WorldWideScience

Sample records for karate involving punches

  1. Kinematics of self-initiated and reactive karate punches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Quel, Oscar; Bennett, Simon J

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether within-task expertise affects the reported asymmetry in execution time exhibited in reactive and self-initiated movements. Karate practitioners and no-karate practitioners were compared performing a reverse punch in reaction to an external stimulus or following the intention to produce a response (self-initiated). The task was completed following the presentation of a specific (i.e., life-size image of opponent) or general stimulus and in the presence of click trains or white noise. Kinematic analyses indicated reactive movement had shorter time to peak velocity and movement time, as well as greater accuracy than self-initiated movement. These differences were independent of participant skill level although peak velocity was higher in the karate practice group than in the no-karate practice group. Reaction time (RT) of skilled participants was facilitated by a specific stimulus. There was no effect on RT or kinematic variables of the different type of auditory cues. The results of this study indicate that asymmetry in execution time of reactive and self-initiated movement holds irrespective of within-task expertise and stimulus specificity. This could have implications for training of sports and/or relearning of tasks that require rapid and accurate movements to intercept/contact a target.

  2. Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Chih Chang; Tsu-Ming Yeh; Fan-Yun Pai; Tai-Peng Huang

    2018-01-01

    This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, &ld...

  3. Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants' Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Chih; Yeh, Tsu-Ming; Pai, Fan-Yun; Huang, Tai-Peng

    2018-05-10

    This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research.

  4. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G.

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  5. Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Chih; Pai, Fan-Yun; Huang, Tai-Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research. PMID:29748459

  6. Karate cicatrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B B; Mutasim, D F

    2001-06-01

    A 46-year-old male presented with linear scars on the dorsal aspects of both hands. The lesions were caused by trauma occurring during the practice of karate. Sports-related scars should be included in the differential diagnosis of scars on the dorsal aspects of the hands.

  7. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  8. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  9. Paper Punch Tape

    CERN Multimedia

    Physicists coded and recorded their programs through series of holes on punch paper tape or on punched cards. It was popular in the 1970s due to its high throughput speed and low cost, paper tape was one of the original data storage methods for computers. Information was encoded in the distinct pattern of holes punched in the paper; the paper itself was oiled to facilitate being run through the reading mechanism and to prevent tears due to brittleness. Though the paper was cheap, it had low storage capacity (only a few dozen kilobytes per roll) and the machinery involved in punching the holes was quite expensive. Higher capacity alternatives, such as magnetic tape, has get developped.

  10. INJURY PROFILE IN WOMEN SHOTOKAN KARATE CHAMPIONSHIPS IN IRAN(2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Halabchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005 was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight, athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries, type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4% followed by the lower limb (21%, upper limb (12.9% and trunk (10.8%. Punches (48. 4% were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%. The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%, hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%, lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%, concussion (13, 7%, tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%, joint dislocation (3, 1.6% and fractures (3, 1.6%. In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries

  11. Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points 186 injuries were recorded during women competitions. Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated. The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck. Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries. PMID:24198704

  12. Studies of lubricants and punch design in punching of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils are often applied in punching and blanking operations especially involving stainless steel workpiece materials. This is due to the fact that punching and blanking are among the tribologically most difficult forming operations...

  13. Incidence and nature of karate injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destombe, Claire; Lejeune, Laurent; Guillodo, Yannick; Roudaut, Anne; Jousse, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valérie; Saraux, Alain

    2006-03-01

    To determine the incidence and nature of karate injuries sustained in karate clubs and to identify risk factors for injuries. One hundred eighty-six individuals from three karate clubs in Brest, France, were entered in a retrospective study extending from September 2002 to June 2003. Each athlete was asked to complete a questionnaire on karate injuries sustained during the previous year (type, location, mