, sea, sec and sed were detected in 3 (2.3%), 1 (0.76%), 1 (0.76%), respectively. The presence of SEs was identified in 12 (2.8%) out of 80 isolates by using ELISA technique. It was determined that these SEs had a distribution of 7 (1.6%) SEA, 2 (0.46%) SEB, 1 (0.23%) SEC, and 2 (0.46%) SED. SEs were found in 7 (2.3%) cheese and 5 (3.8%) dairy dessert isolates. In conclusion, S.aureus and their SEs were found to be present in sheep cheese and dairy desserts in this study. It is emphasized that the presence of S. aureus and their SEs genes in sheep cheese and dairy desserts may be regarded as a potential risk for human health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Hesham M., E-mail: heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4{+-}1 {sup o}C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: > We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. > Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. > Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  4. Replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the possibility of substituting milk fat by using blended vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content, in addition, lo utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefore, one hundred (lOOKg) from fresh buffaloes milk containing 5 % milk fal and 3 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with blended vegetable oils and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 5% mixed vegetable oils used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product filled ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to 1, 2 and 3 kGy y-irradiation, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated filled cheese. In addition, irradiation dose of 3 kGy prolonged the shelf-life of treated filled cheese to 42 days compared to 18 days for control sample and scqueiitly, the new product high percentage of iinsaluraled fatly acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk and can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods

  5. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  7. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  8. Surface decontamination of cheddar cheese by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1991-01-01

    Cheddar cheese samples inoculated with two different levels of Penicillium cyclopium or Aspergillus ochraceus spores were vacuum-packed and irradiated at various doses up to 3.5 kGy with electrons from a 10-MeV linear accelerator. Unirradiated cheese showed visible mold growth in 8-25 d at 10 degrees C, and 7-12 d at 15 degrees C, depending on species and spore concentration. Only marginal extension of shelf life at 15 degrees C was achieved with cheese inoculated with 10 2 cfu per sample of either of the mold spores, followed by irradiation at 0.21 or 0.52 kGy. However, at these doses the average shelf life at 10 degrees C was extended by 41.5 and 50.5 d respectively when the inoculum was A. ochraceus. When the inoculum level was increased tenfold, irradiation at 1.2 and 3.5 kGy extended the average shelf life of cheese containing P. cyclopium by 44.5 and >262 d respectively at 10 degrees C, and by 3 and >166 d respectively at 15 degrees C. The shelf life of samples containing A. ochraceus and irradiated at 1.2 or 3.5 kGy was extended by at least 255.5 d at 10 degrees C and at least 160 d at 15 degrees C. The results clearly showed that low radiation doses are effective in the mold decontamination of cheese. The results also suggest that P. cyclopium in Cheddar cheese is more radiation-resistant than A. ochraceus. This was supported by determination of radiation survival curves for the two species incorporated into Cheddar cheese: D 10 values for P. cyclopium and A. ochraceus were found to be 0.40 and 0.21 kGy respectively. The radiation sensitivity of the two organisms was found not to vary with pH in the pH range 5.0-6.2

  9. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  10. Do consumption of Kargi Tulum cheese meet daily requirements for minerals and trace elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Sevgi Kirdar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mineral and trace elements of Kargı Tulum cheese are investigated during the ripening period of 90 days. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc and iron quantities were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The effect of maturation time on the sodium, phosphor and potassium content of cheese samples has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Magnesium and calcium levels during ripening period showed significant statistical difference (p<0.01. Copper values of cheese samples demonstrated an increase throughout 90-day maturation time. The effect of maturation time on manganese and zinc value has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. According to obtained data, by consuming 100 g Kargı Tulum cheese in daily period, an adult can provide a remarkable portion of his/her minerals needs.

  11. Effect of plant extracts Kitaibelia vitifolia on antioxidant activity, chemical characteristics, microbiological status and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurćubić Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of cheese (Pirotski kachkaval fortification by polyphenols attributed to Kitaibelia vitifolia ethanol herb extract, applied in two different manners (added to the cheese curd after texturizing or sprayed on surface of cheese. Investigation of the used antioxidant effects of polyphenols, physic-chemical composition, microbiological quality and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval was undertaken. Antioxidant activity of conventional and fortified cheese was evaluated by five contemporary and compatible methods, and revealed a slight emphasis on phenol-linked antioxidant activity of fortified samples of cheese in comparison to samples of the control group. Fortified Pirotski kachkaval had higher sensory evaluation scores than the controls. Statistically significant (P 0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009 i br. OI 172016

  12. Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Balkir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05. Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05.

  13. The effect of addition of selected carrageenans on viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Černíková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 0.25% w/w κ-carrageenan and ι‑carrageenan on viscoelastic properties of processed cheese were studied using model samples containing 40% w/w dry matter and 45 and 50% w/w fat in dry matter. Experimental samples of processed cheese were evaluated after 14 days of storage at the temperature of 6 ± 2 °C. Basic parameters of processed cheese samples under study (i.e. their dry matter content and pH were not different (P ≥ 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in values of storage modulus G´ [Pa], loss modulus G'' [Pa] and tangent of phase shift angle tan δ [-] for the reference frequency of 1 Hz between processed cheese with κ‑carrageenan applied in the form of powder and in the form of aqueous dispersion (P ≥ 0.05. The addition of 0.25% w/w κ‑carrageenan and ι‑carrageenan (in the powder form resulted in an increase in storage (G´ and loss (G'' moduli and a decrease in values of tan δ (P < 0.05. As compared with control (i.e. without added carrageenans, samples of processed cheese became firmer. Iota-carrageenan added in the powder form in concentration of 0.25% w/w showed a more intensive effect on the increase in firmness of processed cheese under study than κ‑carrageenan (P < 0.05.

  14. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (PCamembert cheeses.

  15. ANOMALOUS BLUE COLOURING OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE INTENTIONALLY CONTAMINATED WITH PIGMENT PRODUCING STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sechi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 a large outbreak of anomalous blue coloration of mozzarella cheese was recorded in Italy and some northern European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities linked the outbreak to the contamination of processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several expert raised the question of how to unequivocally link the blue coloring to the presence of the micro-organism. In an attempt to set-up a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible of the defect, an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue colouring of mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. was developed The system is aimed to ascertain whether P. fluorescens strains, isolated from mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, are able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental condition. 96 trials of experimental inoculation of mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids, were conducted using various suspension of Pseudomonas spp. (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens CFBP 3150, one P. fluorescens field strain isolated from blue-colored mozzarella cheese and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as positive control at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curve of all Pseudomonas spp. strains tested demonstrated that after three days of incubation the concentration was generally higher than 106 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB, and higher than 105 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which is often associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens contamination of water used during mozzarella cheesemaking. With the proposed system, which enabled a considerable amount of samples to be analysed under controlled experimental

  16. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eBurdikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g. pH, redox potential due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  17. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A E; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  18. Identification of a particular cheese production by trace analysis with nuclear techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, A.; Stroppa, A.; Cagnazzo, M.; Pappalardo, P.; Borio, A.; Manera, S.

    2006-05-01

    The counterfeit of a product, in this case a type of cheese, is an economic damage for the trade-mark product. An identification of the product itself by quantification of trace elements could be done. Nuclear techniques are useful and give good results. Some elements are connected to the process so different productions could be identified. Thirty elements and 160 spectrums are analysed. The samples of the same kind of cheese come from different countries and different Italian producers (15 different productions).

  19. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Abu-Alruz; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Amer A. Omari; Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium) it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stre...

  20. Identification of a particular cheese production by trace analysis with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, A; Stroppa, A; Cagnazzo, M; Pappalardo, P; Borio, A; Manera, S

    2006-01-01

    The counterfeit of a product, in this case a type of cheese, is an economic damage for the trade-mark product. An identification of the product itself by quantification of trace elements could be done. Nuclear techniques are useful and give good results. Some elements are connected to the process so different productions could be identified. Thirty elements and 160 spectrums are analysed. The samples of the same kind of cheese come from different countries and different Italian producers (15 different productions)

  1. PRODUCTION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS OF “CASU MARZU” CHEESE: EFFECT OF THE Piophila Casei COLONIZATION ON MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coinu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Piophila casei colonization under controlled conditions on “casu marzu”, a typical Sardinian sheep milk cheese. Three batches of two different kind of cheese (PO, holed paste and PC, firm paste were produced in duplicate (test and control. Test cheeses were exposed to the Piophila casei colonization in a conditioned store room, while control cheeses were suitably protected. All the samples were analyzed at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days from the production. The pH and aw, the chemical composition and the microbiological parameters (food safety and process hygiene criteria were determined. The colonization was unhomogeneous between the batches: PO cheeses were more easily colonized and showed more intense proteolysis and lipolysis respect to PC cheeses. The microbiological parameters were strongly affected by the experimental process conditions. The authors discuss about the opportunity of a controlled production of “casu marzu” and the implications to the health of consumers.

  2. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  3. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the transference of the lutein (dye, added to the milk, in the whey, and cheese, to evaluate the effect of the lutein addition, light exposure, and storage time on the cheese color, and to verify the sensory acceptance of Prato cheese with addition of lutein. The lutein recovery of cheese was 95.25%. Color saturation (chrome increased during storage time resulting in a cheese with more intense color, but there were no changes in the hue of the cheese. Adjusting the amount of lutein added to Prato cheese may lead to greater acceptance. The high recovery of lutein in the cheese and the fact that the hue remained unchanged during storage under light showed that the incorporation of lutein into Prato cheese is feasible from a technical point of view.

  4. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vallone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product, such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  5. Development of Yeast Populations during Processing and Ripening of Blue Veined Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Knox

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of blue veined cheese were analyzed regularly during different stages of manufacturing and ripening to determine the origin of contaminating the yeasts present in them, their population diversity and development until the end of the storage. Yeast diversity and development in the inner and outer core of the cheeses during ripening were also compared. Air samples revealed few if any yeasts whereas the samples in contact with the equipment and the surroundings revealed high number of yeasts, implicating it as the possible main source of post-pasteurization contamination, as very few yeasts were isolated from the milk and cheese making process itself. Samples from the inner and outer core of the maturing cheeses had typical survival curves. The number of yeasts on the outer core was about a 100-fold more than of those in the inner core. The most abundant yeasts isolated from the environment and ripening cheeses were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida versatilis and Cryptococcus albidus, while the yeasts Candida zeylanoides and Dekkera anomala were additionally isolated from the environment. Yeasts were present in high number, making their occurrence in blue-veined cheeses meaningful.

  6. Evaluation of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Contamination in Lighvan Cheese on Retail Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-sporulated, lack of capsule, immovable, aerobic and anaerobic and able to tolerate high levels of salt (up to 15 percent. Therefore, foods containing salt provides an ideal environment for bacterial growth. It is also one of the most important bacterial born of spoilable food products, especially in dairy products. Lighvan traditional cheese is consumed in many regions of Iran, especially consumption of these cheeses is very high in Tehran which in the manufacture of such cheeses, the unpasteurized and raw milk is used and the sanitary conditions during processing and subsequent storage are low. So, considering the importance of this issue in the release of poisoning, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus contamination in Lighvan cheese on Retail Stores was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to perform this study, 22 samples of traditional Lighvan cheese were collected randomly from Tehran stores and according to Iran national standards and by using of bird-parker, Cook Meat cultures and coagulase test were evaluated. Results: Total of 22 samples, 14 samples (63/6% were contaminated by S. aureus over standard and 5 (22/7% were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sanitary conditions should be observed during the production and Use of pasteurized milk in cheese production.

  7. Evaluation of hygiene and safety criteria in the production of a traditional Piedmont cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Astegiano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B. Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  8. Evaluation of Hygiene and Safety Criteria in the Production of a Traditional Piedmont Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astegiano, Sara; Bellio, Alberto; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Gorlier, Alessandra; Gramaglia, Monica; Lombardi, Giampiero; Macori, Guerrino; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B). Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (A w )] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli , aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae , E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and A w values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and A w are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  9. [Formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Keshavarz, A; Lafont, P; Hardy, J; Debry, G

    1980-01-01

    Several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. The concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. The results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of Penicillium camemberti, which favors very much the synthesis of nitrosamines. The amount of nitrosodimethylamine formed in this cheese increases from 5 to 20 ppb during ripening. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of formation is outlined.

  10. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimira Medverec Knežević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on developing novel cott age cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants.

  11. Determination of endogenous concentrations of nitrites and nitrates in different types of cheese in the United States: method development and validation using ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Jeong, Nahyun; DeJager, Lowri

    2018-04-01

    Nitrites and nitrates can be present in dairy products from both endogenous and exogenous sources. In the European Union (EU), 150 mg kg - 1 of nitrates are allowed to be added to the cheese milk during the manufacturing process. The CODEX General Standard for Food Additives has a maximum permitted level of 50 mg kg - 1 residue in cheese, while in the United States (U.S.) nitrates are unapproved for use as food additives in cheese. In order to be able to investigate imported cheeses for nitrates intentionally added as preservatives and the endogenous concentrations of nitrates and nitrites present in cheeses in the U.S. marketplace, a method was developed and validated using ion chromatography with conductivity detection. A market sampling of cheese samples purchased in the Washington DC metro area was performed. In 64 samples of cheese, concentrations ranged from below the method detection limit (MDL) to 26 mg kg - 1 for nitrates and no concentrations of nitrites were found in any of the cheese samples above the MDL of 0.1 mg kg - 1 . A majority of the samples (93%) had concentrations below 10 mg kg - 1 , which indicate the presence of endogenous nitrates. The samples with concentrations above 10 mg kg - 1 were mainly processed cheese spread, which can contain additional ingredients often of plant-based origin. These ingredients are likely the cause of the elevated nitrate concentrations. The analysis of 12 additional cheese samples that are liable to the intentional addition of nitrates, 9 of which were imported, indicated that in this limited study, concentrations of nitrate in the U.S.-produced cheeses did not differ from those in imported samples.

  12. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.

  13. Methane production from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J Q; Liao, P H; Lo, K V

    1988-01-01

    Cheese whey was treated in a 17.5-litre laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor operated over a range of hydraulic retention times and organic loading rates. The reactor performance was determined in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. At a constant influent strength, the methane production rate decreased with decreasing hydraulic retention time. At constant hydraulic retention time the methane production rate increased as the influent strength was increased up to a concentration of 28.8 g COD litre/sup -1/. The methane production rate was similar for two influent concentrations studied at hydraulic retention times longer than 10 days. The effect of short hydraulic retention times on methane production rate was more pronounced for the higher influent concentration than for the lower influent concentration. The highest methane production rate of 9.57 litres CH/sub 4/ litre/sup -1/ feed day/sup -1/ was obtained at a loading rate of 5.96 g/sup -1/ COD litre/sup -1/ and an influent concentration of 28.8 g COD litre/sup -1/. A high treatment efficiency in terms of chemical oxygen demand reduction was obtained. In general, over 98% removal of chemical oxygen demand was achieved. The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using an upflow sludge blanket reactor could reduce pollution strength and produce energy for a cheese plant.

  14. Cheese whey management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  16. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  17. Short communication: Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model Queso Fresco cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Van Hekken, D L

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing varieties in the United States, making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from several varieties of Mexican Queso Fresco and model Queso Fresco were analyzed for potential antihypertensive activity. Many Quesos Frescos obtained from Mexico are made from raw milk and therefore the native microflora is included in the cheese-making process. Model Queso Fresco samples were made from pasteurized milk and did not utilize starter cultures. Water-soluble protein extracts from 6 Mexican Quesos Frescos and 12 model cheeses were obtained and assayed for their ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, implying potential as foods that can help to lower blood pressure. All model cheeses displayed antihypertensive activity, but mainly after 8 wk of aging when they were no longer consumable, whereas the Mexican samples did display some angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory action after minimal aging. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel extraction strategy of ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from cheese for PCR-based investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti, Catherine; Parayre, Sandrine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2006-03-15

    Cheese microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, constitute a complex ecosystem that plays a central role in cheeses ripening. The molecular study of cheese microbial diversity and activity is essential but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic: the cheese samples are characterised by a strong buffering capacity which negatively influenced the yield of the extracted rRNA. The objective of this study is to develop an effective method for the direct and simultaneous isolation of yeast and bacterial ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from the same cheese samples. DNA isolation was based on a protocol used for nucleic acids isolation from anaerobic digestor, without preliminary washing step with the combined use of the action of chaotropic agent (acid guanidinium thiocyanate), detergents (SDS, N-lauroylsarcosine), chelating agent (EDTA) and a mechanical method (bead beating system). The DNA purification was carried out by two washing steps of phenol-chloroform. RNA was isolated successfully after the second acid extraction step by recovering it from the phenolic phase of the first acid extraction. The novel method yielded pure preparation of undegraded RNA accessible for reverse transcription-PCR. The extraction protocol of genomic DNA and rRNA was applicable to complex ecosystem of different cheese matrices.

  19. Use of electron beam irradiation for mold decontamination on cheddar cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, G.; Shamsuzzaman, K.; Sohal, S.

    1992-01-01

    Cheddar cheese slices, surface-inoculated with either Penicillium cyclopium or Aspergillus ochraceus spores, were vacuum packaged and irradiated using an electron beam accelerator. Following treatment at 0.21 and 0.52 kGy, the shelf-life of cheese containing P. cyclopium was extended by 3 and 5.5 d, respectively, in comparison with inoculated, untreated samples. Under similar treatment and storage conditions, cheese containing A. ochraceus exhibited average shelf-life extensions of 42.5 and 52.2 d, respectively. Increasing the postirradiation storage temperature to 15 degrees C reduced the shelf-life of cheese, especially with samples containing A. ochraceus. The lowest dose required to inactivate ca. 50 to 60 spores/cm2 of either A. ochraceus or P. cyclopium on the surface of cheese was ca. 0.42 and 0.95 kGy, respectively. Irradiation survival curves of A. ochraceus and P. cyclopium spores in cheese yielded average values (the dose required to reduce initial population by 90%) of 0.21 and 0.42 kGy, respectively

  20. Yield and quality of brine-ripened cheeses, production from the milk of jersey and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.T. Chitchyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted in Lusadzor community of Tavoush province in Armenia to determine the processability of milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows for cheese manufacturing. The chemical composition as well as physical–chemical and technological parameters of the milk samples have been analyzed experimentally. In addition, the researchers estimated physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters as well as the yield of the cheese produced from the bulk milk collected from Jersey and Simmental cows. The results of the research proved that the milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows possess the necessary physical–chemical and technological properties and can be used as high-quality raw material for manufacturing brine-ripened (pickled cheese. The highest content of dry matter, observed in the milk collected from Jersey cows, stemmed from the high contents of fat, protein and minerals. The content of lactose (milk sugar and physical characteristics (density, freezing temperature did not vary significantly across the samples. The rennet clots formed in the milk collected from Jersey cows were characterized by higher structural–mechanical parameters and syneresis. Jersey milk possesses the qualitative characteristics that best contribute to high cheese yield, which allows for the most efficient cheese production. Cheese manufactured from Jersey milk is distinguished by less water content, higher fat and protein contents and higher organoleptic indicators, which all together improve the quality of cheese turning it into a highly competitive product.

  1. Assessment of probiotic viability during Cheddar cheese manufacture and ripening using propidium monoazide-PCR quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eDesfossés-Foucault

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (four to six months by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA select only the living cells’ DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011 or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052 or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1, both lactobacilli strains (MC2 or all three strains (MC3. DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf or the transaldolase gene (tal. Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P<0.005, confirming that PMA did eliminate dead bacteria from PCR quantification. For both quantification methods, the addition of probiotic strains seemed to accelerate the loss of lactococci viability in comparison to control cheese samples, especially when L. helveticus RO052 was added. Viability of all three probiotic strains was also significantly reduced in mixed culture cheese samples (P<0.0001, B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 being the most sensitive to the presence of other strains. However, all probiotic strains did retain their viability (log nine cfu/g of cheese throughout ripening. This study was successful in monitoring living probiotic species in Cheddar cheese samples through PMA-qPCR.

  2. Yield of acid curd cheese produced from cow's milk from different lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa; Młynek, Krzysztof; Guliński, Piotr; Zawadzka, Wiesława

    2017-01-01

    Milk production intensification has led in many countries, including Poland, to increased milk yields per cow. A higher milk yield resulted in changes in cow productivity, including extended lactations. There is a paucity of information on the quality of milk harvested during the last months of lactations exceed- ing 10 months. Production capacity cheese (“cheese expenditure”) is an important parameter of providing   a recovery as much as the possible components of the milk processed are dry substances, which in turn af- fects the economics of production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the lactation period (from standard lactation; extended lactation phase) on the performance of the acid curd cheese. the relation- ship between total protein content and acidity of fresh milk collected in two separate periods of lactation on the yield of acid cheese was also evaluated. The study included 1384 samples of milk collected from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, the Black-White variety. The basic chemical composition of fresh milk and acid-curd cheese produced in the laboratory were analyzed. The cheese milk yield was evaluated on the basis of the quantity of the re- sulting curd mass. According to our estimates, under laboratory conditions an average of 100 kg of milk per cow in population produced an estimated 20.1 kg of curd cheese. The basic chemical composition of raw milk, which was diverse in terms of the period of lactation, showed a higher dry matter, fat and protein content in milk acquired during the extension phase of lactation compared to the milk of standard lactation. It has been found that the lower titratable acidity of fresh milk appeared with a higher yield of cheese curd. This difference was between 1.76 kg (with milk from cows milked during the extended lactation phase) to 2.72 kg from 100 kg of cheese milk (milk with the standard lactation). Thus, the optimum level of titratable acidity of milk for cheese yield is 6.0–7.5

  3. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  4. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contains spices, in a minimum amount of 0.015 ounce per pound of cheese, and may contain spice oils. If the... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2..., spices are added so as to be evenly distributed throughout the finished cheese. One or more of the other...

  5. The effect of rework content addition on the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černíková, Michaela; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos; Popková, Romana; Buňka, František

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to add various amounts of rework (0.0 to 20.0% wt/wt) to processed cheeses with a dry matter content of 36% (wt/wt) and fat with a dry matter content of 45% (wt/wt). The effect of the rework addition on the viscoelastic properties and microstructure of the processed cheeses was observed. The addition of rework (in this case, to processed cheese with a spreadable consistency) in the amounts of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (wt/wt) increased the firmness of the processed cheese. With the further addition of rework, the consistency of the processed cheeses no longer differed significantly. The conclusions obtained by the measurement of viscoelastic properties were supported by cryo-scanning electron microscopy, where fat droplets in samples with added rework of over 10.0% (wt/wt) were smaller than fat droplets in processed cheeses with lower additions of rework. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of selected Hofmeister salts on textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankey, J A; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-09-01

    Three Hofmeister salts (HS; sodium sulfate, sodium thiocyanate, and sodium chloride) were evaluated for their effect on the textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese. Nonfat cheese, made by direct acidification, were sliced into discs (diameter=50 mm, thickness=2 mm) and incubated with agitation (6 h at 22°C) in 50 mL of a synthetic Cheddar cheese aqueous phase buffer (pH 5.4). The 3 HS were added at 5 concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 M) to the buffer. Post-incubation, cheese slices were air dried and equilibrated in air-tight bags for 18 h at 5°C before analysis. Small amplitude oscillatory rheology properties, including the dynamic moduli and loss tangent, were measured during heating from 5 to 85°C. Hardness was determined by texture profile analysis. Acid-base buffering was performed to observe changes in the indigenous insoluble (colloidal) calcium phosphate (CCP). Moisture content decreased with increasing HS concentration. Cheeses incubated in high concentrations of SCN(-) softened earlier (i.e., loss tangent=1) compared with other HS treatments. Higher melting temperature values were observed for cheeses incubated in high concentrations of SO(4)(2-). Hardness decreased in cheeses incubated in buffers with high concentrations of SCN(-). The indigenous CCP profile of nonfat cheese was not greatly affected by incubation in Cl(-) or SCN(-), whereas buffers with high concentrations of SO(4)(2-) reduced the acid-base buffering contributed by CCP. The use of high concentrations (1.0M) of SCN(-) for incubation of cheeses resulted in a softer protein matrix at high temperatures due to the chaotropic effect of SCN(-), which weakened hydrophobic interactions between CN. Cheese samples incubated in 1.0M SO(4)(2-) buffers exhibited a stiffer protein matrix at high temperatures due to the kosmotropic effect of SO(4)(2-), which helped to strengthen hydrophobic interactions in the proteins during the heating step. This study showed that HS

  7. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    Cottage cheese is a mixture of cheese curd with pH 4.5-4.8 and an uncultured or cultured cream dressing with a pH as high as 7.0. This results in a final product with microenvironments and a bulk pH of about 4.8 to 5.5. As for other lightly preserved foods microbial contamination and growth...... of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... on product spoilage and shelf-life remains poorly described. The present study used a quantitative microbial ecology approach to model and predict the effect of product characteristics and storage conditions on growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in cottage cheese. The effect of temperature (5-15˚C) and p...

  8. Microbial Assessment and Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Natural Cheeses in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firew Kassa Esho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of domestic natural cheese in Japan is increasing year by year. More than ninety percent of domestic natural cheese is produced in Hokkaido region of Japan, while information on its quality and safety related to foodborne pathogens is limited. To assess the microbiological safety of domestic natural cheese, a total of 126 natural cheese samples produced in Hokkaido were collected from December, 2012, to July, 2013. In addition to standard plate count (SPC and coliform counts, the prevalence study of three pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was performed on each sample. Real-time PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer methods were employed for identification of presumptive pathogens. Coliform was detected in 25 samples (19.8% with a minimum of 25 cfu/g and a maximum of more than 3.0 × 106 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from any of the samples. Only one sample (0.80% showed positive PCR amplification for ipaH gene suggesting possible contamination of enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella in this product. Overall results indicate that natural cheeses produced in Hokkaido region were satisfactory microbiological quality according to existing international standards.

  9. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  10. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta G. Rola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0% were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2% mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g−1 between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab. None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs. However, 55 of 122 (45.1% S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3% a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3% as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4% genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate, the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS. Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8% was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7% and tetracycline (5; 4.1%. The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms.

  11. The Lactose and Galactose Content of Cheese Suitable for Galactosaemia: New Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, P A; MacDonald, A

    2016-01-01

    The UK Medical Advisory Panel of the Galactosaemia Support Group report the lactose and galactose content of 5 brands of mature Cheddar cheese, Comte and Emmi Emmental fondue mix from 32 cheese samples. The Medical Advisory Panel define suitable cheese in galactosaemia to have a lactose and galactose content consistently below 10 mg/100 g. A total of 32 samples (5 types of mature Cheddar cheese, Comte and "Emmi Swiss Fondue", an emmental fondue mix) were analysed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technology used to perform lactose and galactose analysis. Cheddar cheese types: Valley Spire West Country, Parkham, Lye Cross Vintage, Lye Cross Mature, Tesco West Country Farmhouse Extra Mature and Sainsbury's TTD West Country Farmhouse Extra Mature had a lactose and galactose content consistently below 10 mg/100 g (range <0.05 to 12.65 mg). All Comte samples had a lactose content below the lower limit of detection (<0.05 mg) with galactose content from <0.05 to 1.86 mg/100 g; all samples of Emmi Swiss Fondue had lactose below the lower limit of detection (<0.05 mg) and galactose between 2.19 and 3.04 mg/100 g. All of these cheese types were suitable for inclusion in a low galactose diet for galactosaemia. It is possible that the galactose content of cheese may change over time depending on its processing, fermentation time and packaging techniques.

  12. A study on the chemical characteristics changes throughout the manufacture and ripening of Lighvan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzae

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lighvan cheese is one of the traditional cheeses which have the most high quantity of use in Iran. It is produced in South East of Tabriz in North West of Iran. The raw milk of ewe together with 20% -30% of goat's milk, without yeast, are used for its production. Its taste is mild salty and its scent is pleasant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical indexes changes including salt percentage, the degree of acidity, pH, dry mater, ashes, and protein during the production and ripening. For this purpose, after coordinating with 10 local cheese producers, one batch from each producer and from each batch 20 tins, weighing 1 kg, which in total was 200 newly packaged cheese were purchased randomly. The tins were kept in special caves for 30 days in the region and then 60 days in refrigerator. In each batch sample of the raw milk, clot after rising and before salting, the cheese during the package time in tin and the cheese sample on 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th days of ripining was analyzed chemically. The results of the study from the initial days of production to the end of the ripening period indicated the following changes: the rate of fat from 6.8 ± 0.25 in milk to 24.55±0.95 in samples, pH from 5.94± 0.06 in milk to 4.4±0.11 in samples, acidity from 39.4 ± 5.99 D° in milk to 119.4±5.38 in samples, rate of ash from 1.77±0.23 in milk to 8.09±2.32 in samples, the percentage of dry mater from 16.52±0.74 in milk to 43.57±1.34 in samples, and finally the percentage of protein from 4.45±1/12 in milk to 14.2±1.4 in samples. This result suggests that Lighvan cheese has unique characteristics in terms of its alteration procedure and chemical characteristics and based on the standard criterion in Iran, 2344-1, it is white cheese ripened brine in terms of chemical characteristics and fatty cheese in terms of the percentage of fat.

  13. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed.

  14. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  15. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  17. Microbiological quality and safety assessment in the production of moderate and high humidity cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise da Fontoura Prates

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Moderate and high humidity cheeses are described as important vehicles of pathogens in many foodborne diseases outbreaks. Microbial contamination can occur in raw material or in the different steps of the product processing due to inadequate hygiene practices. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety in the production of moderate and high humidity cheese. Samples from raw milk, handlers’ hands surface, final product were collected in three cheese manufacturing plants located in southern Brazil, with different levels of sanitary control. Effectiveness of milk pasteurization was also evaluated. Thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated. Raw milk samples showed the highest contamination levels, with enumeration of 1.1x105 most probable number (MPN mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms, 4x105 colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 for CPS and presence of Salmonella spp. CPS were also reported in one sample of handler’s hands surface. However, only one sample of the final product was out of Brazilian regulatory standards, exceeding the limit allowed for CPS. Milk pasteurization process used in cheese preparation was effective, regardless the level of sanitary control of the industries. Results highlighted the need for better hygiene practices, in obtaining the raw milk and in the handling during the cheese manufacturing steps.

  18. The use of spices in the production of traditional cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Josipović; Ksenija Markov; Jadranka Frece; Damir Stanzer; Ante Cvitković; Jasna Mrvčić

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is a highly valued dairy product worldwide, with a special focus on traditional cheeses, not only for their basic nutritive purposes but also as a part of the culture and characteristics of a certain country. Owing to the geographical location as well as the climate and vegetation diversity, in certain regions of Croatia the production of various traditional cheeses using spices was developed. Spices are either added to the cheese curd which is then formed, or cheese is wrapped into pl...

  19. Quality of milk used in informal artisanal production of coalho and butter cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina de Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses such as coalho and butter participate in the socio-cultural identity of people and deserve recognition. Like many artisanal cheeses, it is common to produce coalho and butter cheeses from raw milk. For this reason, it is essential that the raw material from dairies is of good quality to minimize risks to consumers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of milk in artisanal cheese factories in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Fifty samples were collected from areas that stand out in dairy production in the state. These samples underwent microbiological and physical–chemical analysis, as well as antibiotic residue and fraud searches. Viable strict and facultative mesophilic bacteria were surveyed, in addition to total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus; titratable acidity in Dornic degrees, density, cryoscopy, stability to alizarol, and percentages of protein, lactose, and fat contents were also measured, and tests for residues and recurrent fraud in milk were conducted. In general, all samples exceeded the limit established by law for mesophilic bacteria counting; Salmonella sp. was found in one sample. Given this contamination, the acidity of 76% of the samples was higher than allowed by the legislation. Regarding fat and protein parameters, 14% and 10% of the samples were below the required values by the legislation, respectively. Furthermore, there is suspicion of fraud by adding water in 24% of samples. Chlorides were found in 16% and antimicrobial residues in 46% of samples. Therefore, the quality of the milk used in informal artisanal cheese making in the state of Rio Grande do Norte is poor and may pose a risk to consumers, with the loss of quality of coalho and butter cheeses.

  20. The Presence and Prevalence of Listeria Species in Milk and Herby Cheese in and Around Van

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞUN, Emrullah; SANCAK, Yakup Can; İŞLEYİCİ, Özgür; EKİCİ, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    In this study 250 raw milk and 254 herby cheese samples collected from Van city center and neighboring villages were investigated in terms of Listeria species. For Listeria isolation,the method recommended by the FDA was used.Of the raw milk samples,6 (2.40 %)were found to be positive with regard to Listeria; 3 (1.20 %)had L.monocytogenes, 1 (0.40 %)L.innocua and 1 (0.40 %)L.welshimeri. Of the herby cheese samples,13 (5.11 %)were found to be positive with regard to Listeria;10 (3.93 %)had...

  1. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ołdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products.

  2. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Aleksandra; Rzepkowska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products. PMID:28626762

  3. Metatranscriptome analysis of fungal strains Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum reveal cheese matrix breakdown and potential development of sensory properties of ripened Camembert-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Viel, Catherine; Boyle, Brian; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, Steve

    2014-03-26

    Camembert-type cheese ripening is driven mainly by fungal microflora including Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium camemberti. These species are major contributors to the texture and flavour of typical bloomy rind cheeses. Biochemical studies showed that G. candidum reduces bitterness, enhances sulphur flavors through amino acid catabolism and has an impact on rind texture, firmness and thickness, while P. camemberti is responsible for the white and bloomy aspect of the rind, and produces enzymes involved in proteolysis and lipolysis activities. However, very little is known about the genetic determinants that code for these activities and their expression profile over time during the ripening process. The metatranscriptome of an industrial Canadian Camembert-type cheese was studied at seven different sampling days over 77 days of ripening. A database called CamemBank01 was generated, containing a total of 1,060,019 sequence tags (reads) assembled in 7916 contigs. Sequence analysis revealed that 57% of the contigs could be affiliated to molds, 16% originated from yeasts, and 27% could not be identified. According to the functional annotation performed, the predominant processes during Camembert ripening include gene expression, energy-, carbohydrate-, organic acid-, lipid- and protein- metabolic processes, cell growth, and response to different stresses. Relative expression data showed that these functions occurred mostly in the first two weeks of the ripening period. These data provide further advances in our knowledge about the biological activities of the dominant ripening microflora of Camembert cheese and will help select biological markers to improve cheese quality assessment.

  4. Immunological response in egg-sensitive adults challenged with cheese containing or not containing lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Fiorentini, Lucia; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedett; De Cristofaro, Maria Laura; Piva, Gianfranco; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2012-12-01

    Lysozyme is an enzyme that hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglicans. For this reason, it is used in cheese manufacturing in order to prevent a defect of long-ripened hard cheese called "late blowing" due to the outgrowth of spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium butyricum. Moreover, germination of Listeria monocytogenes spores into vegetative cells is also sensitive to lysozyme. The enzyme can be an allergenic molecule, and for this reason there are concerns about its use in food industry. The immunological and clinical response of consumption of lysozyme-containing cheese has been evaluated in 25 egg-sensitive subjects with or without lysozyme sensitization. A total of 25 egg-sensitive subjects were enrolled in this study. All the subjects were already treated for egg-sensitization and presented a positive skin prick test. All the subjects had a body mass index ≤ 25 kg/m(2) and were in the age range of 20-50 years. Each subject was studied twice and received randomly 30 g of Grana Padano (containing lysozyme) or TrentinGrana cheese (lysozyme-free) of two different aging periods: 16 or 24 months. A washout period of 1 week between each cheese intake was adopted. Blood samples were taken in fasting conditions and 1 hour after cheese intake and IgA, total IgE, and lysozyme-, ovomucoid-, and ovalbumin-specific IgE were measured. No adverse reactions were observed in both groups of patients after cheese samples were given. Lysozyme did not determine any variation of specific IgE compared with basal level. In lysozyme-sensitive patients a significant relationship between IgA and lysozyme-specific IgE was observed when lysozyme-containing cheese was given, confirming that lysozyme can pass the gut barrier. Neither adverse events nor immunological responses were observed after ingestion of cheese containing lysozyme. However, the immunological properties of peptides deriving from cheese protein hydrolysis need to be clarified, as does the effect of lysozyme on

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TEPEQUE CHEESE FROM “LA TIERRA CALIENTE” OF THE STATE OF MICHOACÁN: A CHEESE PRODUCED IN AN INTENSIVE SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Solís Méndez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to describe the characteristics of the Tepeque cheese from “La Tierra Caliente” of the State of Michoacán, Mexico. Its region of origin, manufacturing process, physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, were investigated. In addition the changes that occurred in the milk and cheese due to the introduction of a feeding system based on the use of an intensive silvo-pastoral system (ISPS were described. The methodological approach consisted of field visits for data collection, semi-structured interviews to farmers in order to know the milk production systems and the cheese elaboration process. The physical (pH and density and chemical characteristics (protein, fat, lactose, non fat solids and added water of the milk used to elaborate the Tepeque cheese were determined. For the cheese the protein, fat, salt, moisture and ash contents and the pH were determined. The microbiological characteristics were determined for both milk and cheese, these included presence of mesophilic bacteria coliforms bacteria, yeast, fungus, Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The field study was carried out in 2010; it was divided in two experimental periods of six months each, named rainfall season and dry season. Fifteen milk-cheese producers were sampled, eight of them practice the traditional milk production systems and seven the ISPS. It was observed that the Tepeque cheese is a dairy product of excellent quality from the point of view of its main nutritional components, it is made with good quality milk too and it has a long history and great tradition that is older than 300 years. On the other hand, the cheese elaborated with milk from the ISPS had higher fat content (P0.05. Finally, it was observed that the sanitary characteristics of the milk and cheese were deficient in both systems; this problem is attenuated with the maturing process of cheese since as the cheese matures the number of

  6. Functional properties of Mozzarella cheese for its end use application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah, Jana; Tagalpallewar, Govind P

    2017-11-01

    Cheese is an extremely versatile food product that has a wide range of flavor, textures and end uses. The vast majority of cheese is eaten not by itself, but as part of another food. As an ingredient in foods, cheese is required to exhibit functional characteristics in the raw as well as cooked forms. Melting, stretching, free-oil formation, elasticity and browning are the functional properties considered to be significant for Mozzarella cheese. When a cheese is destined for its end use, some of its unique characteristics play a significant role in the products acceptability. For instance pH of cheese determines the cheese structure which in turn decides the cheese shredability and meltability properties. The residual galactose content in cheese mass determines the propensity of cheese to brown during baking. Development of 'tailor-made cheese' involves focusing on manipulation of such unique traits of cheese in order to obtain the desired characteristics for its end use application suiting the varied consumer's whims and wishes. This comprehensive review paper will provide an insight to the cheese maker regarding the factors determining the functional properties of cheese and also for the pizza manufacturers to decide which age of cheese to be used which will perform well in baking applications.

  7. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. isolated during the ripening process of a traditional minas cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Borelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Staphylococcus spp. was studied during the ripening of Canastra Minas cheese at three farms located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The presence of coagulase (coa, thermonuclease (nuc, and enterotoxin (sea, seb, sec, and sed genes was investigated in Staphylococcus strains isolated during the 60-day cheese-ripening period. The presence of the staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C, and D was also investigated in the cheese samples. Cheese samples that were matured for 0, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days presented staphylococci counts from 10³ to 10(8cfu/g. All isolates considered coagulase-positive by physiological tests had the coa gene. However, no association was observed between the results obtained with biochemical tests and those obtained by PCR using gene-specific primers for coagulase-negative strains. Coagulase and thermonuclease genes occurred simultaneously in 41.3% of Staphylococcus spp. tested. None of the investigated Staphylococcus strains expressed enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED. Enterotoxins A, C, and D were not detected in any of the cheese samples.

  8. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of Prato cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, MTK; Maus, D; Xavier, AAO; Mercadante, AZ; Viotto, WH

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine...

  9. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus.

  10. Preliminary findings on the effect of light-oxidation on Asiago d’allevo vecchio protected designation of origin cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Balzan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food is exposed to light during processing, packaging, distribution and retail storage, resulting in deterioration of the product quality. Milk and other dairy products are among the most sensitive due to the high content of riboflavin, vitamin B2, which is an efficient photosensitizer for oxidative processes. Photooxidation in cheese induces degradation of nutritional quality such as proteins, lipids, and vitamins. Moreover, it causes formation of off-flavours, off-odours and gradual bleaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of light exposition on sliced Asiago d’allevo cheese (lowland vs alpine aerobically packaged stored for 336 h under both fluorescent light and in the dark. Alpine cheese showed higher b* (P<0.001 and a* indexes (P<0.001 and also a higher lipid oxidation (P<0.01 than lowland one. Riboflavin content was significantly higher (P<0.001 in lowland cheese. Cheese samples exposed to the light were significantly lighter (P<0.001 than those exposed in the dark and they also showed a decrease in yellowness (P<0.001 and redness (P<0.001 as well as in riboflavin content (P<0.001. Lipid oxidation did not produce statistically significant change. Storage time significantly affected riboflavin content (P<0.001, TBARs (P<0.001 and cheese colour (P<0.001. Results suggest that light exposition had a pronounced effect on cheese characteristics.

  11. Characterization of microflora in Latin-style cheeses by next-generation sequencing technology

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    Lusk Tina S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cheese contamination can occur at numerous stages in the manufacturing process including the use of improperly pasteurized or raw milk. Of concern is the potential contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria that find the high moisture levels and moderate pH of popular Latin-style cheeses like queso fresco a hospitable environment. In the investigation of a foodborne outbreak, samples typically undergo enrichment in broth for 24 hours followed by selective agar plating to isolate bacterial colonies for confirmatory testing. The broth enrichment step may also enable background microflora to proliferate, which can confound subsequent analysis if not inhibited by effective broth or agar additives. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to provide a preliminary survey of bacterial species associated with three brands of Latin-style cheeses after 24-hour broth enrichment. Results Brand A showed a greater diversity than the other two cheese brands (Brands B and C at nearly every taxonomic level except phylum. Brand B showed the least diversity and was dominated by a single bacterial taxon, Exiguobacterium, not previously reported in cheese. This genus was also found in Brand C, although Lactococcus was prominent, an expected finding since this bacteria belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB commonly found in fermented foods. Conclusions The contrasting diversity observed in Latin-style cheese was surprising, demonstrating that despite similarity of cheese type, raw materials and cheese making conditions appear to play a critical role in the microflora composition of the final product. The high bacterial diversity associated with Brand A suggests it may have been prepared with raw materials of high bacterial diversity or influenced by the ecology of the processing environment. Additionally, the presence of Exiguobacterium in high proportions (96% in Brand B and, to a lesser extent, Brand C (46%, may

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN CHEESES PRODUCED IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  13. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  14. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on The Quality of Egyptian Kareash Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S; Farage, M. D.; Galal, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of kareash cheese was evaluated. Egyptian kareash cheese were subjected to gamma irradiation at different safety doses beginning from 1 kGy to a maximum of 5 kGy . The physico-chemical composition as well as microbiological quality of kareash cheese samples was monitored before and after irradiation. Soluble nitrogen, salt as well as pH values were higher in cheese samples before irradiation in comparison with the irradiated groups. Irradiation reduced population of bacteria i.e. total colony count, Total yeast and mold count, aerobic spore former count, Coliform count, total Enterobacteriacae count and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose (5 kGy). It could be concluded that increasing the dose of irradiation up to 5 kGy had high reduction percentages for bacterial count with no effect on either sensory or chemical characteristics. Our results suggest that kareash cheese manufacturer could use gamma irradiation to improve the safety of their product. (author)

  15. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  16. Evolution of the Microbiological Profile of Vacuum-Packed Ricotta Salata Cheese During Shelf-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casti, Daniele; Scarano, Christian; Pala, Carlo; Cossu, Francesca; Lamon, Sonia; Spanu, Vincenzo; Ibba, Michela; Mocci, Anna Maria; Tedde, Francesco; Nieddu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2016-04-19

    Ricotta salata cheese is a salted variety of ricotta traditionally made in Sardinia (Italy) from the whey remaining after the production of Pecorino Romano protected designation of origin or other sheep milk cheeses. Ricotta salata cheese is very critical for the possible growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Sporadic cases of listeriosis associated with ricotta salata cheese have been reported over recent years. The objective of the present study was to assess the evolution of spoilage and pathogen microorganism of vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese during the entire product shelf-life. The durability study was conducted on 18 vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese samples analysed at the beginning of the shelf-life and after 60 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Pathogens as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were never detected. During shelf-life total bacterial counts ranged between 7.90±0.64 and 9.19±0.58 CFU g -1 on the rind and between 2.95±0.68 and 4.27±1.10 CFU g -1 in the inner paste, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 4.22±0.66 and 5.30±0.73 CFU g -1 on the rind and 3.13±1.80 and 2.80±0.88 CFU g -1 in the inner paste. By considering the technology used, the intrinsic properties and the almost total absence of competing microflora, ricotta salata cheese can support the growth of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms originating from the processing environment. The high level of total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae observed both on the rind and in the inner paste suggests contamination of the product from the processing environment. Therefore, a strict implementation of hygiene during processing is essential in order to reduce the load of environmental contaminants that may grow during refrigerated storage.

  17. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    Ripening of cheddar cheese is a time taking process, duration of the ripening may be as long as one year. Long ripening time is a big hindrance in the popularity of cheese in developing countries. Further, energy resources in these countries are either insufficient or very expensive. Therefore, those methods of cheese ripening should be discovered which can significantly reduce the ripening time without compromising the quality characteristics of cheddar cheese. In accelerated ripening, cheese is usually ripened at higher temperature than traditional ripening temperatures. Ripening of cheddar cheese at high temperature with the addition of vitamin E and selenium is not previously studied. This investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity of selenium and vitamin E in accelerated ripening using cheddar cheese as an oxidation substrate. The ripening of cheddar cheese was performed at 18 °C and to prevent lipid oxidation, vitamin E and selenium were used alone and in combination. The treatments were as: cheddar cheese without any addition of vitamin E and selenium (T1), cheddar cheese added with 100 mg/kg vitamin E (T 2 ), 200 mg/kg vitamin E (T 3 ), 800 μg/kg selenium (T 4 ), 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 5 ), vitamin E 100 mg/kg + 800 μg/kg selenium (T 6 ) and vitamin E 200 mg/kg + 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 7 ). Traditional cheddar cheese ripne ripened at 4-6 °C for 9 months was used as positive control. Cheese samples were ripened at 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of storage. All these treatments were compared with a cheddar cheese without vitamin E, selenium and ripened at 4 °C or 12 weeks. Vacuum packaged cheddar cheese was ripened 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of storage period. Addition of Vitamin E and selenium did not have any effect on moisture, fat and

  18. Application of common packaging materials in the probiotic fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Iličić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the application of common packaging materials polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS in the probiotic fresh cheese production packaging. Probiotic and traditional cheeses were produced from milk with standardized milk fat content of 2.3 g/100 g including the application of two cultures (probiotic and traditional. The samples were packed in the PP and PS cups and stored at 4 ºC for 30 days. The observed permeability of gases through the two applied packaging materials was significantly different. Cheese samples were analysed for microbiological properties whereby lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB were determined. Packaging materials showed no significant effect on the content of ascorbic acid which is known to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen.

  19. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  20. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  1. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  2. Discriminating aging and protein-to-fat ratio in Cheddar cheese using sensory analysis and a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkowitz, Jackie B; Ross, Carolyn F; Diako, Charles; Smith, Denise M

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the flavor and taste attributes of full-fat Cheddar cheeses with different protein-to-fat ratios (PFR) over aging time using a descriptive sensory analysis panel and a consumer panel, and to correlate these attributes with instrumental parameters obtained by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Three Cheddar cheese formulations (PFR of 0.74, 0.85, and 1.01) were produced in triplicate and composition was verified. Cheese was aged at 7.2°C and evaluated at 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 mo by a trained panel (n = 10) for 8 flavor and 5 taste attributes and using an electronic tongue for 7 nonvolatile taste attributes. Cheese aged for 12 mo was also evaluated by a consumer sensory panel for liking and intensity attributes. Principal component analysis was performed to discriminate cheese based on aging time and PFR, whereas correlation between sensory and instrumental attributes was assessed using partial least squares regression. Descriptive sensory analysis of flavor and taste attributes differentiated Cheddar cheeses over aging time, but not among PFR formulations. The electronic tongue distinguished changes among cheese samples due to PFR formulation and aging time. The electronic tongue proved successful in characterizing the nonvolatile flavor components in Cheddar cheese and correlated with taste perceptions measured by descriptive sensory analysis. Consumer evaluations showed distinctive attribute profiles for the 3 PFR Cheddar cheese formulations. Overall, higher fat content was associated with increased flavor intensities in Cheddar cheese and drove consumer acceptability and purchase intent ratings. The electronic tongue detected smaller changes in tastes (bitter, metallic, salty, sour, spicy, sweet, and umami) of the 3 PFR formulations over time when compared with the trained panelists, who detected no differences, suggesting that the electronic tongue may be more sensitive to tastants than humans and may have the

  3. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  4. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  5. Rapid assessment of selected free amino acids during Edam cheese ripening by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on rapid determination of free amino acids produced during the ripening of cheese, by using near infrared spectroscopy. Analyses of 96 samples of Edam cheese (30% and 45% of fat in dry matter were performed at monthly intervals up to the ripening age of 6 months. In total, 19 amino acids were analysed with infrared spectrometer using two different methods, either in the regime of reflectance in the integrating sphere of the apparatus or using a fibre optic apparatus with the fibre optic probe. Reference data based on high-performance liquid chromatography were used for calibration of the spectrophotometer. Calibration models were developed using a partial least square algorithm and tested by means of cross-validation. When measured with the integrating sphere and with the probe, the values of correlation coefficients ranged from 0.835 to 0.993 and from 0.739 to 0.995, respectively. Paired t-test did not show significant differences between the reference and predicted values (P < 0.05. The results of this new calibration method showed the possibility of near infrared technology for fast determination of free amino acids, which occur during the ripening of Edam cheese. The content of free amino acids allow us to prepare Edam cheese quickly and efficiently for sale or to prepare the material for processed cheese.

  6. Quantitative assessment of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris present in artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris belongs to lactic acid bacteria that play a crucial role in cheese production and it is known to be beneficial to human health. The aim of the study was to establish a rapid and accurate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR method to detect and enumerate L. lactis subsp. cremoris in artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese. Artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese samples were used to check for presence and number of L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains. The method applies a set of target-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction primers and a fluorogenic probe, and amplifies a part of the LACR_RS01280 gene that encodes the aminoacetone oxidase family flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD binding enzyme. All 5 L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains examined were found to be qPCR positive. There was no signal recorded for 8 strains which belong to closely related species. The limit of detection amounted to ten copies per reaction and the assay indicated a linear dynamic range of seven logs. This method may be applied in detection and enumeration of L. lactis subsp. cremoris in cheese during its ripening. Moreover, it may be applied to examine the distribution of L. lactis subsp. cremoris during the cheese production and ripening.

  7. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of traditional ovine ricotta cheese in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Mancuso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated. The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product’s main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture. Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries.

  8. Direct thermal desorption in the analysis of cheese volatiles by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, E; Sanz, J; Martínez-Castro, I

    2001-06-01

    Direct thermal desorption (DTD) has been used as a technique for extracting volatile components of cheese as a preliminary step to their gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. In this study, it is applied to different cheese varieties: Camembert, blue, Chaumes, and La Serena. Volatiles are also extracted using other techniques such as simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace. Separation and identification of the cheese components are carried out by GC-mass spectrometry. Approximately 100 compounds are detected in the examined cheeses. The described results show that DTD is fast, simple, and easy to automate; requires only a small amount of sample (approximately 50 mg); and affords quantitative information about the main groups of compounds present in cheeses.

  9. Characteristics of cheeses manufactured using pepsin from adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... (VP) was assessed using three types of cheeses namely Alpine, Tilister and Pastafilata (Pasta). ... pepsin waa an apprqpriate renner substitute for the small scale cheese processors.

  10. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese......, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semi-hard cheese. Growth experiments on the substrate were repeatable and reproducible. The substrate was also suitable for the starter P. camemberti. Mineral elements in cheese were shown to have strong effect on growth, mycotoxin production and colour...... formation of fungi. For P. roqueforti, P. discolor, P. verrucosum and Aspergillus versicolor the substrate was less suitable as a model cheese substrate, which indicates great variation in nutritional demands of the fungi. Substrates suitable for studies of specific cheese types was found for P. roqueforti...

  11. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  12. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  13. Investigation of the activity of the microorganisms in a Reblochon-style cheese by metatranscriptomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eMonnet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum. RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated approximately 75 million reads per sample. Except for Brevibacterium aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to day 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The

  14. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  15. Concerns about the microbiological quality of traditional raw milk cheeses: a worldwide issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella and  “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae counts were observed in “fresh cheese” than in “pasta filata” samples. Values > 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. An evident contamination by Escherichia coli, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp. was detected in all the cheeses: the causes could be the improper hygiene of the artisanal production practices and the permanence of the cheeses on the refrigerated shelves. A careful attention to the respect of the good manufacturing practices is suggested to avoid the presence of initial high bacterial loads.

  16. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    -ripened and brined) and for cheeses produced using pasteurized or un-pasteurized milk. Data from a total of 177428 samples were analysed. The mean prevalence during 2005-2013 and estimated from scientific literature (2.3%; CI: 1.4-3.8%) was more than two times higher than results from EFSA reports (0.9%; CI: 0...... not significantly different (P > 0.05) for cheeses produced from pasteurized (1.0%; CI: 0.7-1.5%) or un-pasteurized (1.4%; CI: 0.9-2.1%) milk. Furthermore, this systematic review focused on groups/species of microorganisms suitable as indicator organisms for L. monocytogenes in cheeses to reflect the level...

  17. Production optimization of probiotic soft cheese made from goat's and cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Drgalić

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine optimal rennet share and fat content in milk for probiotic soft cheeseproduction made from goat's and cow's milk using DVS mixed probiotic culture ABT-4 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus, with desirable sensory properties, which will be acceptable by consumers. The best sensory scores had samples of probiotic soft cheese produced in laboratory conditions from milk with 1% of milk fat, pasteurized at 65°C/30 min., fermented at 38°C with 2% culture. To achieve characteristic consistency of traditional soft cheese, 0.01% of rennet was added to goat's milk. Probiotic soft cheese made from cow's and goat's milk, produced under optimal conditions, were 100% acceptable by the tested consumers.

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  19. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  20. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  1. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  2. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk

  3. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  4. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  5. Factors affecting proteolytic action of Lactococcus lactis in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Y.B.

    1992-01-01

    Model cheeses were developed to study the behaviour of proteolytic agents involved in cheese maturation under conditions that closely resemble those in normal cheese. The models were applied to study protein breakdown by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris HP , as a

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  7. The occurrence and growth of yeasts in Camembert and blue-veined cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostita, R; Fleet, G H

    1996-01-01

    Yeast populations greater than 10(6) cfu/g were found in approximately 54% and 36%, respectively in surface samples of retail Camembert (85 samples) and Blue-veined (45 samples) cheeses. The most predominant species isolated were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida catenulata, C. lipolytica, C. kefyr, C. intermedia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus albidus and Kluyveromyces marxianus. The salt concentration of the surface samples of the cheeses varied between 2.5-5.5% (w/w) (Camembert) and 7.5-8.3 (Blue-veined), depending upon brand, and influenced the yeast ecology, especially the presence of S. cerevisiae. Yeasts grew to populations of 10(6)-10(8) cfu/g when cheeses were stored at either 25 degrees C or 10 degrees C. These populations decreased on continued storage at 25 degrees C, but such decreases were not so evident on storage at 10 degrees C. The properties of yeasts influencing their occurrence and growth in cheese were: fermentation/assimilation of lactose; production of extracellular lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes, utilisation of lactic and citric acids; and growth at 10 degrees C.

  8. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  9. Cheese milk low homogenization enhanced early lipolysis and volatiles compounds production in hard cooked cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María A; Hynes, Erica R; Meinardi, Carlos A; Wolf, Verónica I; Perotti, María C

    2017-06-01

    Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis. An acceleration of the lipolysis reaction was clearly noticed in cheeses made with homogenized milk at the beginning of ripening, while both type of cheeses reached similar levels at 90days. We found the level of several compounds derived from fatty acid catabolism were noticeably influenced by the treatment applied: straight-chain aldehydes such as hexanal, heptanal and nonanal and methylketones from C 5 to C 9 were preferentially formed in experimental cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  11. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  12. INFLUENCE OF SOME ANTIMICROBIAL FOOD ADDITIVES AND GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE FUNGAL STATUS AND ORGANOLEPTIC QUALITY OF LOCAL STORED CHEESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATTAR, Z.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effectiveness of some antimicrobial food additives on the microbial status and organoleptic quality of local cheese stored at 25 0 C for six weeks. Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger were the predominant genera isolated from cheese samples. Treatment with propionic acid (600 and 1000 ppm), potassium sorbate (2000 and 3000 ppm) and sodium chloride (4 and 8%) decrease significantly the total fungal count of cheese less than 106/g over 4 weeks of storage at 25 0 C. Gamma irradiation with 3 kGy completely inhibited the growth of mycelia and no mycotoxins were detected. Treatment cheese with propionic acid (1000 ppm), potassium sorbate (3000 ppm) and sodium chloride (8%) developed no detectable spoilage odour during 3 weeks of storage at 25 0 C whereas untreated cheese was spoiled between one to two weeks. The results of the present study revealed that the use of the antimicrobial food preservatives play a great role on the inhibition of microorganisms contaminating stored cheese without cussing any organoleptic quality

  13. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of bluish... section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or...

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Milk-Derived microRNAs and Microbiota during the Manufacturing and Ripening of Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangnam; Park, Mi-Ri; Ryu, Sangdon; Maburutse, Brighton; Kim, Ji-Uk; Kim, Younghoon

    2017-09-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant in bovine milk and milk derived from other livestock, and they have functional roles in infants and in the secretion process of mammary glands. However, few studies have evaluated miRNAs in dairy processes, such as during cheese making and ripening. Thus, we investigated the characteristics of milk-derived miRNAs during the manufacturing and ripening of Camembert cheese as well as the microbiota present using the quantitative reverse transcription polymer chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, respectively. Pyrosequencing showed that the cheese microbiota changed dramatically during cheese processing, including during the pasteurization, starter culture, and ripening stages. Our results indicated that the RNA contents per 200 mg/200 μl of the sample increased significantly during cheese-making and ripening. The inner cheese fractions had higher RNA contents than the surfaces after 12 and 22 days of ripening in a timedependent manner (21.9 and 13.2 times higher in the inner and surface fractions than raw milk, respectively). We performed a comparative analysis of the miRNAs in each fraction by RT-qPCR. Large amounts of miRNAs ( miR-93, miR-106a, miR-130, miR-155, miR-181a , and miR- 223 ) correlated with immune responses and mammary glands were present in aged cheese, with the exception of miR-223 , which was not present on the surface. Considerable amounts of miRNAs were also detected in whey, which is usually disposed of during the cheese-making process. Unexpectedly, there were no significant correlations between immune-related miRNAs and the microbial populations during cheese processing. Taken together, these results show that various functional miRNAs are present in cheese during its manufacture and that they are dramatically increased in amount in ripened Camembert cheese, with differences according to depth.

  15. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  16. Quality of Milk for Cheese Production on Registered Agricultural Holdings in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vranješ Anka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, milk producers in Vojvodina on registered agricultural holdings (RAHs have great experience and knowledge in managing their farms, including primary production, processing and sales. However, for a smaller number of manufacturers, there is still room for organizational and technological improvement of production. Nowadays, goat breeding is a very important part of sustainable production, rural development, and represents a very important part of rural development and employment of people. The course of goat breeding in our country is milk-meat, where milk is usually a priority. For the successful production of cheese, the quality of raw milk plays a critical role. It affects the quality of cheese in terms of a chemical composition, microbiological quality, the presence of chemical residues and organoleptic properties. Cheese is mostly made from cow, goat and sheep milk. The valuable components of milk are proteins and fats. These can also be defined as parameters of utilization, since they indicate how much cheese can be obtained from milk. On average, cow milk contains 3.64% fat, 3.22% protein, and 8.52% non-fat dry matter (NFDM. Higher differences in milk fat content (minimum 3.25%, maximum 4.36% were found in milk from RAHs. Recently, the production of milk with higher fat content has become important, since in Serbian milk there is not enough milk fat, so some processors are obliged to import it in the form of butter and cream. In addition to the chemical composition, the microbiological quality of milk is important to maintain successful cheese production. Regarding our findings, the standard plate count (SPC and the somatic cell count (SCC in samples from most RAHs did not exceed the values specified in Regulation (EC 853/2004. Moreover, goat and sheep milk was in agreement with the technological quality of milk for cheese production, in terms of chemical composition.

  17. Pulsed-light inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on cheese surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, J; Hsu, L C; Miller, B M; Sullivan, G; Paradis, K; Moraru, C I

    2015-09-01

    Cheese products are susceptible to postprocessing cross-contamination by bacterial surface contamination during slicing, handling, or packaging, which can lead to food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. This study examined the effectiveness of pulsed-light (PL) treatment on the inactivation of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fluorescens, the nonenterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (nonpathogenic surrogate of Escherichia coli O157:H7), and Listeria innocua (nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) on cheese surface. The effects of inoculum level and cheese surface topography and the presence of clear polyethylene packaging were evaluated in a full factorial experimental design. The challenge microorganisms were grown to early stationary phase and subsequently diluted to reach initial inoculum levels of either 5 or 7 log cfu/slice. White Cheddar and process cheeses were cut into 2.5×5 cm slices, which were spot-inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspension. Inoculated cheese samples were exposed to PL doses of 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2). Recovered survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. The PL treatments were performed in triplicate and data were analyzed using a general linear model. Listeria innocua was the least sensitive to PL treatment, with a maximum inactivation level of 3.37±0.2 log, followed by P. fluorescens, with a maximum inactivation of 3.74±0.8 log. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive to PL, with a maximum reduction of 5.41±0.1 log. All PL inactivation curves were nonlinear, and inactivation reached a plateau after 3 pulses (3.07 J/cm(2)). The PL treatments through UV-transparent packaging and without packaging consistently resulted in similar inactivation levels. This study demonstrates that PL has strong potential for decontamination of the cheese surface. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....

  20. Effect of the Fish Oil Fortified Chitosan Edible Film on Microbiological, Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Göbek Kashar Cheese during Ripening Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangilar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of coated edible films with chitosan solutions enriched with essential oil (EO) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of Kashar cheese during ripening time. Generally, no differences were found in total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, streptococci and lactoccocci counts among cheeses but these microorganism counts increased during 60 and 90 d storage especially in C1 (uncoated sample) as compared with coated samples. Antimicrobial effectiveness of the films against moulds was measured on 30, 60, and 90 d of storage. In addition of fish EO into chitosan edible films samples were showed to affect significantly decreased the moulds (poil (1% w/v) fortified chitosan film) on the 90(th) d, while in C1 as 3.89 Log CFU/g on the 90(th) d of ripening. Compared to other cheese samples, C2 (coated with chitosan film) and C4 coated cheese samples revealed higher levels of water-soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage. C2 coated cheese samples were preferred more by the panellists while C4 coated cheese samples received the lowest scores.

  1. IDENTIFYING THE EFFECTS OF GENERIC ADVERTISING ON THE HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR FLUID MILK AND CHEESE: A TWO-STEP PANEL DATA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Dong, Diansheng; Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    A two-step model with sample selection is applied to panel data of U.S. households to estimate at-home demand for fluid milk and cheese, incorporating advertising expenditures. The model consistently accounts for sample-selection bias, unobserved household heterogeneity, and temporal correlation. Generic advertising programs for fluid milk and cheese were effective at increasing conditional purchase quantities, with very little effect on the probability of purchase. In contrast to aggregate s...

  2. Water mobility and thermal properties of smoked soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Maria Baranowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study was to characterize the functional parameters of smoked soft cheese, with the emphasis on the behavior of water and milk fat, as analyzed by DSC, which was used to directly measure the melting/freezing phase transitions in the cheese. This study was complemented by NMR measurements of the organization and distribution of the aqueous phase within the emulsions constituting the cheese. The smoked and unsmoked cheeses were characterized by similar compositions in terms of protein (19.08-19.12 g∙100 g-1, fat (18.86-19.02 g∙100 g-1, and water content (59.86-60.27 g∙100 g-1. The water activity was higher in the unsmoked cheese (aw = 0.9736 than in the smoked cheese (aw = 0.9615. This result was confirmed by DSC (higher ice melting enthalpy and NMR (higher T1 value measurements. The smoking process led to differences in the distribution and binding of water to the lipid-protein matrix of the cheese. There was more non-freezed bound water in the smoked cheese which resulted in a more fragile and loosened structure in the smoked cheese than the unsmoked, which manifested in lower values of stretching and meltability. The meltability of the mozzarella smoked cheese was 1.5 times less than that of the unsmoked cheese (tube test and Schreiber test.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Slovak Bryndza Cheese Using Next-Generation 16S rDNA Amplicon Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planý Matej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about diversity and taxonomic structure of the microbial population present in traditional fermented foods plays a key role in starter culture selection, safety improvement and quality enhancement of the end product. Aim of this study was to investigate microbial consortia composition in Slovak bryndza cheese. For this purpose, we used culture-independent approach based on 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing using next generation sequencing platform. Results obtained by the analysis of three commercial (produced on industrial scale in winter season and one traditional (artisanal, most valued, produced in May Slovak bryndza cheese sample were compared. A diverse prokaryotic microflora composed mostly of the genera Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus was identified. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris were the dominant taxons in all tested samples. Second most abundant species, detected in all bryndza cheeses, were Lactococcus fujiensis and Lactococcus taiwanensis, independently by two different approaches, using different reference 16S rRNA genes databases (Greengenes and NCBI respectively. They have been detected in bryndza cheese samples in substantial amount for the first time. The narrowest microbial diversity was observed in a sample made with a starter culture from pasteurised milk. Metagenomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes seems to be a powerful tool for studying the structure of the microbial population in cheeses.

  4. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  5. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumer’s preference for artisanal raw milk cheeses has been growing steadily, because of its taste intensity and variation compared to pasteurized cheese. The development of flavor and aroma in raw milk cheese is governed mainly by diversified endogenous microbiota and naturals milk enzymes. The weather, altitude, native pasture and others regional characteristics allow the artisanal Minas cheese to have a typical and unique flavor. However, most of artisanal cheeses are manufactured in a rudimentary way, following technologies used by their ancestor, and this fact can cause defects in cheeses, thus resulting in economic losses for producers. Many defects may be originated from the quality of milk for manufacture, as well as quality and quantity of the ingredients used, manufacturing and ripening procedures. In this review will be presented the major defects that arise specifically in artisanal cheeses, as well as their origins, prevention and repair.

  6. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  7. H, C, N and S stable isotopes and mineral profiles to objectively guarantee the authenticity of grated hard cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camin, Federica; Wehrens, Ron; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Perini, Matteo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Nocetti, Marco; Larcher, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Random Forest model based on δ 13 C, δ 2 H, δ 15 N, δ 34 S and the content of Sr, Cu, Mo, Re, Na, U, Bi, Ni, Fe, Mn, Ga, Se, Er, Dy, Pb, Li, usable for the protection of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from mislabelling. The correct classification rate in cross-validation is 98.6%. Highlights: ► The isotopic and elemental profile of over 260 hard cheese samples are discussed. ► Two validated and immediately applicable statistical models are presented. ► One model is able to predict the origin of seven types of European hard cheeses. ► The other one allows to discriminate the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from imitators. ► The most significant variables are δ 13 C, δ 2 H, δ 15 N, δ 34 S and the content of 16 elements. - Abstract: In compliance with the European law (EC No. 510/2006), geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs must be protected against mislabelling. This is particularly important for PDO hard cheeses, as Parmigiano Reggiano, that can cost up to the double of the no-PDO competitors. This paper presents two statistical models, based on isotopic and elemental composition, able to trace the origin of cheese also in grated and shredded forms, for which it is not possible to check the logo fire-marked on the rind. One model is able to predict the origin of seven types of European hard cheeses (in a validation step, 236 samples out of 240 are correctly recognised) and the other specifically to discriminate the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from 9 European and 2 extra-European imitators (260 out of 264 correct classifications). Both models are based on Random Forests. The most significant variables for cheese traceability common in both models are δ 13 C, δ 2 H, δ 15 N, δ 34 S and Sr, Cu, Mo, Re, Na, U, Bi, Ni, Fe, Mn, Ga, Se, and Li. These variables are linked not only to geography, but also to cow diet and cheese making processes.

  8. Production of farmstead lactose-free Pecorino di Osilo and ricotta cheeses from sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Pulinas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to define and validate farmstead production of lactose- free Pecorino di Osilo cheese, fresh ricotta cheese, and salted and smoked ricotta cheese (Ricotta mustia. The enzymatic activity of the commercial preparation containing lactase (1.1 g/mL, preliminarily tested using a spectrophotometric titration, showed activity equal to 4950±40 neutral lactase unit/g. The amount of lactase required to obtain the lactose-free milk was then established in triplicate laboratory trials, by adding the enzyme at concentrations of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 g/L in flasks containing 160 mL of raw sheep’s milk. Samples were incubated under conditions expected during milk storage and cheese-making. The residual lactose content in milk was determined by enzymatic method. The addition of lactase at concentration of 1.1 g/L of milk reduced the lactose concentration below the limit of detection (LOD of 0.06 g/L. The procedure was validated at a dairy farm, using three different batches of bulk raw sheep’s lactose-free milk that were transformed into Pecorino di Osilo cheese. The resulting whey was used to produce fresh ricotta and Ricotta mustia cheese. Raw milk and whey samples were always below lactose detection limit. The residual lactose was measured in Pecorino di Osilo cheese, after 24 hours and 30 days from production; in fresh ricotta cheese, after 48 hours; in Ricotta mustia cheese after 7 days. The determination of lactose content in cheese samples was conducted by a gas chromatography- flame ionization detection method, which showed a LOD and limit of quantification respectively of 1.8 and 5.6 mg/kg for cheese, and 1.35 and 4.2 mg/kg for both ricotta cheeses. The lactose concentration was always below the relevant LOD values in all samples. The mean concentration of galactose and glucose were respectively 13,000±2000 and 11,000±2000 mg/kg in fresh Pecorino di Osilo, 1100±300 and 1200±300 mg/kg in fresh ricotta, and 950±400 and 750

  9. Effect of different concentrations of nisin on starter culture of model Cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a natural preservative produced by strains of Lactococcuslactis subsp. Lactis, has been approved for use in food by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives and has been awarded generally recognized as safe (GRAS. It remains the only bacteriocin allowed in food as an addedpreservative. Nisin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity againstgram-positive bacteria, thus one of the problems associated with nisin application is inhibition of starter culture and prevention of ripening, which is required for development of cheese characteristics during ripening. In the current study, the effects of different concentrations of nisin and temperature on growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria in model cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk was evaluated. Cheese samples were supplemented with nisin at concentrations of 0, 2, 4 and 6 µg/g and stored at 8 and 25 °C up to 60 days. Microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the cheese samples were analyzedat 0, 1, 8, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Results showed that addition of nisin at concentrations of 4 and 6 µg/g affects (p

  10. Mixing sweet cream buttermilk with whole milk to produce cream cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk is an important by-product of the manufacture of butter. Sweet-cream buttermilk (SCBM is similar in composition to skim milk, except for its high phospholipid and milk fat globular membrane protein content. The main objective of this investigation was to produce optimum quality cream cheese by replacing whole milk with different proportions of SCBM (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50%. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05 between the chemical and organoleptic properties of the samples. As the percentage of SCBM increased, the chemical composition of total solids, fat, protein, fat in dry matter (FDM and ash of cheese milk decreased significantly, leading to a softer, moister curd. Samples prepared with more than 25% SCBM were not acceptable to the taste panel. The cream cheeses prepared using 25% and 30% SCBM had the highest yields. Total solids and FDM were strong predictors of cheese yield (r2 ≈ 0.589. The results also showed that the best range for replacement using SCBM is 20–25%.

  11. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  12. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of creamy... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  13. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is... acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of...

  14. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The...) The dairy ingredients are subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. The...

  15. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  16. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is 50 percent by... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in...

  17. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The milkfat content... this section is subjected to the action of a harmless lactic acid-producing bacterial culture, with or...

  18. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is... and is subjected to the action of lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting...

  19. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... other method which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a..., and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a small amount of eye formation of... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  1. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  2. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  3. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... of enzymes of animal or plant origin capable of aiding in the curing or development of flavor of.../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added...

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  5. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillinger, K.H.

    2000-03-01

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the

  6. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of vegetable coagulant and ripening time on the lipolytic and sensory profile of cheeses made with raw goat milk from Canary breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Arturo A; Pino, Verónica; Fresno, María R; Jiménez-Abizanda, Ana I; Álvarez, Sergio; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    Free fatty acids and sensory profiles were obtained for cheeses made with raw goat milk and vegetable coagulant, derived from the cardoon flower ( Cynara cardunculus), at different ripening times (7 and 20 days). A solid-liquid phase extraction method followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography was used. Profiles were also obtained with cheeses made with commercial coagulant, traditional kid rennet paste, and mixture coagulant (vegetable coagulant-kid rennet). The use of vegetable coagulant and vegetable coagulant-kid rennet is common in traditional Protected Designation of Origin cheeses such as " Queso Flor de Guía" and " Queso Media Flor de Guía" (Spain). Contents of short-chain free fatty acids (7.5-22.5 mmol·kg -1 ), medium-chain free fatty acids (0.4-3.7 mmol·kg -1 ), and long-chain free fatty acids (0.2-2.1 mmol·kg -1 ) varied depending on the coagulant type and the ripening time. Vegetable coagulant cheeses present odour intensity and flavour intensity much higher than commercial coagulant cheeses in the sensory analysis for cheeses obtained with seven days of ripening, but the values decrease when increasing the ripening time. Multivariate analysis allowed us to differentiate cheese samples according to the ripening time when using lipolytic profile and according to the coagulant type using the sensory profile.

  8. Marketing of the autochthonous dried cheese in Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, value added food products is constantlyincreasing. In order to prepare such products for the market it is necessary to understand consumers’ attitudes and preferences towards food products. Dried cheese, one of the traditional products of wider Zagreb region is produced nowadays exclusively on the family farms without proper control of the used inputs and final product, and without any marketing activities. It is possible to add value and to increase the control of dried cheese production bydeveloping county brand of the cheese. The introduction of county brand of dried cheese in the market requires very good preparation in terms of fulfilling consumers’ needs and wishes. In this paper the results of the consumer survey are presented and could be used for the determination of the technological parameters of production and especially for marketing of the cheese and its distribution. The results showed that majority of the consumers prefer harder, compact, bright yellow cheese, with less intensive odour, packed in transparent plastic foil. Certain number of the respondents confused dried cheese with other cheeses sold in the market and therefore it is necessary to educate consumers about dried cheese and its characteristics compared to other cheeses.

  9. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  10. A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E

    2017-12-01

    In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroprevalence of Escherichia coli in traditional cheeses manufactured in Maragheh rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mahdavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coliforms and Escherichia coli are major microbial indicators in the accessing the quality of foodstuffs. The presence of these bacteria in foods is considered as an indication of fecal contamination. E. coli O157:H7 is the most pathogenic strain that is transmitted to human through animal-foods. This study was performed on 100 traditional cheese samples manufactured in Maragheh rural to determine the seroprevalence of E. coli. The samples were analyzed with standard microbiological methods followed by biochemical confirmatory tests. Afterwards, the isolates were assayed for the detection of O-serotypes using direct agglutination method. Among the 100 cheese samples, E. coli O157serotypewas not detected in any sample. However, other E. coli serotypes including 32 isolates of non-O157 serotypes were detected. Among the isolates, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic and enterohaemorhhagic serogruops was also detected.

  12. Use of Protease and Lipase Enzymes by Different Methods to Accelerate Kaşar Cheese Ripening 1. The Effect on Cheese Physical and Chemical Properties (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pasteurized cow milk was used for Kaşar cheese processing. One lipase (Palatase M, one protease (Neutrase, and combination of both enzymes were added to milk which was processed into cheese. Three different enzymes with the levels (based on raw milk amount of 0.0001% Palatese M. 0.004% Neutrase and 0.0001% Palatase M + 0.004% Neutrase were evaluated for physical and chemical properties at 2nd, 30th, 60th and 90th day of the ripening periods. Enzyme added cheese samples were compared with the Control-I (from fresh milk and Control-II (from pasteurized and starter added cheese samples. The 1% starter composed of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris (1:1 was added into the milk. Experiment was set up according to random block design with factorial arrangement, and the analysis were carried out in duplicate. Cheese yields of all the cheese samples produced with the enzyme addition were lower than the control groups. But, 0.0001% Palatase M(Mik-L added with microencapsulation technique gave the higher cheese yield which is closer to the control groups. With the enzyme addition, dry-matter; fat, protein, salt, acidity, fat in dry-matter, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree; with the ripening period dry-matter, fat, protein, ash, salt, acidity, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree gave statistically (P<0.01 significant results. It was determined that the interaction of enzyme addition x ripened period had an significant influence on dry-matter, fat, protein, acidity, fat in dry-matter and ripening degree of the cheeses produced in this research (P<0.01. The best ripened condition was achieved by adding lipase+protease enzymes together into milk with direct technique (Di-L+P. The same ripened state in the cheeses was reached in 30-60 days ripened period with the direct incorporation of lipase + protease enzymes together (Di+L+P or protease only (Di-P, but in 90 days in control groups containing no enzymes.

  13. Effect of pasteurization and lactic acid bacteria on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of costeño cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Serpa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pasteurization and starter cultures on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of costeño cheese was determined. A completely randomized design was conducted, three treatments (T and three replicates: Treatment 1 (T1: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk without starter cultures, Treatment 2 (T2: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris (1:1 and treatment 3 (T3: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus cremoris and Streptococcus thermophillus (0.5:0.5:1. Treatments were compared to a control sample that was prepared with raw milk without starter cultures. Concentration of 1.5% (v/v of culture was used in relation to the amount of used milk in each treatment. Moisture content was higher in all treatments compared to the control and protein and fat content were significantly lower. Acidity was significantly higher in samples from T2 y T3 compared to T1 and control, due to the metabolism of starter cultures. Total coliforms, yeast and mold counts showed a significant reduction due to pasteurization process in all treatments. Regarding sensorial analysis, hedonic test showed a greater preference in cheese manufactured with T2 (P<0.05. There were no significant preferences between T1, T3 and control. Additionally, yield was significantly higher with T1 (22% and T3 (23% compared to control.

  14. Determination of some virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from locally produced cheese in Diyala Governorate-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Jawdat Fadihl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced cheese which called (Gibin Al arab is one of the most common dairy products in Iraq, it has an economic importance and great social value. This research aimed to identify yeast species from locally produced cheese (Gibin Al Arab in Diyala city which traditionally made and sold in markets of old town in Baquba, and study some of virulence factors (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production of yeasts belong to genus of Candida . All cheese samples showed contamination with varying number of yeast, total 88 yeast isolates obtained from 70 cheese samples, they were Geotrichum candidum(20.5%, Rhodotorela species(19.4%, Candida parapsilosis (18%, Candida albicans (13.6%, Candida  tropicalis (10.5%, Candida krusei (8%, Saccharomyces cerevisice (3.3% and mixed yeast (un identified at rate of (6.7%. Species of Candida formed half of the total isolates and the most prevalent isolate of Candida spp. was Candida parapsilosis .According to the results determining of  (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production as a virulence factors identifying Candida spp. these activities referred that all isolates of Candida spp. show one or more of these activities and that isolates of  medically important species Candida albicans were the most virulent isolates. this referred to the importance of take attention about consuming of such types of dairy products and need for applying more hygienic measures during handling, processing of milk and form of storage and/or selling of cheese.

  15. Influence of immersion freezing in NaCl solutions and of frozen storage on the viscoelastic behavior of mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, G G; Rubiolo, A C; Zorrilla, S E

    2007-06-01

    The freezing of Mozzarella cheese by immersion in NaCl solutions may be an innovative procedure for the dairy industry because it combines conveniently salting and freezing processes. In this work, the influence of this type of freezing method and of the frozen storage of samples on the viscoelastic behavior of Mozzarella cheese was studied. Slabs (2 x 10 x 10 cm(3)) were immersed in 23% w/w NaCl solutions (control samples: 4 degrees C, 90 min; frozen samples: -15 degrees C, 180 min). Half of the frozen samples were immediately thawed at 4 degrees C . The other half was stored at -20 degrees C for 2 mo and then was thawed at 4 degrees C (frozen-stored samples). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C and assayed at 1, 7, 14, 20, 27, 34, and 41 d. Rheological tests were carried out in oscillatory mode (parallel-plate geometry, diameter: 20 mm, gap: 1 mm, frequency: 1 Hz). Strain sweeps were run (0.001 immersion freezing of Mozzarella cheese affects some of the studied parameters, the differences observed between frozen and frozen-stored samples with control samples were small. Therefore, it was considered that the immersion freezing might be useful for the manufacture and commercialization of Mozzarella cheese.

  16. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  17. Training small producers in Good Manufacturing Practices for the development of goat milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí RAMÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract Training in Good Manufacturing Practices enhances quality during food processing. This paper evaluates GMP training aimed at improving the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of goat milk cheese. We worked with 26 families that produce cheese as their main source of income. Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted to select relevant topics. The manufacturing processes were compared and samples were analyzed before and after GMP training. We trained 80% of the producers. Before receiving training, they used to make cheese from raw milk in unhygienic conditions and with little equipment. The products obtained had bad sensory characteristics, cracks, eyes on the pasta, a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms. After training, the producers pasteurized the milk and standardized processing procedures, resulting in final products that contained higher protein and calcium content, suitable sensory characteristics, and a significant reduction in microorganisms, with total coliforms falling to ≤ 5.103 UFC/g. Therefore, this study shows that the manufacturing process and the chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters of goat milk cheese improved after GMP training.

  18. Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Matteo; Bittante, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA. Compared with morning milk, evening milk had fewer de novo synthetised FA. The detailed FA profile of partially skimmed milk differed little from that of evening whole milk before skimming, but the cream obtained differed from partially skimmed milk and from fresh cheese in about half the FA, due mainly to higher contents of all de novo FA, and lower contents of n-3 and n-6 FA. Fresh cheese and whey had similar FA profiles. The ricotta manufacturing process affected the partition of FA between ricotta and scotta, the FA profile of the latter differing in terms of groups and individual FA from the former, whereas ricotta and fresh cheese had similar composition of FA. In general, there was an increase in medium-chain saturated FA, and a decrease in many polyunsaturated FA during the first 6 months of ripening, but not during the second 6 months. Two-dimensional GC yielded a very detailed and informative FA profile on all the 11 dairy products and by-products analysed.

  19. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable...... for developing new cheese products with enhanced flavour. The aim of this Ph.D. study was to investigate the importance of strain variation of Lb. helveticus in relation flavour formation in cheese related to amino acid catabolism. Aspects of using Lb. helveticus as starter as well as adjunct culture in cheese...

  20. Response of Edam cheese to non-destructive impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the Edam cheese during its maturation under dynamic loading has been studied. The block of tested cheese has been loaded by the impact of an aluminium bar. The force between bar and cheese has been recorded. The surface displacements as well as the surface velocities have been obtained at the different points from the point of the bar impact using of the laser vibrometers. Response functions have been evaluated both in the time and frequency domains. It has been found that the degree of the cheese maturity is well characterized by the attenuation of the surface displacement maximum. This maturation is also described by the maximum of the impact force. The spectral analysis of the response functions revealed that there was a dominant frequency, which depends only on the degree of the cheese maturity. The developed method represents a promising procedure for the continuous recording of the cheese ripening.

  1. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  2. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  3. Crystallization and demineralization phenomena in washed-rind cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansman, Gil F; Kindstedt, Paul S; Hughes, John M

    2017-11-01

    This report documents an observational study of a high-moisture washed-rind cheese. Three batches of cheese were sampled on a weekly basis for 6 wk and again at wk 10. Center, under-rind, rind, and smear samples were tested for pH, moisture, and selected mineral elements. Powder x-ray diffractometry and petrographic microscopy were applied to identify and image the crystal phases. The pH of the rind increased by over 2 pH units by wk 10. The pH of the under-rind increased but remained below the rind pH, whereas the center pH decreased for most of aging and only began to rise after wk 5. Diffractograms of smear material revealed the presence of 4 crystal phases: brushite, calcite, ikaite, and struvite. The phases nucleated in succession over the course of aging, with calcite and ikaite appearing around the same time. A very small amount of brushite appeared sporadically in center and under-rind samples, but otherwise no other crystallization was observed beneath the rind. Micrographs revealed that crystals in the smear grew to over 250 μm in length by wk 10, and at least 2 different crystal phases, probably ikaite and struvite, could be differentiated by their different optical properties. The surface crystallization was accompanied by a mineral diffusion phenomenon that resulted, on average, in a 217, 95.7, and 149% increase in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, respectively, in the rind by wk 10. The diffusion phenomenon caused calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium to decrease, on average, by 55.0, 21.5, and 36.3%, respectively, in the center by wk 10. The present study represents the first observation of crystallization and demineralization phenomena in washed-rind cheese. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  4. Sensory shelf life of mantecoso cheese using accelerated testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-González, Jesús A.; Pérez, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate sensory shelf life of "huacariz" and "cefop" mantecoso cheese, vacuum packaging: "cefop" and packaging to the atmospheric pressure: "huacariz"; brands marketed in Cajamarca, using accelerated shelf life testing. For this purpose, "huacariz" cheese was stored at 20, 28, 35 y 40 °C, while it was set at 20, 28, 35 °C storage for "cefop" cheese, performing acceptability sensory tests according to time storage with both 41 consumers constants. The results f...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...

  6. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures below...

  7. Cheese Consumption and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz

    -fat cheese for 12 weeks did not modify LDL-C concentrations or MetS risk factors differently than equal amounts of reduced-fat cheese. The same was true when regular-cheese was compared with carbohydrate-rich foods, although regular-fat cheese tended to increase HDL-C concentrations compared...... that lipoprotein response is gender-specific. In men, regular-fat cheese intake reduced total LDL particle number compared with reduced-fat cheese, whereas regular-fat cheese consumption tended to increase total LDL particle number compared with reduced-fat cheese in women. Overall, the data from the large human...

  8. Improving quality of some types of cheese by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.E.A

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation as a food preservation technique has been recognized for many years as a means to reduce food losses, improve food safety, and extend shelf life. Furthermore, irradiation can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food borne disease and treating a variety of potential problems in food supplies. The treatment of food with ionizing radiation is one of the most thoroughly researched techniques available to the food processing industry. In view of the afore mentioned the objective of this study were to study the effect of irradiation time and dose on Ras cheese quality, investigate the effect of irradiation after ripening on cheese quality and possibility of prolonging the shelf-life of Ras cheese, study the effect of irradiation dose on Kareish cheese quality and its shelf- life and to monitor the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during ripening and storage of Ras and Kareish cheeses .The results of this study will be presented in three parts: Part I: Effect of irradiation dose and time on some properties of Ras cheese:Part II: Effect of irradiation on some properties during storage of ripened Ras cheese.Part III: Effect of irradiation on the quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese: It could be concluded that irradiation caused a significant reduction of cheese ripening indices, and count of total viable,proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and mould and yeast. Using irradiation doses of 3 and 4 kGy were able to stop the ripening factors and these safety dose were used to prevent the ripened Ras cheese irradiation of ripened Ras cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Ras cheese to about 32 months compared with control cheese, which showed only 18 months. The obtained results revealed that the best irradiation treatment was at the end of ripening period. Also safety irradiation of Kareish cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Kareish cheese to about 54 days compared with 12 days only control cheese.

  9. Effect of Persian and almond gums as fat replacers on the physicochemical, rheological, and microstructural attributes of low-fat Iranian White cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooyandeh, Hossein; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Rostamabadi, Hadis; Hojjati, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    The effect of Persian and almond gums (0, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w)) as fat replacers and milk fat (0.4, 0.9, and 1.4% (w/w)) on physicochemical and rheological characteristics and microstructure of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied. Persian and almond gums both effectively increased moisture-to-protein (M:P) ratio of low-fat cheese samples which in turn led to a significant reduction in the hardness parameters fracture stress and Young's and storage (G') moduli ( p  Persian gum was more pronounced ( p  Persian gum and 0.12% almond gum would result in a low-fat cheese with textural properties similar to its full-fat counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the fat replacers produced full-fat-like structure in the low-fat Iranian White cheese, when incorporated at the optimum levels.

  10. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  11. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  12. Prevalence, molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cheese and in vitro antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against such strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima G. Abdel Hameed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate cheese samples for the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, evaluate multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for S. aureus identification, as well as to determine the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against such strains. Materials and Methods: Total of 100 random locally manufactured cheese samples were collected from Qena dairy markets, Egypt, and examined conventionally for the prevalence of S. aureus then, confirmation of these isolates were done using multiplex PCR. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against such isolates was also checked. Results: Lower prevalence of S. aureus in Damietta cheese (54% than in Kareish cheese (62% was recorded. As well lower frequency distribution for both S. aureus (36% and CNS (8% was also reported for Damietta cheese. Using of multiplex PCR method for S. aureus identification have been confirmed all 58 S. aureus stains that were identified conventionally by detection of two PCR products on agarose gel: The 791 bp and the 638 bp. The correlation coefficient between conventional and multiplex PCR method was 0.91 and was significant at p≤0.001. Regarding antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using disk diffusion method on Baird Parker agar it was found that inhibition zone of silver nanoparticles against S. aureus, was 19.2±0.91 mm and it was higher than that produced by gentamicin (400 units/ml 15.2±0.89 mm. Conclusions: The present study illustrated the higher prevalence of S. aureus in cheese samples that may constitute a public health hazard to consumers. According to the results, it can be concluded that silver nanoparticles can be used as an effective antibacterial against S. aureus. Thereby, there is a need for an appropriate study for using silver nanoparticles in cleaning and disinfection of equipment and in food packaging.

  13. Dynamics of lactose changes during ripening of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Vorlová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The published data show that milk and dairy products are an important part of the diet in the European population and the population of North America, where they cover from 20 to 30% of protein, 15% of lipids and about 80% of calcium from food sources. The exclusion of milk and dairy products from human diet due to lactose intolerance (approximately 75% of the global population are lactose malabsorbers can cause very serious health consequences. From a public health point of view, it is therefore extremely important for diary products to capture all the facts about the fluctuation process or rather reduction of lactose content during dairy production technology. The aim of our study was to determine the lactose in various stages of Edam cheese ripening, to assess its suitability for consumption on the afflicted population. For the determination of lactose (day of production, first, second and sixth month of storage the reference enzymatic method using the enzymatic set Megazyme International Ireland with a detection limit of 0.00296 g.100 g-1was applied. This set is intended for determination of lactose in samples presented as low-lactose or lactose-free products and is based on the hydrolysis of lactose to D-galactose and D-glucose by the enzyme β-galactosidase. After the subsequent oxidation of galactose, the amount of formed NADH (stoichiometrically related to the amount of lactose contained in the sample is measured in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm.  According to current legislation, the lactose-free product must contain less than 10 mg of lactose per 100 g or 100 mL of the consumed product, while a product that contains up to 1 g of lactose in 100 g or 100 mL of the product consumed is considered as a product with low lactose content. The study results showed that even after one month of storage Edam cheese can be, according to current national and EU legislation, designated as a lactose-free food. This means that the consumer receives a

  14. A Novel MOS Nanowire Gas Sensor Device (S3 and GC-MS-Based Approach for the Characterization of Grated Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sberveglieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the originality of a typical Italian Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, it is crucial to define and characterize its quality, ripening period, and geographical origin. Different analytical techniques have been applied aimed at studying the organoleptic and characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of this cheese. However, most of the classical methods are time consuming and costly. The aim of this work was to illustrate a new simple, portable, fast, reliable, non-destructive, and economic sensor device S3 based on an array of six metal oxide semiconductor nanowire gas sensors to assess and discriminate the quality ranking of grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples and to identify the VOC biomarkers using a headspace SPME-GC-MS. The device could clearly differentiate cheese samples varying in quality and ripening time when the results were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis involving principal component analysis (PCA. Similarly, the volatile constituents of Parmigiano Reggiano identified were consistent with the compounds intimated in the literature. The obtained results show the applicability of an S3 device combined with SPME-GC-MS and sensory evaluation for a fast and high-sensitivity analysis of VOCs in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and for the quality control of this class of cheese.

  15. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  18. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  19. Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in traditionally produced home-made Radan cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokovic Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirteen non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Radan cheese during ripening were identified with both a classical biochemical test and rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. For most isolates, which belong to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Enterococcus faecium, a phenotypic identification was in good agreement with rep-PCR identification. Lactococeus lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium and subspecies from the Lenconostoc mesenteroides group were the dominant population of lactic acid bacteria in cheese until 10 days of ripening and only one Streptococcus thermophilus strain was isolated from the 5-day-old cheese sample. As ripening progressed, Lactobacillus plantarum became the predominant species together with the group of heterofermentative species of lactobacilli that could not be precisely identified with rep-PCR.

  20. Enterotoxigenic Genes in strains of Staphylococcus spp., isolated from cheese made in Pamplona-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Herrera A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the incidence of coagulase-positive strains of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in doble crema (double cream cheese samples produced in Pamplona. Materials and methods. Bacterial isolation was performed following the routine method for coagulase positive Staphylococcus provided by the Colombian Technical Standard 4779, by using Baird Parker medium with confirmation of typical colonies by performing the coagulase test. Detection of genes for principal enterotoxins was done by PCR. Results. The prevalence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus in cheese samples was 31%, with 27% of the samples failing to meet the requirements of the NTC 750. In 24.6% of the studied isolates, genes for enterotoxin production were detected. The presence, in the isolated strains, of genes for SEB, SEA and SED was 18.5%, 4.6% and 3.0%, respectively. Conclusions. The significant presence of enterotoxigenic genes found in the isolates obtained from samples of double cream cheese made in Pamplona, suggests an important hazard to the health of consumers.

  1. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  2. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  4. Comparative evaluation of yogurt and low-fat cheddar cheese as delivery media for probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M D; McMahon, D J; Broadbent, J R

    2008-09-01

    This study used Lactobacillus casei 334e, an erythromycin-resistant derivative of ATCC 334, as a model to evaluate viability and acid resistance of probiotic L. casei in low-fat Cheddar cheese and yogurt. Cheese and yogurt were made by standard methods and the probiotic L. casei adjunct was added at approximately 10(7) CFU/g with the starter cultures. Low-fat cheese and yogurt samples were stored at 8 and 2 degrees C, respectively, and numbers of the L. casei adjunct were periodically determined by plating on MRS agar that contained 5 microg/mL of erythromycin. L. casei 334e counts in cheese and yogurt remained at 10(7) CFU/g over 3 mo and 3 wk, respectively, indicating good survival in both products. Acid challenge studies in 8.7 mM phosphoric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C showed numbers of L. casei 334e in yogurt dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to less than 10(1) CFU/g after 30 min, while counts in cheese samples dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to about 10(5) after 30 min, and remained near 10(4) CFU/g after 120 min. As a whole, these data showed that low-fat Cheddar cheese is a viable delivery food for probiotic L. casei because it allowed for good survival during storage and helped protect cells against the very low pH that will be encountered during stomach transit.

  5. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  6. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of prato cheese during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... consumer usually evaluates the colour and aroma prior to ... parameters influence the texture of cheeses because the ... Quality of refrigerated milk used to process prato cheese ... Centre for Food Research of the School of Veterinary and Animal.

  7. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  8. Physiological characterization of common fungi associated with cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method (PLS) was used for a physiological characterization of fungi associated with the cheese environment. The combined effects of pH, salt content, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels on growth and sporulation were studied. Significant factors affecting growth were salt...... may aid in eliminating unwanted fungal growth during cheese production....

  9. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  10. The use of spices in the production of traditional cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Josipović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is a highly valued dairy product worldwide, with a special focus on traditional cheeses, not only for their basic nutritive purposes but also as a part of the culture and characteristics of a certain country. Owing to the geographical location as well as the climate and vegetation diversity, in certain regions of Croatia the production of various traditional cheeses using spices was developed. Spices are either added to the cheese curd which is then formed, or cheese is wrapped into plant leaves. Sometimes spices are also applied onto the surface of the cheese, and only in rare cases spices are added into the curd. Spices added to cheese improve sensory characteristics, increase the stability and shelf life but also increase the nutritional value. The chemical composition of spices is very complex and every spice has a specific and dominant ingredient that contributes to the flavour of the product and/or its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. This paper provides an overview of spices and aromatic herbs as natural preservatives that are used in the production of traditional cheeses.

  11. PROTEIN & SENSORY ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE MEXICAN CHIHUAHUA CHEESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including Queso Chihuahua, a Mexican cheese variety, contributes to the development of unique flavors through degradation of milk proteins resulting in the release of free amino acids and short peptides that influence the taste and ...

  12. Retrospective study on the hygienic quality of fresh ricotta cheeses produced in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the microbiological profile of Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during fifteen years of investigations (2002-2016. The samples were collected between those conferred to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia (IZSSi Adelmo Mirri, Palermo (Italy, by the competent authority during official control, by food business operator in HACCP systems and in research projects. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were found only in some samples. Bacillus cereus was detected in c.a. 16% of samples but the level of contaminations did not reach the threshold that leads to significant toxin production. Pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Brucella spp. were never detected. Furthermore, a total of 47 of lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were identified at species level by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, resulting in the identification of 10 species belonging to four genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc, commonly employed as starter and non starter cultures in different traditional cheese. Results of this study highlighted an improvement of the hygienic conditions of the Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during the last ten years of investigation. This observation was confirmed from reduction of undesired microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and CPS, used to define the process hygiene criteria. However, in order to improve the final quality of this product are needed further strategy such as the dairy makers training, with the aim to apply a good hygienic practices during the production.

  13. Study of β-Galactosidase Enzyme Activity Produced by Lactobacilli in Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nowroozi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveLactose intolerance is a discomfort state that occurs in some people after ingestion of milk and it is due to insufficient amount of beta galactosidase in the human gut to digest lactose. The aim of this study was to observe the presence of beta galactosidase enzyme produced by isolated lactobacilli from milk and cheese. Methods In this descriptive study, milk and cheese samples with different brand were bought from different shops. Lactobacilli were identified by plating samples on MRS medium, Gram staining and standard biochemical methods. β-galactosidase production by bacteria was assessed by X-Gal and ONPG methods. β-galactosidase was also detected by SDS-PAGE. ResultsFourteen genus of lactobacillus were isolated From 50 samples. All of the bacteria produced green color colonies on X-Gal plates (but in different times that indicated the presence of enzyme in the bacteria. All isolated lactobacilli were shown β-galactosidase activity in ONPG test. The highest enzymatic activity was seen in one strain of Lactobacillus Delbrueckii (1966 Miller unit /ml. In some bacteria (37% a strong β-galactosidase band(116-kDa was seen by SDS-PAGE.ConclusionAddition of beta galactosidase containing lactobacilli as a probiotic agent to milk, cheese, and other dairy products could ameliorate lactose intolerance. Meanwhile X-gal and ONPG methods which are simple, rapid and cheap can be used instead of SDS-PAGE.Keywords: Lactobacillus, Beta-Galactosidase, Nitrophenylgalactosids

  14. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of Lebanese cheeses made by local industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, H.; Hajj Semaan, E.; Noureddine, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In order to characterize, protect dairy products and develop new probiotics, a survey was conducted amongst 37 dairy factories. Chemical (pH, acidity, DM, protein, fat, soluble nitrogen and free fatty acid) and microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, Coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, and Staphylococcus aureus) analysis were carried out on samples collected from factories (7 Baladi, 22 Akkawi, 18 Double creme and 22 Halloum) of different regions. These cheeses are made by 73% of visited factories. Chemical analysis showed low acidity (0.18 to 0.26%), variable levels of moisture (54 to 70%) protein (19 to 24%) and fat (12 to 18%) except Double creme (3.26 ± 1.78%). Except 8%, Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) are not applied in visited factories. This is confirmed with the high levels of Coliforms, detectable in most varieties at an alarming level (72 to 86%). Besides, 23-71% of samples were contaminated with E. coli. However, all samples were found free of staphylococcus aureus; Halloum cheese was the only one free of Listeria and Salmonella. The highest off standard for these bacteria was noticed in Baladi cheese where 29% were contaminated with Listeria and Salmonella. Listeria was also found in 10% of Akkawi and 17% of Double creme. These results show a violation of the Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) by most factories in all visited regions. (author)

  15. Application of gamma irradiation for the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Ill; Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Research Center for Innovative Technology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheo Run [Dept. of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    This study was conducted to establish the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with gamma irradiation. Total aerobic bacteria was 2.50 Log CFUg-1 in non-irradiated sample. No viable cells were observed in the gamma-irradiated at 1 kGy and over. D10 value for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in sliced cheddar cheese were 0.64 and 0.54 kGy, respectively. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values were increased as irradiation dose was increased, but there was no significant difference between nonirradiated and irradiated samples at 1 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed there was no significant difference between samples irradiated at 1 kGy and non-irradiated in respect of color, odor, overall acceptability. Theses results indicated that gamma irradiation at 1 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to ensure the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with minimal change of sensory, even though further studies should be investigated to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by gamma irradiation.

  16. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  17. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  18. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  19. PCR-DGGE fingerprints of microbial succession during a manufacture of traditional water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, D; Mauriello, G; Blaiotta, G; Moschetti, G; Coppola, S

    2004-01-01

    To monitor the process and the starter effectiveness recording a series of fingerprints of the microbial diversity occurring at different steps of mozzarella cheese manufacture and to investigate the involvement of the natural starter to the achievement of the final product. Samples of raw milk, natural whey culture (NWC) used as starter, curd after ripening and final product were collected during a mozzarella cheese manufacture. Total microbial DNA was directly extracted from the dairy samples as well as bulk colonies collected from the plates of appropriate culture media generally used for viable counts of mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and used in polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) experiments. The analysis of the DGGE profiles showed a strong influence of the microflora of the NWC on the whole process because after the starter addition, the profile of all the dairy samples was identical to the one shown by the NWC. Simple indexes were calculated for the DGGE profiles to have an objective estimation of biodiversity and of technological importance of specific groups of organisms. LAB grown on Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) and Rogosa agar at 30 degrees C showed high viable counts and the highest diversity in species indicating their importance in the cheese making, which had not been considered so far. Moreover, the NWC profiles were shown to be the most similar to the curd profile suggesting to be effective in manufacture. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed that in premium quality manufacture the NWC used as starter had a strong influence on the microflora responsible for process development. The molecular approach appeared to be valid as a tool to control process development, starter effectiveness and product identity as well as to rank cheese quality.

  20. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cheese food with fruits, vegetables or meats is “Cold-pack cheese food with ___”, the blank being filled...

  1. Quantity of selected probiotic cultures in semi-hard cheese with low-cooking curd during the maturation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovayová, Viera; Dudriková, E; Rimárová, K; Siegfried, L

    2015-08-01

    The work studies the survival of added selected probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (S1), Lactobacillus casei (S2), and Lactobacillus plantarum96 (S3) in semi-hard cheese with low-cooking curd during the maturation process. Cheeses were made according to the standard procedure (Polyfood SI 050 device). Probiotic lactobacilli strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (S1), Lactobacillus casei (S2), and Lactobacillus plantarum96 (S3) used in this study were added into the milk before the renneting process. The manufactured cheeses were matured for 6 months at the temperature of 10 °C. Cheese samples were taken for pH and titratable acidity measurements, lactobacilli enumeration, and chemical analysis at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of maturation. At the end of the experiment (180 days) the cheese samples were analyzed also for the amount of lactic acid and protein contents. Initial numbers of lactobacilli inoculated into the milk (10(8) CFU mL(-1)) decreased during the first 2 weeks of maturation and reached from 2.15 10(7) CFU g(-1) in S1 cheese to 4.32 10(7) CFU g(-1) in S3 cheese. The number of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain bacteria at the beginning of the maturation period was 2.47.10(7) CFU g(-1) and declined until day 120 of maturation to the number of 0.45 10(6) CFU g(-1). In the last month of the experiment day 180 the viable cell numbers started to rise up to the final number of 0.41 10(7) CFU g(-1). The numbers of Lactobacillus plantarum96 varied around 10(8) CFU g(-1) during the whole period of the experiment. According to our results it was detected that in all experimental cheeses, the used probiotic lactobacilli reached the values above 10(6) CFU g(-1). Thus the legislated and therapeutic minimum limits set for the products containing probiotic bacteria for human diet were fulfilled.

  2. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  4. Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S

    2013-10-01

    The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 American

  5. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (pIMCs, but similar (pIMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination of cheese: risk throughout the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauders, B D; D'Amico, D J

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been the most common microbial cause of cheese-related recalls in both the United States and Canada in recent years. Since L. monocytogenes is inactivated by pasteurization, the majority of these cases have been linked to environmental and cross-contamination of fresh-soft, soft-ripened, and semi-soft cheeses. Cross-contamination of foods with L. monocytogenes is a continuous risk throughout the food supply chain and presents unique challenges for subsequent illness and outbreak investigations. Reports on outbreaks of listeriosis attributed to cross-contamination downstream from primary processing help highlight the critical role of epidemiological investigation coupled with coordinated molecular subtyping and surveillance in the recognition and investigation of complex foodborne outbreaks. Despite their complexity, environmental sampling throughout the supply chain coupled with improved genotyping approaches and concomitant analysis of foodborne illness epidemiological exposure data are needed to help resolve these and similar cases more rapidly and with greater confidence.

  7. Effect of gamma sterilization on the fatty acid profile of lyophilized buffalo cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.; Loginovska, K.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the fatty acid profile of buffalo cheese after lyophilization and gamma rays treatment at 2 kGy and 4 kGy doses have been studied with the objective of its shelf-live prolongation. The results of the experiments show a decrease of the content of the saturated fatty acids after irradiation at the aforesaid gamma rays doses. A favorable effect on human organism has the decrease of the quantity of the short-chain fatty acids – by 13.16 % on irradiation at 2 kGy and by 18.73% on irradiation at 4 kGy, compared to the control sample. A satisfactory correlation between the essential fatty acids omega-6/omega3 has been observed in the lyophilized buffalo cheese. In the process of irradiation this balanced correlation changes and increases up to 7.32 and 8.31 at 2 kGy and 4 kGy respectively

  8. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  9. Lactose, galactose and glucose determination in naturally "lactose free" hard cheese: HPAEC-PAD method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Lucia; Negri, Stefano; Meucci, Aurora; Stroppa, Angelo; Galli, Andrea; Contarini, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    A chromatographic method by HPAEC-PAD was developed and in-house validated for the quantification of low sugar levels in hard cheese, specifically Grana Padano PDO cheese. Particular attention was paid to the extraction procedure, due to residual microbial and enzymatic activities. Specificity in detection and linearity were verified. Recoveries ranged from 93% for lactose to 98% for glucose and galactose. The obtained LOD and LOQ values were, respectively, 0.25 and 0.41mg/100g for lactose, 0.14 and 0.27mg/100g for galactose, and 0.16 and 0.26mg/100g for glucose. The method was applied to 59 samples of Grana Padano PDO cheese: galactose showed the highest concentration and variability among the samples (1.36±0.89), compared to both lactose (0.45±0.12) and glucose (0.46±0.13). Considering the very low levels of sugars detected, authentic PDO Grana Padano could be safely included in the diet of people suffering from lactose intolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Colour traits in the evaluation of the ripening period of Asiago cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on Asiago d’Allevo cheese samples produced in a single farm located in the Altopiano dei Sette Comuni (above 1000m a.s.l.. After 6-12-18 and 36 months of ripening, samples were analyzed for quality traits, in order to evaluate the effect of ripening on colour and gross composition. As expected crude protein and fat significantly increased through the considered period. Ripening led to a significant decrease of L*, a* and b* values. Lightness showed a negative relationship with crude protein, meanwhile a* and b* were both negatively related to fat content. Concerning L*, the trend could be explained by water loss and N-soluble compounds concentration, which could alter protein matrix. a* and b* reduction was probably related to degradation processes such as lipolysis, which seemed to be extensive in hard and long ripened cheese. Ripening affected significantly the light reflectance at all λ with green cheese having the higher values.

  11. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs.

  12. Antimicrobial-Resistance Genetic Markers in Potentially Pathogenic Gram Positive Cocci Isolated from Brazilian Soft Cheese.

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    Resende, Juliana Alves; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra Barbosa; Nascimento, Thiago César; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2018-02-01

    Although most Brazilian dairy products meet high technological standards, there are quality issues regarding milk production, which may reduce the final product quality. Several microbial species may contaminate milk during manufacture and handling. If antimicrobial usage remains uncontrolled in dairy cattle, the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in foodstuffs may be of particular concern for both food producers and dairy industry. This study focused on the evaluation of putative Gram positive cocci in Minas cheese and of antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes among the isolated bacteria. Representative samples of 7 different industrially trademarked Minas cheeses (n = 35) were processed for selective culture and isolation of Gram positive cocci. All isolated bacteria were identified by DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by PCR. Overall, 208 strains were isolated and identified as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (47.6%), Macrococcus caseolyticus (18.3%), Enterococcus faecium (11.5%), Enterococcus caseliflavus (7.7%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (7.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (4.3%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.9%), and Enterococcus hirae (0.5%). The genetic markers mecA (78.0%) and smr (71.4%) were the most prevalent, but others were also detected, such as blaZ (65.2%), msrA (60.9%), msrB (46.6%), linA (54.7%), and aacA-aphD (47.6%). The occurrence of opportunist pathogenic bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance markers in the cheese samples are of special concern, since these bacteria are not considered harmful contaminating agents according to the Brazilian sanitary regulations. However, they are potentially pathogenic bacteria and the cheese may be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes available for horizontal transfer through the food chain, manufacturing personnel and consumers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

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    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  14. Comparison of six commercial DNA extraction kits for detection of Brucella neotomae in Mexican and Central American-style cheese and other milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Tina S; Strain, Errol; Kase, Julie A

    2013-05-01

    Raw or inadequately pasteurized milk from infected animals and cheese made with such milk are a frequent vehicle for human brucellosis infection. Also, biological terrorism is a concern with certain Brucella spp. Due to matrix-associated real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibitors, robust sample preparations are crucial. We compared six commercial nucleic acid extraction kits using nine Mexican and Central American-style soft cheeses or creams and three liquid milk products inoculated with Brucella neotomae, a surrogate for pathogenic Brucella spp. Kits were evaluated by purity and quantity of DNA as determined by qPCR Ct values, reproducibility across cheese and milk types, and cost. At 10(7) CFU/g in four different cheeses, Qiagen statistically outperformed all other kits. When two cheese styles were inoculated at dual levels, Qiagen and High Pure kit extracted samples at 1.5 × 10(5) CFU/g produced average Ct values of 34-39, while PrepSEQ and MagMAX kit extracted samples exhibited higher or no Ct values. High Pure and Qiagen kits excelled also with liquid milk products. Considering matrices, inoculation levels, and kits evaluated, High Pure and Qiagen products produced Brucella DNA of high quality and quantity indicated by the lowest Ct values and were the least expensive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Adamcová, Gabriela; Hudcová, Kateřina; Velichová, Helena; Pachlová, Vendula; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 112 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 55 cheeses made in small-scale farms and in 57 fermented dairy products. The products were tested at the end of their shelf-life period. Neither tryptamine nor phenylethylamine was detected in the monitored samples; histamine was found only in four cheese samples containing up to 25mg/kg. The contents of spermine and spermidine were low and did not exceed the values of 35 mg/kg. Significant amounts of tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine occurred especially in cheeses produced from ewe's milk or in long-term ripened cheeses. In about 10% of the tested cheeses, the total concentration of all the monitored biogenic amines and polyamines exceeded the level of 200mg/kg, which can be considered toxicologically significant. In fermented dairy products, the tested biogenic amines occurred in relatively low amounts (generally up to 30 mg/kg) that are regarded safe for the consumer's health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for in Natural and Processed Cheeses

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    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11 was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8 to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens

  17. Modified starches or stabilizers in preparation of cheese bread

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    Letícia Dias dos Anjos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese bread is a Brazilian product which originated in Minas Gerais and which is highly consumed. In industrial production, there is increasing use of additives which enrich and enhance the physical of this product, adding value in the eyes of the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of addition of modified starch and stabilizers on the physical-chemical of cheese bread. For this reason, measures taken so moisture, pH and acidity, volume, density, coefficient of expansion, and compression resistance (texturometer Results show that the stabilizers used improve these characteristics in the cheese bread, showing better physicochemical characteristics.

  18. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction. Composition of cheese was estimated using a predictive formula; actual yield was needed for estimation of composition. Adjusted formulas are recommended for estimating target yields and cheese yield efficiency. Constants for solute exclusion

  19. Study on the production and quality improvement of soft unripened cheese made from buffalo milk as compared with camel milk

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    A.A. Farooq

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to produce and improve the quality of soft unripened cheese made from buffalo milk as compared to cheese made from camel milk using conventional cheese-making technique. Before making cheese all the milk samples were skimmed and analyzed for their physico-chemical composition. Mean values for pH, acidity, specific gravity, total solids, SNF, fat percentages of raw and skimmed camel milk samples, respectively were 6.87±0.03 and 6.87±0.04, 0.17±0.01 and 0.18±0.01, 1.015±0.001 and 1.023±0.001, 11.69±0.33 and 7.93±0.27, 7.59±0.26 and 7.64±0.26, 4.09±0.36 and 0.29±0.08, and total protein, casein, lactose, ash and chlorides percentages of raw and skimmed milk samples respectively were 3.16±0.20 and 3.56±0.41, 2.21 ±0.23 and 1.67±0.11, 3.48±0.27 and 3.14±0.29, 0.94±0.03 and 0.93±0.07, and 0.26±0.01 and 0.25±0.01, whereas the mean values of buffalo raw milk were 6.53, 0.17%, 1.032, 15.78%, 9.23%, 6.55%, 5.35%, 4.01%, 3.24%, 0.64%, 0.07%, and skimmed milk were 6.55, 0.18%,1.035, 10.27%, 10.12%,0.15%, 4.80%, 3.38%, 4.74%, 0.49% and 0.078% respectively. The cheese samples were analyzed for their physico-chemical properties. The mean values for pH was (5.23± 0.13, acidity in terms of lactic acid (1.01± 0.23%, total solids (29.54±0.39%, solids not fat (28.66± 0.33%, fat (0.88±0.19%, total proteins(23.14±0.42%, casein(17.57±0.68%, ash(2.15±0.14% and chloride contents(0.67± 0.08% whereas the values of physico-chemical quality of soft unripened cheese made from buffalo milk for pH, acidity, total solids, SNF, fat, total protein, casein, ash and chlorides percentages were respectively 5.47, 0.45, 30.79, 30.49, 0.3, 23.44, 17.41, 1.65,0.355. Trial 1 yielded the highest percentage (7.68 of cheese followed by Trial 2 (7.38, Trial 3 (7.22 and Trial 5 (5.68. While Trial 4 yielded the lowest percentage (5.49. Whereas cheese yielded from buffalo milk was 12.22 %. Samples from each trial were presented to the

  20. Cheese as Functional Food: The Example of Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano

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    Andrea Summer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian hard cooked types of cheese, like Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano, are characterised by positive nutritional qualities. In fact, they contain substances that have particular biological activities, and therefore they can be fully considered, according to the defi nition given by the European Unit, as ‘functional’ foods. This short review concisely describes these components and the benefi cial eff ects related to their activities. The description of the biologically active components has been organised in the following paragraphs: protein and peptides, fat and lipids, carbohydrates and prebiotics, probiotic bacteria, vitamins, mineral salts, and components of dairy products active in disease prevention. In particular, several known bioactive peptides were found in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples: for example, phosphopeptides, which are known for their mineral-binding capacity and vehiculation activity, peptides with immunomodulatory activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides with anti-hypertensive eff ects. Among lipids, the role of conjugated linoleic acid and other fatt y acids present in these cheese types was taken into consideration. The presence of oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties and probiotic bacteria was also described. Finally, particular emphasis was given to highly available calcium and its impact on bone health.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MARAJÓ CHEESE, CREAM TYPE, IN TWO SEASONS:PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Marajó cheese is an artisanal product derived from buffalo milk produced in Marajó Island-PA. The objectives of this research were to characterize through physicochemical and microbiological the Marajó cheese cream type and the effect of the season. The pH, the percentage of fat in dry matter and content of sodium chloride were attributes that proximate composition showed significant difference at 5% probability by Tukey test between the two seasons. Statistical difference was not found in the percentage of titratable acidity, moisture, fat, ash, total solids extract, proteins and water activity. As for microbiological characteristics, in general, there was an improvement in the results in the dry season as to coliformes and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the result of Escherichia coli has proved to be better in the rainy season, with all samples meeting the standard of legislation. On the count of aerobic mesophilic there was no difference between the periods of the year. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. were not detected in the Marajó cheese, cream type, within the four seasons of the year. The variability occurred in pH, %NaCl, GES and, between seasons, demonstrates the need for greater control of production aimed at standardizing and maintaining the identity of the product. Regarding the microbiological, standards were established in accordance with the current legislation.

  2. DEHYDRATION OF CHEESE BY HOT AIR, MICROWAVE AND FREEZE-DRYING

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    ANA RITA C. PINHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the dehydration of skim cheese through different methods, in particular by hot air, microwave and freeze-drying, in order to assess which of these methods would be more suitable for the development of a new product (cheese snack. For the three processes of dehydration, several temperatures, powers and times were used, respectively. The drying time was optimized to allow the water activity of the final product to be between 0.3 and 0.4. The color and texture of the product obtained by the three processes were evaluated, and the nutritional analysis (protein, lipids, ash of the product dried by hot air at 52 ºC and by microwave at 750 W and 850 W was performed. The sensory analysis of the microwave dehydrated products was also carried out. The results obtained revealed that the temperature played a relevant role in the drying time and the hardness of the product. In the dehydration by microwave, the power of 850 W resulted in a lower drying time and a better color preservation, but in a high hardness of the samples. Among the three processes studied, the microwave drying was the fastest for the water removal from the cheese.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOCHTHONUS LACTIC FLORA OF A CAMPANIAN CHILLI CHEESE PRODUCED FROM RAW SHEEP MILK

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    A. Mormile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural lactic flora of the artisanal chilli “Tramonti” cheese, a typical product manufactured in the “Lattari mountains”, area of Salerno province (Italy, was investigated. Particular attention was paid to the growth dynamics assessment and to the molecular identification of the indigenous lactic acid bacteria involved in the ripening of this cheese made with raw sheep milk without starter cultures. One batch was monitored taking 4 sample on 0, 30, 50 and 105 ripening days. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were enumerated and randomly isolated on MRS and LM17 agar (32ºC x 48h -mesophilic flora- and 42°C x 48h -thermophilic flora, respectively. N. 66 presumptive lactic acid bacteria isolates, gram positive and catalase negative, were genotipically identified by Ribotyping. Mesophilic Lactobacillus remained at levels of 107 cfu/g during whole maturation time and thermophilic Lactobacillus, from initial values of 105 cfu/g, reached concentratios of 106 cfu/g at the end of maturation. Mesophilic and thermophilic Lactococcus showed, on average, levels of 106 since the beginning of the ripening. Ribotyping allowed to detect 4 lactic acid bacteria species: Enterococcus faecium (65,15%, Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris (24,24%, Enterococcus faecalis (6,06% and Enterococcus durans (4,54%, showing the diversity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria of chilli “Tramonti” cheese.

  4. Sex in Cheese: Evidence for Sexuality in the Fungus Penicillium roqueforti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Jeanne; Dupont, Joëlle; Fontanillas, Eric; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; Malagnac, Fabienne; Coton, Monika; Giraud, Tatiana; López-Villavicencio, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Although most eukaryotes reproduce sexually at some moment of their life cycle, as much as a fifth of fungal species were thought to reproduce exclusively asexually. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed the occurrence of sex in some of these supposedly asexual species. For industrially relevant fungi, for which inoculums are produced by clonal-subcultures since decades, the potentiality for sex is of great interest for strain improvement strategies. Here, we investigated the sexual capability of the fungus Penicillium roqueforti, used as starter for blue cheese production. We present indirect evidence suggesting that recombination could be occurring in this species. The screening of a large sample of strains isolated from diverse substrates throughout the world revealed the existence of individuals of both mating types, even in the very same cheese. The MAT genes, involved in fungal sexual compatibility, appeared to evolve under purifying selection, suggesting that they are still functional. The examination of the recently sequenced genome of the FM 164 cheese strain enabled the identification of the most important genes known to be involved in meiosis, which were found to be highly conserved. Linkage disequilibria were not significant among three of the six marker pairs and 11 out of the 16 possible allelic combinations were found in the dataset. Finally, the detection of signatures of repeat induced point mutations (RIP) in repeated sequences and transposable elements reinforces the conclusion that P. roqueforti underwent more or less recent sex events. In this species of high industrial importance, the induction of a sexual cycle would open the possibility of generating new genotypes that would be extremely useful to diversify cheese products. PMID:23185400

  5. Virulence factors and genetic variability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw sheep's milk cheese.

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    Spanu, Vincenzo; Spanu, Carlo; Virdis, Salvatore; Cossu, Francesca; Scarano, Christian; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Contamination of dairy products with Staphylococcus aureus can be of animal or human origin. The host pathogen relationship is an important factor determining genetic polymorphism of the strains and their potential virulence. The aim of the present study was to carry out an extensive characterization of virulence factors and to study the genetic variability of S. aureus strains isolated from raw ewe's milk cheese. A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from cheese samples produced in 10 artisan cheese factories were analyzed for the presence of enterotoxins (sea-see) and enterotoxins-like genes (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep), leukocidins, exfoliatins, haemolysins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) and the accessory gene regulator alleles (agr). Strains were also typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AMOVA analysis carried out on PFGE and PCR data showed that the major component explaining genetic distance between strains was the dairy of origin. Of the total isolates 81% had a pathogenicity profile ascribable to "animal" biovar while 16% could be related to "human" biovar. The biovar allowed to estimate the most likely origin of the contamination. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antimicrobial agents and the presence of the corresponding genes coding for antibiotic resistance was also investigated. 18 strains carrying blaZ gene showed resistance to ampicillin and penicillin and 6 strains carrying tetM gene were resistant to tetracycline. The presence of mecA gene and methicillin resistance, typical of strains of human origin, was never detected. The results obtained in the present study confirm that S. aureus contamination in artisan cheese production is mainly of animal origin. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus in fresh sheep cheese

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    Simonetta Amatiste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of specific plants, well known especially for their aromatic and antibacterial properties. Nowadays, EOs are exploited in the food sector mainly for their aromatic properties. Thanks to their antimicrobial activity, however, they could also be used as additives to increase the safety and the shelf-life of food products. Aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and of Origanum vulgare L. oil against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and on fresh cheese, and to determine whether the use of EOs can modify the microbiological and/or chemical-physical properties of the products. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro was assessed by preparation of the aromatogram (diffusion in agar test, minimum inhibitory concentration test and minimum bactericidal concentration assessment. Raw sheep milk was experimentally contaminated with a strain of S. aureus ATCC 25922 and was used to produce three types of fresh cheese: without EOs, with thyme and oregano EOs (both EOs at a concentration of 1:1000. The samples were analysed on the day of production, after three and seven days. The results obtained from the tests showed that the concentration of S. aureus and the counts of lactic flora remained unchanged for all types of cheese. Even the chemical-physical parameters were constant. The results of inhibition tests on the cheese disagree with those relating to the in vitro tests. Most likely this is due to the ability of EOs to disperse in the lipids the food: the higher the fat content is, the lower the oil fraction will be able to exert the antimicrobial activity.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Staphylococcus aureus in Fresh Sheep Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatiste, Simonetta; Sagrafoli, Daniele; Giacinti, Giuseppina; Rosa, Giulia; Carfora, Virginia; Marri, Nicla; Tammaro, Andreana; Bovi, Emanuela; Rosati, Remo

    2014-08-28

    Essential oils (EOs) are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of specific plants, well known especially for their aromatic and antibacterial properties. Nowadays, EOs are exploited in the food sector mainly for their aromatic properties. Thanks to their antimicrobial activity, however, they could also be used as additives to increase the safety and the shelf-life of food products. Aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and of Origanum vulgare L. oil against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and on fresh cheese, and to determine whether the use of EOs can modify the microbiological and/or chemical-physical properties of the products. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro was assessed by preparation of the aromatogram (diffusion in agar test), minimum inhibitory concentration test and minimum bactericidal concentration assessment. Raw sheep milk was experimentally contaminated with a strain of S. aureus ATCC 25922 and was used to produce three types of fresh cheese: without EOs, with thyme and oregano EOs (both EOs at a concentration of 1:1000). The samples were analysed on the day of production, after three and seven days. The results obtained from the tests showed that the concentration of S. aureus and the counts of lactic flora remained unchanged for all types of cheese. Even the chemical-physical parameters were constant. The results of inhibition tests on the cheese disagree with those relating to the in vitro tests. Most likely this is due to the ability of EOs to disperse in the lipids the food: the higher the fat content is, the lower the oil fraction will be able to exert the antimicrobial activity.

  8. Growth, nisA Gene Expression, and In Situ Activity of Novel Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Costarter Culture in Commercial Hard Cheese Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, Dimitrios; Kakouri, Athanasia; Kartezini, Eleftheria; Pappas, Dimitrios; Hatziloukas, Efstathios; Samelis, John

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated in situ expression of the nisA gene by an indigenous, nisin A-producing (NisA+) Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris raw milk genotype, represented by strain M78, in traditional Greek Graviera cheeses under real factory-scale manufacturing and ripening conditions. Cheeses were produced with added a mixed thermophilic and mesophilic commercial starter culture (CSC) or with the CSC plus strain M78 (CSC+M78). Cheeses were sampled after curd cooking (day 0), fermentation of the unsalted molds for 24 h (day 1), brining (day 7), and ripening of the brined molds (14 to 15 kg each) for 30 days in a fully controlled industrial room (16.5°C; 91% relative humidity; day 37). Total RNA was directly extracted from the cheese samples, and the expression of nisA gene was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Agar overlay and well diffusion bioassays were correspondingly used for in situ detection of the M78 NisA+ colonies in the cheese agar plates and antilisterial activity in whole-cheese slurry samples, respectively. Agar overlay assays showed good growth (>8 log CFU/g of cheese) of the NisA+ strain M78 in coculture with the CSC and vice versa. The nisA expression was detected in CSC+M78 cheese samples only, with its expression levels being the highest (16-fold increase compared with those of the control gene) on day 1, followed by significant reduction on day 7 and almost negligible expression on day 37. Based on the results, certain intrinsic and mainly implicit hurdle factors appeared to reduce growth prevalence rates and decrease nisA gene expression, as well as the nisin A-mediated antilisterial activities of the NisA+ strain M78 postfermentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on quantitative expression of the nisA gene in a Greek cooked hard cheese during commercial manufacturing and ripening conditions by using a novel, rarely isolated, indigenous NisA+ L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype as costarter culture.

  9. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  10. Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic strain in Swiss- and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Aljewicz, Marek; Nalepa, Beata

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products (milk fat is substituted by stearin fraction of palm fat) during manufacture, ripening, and storage. The use of the probiotic L. rhamnosus HN001 in Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products significantly (P = 0.1) changed their chemical composition (protein and fat content) and an insignificant increase (approximately 1.6% in cheese-like products and approximately 0.3% in cheese) in yield. L. rhamnosus HN001 did not affect the rate of changes in the pH of ripened cheese and cheese-like products. A minor increase in probiotic counts was observed in initial stages of production and were partially removed with whey. Ripened cheese and cheese-like products were characterized by high survival rates of probiotic bacteria which exceeded 8 log CFU/g after ripening. An insignificant reduction in the number of viable probiotic cells was noted during storage of Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese, whereas a significant increase in probiotic cell counts was observed in cheese-like products during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitro characterization and performance in two model cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggiler-Marcó, M; Capra, M L; Quiberoni, A; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J A; Hynes, E

    2007-10-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are the main uncontrolled factor in today's industrial cheese making and may be the cause of quality inconsistencies and defects in cheeses. In this context, adjunct cultures of selected lactobacilli from nonstarter lactic acid bacteria origin appear as the best alternative to indirectly control cheese biota. The objective of the present work was to study the technological properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese by in vitro and in situ assays. Milk acidification kinetics and proteolytic and acidifying activities were assessed, and peptide mapping of trichloroacetic acid 8% soluble fraction of milk cultures was performed by liquid chromatography. In addition, the tolerance to salts (NaCl and KCl) and the phage-resistance were investigated. Four strains were selected for testing as adjunct cultures in cheese making experiments at pilot plant scale. In in vitro assays, most strains acidified milk slowly and showed weak to moderate proteolytic activity. Fast strains decreased milk pH to 4.5 in 8 h, and continued acidification to 3.5 in 12 h or more. This group consisted mostly of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Approximately one-third of the slow strains, which comprised mainly Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus curvatus, were capable to grow when milk was supplemented with glucose and casein hydrolysate. Peptide maps were similar to those of lactic acid bacteria considered to have a moderate proteolytic activity. Most strains showed salt tolerance and resistance to specific phages. The Lactobacillus strains selected as adjunct cultures for cheese making experiments reached 10(8) cfu/g in soft cheeses at 7 d of ripening, whereas they reached 10(9) cfu/g in semihard cheeses after 15 d of ripening. In both cheese varieties, the adjunct culture population remained at high counts during all ripening, in some cases overcoming or equaling primary starter. Overall

  12. Cheese and milk quality of F1 Holstein x Zebu cows fed different levels of banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Parrela de Melo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of different levels of sun-dried banana peel in the diet for crossbred cows on the quality of Minas fresh cheese and milk. Diets consisted of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% replacement of sorghum silage with banana peel. Ten cows were assigned to two 5 x 5 Latin squares experimental design. Milk samples were taken from each cow and analyzed for composition. Milk was pasteurized for the production of Minas fresh cheese, which was weighed to determine the yield and analyzed for texture, physical and chemical characteristics and consumer acceptance test. Milk urea nitrogen had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 43.76% replacement of silage with banana peel. The remaining items evaluated in the composition of milk and cheese and the consumer acceptance test were not influenced by diets with banana peel. The replacement of up to 60% sorghum silage with banana peel is a viable alternative because it causes no alteration in physical and chemical composition of milk and Minas fresh cheese, as well as consumer acceptance.

  13. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  14. Functional cream cheese supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Monacis, Noemi; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a functional fresh cream cheese with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 or Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 and prebiotics (inulin, FOS and lactulose). The research was divided into two steps: in vitro evaluation of the effects of prebiotic compounds; validation at laboratory level with production of functional cream mini-cheeses. Prebiotics showed a protective effect: B. animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 cultivability on Petri dishes was positively influenced by lactulose, whereas fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were the prebiotic compounds able to prolong Lb. reuteri DSM 20016 cultivability. At 30 °C, a prolongation of the death time (more than 300 days) was observed, while the controls showed death time values about 100 days. At 45 °C, death time values increased from 32.2 (control) to 33, 35, and 38 days in the samples added with FOS, inulin and lactulose, respectively. Lactulose and FOS were chosen to be added to cream mini-cheeses inoculated with B. animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, respectively; the proposed functional cream cheese resulted in a product with favourable conditions for the viability of both probiotics which maintained cultivable cells above the recommended level during 28 days of storage at 4 °C with good sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances in the application of microbial transglutaminase crosslinking in cheese and ice cream products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Greiner, Ralf; George, Saji; Roohinejad, Shahin

    2018-02-01

    Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) has been currently utilized to form new food structures and matrices with high physicochemical stability. Incorporation of this multi-functional enzyme into structural composition of milk protein-based products, such as cheese and ice cream, can not only be a successful strategy to improve their nutritional and technological characteristics through intramolecular cross-linking, but also to reduce the production cost by decreasing fat and stabilizer contents. The recent research developments and promising results of MTGase application in producing functional formulations of cheese and ice cream with higher quality characteristics are reviewed. New interesting insights and future perspectives are also presented. The addition of MTGase to cheese led to significant improvements in moisture, yield, texture, rheology and sensory properties, without changes in the chemical composition. Furthermore, pH value of ice cream is not affected by the MTGase treatment. Compared to untreated ice creams, application of MTGase significantly promotes consistency, fat destabilization, overrun and organoleptic acceptance, while a substantial reduction in firmness and melting rate of samples was observed. The addition of MTGase to cheese and ice cream-milk provides reinforcement to the protein matrix and can be considered as a novel additive for improving the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of final products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  17. Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp., non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2016-11-21

    Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of natural milk culture to microbiota, safety and hygiene of raw milk cheese produced in alpine malga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Lucchini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Processing of alpine milk in malga farms is carried out under conditions that can favor contamination by coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, or pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With the aim to improve the hygienic characteristics and safety of cheese produced in four malga farms the use of lyophilized Natural Milk Culture prepared with selected strains was tested. Two cheesemaking tests were carried out in the same day always starting from the same milk: in the first case following the malga recipe that uses either Natural Whey Culture or without the addition of a starter, in the second one using a Natural Milk Culture. Cheesemaking were carried out in four malga farms located in the west area of Trentino region within the same week. For hygienic and safety evaluation, aerobic colony count, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Escherichia coli, staphylococcal toxins, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella spp, pH and aw were determined in raw milk from evening and morning milking, curd in vat, curd after extraction and two months-ripened cheese. Pathogens or toxins, high values of coagulase- positive staphylococci and E. coli were not found in cheese samples. However, in the curd coagulase-positive staphylococci reached values almost of 5 Log CFU/g in the two malga without starter cultures. The use of Natural Milk Culture reduced E. coli counts. In addition, DNA was extracted from cheese samples and from Natural Milk Culture and the composition of the microbial community determined by Next Generation Sequencing method. The determination of cheese microbial communities demonstrated that the use of Natural Milk Culture exerted different effects in the different malga, in any case preserving bacterial biodiversity.

  19. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., malt sirup, and hydrolyzed lactose, in a quantity necessary for seasoning. (4) Water. (5) Salt. (6... propionate. (9) Pasteurized process cheese spread in consumer-sized packages may contain lecithin as an...

  20. A comparative study between inhibitory effect of L. lactis and nisin on important pathogenic bacteria in Iranian UF Feta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirdamadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : In the present study, the inhibitory effect of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis during co-culture and pure standard nisin were assessed against selected foodborne pathogenes in growth medium and Iranian UF Feta cheese. In comparison L lactis, not only proves flavor but also plays a better role in microbial quality of Iranian UF Feta cheese as a model of fermented dairy products.   Materials and method s: L. lactis subsp. lactis as nisin producer strain, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic strains were inoculated in Ultra-Filtered Feta cheese. Growth curve of bacterial strains were studied by colony count method in growth medium and UF Feta cheese separately and during co-culture with L. lactis. Nisin production was determined by agar diffusion assay method against susceptible test strain and confirmed by RP-HPLC analysis method.   Results : Counts of L. monocytogenes decreased in cheese sample containing L. lactis and standard nisin, to 103 CFU/g after 7 days and it reached to undetectable level within 2 weeks. S. aureus counts remained at its initial number, 105 CFU/g, after 7 days then decreased to 104 CFU/g on day 14 and it was not detectable on day 28. E. coli numbers increased in both treatments after 7 days and then decreased to 104 CFU/g after 28 days. Despite the increasing number of E. coli in growth medium containing nisin, due to the synergistic effect of nisin and other metabolites produced by Lactococcus lactis and starter cultures, the number of E. coli decreased with slow rate . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed, L. monocytogenes was inhibited by L. lactis before entering the logarithmic phase during co-culture. S. aureus was also inhibited during co-culture, but it showed less sensitivity in comparison with L. monocytogenes. However, the number of E. coli remained steady in co-culture with L. lactis. Also, we found that, in all cheese samples, E

  1. Short communication: Little change takes place in Camembert-type cheese water activities throughout ripening in terms of relative humidity and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Hélias, A; Corrieu, G

    2013-01-01

    Water activity (a(w)) affects the growth and activity of ripening microorganisms. Moreover, it is generally accepted that a(w) depends on relative humidity (RH) and salt content; these 3 variables were usually measured on a given day in a cheese without the microorganism layer and without accounting for a distinction between the rind, the underrind, and the core. However, a(w) dynamics have never been thoroughly studied throughout cheese ripening. Experimental Camembert cheeses were ripened under controlled and aseptic conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere, and RH) for 14 d. In this study, only RH was varied. Samples were taken from the cheese (microorganism layer)-air interface, the rind, and the core. The aw of the cheese-air interface did not change over ripening when RH varied between 91 and 92% or between 97 and 98%. However, on d 5, we observed a small but significant increase in a(w), which coincided with the beginning of growth of Penicillium camemberti mycelia. After d 3, no significant differences were found between the a(w) of the cheese-air interface, the rind, and the core. From d 0 to 3, cheese rind a(w) increased from 0.94 to 0.97, which was probably due to the diffusion of salt from the rind to the core: NaCl content in the rind decreased from 3.7 to 1.6% and NaCl content in the core increased from 0.0 to 1.6%. Nevertheless, aw did not significantly vary in the core, raising questions about the real effect of salt on a(w).

  2. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  3. Effect of multiple substrates in ethanol fermentations from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C J; Jayanata, Y; Bajpai, R K

    1987-01-01

    Ethanol fermentations from cheese whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 were investigated. Cheese whey, which contains lactose as the major sugar, has been found to have small amounts of glucose and galactose, depending on the source and operating conditions. Fermentation performance was strongly influenced by the presence of glucose and galactose. However, lactose did not significantly affect the cell growth and product formation even at a high concentration. A logistical model was proposed to take into account the effect of lactose. (Refs. 6).

  4. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  5. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  6. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  7. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  8. [The homogeneity of a population of yeasts from Camembert cheeses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J L; Daudin, J J

    1983-01-01

    Yeasts are found to a large extent in cheeses, more particularly in soft cheeses such as Camembert. The proximity between two species previously identified by standard methods was studied using a factorial discriminant analysis on 326 strains. Twenty-three fermentation and assimilation tests (discriminant variables) gave a fairly good discrimination between species. This treatment has allowed us to confirm the present tendencies noticed in yeast classification and has also enabled us to group some of the species.

  9. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-05

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS WITH INGREDIENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the use of feijoa as a filler for cheese products. Distinctive at-sign feijoa is a high content of watersoluble compounds in the fruits of iodine. According to their content feijoa can match with seafood, no plant does not accumulate a large number of iodine compounds (about 0.2 1 mg per 100 g of product. Feijoa is very useful for people living in iodine deficiency regions, as well as for preventers of thyroid diseases. The rind of the fruit is rich in antioxidants. The technology of GUT-goad product feijoa. Feature of the technology is that the finished cheese is made in the form of a mixture of filler pureed fruit pulp and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, and the powder dry skin. Objects of research a filler in the form of syrup (pineapple guava pulp and sugar and the rind of the fruit in the form of crushed dry cottage cheese. Compatible with cream cheese filling sensory determined by the following indicators appearance, consistency, color, smell, taste. Syrup dosage ranged from 1 to 10%, dry filler from 0.5 to 3.5%. A mixture of fillers were added to the finished curd product in the ratio of syrup fairies feijoa and dry powder peel 8: 1.5. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations of preparation of fillers and incorporation in the finished cheese. Determined the antioxidant activity syrup feijoa 1,963 mg / dm3 . It was found that the cheese product is rich in antioxidants, iodine, which helps to eliminate free radicals from the body and strengthen health care. Herbal additive allows to obtain a product with a new taste characteristics. The shelf life of cottage cheese products 5 days.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmeť, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum β-lactamases were detected.

  12. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  13. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  14. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  15. Formation of Flavor Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism in Cheese (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical reactions which contribute flavor formation occur in result of proteolysis during cheese ripening. Casein as the main protein of cheese has a significant effect on the flavor and textural properties of cheeses via its degradation to small peptides and free amino acids by various factors like coagulant enzymes. Specific flavors of cheeses occur as a result of amino acid catabolism by starter and non-starter bacteria. Some flavor compounds are formed by enzymatic transformations as well as by non-enzymatic, chemical changes in cheese. In this paper, formation of flavor compounds by amino acid catabolism during cheese ripening reviewed.

  16. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    be the need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high....... lactis subsp lactis, 10 thermophilic Lactobacillus strains and 15 frozen direct vat set strains of thermopholic Lactobacillus) to hydrolyse αS1-CN, candidates were selected for cheese-making experiments. None of the selected proteolytic strains contributed significantly to softening the cheese structure...

  17. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  18. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  19. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  20. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type.

  1. Serrano Cheese: a cultural, quality and legal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Nardi Pretto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serrano cheese is an artisanal product, from the region of Campos de Cima da Serra in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and from the Planalto Sul in the state of Santa Catarina. Objective: The objective of the present work is to discuss some cultural, legal and food safety aspects related to the quality of serrano cheese, a product made of raw milk. Method: This manuscript carries out a bibliographical review of the serrano cheese, using updated scientific and legal documents, to analyze the production, quality and cultural aspects of this product. Results: Results presented in the literature and current legislation indicate that the production of these cheeses can be safe for commercialization, having as main requirements: adoption of good manufacturing practices, care of the dairy herd and due maturation of the product. Current national legislation indicates that the minimum maturation time should be 60 days. The publication of a law that regulates the production of serrano cheese in Rio Grande do Sul allows it to be matured for a shorter time, if its microbiological safety is assured. Conclusions: Additionally to revisions in the laws for the production and marketing of cheeses such as serrano, legal reviews are essential in the area of science, technology and health surveillance to provide a scientific basis to the improvement of the production of those who live on the commercialization of these products.

  2. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of Clostridium activities in silage and cheese using anticlostridial Lactobacillus Isolated from Danish semi-hard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia

    Growth of Clostridium, originating mainly from silage, may cause serious late blowing defects in semi-hard cheeses during ripening. In the present project, the possibilities were investigated to use anticlostridial non-starter Lactobacillus (mainly Lb. paracasei), isolated from Danish semi......-hard cheeses of high quality, as protective adjunct cultures against clostridia activities in silage and cheese. Screening for anticlostridial activity among non-starter Lactobacillus isolates against selected Clostridium strains showed that almost half (44%) of the naturally occurring non......-starter Lactobacillus in Danish semi-hard cheeses possessed anticlostridial activities and 10% possessed a broad anticlostridial activity, and these were selected for further investigations. Antagonistic antimicrobial interactions between some of the selected anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains were demonstrated...

  4. The Effect of Xanthan Gum and Flaxseed Mucilage as Edible Coatings in Cheddar Cheese during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Soleimani-Rambod

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the possibility of using xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage as edible coatings for Cheddar cheese during ripening for 90 days. Five samples of Cheddar cheese blocks were coated with different coating materials in triplicate as follows: Coated with polyvinyl acetate as control (C, coated with 0.5% xanthan gum (XG, coated with 0.75% flaxseed mucilage (FM1, coated with 1% flaxseed mucilage (FM2, and coated with 1.25% flaxseed mucilage (FM3. All samples were kept at 8 ± 2 °C in a cold room for 90 days. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the moisture content of the samples decreased and the protein content increased during the ripening period (P < 0.01. The pH, acidity, fat in dry matter, and TCA-SN/TN of samples were significantly affected by xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage treatment (P < 0.01. The free fatty acid composition of samples was significantly affected by edible coatings. Edible coatings affected the growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria and the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria in a non-significant manner (P > 0.01. The growth of starter bacteria was significantly altered under the effect of edible coating materials (P < 0.05. Tyrosine and tryptophan contents as an index of proteolysis, lipolysis, and sensory evaluation of samples were not significantly different.

  5. Use of cold microfiltration retentates produced with polymeric membranes for standardization of milks for manufacture of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Wang, T; Lucey, J A

    2007-10-01

    Pizza cheese was manufactured with milk (12.1% total solids, 3.1% casein, 3.1% fat) standardized with microfiltered (MF) and diafiltered retentates. Polymeric, spiral-wound MF membranes were used to process cold (pizza. Nitrogen recoveries were significantly higher in MF standardized cheeses. Fat recoveries were higher in the pH6.3MF cheese than the control or pH6.4MF cheese. Moisture-adjusted cheese yield was significantly higher in the 2 MF-fortified cheeses compared with the control cheese. Maximum loss tangent (LT(max)) values were not significantly different among the 3 cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar meltability. The LT(max) values increased during ripening. The temperature at which the LT(max) was observed was highest in control cheese and was lower in the pH6.3MF cheese than in the pH6.4MF cheese. The temperature of the LT(max) decreased with age for all 3 cheeses. Values of 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen levels were similar in all cheeses. Performance on pizza was similar for all cheeses. The use of MF retentates derived with polymeric membranes was successful in increasing cheese yield, and cheese quality was similar in the control and MF standardized cheeses.

  6. Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara V. Galmarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL. Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations, bitter (six out of nine and astringent (five out of nine. Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited.

  7. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  8. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enterotoxin Producing Ability And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated From Goat Milk Cheese And Salted Yoghurt In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pehlivanlar Onen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine enterotoxin producing ability and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci CNS in goats bulk milk cheese and salted yoghurt. CNS strains were identified by using GP card in VITEK 2 system. The presence of enterotoxins was determined by enzyme immunoassay test by using RIDASCREEN test kit. Antibiotic susceptibility in CNS strains was detected by using AST-P640 card in VITEK 2 system. A total of 100 CNS strains were isolated in 22 55 bulk milk samples and in 23 57.5 cheese samples. Staphylococcus spp. could not be isolated from salted yoghurt samples. The most encountered species were S. caprae 51.9 S. chromogenes 11.5 and S. xylosus 9.6 from milk samples and S. saprophyticus 60.4 S. xylosus 12.5 and S. haemolyticus 8.3 from cheese samples. Four CNS strains 4 isolated from samples were capable of producing enterotoxin. While all isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic 74 of CNS strains showed resistance to two or more antibiotics. Enterotoxin production ability and high antibiotic resistance of the CNS strains isolated from goat bulk milk and cheese can lead to a risk for public health.

  10. Variability of bacterial biofilms of the "tina" wood vats used in the ragusano cheese-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, G; Ogier, J C; Parayre, S; Pediliggieri, C; Carnemolla, T M; Falentin, H; Madec, M N; Carpino, S; Lortal, S

    2007-11-01

    Ragusano cheese is a "protected denomination of origin" cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called "tinas" were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system.

  11. Biodiversity and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Alpine Raw Cow’s Milk Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Franciosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Nostrano-cheeses” are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow’s milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB developing during maturation of “Nostrano-cheeses” and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months. A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n=97 were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg was a Sc. thermophilus.

  12. Study of Chemical and Sensory properties of Functional Cheese made from Cow\\'s Milk and Soymilk blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Yasaei Mehrjardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, due to the prevalence of overweight, obesity and heart disease in community and its relationship with the increasing amount of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in the diet, production of functional food by reducing saturated fat and cholesterol using soybean has been taken into consideration. The use of soybean-derived products is cost effective and healthy for people due to absence of cholesterol and lactose, and presence of  isoflavonoids and unsaturated essential fatty acids. The present study has evaluated the chemical and sensory properties of functional Pre cheese made ​​from a mixture of cow’s milk and soy milk with different ratios. Methods: In this experimental study, soymilk at5 levels (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and calcium chloride 0.4% were mixed with cow’s milk and used for preparation of primary cheese. Chemical and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined according to national standards. The results were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and by statistical software MinitabVersion16. The data were compared according to Duncan’s multiple-range test. Results: The results showed that with increasing substitution of soy milk, protein, fat, dry matter, un saturated fatty acids(oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and the tissue score of the produced cheese increased and the amount of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and the flavor and color scores of the samples decreased in comparison with the control sample. The sample containing84.6% cow’s milk, 15% soy milk, and 0.4% calcium chloride had more appropriate chemical and more acceptable sensory characteristics compared to the other samples. Conclusion: By selection of a proper substitution ratio of soy milk with cow’s milk, good quality and healthy cheese can be produced as a functional food for feeding people, especially the elderly.

  13. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheeses manufactured in the Canastra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2017-08-01

    been proposed and described in this article. It has also been verified that most of the cheese producers did not follow the minimum maturation period of 22 days required by de legislation and marketed the cheese still fresh.

  14. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of the cheese; should have body and texture characteristics which will impart the desired body and texture...

  15. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA SULER

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  17. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  18. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  19. Expression and release of proteolytic enzymes of Lactococcus lactis : ripening of UF-cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Semi-hard cheese types, such as Gouda, cannot be satisfactorily produced when using ultrafiltration technology. Although the cheese yield increases using this method, the higher financial return is completely lost by the (poor) quality of the cheese. The work described in this thesis is

  20. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  1. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  2. Short communication: Is consumption of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides, such as the Norwegian cheese Gamalost, associated with reduced blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, R; Pripp, A H; Høstmark, A T; Haug, A; Skeie, S

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of bacterial populations in Danish raw milk cheeses made with different starter cultures by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoud, Wafa Mahmoud Hasan; Takamiya, Monica K Wik; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2011-01-01

    ripening. Other bacteria like Corynebacterium, Halomonas, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, which were encountered in some cheese samples at low percentages compared with the total bacterial populations, were only detected by pyrosequencing. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing is an efficient method...

  4. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  6. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  7. Increasing stringiness of low-fat mozzarella string cheese using polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, E N; Oberg, C J; Motawee, M M; Martini, S; McMahon, D J

    2015-07-01

    When fat content of pasta filata cheese is lowered, a loss of fibrous texture occurs and low-fat (LF) mozzarella cheese loses stringiness, making it unsuitable for the manufacture of string cheese. We investigated the use of various polysaccharides that could act as fat mimetics during the stretching and extruding process to aid in protein strand formation and increase stringiness. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd was made, salted, and then 3.6-kg batches were heated in hot (80°) 5% brine, stretched, and formed into a homogeneous mass. Hot (80°C) slurries of various polysaccharides were then mixed with the hot cheese and formed into LF string cheese using a small piston-driven extruder. Polysaccharides used included waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, polydextrose, xanthan gum, and guar gum. Adding starch slurries increased cheese moisture content by up to 1.6% but was not effective at increasing stringiness. Xanthan gum functioned best as a fat mimetic and produced LF string cheese that most closely visually resembled commercial string cheese made using low-moisture part skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheese without any increase in moisture content. Extent of stringiness was determined by pulling apart the cheese longitudinally and observing size, length, and appearance of individual cheese strings. Hardness was determined using a modified Warner-Bratzler shear test. When LF string cheese was made using a 10% xanthan gum slurry added at ~1%, increased consumer flavor liking was observed, with scores after 2wk of storage of 6.44 and 6.24 compared with 5.89 for the LF control cheese; although this was lower than an LMPS string cheese that scored 7.27. The 2-wk-old LF string cheeses containing xanthan gum were considered still slightly too firm using a just-about-right (JAR) test, whereas the LMPS string cheese was considered as JAR for texture. With further storage up to 8wk, all of the LF string cheeses softened (JAR score was closer to 3

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum as a Probiotic Potential from Kouzeh Cheese (Traditional Iranian Cheese) and Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Vahid; Khiabani, Mahmoud Sowti; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Hassanzadeh, Azad Mohammad; Ahmadi, Elham; Gharenaghadeh, Sasan; Karimi, Nayyer; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and identify Lactobacillus plantarum isolates from traditional cheese, Kouzeh, and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens. In total, 56 lactic acid bacteria were isolated by morphological and biochemical methods, 12 of which were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by biochemical method and 11 were confirmed by molecular method. For analyzing the antimicrobial activity of these isolates properly, diffusion method was performed. The isolates were identified by 318 bp band dedicated for L. plantarum. The isolated L. plantarum represented an inhibitory activity against four of the pathogenic bacteria and showed different inhibition halos against each other. The larger halos were observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (15 ± 0.3 and 14.8 ± 0.7 mm, respectively). The inhibition halo of Escherichia coli was smaller than that of other pathogen and some L. plantarum did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli, which were resistant to antimicrobial compounds produced by L. plantarum. The isolated L. plantarum isolates with the antimicrobial activity in this study had strong probiotic properties. These results indicated the nutritional value of Kouzeh cheese and usage of the isolated isolates as probiotic strains.

  9. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni C. Pappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65 %, salt 1 % made from raw (RMC or pasteurized (PMC goat’s milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 °C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN and nitrogen fraction (% of TN contents, the degradation of intact αs- or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 °C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 °C. All cheese samples (25 g were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Coagulase-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (<100 CFU/g in all PMC samples. Consequently, pasteurization of raw goat milk’s and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  10. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.

  12. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  13. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  14. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula, E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ecuador 3769, Santiago (Chile); Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEP 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 {sup o}C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  15. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 o C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  16. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  17. The Use of Multiplex PCR to Determine the Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk, Feta Cheese, and Hand Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Eleni C; Bontinis, Thomas G; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Samelis, John

    2017-12-01

    The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact α s - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 o C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 o C. All cheese samples (25 g) were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes . Coagulase-
-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (pasteurization of raw goat milk's and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  19. Bioavailability and Safety of Vitamin D3 from Pizza Baked with Fortified Mozzarella Cheese: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalidi, Banaz; Chiu, Winnie; Rousseau, Dérick; Vieth, Reinhold

    2015-09-01

    To assess the bioavailability and safety of vitamin D3 from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 96 apparently healthy, ethnically diverse adults were randomized to consume 200 IU or 28 000 IU vitamin D3 fortified mozzarella cheese with pizza once weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline (week 1) and final (week 10) visits for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other biochemical measures. The primary outcome compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D between groups at 10 weeks. The secondary outcome evaluated the safety of vitamin D dosing protocol as measured by serum and urine calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased by 5.1 ± 11 nmol/L in the low-dose group (n = 47; P = 0.003), and by 73 ± 22 nmol/L in the high-dose group (n = 49; P pizza.

  20. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry leas used for quantifying 28 volatile organic compounds at eight stages during tree storage period. Through principal component analysis, three important storage parameters could be identified. Principal components 1, 2 and 3 reflected storage tinge, conditions of light...

  1. Persistence of wild Streptococcus thermophilus strains on wooden vat and during the manufacture of a traditional Caciocavallo type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, L; Di Grigoli, A; Tornambé, G; Bellina, V; Francesca, N; Moschetti, G; Bonanno, A

    2012-04-02

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the wooden dairy plant equipment on the microbiological characteristics of curd to be transformed into Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese. Traditional raw milk productions were performed concomitantly with standard cheese making trials carried out in stainless steel vat inoculated with a commercial starter. Milk from two different farms (A and B) was separately processed. The wooden vat was found to be a reservoir of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while unwanted (spoilage and/or pathogenic) microorganisms were not hosted or were present at very low levels. All microbial groups were numerically different in bulk milks, showing higher levels for the farm B. LAB, especially thermophilic cocci, dominated the whole cheese making process of all productions. Undesired microorganisms decreased in number or disappeared during transformation, particularly after curd stretching. LAB were isolated from the wooden vat surface and from all dairy samples, subjected to phenotypic and genetic characterization and identification. Streptococcus thermophilus was the species found at the highest concentration in all samples analyzed and it also dominated the microbial community of the wooden vat. Fourteen other LAB species belonging to six genera (Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Weissella) were also detected. All S. thermophilus isolates were genetically differentiated and a consortium of four strains persisted during the whole traditional production process. As confirmed by pH and the total acidity after the acidification step, indigenous S. thermophilus strains acted as a mixed starter culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogenic Amine Production in Olomouc Curd Cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky at Various Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Standarová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and storage time on the formation of biogenic amines (BAs in the traditional Czech curd cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky. Samples were stored for 7 weeks at 5 °C and 20 °C. BAs were studied as dansyl derivatives by the RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection, histamine was determined using a photodiode array detector. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed as specified by the Czech National Standard, as were the sensory characteristics (colour, odour, texture and flavour. The major amines found were cadaverine (124–2413 mg kg-1 and tyramine (117–1058 mg kg-1, followed by putrescine (75–767 mg kg-1 and histamine (74–411 mg kg-1. Low concentrations of tryptamine, spermine and spermidine were present. Total concentrations of BAs significantly increased with storage time (P P -1 at the end of storage. The toxicologically critical value of 900 mg kg-1 for the sum of histamine + tyramine + putrescine + cadaverine was reached 17 days later in the cheese stored at 5 °C compared to 20 °C. When stored at 5 °C, the samples retained adequate sensory characteristics for the entire safe storage time. The effects of storage conditions on BAs formation are relevant to reducing the risk associated with consumption of cheese high in BAs.

  3. Interaction between sodium chloride and texture in semi-hard Danish cheese as affected by brining time, DL-starter culture, chymosin type and cheese ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Marije; Søndergaard Kristensen, Lise; Jespersen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Reduced NaCl in semi-hard cheeses greatly affects textural and sensory properties. The interaction between cheese NaCl concentration and texture was affected by brining time (0-28 h), . dl-starter cultures (C1, C2, and C3), chymosin type (bovine or camel), and ripening time (1-12 weeks). Cheese Na...... is reducible without significant textural impact using well-defined starter cultures and camel chymosin....

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Community from Traditional Istrian Ewe's Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the diversity of indigenous cultivable community of the lactobacilli associated with the production of traditional Istrian cheese and to get a collection of well characterized strains. Raw milk and cheese samples were collected from three different farms in Istria during ripening. A total of 212 mesophilic and thermophilic Lactobacillus isolates as well as bulk colonies (consortia were investigated using culture-dependent approach combining phenotyping and genotyping. Biochemical fingerprinting with PhenePlate-LB system preliminary grouped 212 isolates in 16 distinct PhP types. Only one representative isolate from each PhP cluster was further analyzed by genotyping for a reliable identification at the genus and species level by employing PCR techniques and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed the presence of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Lactobacilli were screened for possible resistance against seven selected antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, rifampin, clindamycin, erythromycin and vancomycin. Although there was no clear pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility to most tested antibiotics, all representative isolates were resistant to vancomycin. The analysis of bulk colonies by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE identified Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis as predominant members of Lactobacillus population. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Streptococcus sp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were also detected as part of the analysed consortia. The prevalence of identified species and community members of lactobacilli agrees with other studies of raw milk cheese and represents a useful base for further selection.

  5. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lydia; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. PMID:28239117

  6. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  7. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Camembert and other soft cheeses at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, J P; Langford, S A; Kroll, R G

    1993-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes survived and, under most conditions, multiplied when inoculated directly into the cheese milk of laboratory made Camembert cheeses. The rate and extent of growth was reduced at lower storage temperatures. Significantly higher rates of growth occurred at the surface compared with the centre of the cheeses, and these were probably associated with increased pH and proteolysis at the cheese surface due to the mould ripening process. Similar results were obtained with Camenbert cheeses surface inoculated after manufacture. There was also temperature-dependent growth of List. monocytogenes on a range of inoculated commercially manufactured soft cheeses. Significant growth occurred in Cambazola, French and English Brie, blue and white Lymeswold, French Camembert and Brie with garlic. Little if any growth occurred in blue and white Stilton, Mycella, Chaume and full fat soft cheese with garlic and herbs at the temperatures examined.

  8. Rheological and sensory properties and aroma compounds formed during ripening of soft brined cheese made from camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    over a ripening period of 60 d. Casein degradation in soft brined camel milk cheese significantly (p fracture significantly (p ... during ripening. However, cheese made with 85 IMCU L−1 coagulant resulted in softening of cheese texture and higher salt uptake. Using descriptive sensory analysis, the experimental cheeses were described as salty, sour and firm. The volatile aroma compounds formed in soft ripened camel milk cheese...

  9. Production of Gouda cheese and Camembert with probiotic cultures: the suitability of some commercial probiotic cultures to be implemented in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, S; Ruyssen, T; Vanheuverzwijn, T; Van Assche, P

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of 10 probiotic cultures (L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium sp., L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei) was examined during the production and ripening of Gouda cheese and Camembert. The overall objective of this research project was to obtain a product (cheese) containing at least 10(7) probiotic cfu/g. In general 10(6) cfu of a probiotic culture must be implemented per ml cheese milk, together with the cheesestarter, to reach this objective. L. paracasei sp. have the ability to grow more than 2 log units during cheese ripening. A lower inoculation value can be considered for these cultures.

  10. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-01-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses. PMID:9406400

  11. Hypocaloric diet supplemented with probiotic cheese improves body mass index and blood pressure indices of obese hypertensive patients - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gut lactobacilli can affect the metabolic functions of healthy humans. We tested whether a 1500 kcal/d diet supplemented with cheese containing the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA (Deutsche Sammlung für Mikroorganismen, DSM 21380) could reduce some symptoms of metabolic syndrome in Russian adults with obesity and hypertension. Methods In this 3-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel pilot study, 25 subjects ingested probiotic cheese and 15 ingested control cheese. Fifty grams of each cheese provided 175 kcal of energy. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric characteristics, markers of liver and kidney function, metabolic indices (plasma glucose, lipids, and cholesterol), and urine polyamines were measured. Counts of fecal lactobacilli and L. plantarum TENSIA were evaluated using molecular methods. The data were analyzed by t-test for independent samples and Spearman’s partial correlation analysis. Results The probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA was present in variable amounts (529.6 ± 232.5 gene copies) in 16/25 (64%) study subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced (p = 0.031) in the probiotic cheese group versus the control cheese group. The changes in BMI were closely associated with the water content of the body (r = 0.570, p = 0.0007) when adjusted for sex and age. Higher values of intestinal lactobacilli after probiotic cheese consumption were associated with higher BMI (r = 0.383, p = 0.0305) and urinary putrescine content (r = 0.475, p = 0.006). In patients simultaneously treated with BP-lowering drugs, similar reductions of BP were observed in both groups. A positive association was detected between TENSIA colonization and the extent of change of morning diastolic BP (r = 0.617, p = 0.0248) and a trend toward lower values of morning systolic BP (r = −0.527, p = 0.0640) at the end of the study after adjusting for BMI, age, and sex. Conclusion In a pilot study of obese hypertensive patients, a hypocaloric

  12. Wine and cheese: two products or one association? A new method for assessing wine-cheese pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Dufau, Lucie; Loiseau, Anne-Laure; Visalli, Michel; Schlich, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource) were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique ...

  13. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  14. Salga de queijo tipo Minas por impregnação a vácuo Salting of Minas cheese by vacuum impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Hofmeister

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o uso da impregnação a vácuo (IV para a salga de queijo tipo Minas, utilizando-se uma câmara hermética, na qual amostras de queijos (cilíndricos, com massa de 500g e dimensões de 120mm de raio por 60mm de altura foram imersas em solução de salmoura com 22% em massa de NaCl. Os ensaios foram realizados após a etapa de enformagem e prensagem, para facilitar a reprodutibilidade estrutural dos queijos. Utilizou-se vácuo de 85,3kPa (Pabsoluta =16kPa, aplicado intermitentemente, intercalado com a recuperação da pressão atmosférica na câmara. Após períodos pré-estabelecidos, a câmara foi aberta e os queijos foram pesados e secionados, de modo a permitir a determinação da distribuição de sal no interior dos mesmos pelo método de Mohr. A salga por IV permitiu a obtenção de queijos com 1,6% em massa de sal em 15 minutos, contra 2,5 horas da salga convencional. Além disso, a distribuição de sal nos queijos salgados por IV foi mais homogênea do que nos queijos salgados por imersão em salmoura a pressão atmosférica. Esses resultados indicaram que a salga de queijos tipo Minas por IV pode ser uma boa alternativa de processamento, tanto do ponto de vista econômico como tecnológico.Minas cheese salting by vacuum impregnation was studied using cylindrical cheese samples of about 500 g and 120 ' 60mm (radius ' height, that were immersed in a hermetic chamber with 22g NaCl/100g, where sub-atmospheric pressures were applied. The essays were performed after the press stage, used in this to obtain more compact cheeses and facilitate the reproducibility of an average cheese pore structure. Vacuum intensity of 85.3kPa (absolute pressure of 16kPa was applied intermittently, interleaving with the atmospheric pressure recuperation in the chamber. After pre-determined periods, the chamber was opened and the cheeses were weighed and cut, in order to determine the salt concentration distributions, by means of a modified Mohr

  15. Quantum confinement effect in cheese like silicon nano structure fabricated by metal induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Shailendra K., E-mail: phd1211512@iiti.ac.in; Sahu, Gayatri; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh [Material Research Laboratory, Discipline of Physics & MSEG, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh-452017 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Quantum confinement effect has been studied in cheese like silicon nano-structures (Ch-SiNS) fabricated by metal induced chemical etching using different etching times. Scanning electron microscopy is used for the morphological study of these Ch-SiNS. A visible photoluminescence (PL) emission is observed from the samples under UV excitation at room temperature due to quantum confinement effect. The average size of Silicon Nanostructures (SiNS) present in the samples has been estimated by bond polarizability model using Raman Spectroscopy from the red-shift observed from SiNSs as compared to its bulk counterpart. The sizes of SiNS present in the samples decreases as etching time increase from 45 to 75 mintunes.

  16. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  17. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K V; Liao, P H

    1986-01-01

    A two-stage digestion of cheese whey was studied using two anaerobic rotating biological contact reactors. The second-stage reactor receiving partially treated effluent from the first-stage reactor could be operated at a hydraulic retention time of one day. The results indicated that two-stage digestion is a feasible alternative for treating whey. 6 references.

  18. The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, H.

    1988-01-01

    The rheological and fracture behaviour of Gouda cheese was studied. Methods for determining these properties of visco-elastic materials are described. Application of the theory of fracture mechanics, after modification and expansion, to visco-elastic materials with a

  19. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  20. Investigation of enzyme modified cheese production by two species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(4), pp. 508-511, 25 ... were used in this study for production of enzyme modified cheese. The results showed that ... Wheat bran was used as the substrate for cultivation of the molds and ...

  1. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified...

  2. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2...

  3. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 133.144 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... this section or by any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and... hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  4. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  5. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavors; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  6. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used. It... purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent, calculated as anhydrous calcium... of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate; but the weight of...

  7. Microbiological and proximate analyses of unripened cheese 'Wara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be attributed to poor hygiene of the handlers and manufacturing practices. A careful appraisal of these procedures and the use of pasteurized milk is suggested to reduce the exposure of consumers to health hazard. Key words: Raw milk, Pathogens, Coliforms, Cheese, food borne pathogens, Proximate composition.

  8. Isolation and characterization of bifidobacteria from ovine cheese

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Musilová, S.; Tomáška, M.; Rada, V.; Kmeť, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-30 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacterium sp. * ovine cheese * cultivation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2014

  9. original article microbial contamination of locally produced cheese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. E-Mail: ... identifié fromage local (' wara ') comme un aliment à haut risque au Nigeria en raison du taux élevé de contamination, car ils sont ... automatically has been conferred to the soft cheese.

  10. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries...

  11. Cheese Matrix Microstructure Studied by Advanced Microscopic Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burdiková, Z.; Hickey, C.; Auty, M. A. E.; Pala, J.; Švindrych, Z.; Steinmetz, I.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Sheehan, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, S3 (2014), s. 1336-1337 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cheese matrix * cryo-SEM * confocal laser scanning microscopy Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  12. The formation mechanism of lactones in Gouda cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Smit, B.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Lactones are fat-derived aroma compounds, but the formation mechanism of these compounds during ripening of Gouda cheese is unknown. Both enzymatic and chemical formation pathways were investigated in this study. Lactone formation from milk triglycerides or free fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria

  13. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol...

  14. Irradiation of 'minas frescal' cheese: physical-chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Domardo, Raquel E.; Gutierrez, Erica Maria Roel

    2000-01-01

    The present work studied the viability of gamma radiation as alternative method of conservation 'minas frescal' cheese through by determining its effect on the physical-chemical properties of this product after irradiation. Cheese elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation CENA/USP, were exposed to doses of 0 (it controls); 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy and stored under refrigeration (±5 deg C). The analysis were accomplished in the 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage considered the following parameters: acidity, pH, moisture and level of proteolysis according to methodology of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C.),1995. The results revealed that the dose of 2 kGy was the most indicated for irradiation of that type of cheese, because after this treatment, the product maintained in good conditions for consumption after 14 days of storage. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as a method of conservation of 'minas frescal' cheese, without causing alterations in its physical-chemical characteristics. (author)

  15. Mycotoxicogenic fungal inhibition by innovative cheese cover with aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Armando; Librán, Celia M; Berruga, M Isabel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel

    2013-03-30

    The use of aromatic plants and their extracts with antimicrobial properties may be compromised in the case of cheese, as some type of fungal starter is needed during its production. Penicillium verrucosum is considered a common cheese spoiler. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innovative use of certain aromatic plants as natural cheese covers in order to prevent mycotoxicogenic fungal growth (P. verrucosum). A collection of 12 essential oils (EOs) was obtained from various aromatic plants by solvent-free microwave extraction technology, and volatile characterisation of the EOs was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most effective EOs against P. verrucosum were obtained from Anethum graveolens, Hyssopus officinalis and Chamaemelum nobile, yielding 50% inhibition of fungal growth at concentration values lower than 0.02 µL mL⁻¹. All EOs showed high volatile heterogeneity, with α-phellandrene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, α-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol and trans-anethole being found to be statistically significant in the antifungal model. The use of these aromatic plants as natural covers on cheese can satisfactorily inhibit the growth of some mycotoxicogenic fungal spoilers. Among the volatile compounds present, α- and β-phellandrene were confirmed as the most relevant in the inhibition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Genetic Markers and Integrons in White Soft Cheese: Aspects of Clinical Resistome and Potentiality of Horizontal Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Ana Caroline L; Medeiros, Julliane D; de Azevedo, Analice C; de Assis Chagas, Jéssica M; da Silva, Vânia L; Diniz, Cláudio G

    2018-02-19

    Antibiotic resistance poses an important threat to global public health and has become a challenge to modern medicine. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a broad range of foods has led to a growing concern about the impact that food may have as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Considering Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC)-a typical Brazilian white soft cheese-and its economic and cultural values, in this study, medically relevant antimicrobial-resistance genetic markers (AR genes) were screened, and the occurrence of integrons were evaluated in manufactured MFC using culture-independent approaches. Through a fingerprinting analysis, the tested MFCs were brand-clustered, indicating reproducibility along the production chain. A common core of resistance markers in all brands evaluated and related antimicrobials such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamide was detected. Several other markers, including efflux pumps and aminoglycosides-resistance were distributed among brands. Class 1 and 2 integrons were observed, respectively, in 77% and 97% of the samples. The presence of AR genes is of special interest due to their clinical relevance. Taken together, the data may suggest that the production chain of MFC might contribute to the spread of putative drug-resistant bacteria, which could greatly impact human health. Furthermore, detection of class 1 and class 2 integrons in MFC has led to discussions about resistance gene spread in this traditional cheese, providing evidence of potential horizontal transfer of AR genes to human gut microbiota.

  18. Evaluation of chemical parameters in soft mold-ripened cheese during ripening by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-del-Campo, S T; Picque, D; Cosío-Ramírez, R; Corrieu, G

    2007-06-01

    The suitability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) to follow the evolution throughout ripening of specific physicochemical parameters in Camembert-type cheeses was evaluated. The infrared spectra were obtained directly from raw cheese samples deposited on an attenuated total reflectance crystal. Significant correlations were observed between physicochemical data, pH, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, ammonia (NH4+), lactose, and lactic acid. Dry matter showed significant correlation only with lactose and nonprotein nitrogen. Principal components analysis factorial maps of physicochemical data showed a ripening evolution in 2 steps, from d 1 to d 7 and from d 8 to d 27, similar to that observed previously from infrared spectral data. Partial least squares regressions made it possible to obtain good prediction models for dry matter, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, lactic acid, and NH4+ values from spectral data of raw cheese. The values of 3 statistical parameters (coefficient of determination, root mean square error of cross validation, and ratio prediction deviation) are satisfactory. Less precise models were obtained for pH.

  19. Effect of deformation history on the stress relaxation behaviour of Colombian Caribbean coastal cheese from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Diego F; Acevedo, Diofanor; Torres-Gallo, Ramiro

    2018-01-01

    Textural attributes are a manifestation of the rheological properties and physical structure of foods, cheeses among these. In order to describe these physical properties, the objective of this work was to analyse the effect of deformation history on the stress relaxation behaviour of Colombian Caribbean coastal cheese made from goat milk with 3.75% (F1), 4.00% (F2) and 4.25% (F3) fat content, through prediction made by a four-term Prony series based on Chen's model. For this, stress relaxation data and stress relaxation spectra were analysed. Moreover, textural attributes by texture profile analysis were measured. Physicochemical results were similar to those published by other authors, and all samples meet national and international standards. Results from this work showed that Chen's model could be successfully used to describe the effect of deformation history on the stress relaxation behaviour of Colombian Caribbean coastal cheese made from goat milk. F1 had the highest elastic response, with the most significant residual modules ( P 0 ) and relaxation times (τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 ). On the other hand, residual modules and relaxation times (τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 ) for cheeses F2 and F3 did not present statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Besides, by interpretation of the stress relaxation spectra, F1 presented the firmest structure (greatest distribution function and relaxation time) which was characterised by the highest elastic behaviour. Finally, according to texture profile analysis test, F1 had the highest hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness, whereas F2 and F3 did not present statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between them.

  20. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  1. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  2. Comparison of two methods to explore consumer preferences for cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2009-12-01

    In the past 2 decades, total sales of cottage cheese have declined 17% despite increases in sales for low-fat cottage cheese. There are no recent published studies investigating consumer preferences for cottage cheese. This study was conducted to identify and define sensory characteristics of commercial cottage cheese and to compare 2 approaches for characterizing consumer preferences: traditional preference mapping and a new composite qualitative approach, qualitative multivariate analysis (QMA). A sensory language was identified to document the sensory properties (visual, flavor, and texture) of cottage cheeses. Twenty-six commercial cottage cheeses with variable fat contents (4, 2, 1, and 0% fat) were evaluated by trained panelists using the sensory language. Eight representative cottage cheeses were selected for consumer acceptance testing (n = 110) and QMA with consumer home usage testing (n = 12), followed by internal and external preference mapping to identify key drivers. Principal component analysis of descriptive data indicated that cottage cheeses were primarily differentiated by cooked, milkfat, diacetyl, and acetaldehyde flavors and salty taste, and by firmness, smoothness, tackiness, curd size, and adhesiveness texture attributes. Similar drivers of liking (diacetyl and milkfat flavors, smooth texture, and mouthcoating) were identified by both consumer research techniques. However, the QMA technique identified controversial distinctions among the cottage cheeses and the influence of brand and pricing. These results can be used by processors to promote cottage cheese sales.

  3. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  4. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimized enrichment for the detection of Escherichia coli O26 in French raw milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, F; Rozand, C; Bouvier, M; Gleizal, A; Thevenot, D

    2011-06-01

    Our main objective was to optimize the enrichment of Escherichia coli O26 in raw milk cheeses for their subsequent detection with a new automated immunological method. Ten enrichment broths were tested for the detection of E. coli O26. Two categories of experimentally inoculated raw milk cheeses, semi-hard uncooked cheese and 'Camembert' type cheese, were initially used to investigate the relative efficacy of the different enrichments. The enrichments that were considered optimal for the growth of E. coli O26 in these cheeses were then challenged with other types of raw milk cheeses. Buffered peptone water supplemented with cefixim-tellurite and acriflavin was shown to optimize the growth of E. coli O26 artificially inoculated in the cheeses tested. Despite the low inoculum level (1-10 CFU per 25 g) in the cheeses, E. coli O26 counts reached at least 5.10(4) CFU ml(-1) after 24-h incubation at 41.5 °C in this medium. All the experimentally inoculated cheeses were found positive by the immunological method in the enrichment broth selected. Optimized E. coli O26 enrichment and rapid detection constitute the first steps of a complete procedure that could be used in routine to detect E. coli O26 in raw milk cheeses. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  7. Identification and enzymatic characterization of the yeasts isolated from Erzincan tulum cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karasu-Yalcin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 146 yeast isolates were obtained from 45 Erzincan tulum cheese samples. By using API ID 32C test system and some complementary morphological, physiological and biochemica tests, 121 of the isolates could be identified at species level, while 12 of them were identified at genus level. The identified yeast isolates belonged to six different genera which were Candida, Geotrichum, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces. The most aboundant species was C. lambica, followed by C. zeylanoides, C. famata var. famata, G. candidum and C. kefyr. Enzymatic characterization of the strains was determined by using API-ZYM test system. All of the isolates had leucin arylamidase activity. Eight strains belonging to S. cerevisiae, Z. mellis, G. candidum and P. fermentans were found to have high leucin arylamidase activities. Most of the isolates had β-galactosidase, acid phosphatase and esterase lipase (C8 activities. Eight investigated C. lambica strains had high acid phosphatase activities. Such enzymatic properties of investigated yeast isolates could be fundamental factor for their application as starter culture candidates in production of Erzincan tulum cheese. It was demonstrated that the strain C. lambica T103 had superior enzymatic characteristics with the potential to be used in further technological investigations as an adjunct starter.

  8. A selected core microbiome drives the early stages of three popular italian cheese manufactures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Filippis

    Full Text Available Mozzarella (M, Grana Padano (GP and Parmigiano Reggiano (PR are three of the most important traditional Italian cheeses. In the three cheese manufactures the initial fermentation is carried out by adding natural whey cultures (NWCs according to a back-slopping procedure. In this study, NWCs and the corresponding curds from M, GP and PR manufactures were analyzed by culture-independent pyrosequencing of the amplified V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, in order to provide insights into the microbiota involved in the curd acidification. Moreover, culture-independent high-throughput sequencing of lacS gene amplicons was carried out to evaluate the biodiversity occurring within the S. thermophilus species. Beta diversity analysis showed a species-based differentiation between GP-PR and M manufactures indicating differences between the preparations. Nevertheless, all the samples shared a naturally-selected core microbiome, that is involved in the curd acidification. Type-level variability within S. thermophilus species was also found and twenty-eight lacS gene sequence types were identified. Although lacS gene did not prove variable enough within S. thermophilus species to be used for quantitative biotype monitoring, the possibility of using non rRNA targets for quantitative biotype identification in food was highlighted.

  9. Camembert-type cheese ripening dynamics are changed by the properties of wrapping films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M N; Guillemin, H; Perret, B; Cattenoz, T; Provost, J J; Corrieu, G

    2010-12-01

    Four gas-permeable wrapping films exhibiting different degrees of water permeability (ranging from 1.6 to 500 g/m(2) per d) were tested to study their effect on soft-mold (Camembert-type) cheese-ripening dynamics compared with unwrapped cheeses. Twenty-three-day trials were performed in 2 laboratory-size (18L) respiratory-ripening cells under controlled temperature (6 ± 0.5°C), relative humidity (75 ± 2%), and carbon dioxide content (0.5 to 1%). The films allowed for a high degree of respiratory activity; no limitation in gas permeability was observed. The wide range of water permeability of the films led to considerable differences in cheese water loss (from 0.5 to 12% on d 23, compared with 15% for unwrapped cheeses), which appeared to be a key factor in controlling cheese-ripening progress. A new relationship between 2 important cheese-ripening descriptors (increase of the cheese core pH and increase of the cheese's creamy underrind thickness) was shown in relation to the water permeability of the wrapping film. High water losses (more than 10 to 12% on d 23) also were observed for unwrapped cheeses, leading to Camembert cheeses that were too dry and poorly ripened. On the other hand, low water losses (from 0.5 to 1% on d 23) led to over-ripening in the cheese underrind, which became runny as a result. Finally, water losses from around 3 to 6% on d 23 led to good ripening dynamics and the best cheese quality. This level of water loss appeared to be ideal in terms of cheese-wrapping film design. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...

  11. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min of warming at lower temperature (40 °C without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Sandoval

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  13. Synthetic Culture Media Evaluated for the Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Milk, Cheese and Egg Melange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple synthetic culture media of liquid and solid form (X broth and X agar were tested for selective isolation of coliform bacteria. Selectivity is based on the ability of coliform bacteria to grow when the minimal medium contains simple inorganic substances as nitrogen and carbon supply. Selectivity of the media was tested by inoculation of pure cultures of different microbes belonging to the genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas and the family Enterobacteriaceae and was found to be complete in this range. The comparative investigation of milk, camembert cheese and egg melange samples in the traditional and new media proved good applicability of X broth and X agar for an effective and selective detection of coliform bacteria. When testing pasteurized milk samples, X agar detected coliforms in significantly higher counts than violet red-bile-lactose agar.

  14. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  15. Overview of a surface-ripened cheese community functioning by meta-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dugat-Bony

    Full Text Available Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a long time on surface-ripened cheeses, but only limited knowledge has been acquired about its in situ metabolic activities. We applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and biochemical analyses to an experimental surface-ripened cheese composed of nine microbial species during four weeks of ripening. By combining all of the data, we were able to obtain an overview of the cheese maturation process and to better understand the metabolic activities of the different community members and their possible interactions. Furthermore, differential expression analysis was used to select a set of biomarker genes, providing a valuable tool that can be used to monitor the cheese-making process.

  16. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    -starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low....... A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria...... with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL...

  17. PCR and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157® Escherichia coli O157:H7 identification in Minas Frescal cheese commercialized in Goiânia, GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Nunes Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in many countries. Considering the high susceptibility of Minas Frescal cheese to contamination by E. coli O157:H7, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of this pathogen through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®, bioMérieux, Lyon, France test. Thirty cheese samples manufactured by artisan farmhouse producers were collected from open-air markets in Goiânia and thirty from industries under Federal Inspection located in Goiás State which trade their products in supermarkets in Goiânia. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 6.67% samples collected in open air markets using ELISA, and 23,33% with PCR. The pathogen was not detected in samples from industries under Federal Inspection.

  18. PCR and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®) Escherichia coli O157:H7 identification in Minas Frescal cheese commercialized in Goiânia, GO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rosangela Nunes; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Minafra e Rezende, Cíntia Silva; de Mesquita, Adriano Queiroz; Romero, Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in many countries. Considering the high susceptibility of Minas Frescal cheese to contamination by E. coli O157:H7, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of this pathogen through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®, bioMérieux, Lyon, France) test. Thirty cheese samples manufactured by artisan farmhouse producers were collected from open-air markets in Goiânia and thirty from industries under Federal Inspection located in Goiás State which trade their products in supermarkets in Goiânia. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 6.67% samples collected in open air markets using ELISA, and 23,33% with PCR. The pathogen was not detected in samples from industries under Federal Inspection. PMID:24948907

  19. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of salers-type cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Callon, Cecile; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    The sensory characteristics of Salers Protected Denomination of Origin raw-milk cheeses are linked to the biochemical composition of the raw material (milk) and to the resultant microbial community. To evaluate the influence of the microbial community on sensory characteristics, Salers-type cheeses were manufactured with the same pasteurized milk, reinoculated with 3 different microbial communities from 3 different filtrates from microfiltered milks. Each cheese was subjected to microbial cou...

  20. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive, catalase-negative and asporogenous bacterial strains were selected for a more detailed characterization. Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were determined to be homofermentative cocci and four heterofermentative lactobacilli. Further phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed that those were two different LAB strains with high acidifying and proteolytic activity, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These two autochthonous strains, alone or in combination with commercial starter, were used to produce different types of fresh cheese, which were evaluated by a panel. Conventional culturing, isolation, identification and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE procedures, applied to the total fresh cheese DNA extracts, were employed to define and monitor the viability of the introduced LAB strains and their effect on the final product characteristics. Production of fresh cheese using a combination of commercial starter culture and selected autochthonous strains resulted in improved sensorial properties, which were more similar to the ones of spontaneously fermented fresh cheese than to those of cheese produced with only starter culture or selected strains. After 10 days of storage, that cheese retained the best sensorial properties in comparison with all other types of cheese. The presence of inoculated autochthonous and starter cultures and their identification was demonstrated by DGGE analysis. The obtained

  2. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Hulak; Ana Žgomba Maksimović; Ana Kaić; Andrea Skelin; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2016-01-01

    Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may resul...

  3. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  4. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  5. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polimerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. The LAB isolates from cheese BGPT9 (four days old belonged to the eight species of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc garlicum, while in the BGPT10 cheese (eight months old only two species were present (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Proteolytic activity showed 30 LAB from BGPT9 cheese, mainly enterococci. From BGPT10 cheese only one isolate (which belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species possessed partial ability to hydrolyze β-casein. Seven enterococci from BGPT9 cheese and four enterococci from BGPT10 cheese produced antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Production of Mozzarella Cheese Using Rennin Enzyme from Mucor miehei Grown at Rice Bran Molasses Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdan, I. H.; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to study the characteristic and yield of Mozzarella cheese produced by using rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei which is grown at rice bran and molasses medium. The popularity of Mozzarella cheese in Indonesia is increased caused by the spreading of western foods in Indonesia such as pizza and spaghetti that use Mozzarella cheese for ingredient. In Italy, Mozzarella and pizza cheeses are dominating 78% of the total Italian Cheese products. In producing Mozzarella cheese, rennin enzyme is always used as milk coagulant. Even now, Indonesia has not produced the rennin enzyme yet. The rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei growing at rice bran and molases medium which have the availability can be managed purposively within short period of time. The completly randomized design methode used to get the best crude extracts of Mucor miehei rennin enzyme, then is employed to produce mozzarella cheese. The result of Mozzarella cheese has various characteristics such as the yield’s weight is 9.1%, which consists of 50% moisture content, 36.64% peotein levels, 0.1 melting ability and 82.72% stretch ability or 0.79/N. With that characteristic it is concluded that rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei grown at rice bran molasses medium has the potential to alternatively subtitute calf rennin to produce Mozzarella cheese, and the characteristics fulfill the standart.

  7. Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerheijm, K L; Groen, H J; Beentjes, V E; Poorterman, J H

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands, first permanent molars with idiopathic enamel disturbances (IED) are called cheese molars. Though concern is expressed about their prevalence, adequate figures on the subject are missing. The porous enamel of cheese molars can be very sensitive to cold air and can decay rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence in eleven-year-old Dutch children of cheese molars (IED). During an epidemiological study performed in four cities in the Netherlands, the first permanent molars and central incisors of eleven-year-old children were examined for hypoplasia, opacities, posteruptive enamel loss, premature extraction, and atypical restorations. The observation of a hypoplasia excluded the possibility of cheese molar. A total of 497 children were examined. Six percent (n = 128) of the molars (n = 1988) showed signs of IED (cheese molars), 10 percent of the children had cheese molars of which 8 percent two or more. Incisors (4 percent) with opacities were found in 3 percent in combination with two or more cheese molars. Among the four cities, no significant differences in occurrence were found. The results of this study showed that in 10 percent of the Dutch children eleven years of age, cheese molars (IED) were found. The cause for the phenomenon called cheese molars appears to be child centered. Further studies on prevalence, causes and prevention are mandatory.

  8. Evaluation of a method for assaying sulfonamide antimicrobial residues in cheese: hot-water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Giorgio; Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Laganá, Aldo

    2006-06-28

    Several sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAAs) are largely used in veterinary medicine. A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining 12 SAAs in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique followed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) equipped with an electrospray ion source. Target compounds were extracted from Mozzarella, Asiago, Parmigiano, Emmenthal, and Camembert cheese samples by 6 mL of water modified with 10% methanol and heated at 120 degrees C. The addition of methanol to hot water served to improve remarkably extraction yields of the most lipophilic SAAs, that is, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline. After acidification and filtration, 100 microL of the aqueous extract was injected in the LC column. MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting two precursor-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Methanol-modified hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recovery ranged between 67 and 88%. Using sulfamoxole as surrogate analyte, recovery of the 12 analytes spiked in the five types of cheese considered at the 50 ng/g level ranged between 75 and 105% with RSD not higher than 11%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not affected by the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. The accuracy of the method was determined at three spike levels, that is, 20, 50, and 100 ng/g, and varied between 73 and 102% with relative standard deviations ranging between 4 and 12%. On the basis of a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantification were estimated to be <1 ng/g.

  9. Effect of type of concentrated sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield, and functionality of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lin, T; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2007-06-01

    Sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) is a rich source of phospholipids (PL). Most SCB is sold in a concentrated form. This study was conducted to determine if different concentration processes could affect the behavior of SCB as an ingredient in cheese. Sweet cream buttermilk was concentrated by 3 methods: cold ( pizza cheese was manufactured using the 3 different types of concentrated SCB as an ingredient in standardized milk. Cheesemilks of casein:fat ratio of 1.0 and final casein content approximately 2.7% were obtained by blending ultrafiltered (UF)-SCB retentate (19.9% solids), RO-SCB retentate (21.9% solids), or EVAP-SCB retentate (36.6% solids) with partially skimmed milk (11.2% solids) and cream (34.6% fat). Control milk (11.0% solids) was standardized by blending partially skimmed milk with cream. Cheese functionality was assessed using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology, UW Meltprofiler (degree of flow after heating to 60 degrees C), and performance of cheese on pizza. Initial trials with SCB-fortified cheeses resulted in approximately 4 to 5% higher moisture (51 to 52%) than control cheese (approximately 47%). In subsequent trials, procedures were altered to obtain similar moisture content in all cheeses. Fat recoveries were significantly lower in RO- and EVAP-SCB cheeses than in control or UF-SCB cheeses. Nitrogen recoveries were not significantly different but tended to be slightly lower in control cheeses than the various SCB cheeses. Total PL recovered in SCB cheeses ( approximately 32 to 36%) were lower than control ( approximately 41%), even though SCB is high in PL. From the rheology test, the loss tangent curves at temperatures > 40 degrees C increased as cheese aged up to a month and were significantly lower in SCB cheeses than the control, indicating lower meltability. Degree of flow in all the cheeses was similar regardless of the treatment used, and as cheese ripened, it increased for all cheeses. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble N levels were

  10. Food safety hazards in Georgian Tushuri Guda cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil Korakhashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific-research work provides a timely and valuable review of the progress being made in the greater understanding of the factors contributing to Tushuri Guda cheese making and how this experience may be applied to producing better and more consistent products with food safety HACCP system requirements. The HACCP study in this variety of cheese covers all types of food safety hazards, like biological, chemical and physical, but unfortunately it needs a more precise definition. It did not include clarification of cleaning and sanitation operations in accordance with modern standards, sanitation of grasslands and meadows. All of that are covered by the plant Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs procedures and Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs for the obtaining of maximal food safety results.

  11. Solar water heating for small cheese factories in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros Donohue, A A

    1982-03-01

    Plans are described for the implementation of 40 small plants to be used for cheese production. As a start, a demonstration plant has been built in San Juan de Chuquibambilla-Puno, Peru. Design and testing of a flat plate solar collector, to be used for water heating purposes, are described. The cheese making process is discussed. Essentially two pots are required, one at 32/sup 0/C and one at 80/sup 0/. Two flat plate collectors (1.12 m/sup 2/ each) are connected to a 150 l storage tank. Instrumentation and results are discussed. Total efficiency of the process is given as 40%. It is concluded that future installations should consider using biogas digesters and wind driven water pumps in addition to the solar collectors. A brief discussion of the climate, population distribution, and economy of Peru is given. (MJJ)

  12. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  13. Development of an autochthonous starter culture for spreadable goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia FRAU

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to select strains of LAB autochthonous from Santiago del Estero to formulate a starter culture for making spreadable goat cheese. Four strains were selected: CRL1799 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high acidifying activity, CRL1803 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high proteolytic activity, CRL1808 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus with production of exopolysaccharide and CRL1785 (Enterococcus faecium with diacetyl-acetoin production. The selected strains showed qualities that make them useful as starter culture in the elaboration of spreadable cheese. This starter culture is an alternative that allows obtaining differentiated products. The inclusion of CRL1808 strains seems to improve the rheology and texture, excluding the use of additives.

  14. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  15. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  16. Efficient lactulose production from cheese whey using sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Park, Gwon Woo; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-15

    An economical method of lactulose production from cheese whey was developed using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Three parameters such as temperature, reaction time, and Na2CO3 concentration were identified as experimental factors, and yield was selected as a response parameter. The experimental factors were optimised employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum yield of 29.6% was obtained at reaction time of 20.41 min, Na2CO3 of 0.51% at 90 °C. To overcome this limited lactulose yield, due to the conversion of lactulose to galactose, fed batch system was applied using dried cheese whey as lactose source. By this system, limit was broken, and 15.8 g/L of lactulose is produced in hour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Batch cultivation of kluyveromyces fragilis in cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausejour, D; Leduy, A; Ramalho, R S

    1981-08-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was cultivated batchwise in an open pond rectangular bioreactor at 30 degrees Centigrade, 2vvm of aeration, under non-sterile conditions and uncontrolled pH. The culture medium contained 7% cheese whey powder, 0.25% KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, 0.5% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and was adjusted to an initial pH of 4.0 with phosphoric acid. The lactose was almost completely consumed after 16 hours and COD reduction attained 80% after 64 hours. The maximum suspended solids concentration obtained was 11.7 g/L. The cheese whey which had initially low protein and high lactose contents was converted by this system into a high protein and low lactose carbohydrate product. (Refs. 26).

  18. Batch cultivation of kluyveromyces fragilis in cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausejour, D; Leduy, A; Ramalho, R S

    1981-01-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was cultivated batchwise in an open pond rectangular bioreactor at 30 degrees Celcius with aeration, under non-sterile conditions and uncontrolled pH. The culture medium contained 7% cheese whey powder, 0.25% KH2PO4, and 0.5% (NH4)2SO4 and was adjusted to an initial pH of 4.0 with H3PO4. The lactose was almost completely consumed after 16 hours and COD reduction attained 80% after 64 hours. The maximum suspended solids concentration obtained was 11.7 g/L. The cheese whey which had initially low protein and high lactose contents was converted by this system into a high protein and low lactose carbohydrate product.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey: Energetic and nutritional potential for the dairy sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, H; Castro, L; Amaya, M P; Jaimes, L; Jaimes-Estévez, J

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated. Second, biomethane and struvite potentials were assessed using cattle slurry as inoculum. The organic matter in CW varied from 40 to 65gVS/kg, 65 to 140g COD/L, and 2 to 10g/L for VFAs depending on the sampling time and type of sample. The pH of the CW samples ranged from 3 to 6.5. In the anaerobic biodegradability analysis, methane yields reached 0.51 to 0.60L CH 4 /g VS added , which represented electrical and caloric potentials of 54 and 108kWh/m 3 for CW, respectively. Organic matter removal in all experiments was above 83%. Moreover, anaerobic digestates presented NH 4 + /PO 4 3- molar ratios between 2.6 and 4.0, which are adequate for struvite precipitation with potential production of 8.5-10.4g struvite/L CW. Finally, the use of biogas as energetic supplement and struvite as soil fertilizer, represents economics saves of US$ 6.91/m 3 CW and US$ 5.75/m 3 CW in therms of electricity and fertilizer use, respectively. The energetic, agricultural and economic potentials, evidence that AD process is a feasible alternative for cheese whey treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Microstructure of cheese: Processing, technological and microbiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cláudia I.; Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance and texture; hence, a renewed interest in its microstructure has been on the rise, as sophisticated techniques of analysis become more and more informative and widely available. Processing parameters that affect microstructure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product as perceived by the consumer; rational relationships between microstructure (which includes biochem...

  1. Sequencing of the Cheese Microbiome and Its Relevance to Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya. R. Yeluri Jonnala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of cheese plays a key role in determining its organoleptic and other physico-chemical properties. It is essential to understand the various contributions, positive or negative, of these microbial components in order to promote the growth of desirable taxa and, thus, characteristics. The recent application of high throughput DNA sequencing (HTS facilitates an even more accurate identification of these microbes, and their functional properties, and has the potential to reveal those microbes, and associated pathways, responsible for favorable or unfavorable characteristics. This technology also facilitates a detailed analysis of the composition and functional potential of the microbiota of milk, curd, whey, mixed starters, processing environments, and how these contribute to the final cheese microbiota, and associated characteristics. Ultimately, this information can be harnessed by producers to optimize the quality, safety, and commercial value of their products. In this review we highlight a number of key studies in which HTS was employed to study the cheese microbiota, and pay particular attention to those of greatest relevance to industry.

  2. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  3. The use of bacconcentrate Herobacterin in brine cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Slyvka:

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article a comparative analysis of the use of the bacterial preparation Herobacterin and the starter RSF-742 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark in the technology of brine cheese was conducted. Herobacterin is a bacterial preparation created using bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus garvieae, isolated from traditional Carpathian brine cheese brynza and identified using classical microbiological and modern molecular genetic methods (RAPD-PCR, RFLP-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The results of investigations of organoleptic, physico-chemical, syneretical and microbiological parameters of cheese brynza with use of preparation Herobacterin are presented in comparison with the starter RSF-742, which includes cultures: Lactococcus lactis subsp. сremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus. The use of Herobacterin has a positive effect on organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, all parameters complied with the requirements of DSTU 7065:2009. The level of survival of lactic acid bacteria in brynza during maturation and storage is high, which confirms the correctness of the selection of strains to preparation Herobakterin, which demonstrated good adaptability to the composition and properties of ewe's milk.

  4. CULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF CHEESE TYPE FOR KINGDOM PERNAMBUCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa Shinohara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is one of the great achievements in the preservation of milk, using simple techniques and preserving important protein source in different food crops. Originally from the Netherlands, Edam cheese was introduced in Brazil in 1880 by the Portuguese colonizers, hence the name "kingdom." Currently, in the industrial production, the legislation determines that it is classified as "kingdom type ". Due to the high lipid and sodium content, this product that is most suitable in the composition of sandwiches, in sauces added to pasta and composition along with the desserts, these associations are part of the tradition, flavors and knowledge of Pernambuco’s cooking. A ball of Kingdom cheese is something that you have to give to families, especially in Christmas time and St. John, because it symbolizes the wish for happiness and prosperity in the northeastern important religious festivals calendar, where relatives and friends gather to celebrate the dates in question, putting on their tables this precious culinary heritage of Pernambuco.

  5. Use of egg white protein powder based films fortified with sage and lemon balm essential oils in the storage of lor cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible film was produced by adding 3 % sorbitol (w/v to egg white protein powder (EWPP. The first group of lor cheese samples was coated with a film fortified by sage essential oil (SEO and the second group of samples was coated with films enriched by adding lemon balm essential oil (BEO at various concentrations [0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % (v/v]. The films were labeled as EWPPSEO(0.5, EWPPSEO(1, EWPPSEO(2, EWPPBEO(0.5, EWPPBEO(1, EWPPBEO(2 to indicate the type and the concentration of the additive. The third batch of the lor cheese samples was coated exclusively with non-fortified EWPP and the fourth batch was uncoated. All of the cheese samples were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Viable cell counts of these species, yeasts and moulds were determined after the cheese production. All the samples were stored at +4 °C. Their physicochemical and microbiological properties were examined on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th day of the storage. Thereat significant (P0.05. Physicochemical and antibacterial properties were more significant in SEO at all concentrations compared to BEO. However, the antifungal effect of BEO was higher than that of SEO. The antifungal effect of BEO was the same at 1 % (v/v and 2 % (v/v concentrations. E. coli O157:H7 was the most resistant microorganism to the essential oils while L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive. EWPP showed a bacteriostatic effect on the microorganisms and bactericidal effects were determined on the 30th day of the storage against L. monocytogenes and yeast-moulds.

  6. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  7. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  8. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  9. Technological properties of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Pico cheese an artisanal cow's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S C; Coelho, M C; Todorov, S D; Franco, B D G M; Dapkevicius, M L E; Silva, C C G

    2014-03-01

    Evaluate technologically relevant properties from bacteriocin-producing strains to use as starter/adjunct cultures in cheese making. Eight isolates obtained from Pico cheese produced in Azores (Portugal) were found to produce bacteriocins against Listeria monocytogenes and three isolates against Clostridium perfringens. They were identified as Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecalis and submitted to technological tests: growth at different conditions of temperature and salt, acid production, proteolysis, lipolysis, coexistence, enzymatic profile and autolytic capacity. Safety evaluation was performed by evaluating haemolytic, gelatinase and DNase activity, resistance to antibiotics and the presence of virulence genes. Some isolates presented good technological features such as high autolytic activity, acid and diacetyl production. Lactococcus lactis was negative for all virulence genes tested and inhibit the growth of all Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates. Enterococci were positive for the presence of some virulence genes, but none of the isolates were classified as resistant to important antibiotics. The bacteriocin-producing Lc. lactis present good potential for application in food as adjunct culture in cheese production. The study also reveals good technological features for some Enterococcus isolates. Bacteriocin-producing strains presented important technological properties to be exploited as new adjunct culture for the dairy industry, influencing flavour development and improve safety. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ibba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental samples collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces were analysed according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard method. Identification of the isolated strains was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The higher prevalence rate was found in the following areas: salting, products washing, packaging, ricotta salata storage and Pecorino Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes was never found in the cheese-making area. The probability of observing samples positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes was asso- ciated with dairy plant, sampling area and the period of cheese-making (P<0.001. The greater persistence of contamination over time was observed in the washing, salting, and Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control of persistent environmental contamination relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes niches within the processing environment and the prevention of harborage sites formation. The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes environmental contamination is confirmed by the lower level of contamination observed after these procedures were correctly implemented.

  11. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  12. Acceptability and purchase intention of goat’s Coalho cheese seasoned with cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bonfim da Silva

    2017-08-01

    addition, 76,3% of the judges affirmed that they would buy the goat cheese seasoned with cachaça. Thus, the elaborated cheese obtained good acceptability and purchase intention, indicating that the cachaça can be used

  13. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of Salers-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, C; Berdagué, J L; Dufour, E; Montel, M C

    2005-11-01

    The sensory characteristics of Salers Protected Denomination of Origin raw-milk cheeses are linked to the biochemical composition of the raw material (milk) and to the resultant microbial community. To evaluate the influence of the microbial community on sensory characteristics, Salers-type cheeses were manufactured with the same pasteurized milk, reinoculated with 3 different microbial communities from 3 different filtrates from microfiltered milks. Each cheese was subjected to microbial counts (on selective media), biochemical tests, and volatile and sensory component analyses at different times of ripening. Adding different microbial communities to specimens of the same (biochemically identical) pasteurized milk lead to different sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Cheeses with fresh cream, hazelnut, and caramel attributes were opposed to those with fermented cream, chemical, and garlic flavors. The aromatic compounds identified (esters, acids, alcohols, and aldehydes) in these cheeses were quite similar. Nevertheless, one milk was distinguished by a higher content of acetoin, and lower 2-butanone and 3-methylpentanone concentrations. Over the production period of 1 mo, the different cheeses were characterized by the same balance of the microbial population assessed by microbial counts on different media. This was associated with the stability of some sensory attributes describing these cheeses. Nevertheless, there was no linear correlation between microbial flora data and sensory characteristics as measured in this study.

  14. Dynamics of complex microbiota and enzymes in Divle Cave cheese and their biochemical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturkoglu Budak, S.

    2016-01-01

    Divle Cave cheese is a raw ewe’s milk cheese ripened with the aid of a rich microbiota and a wide range of protease and lipase enzymes secreted by individual strains belong to this microbial community. The study presented in this thesis mainly aims to define the diversity and evolution of the

  15. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  16. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  17. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  18. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  19. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  20. Eco-efficiency in the production chain of Dutch semi-hard cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Dolman, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable cheese production chain, not only its ecological impact must be minimized, but economic value must be added along the chain also. The objectives of this study were to gain insight into ecological hotspots of the cheese chain, and to judge the ecological impact of chain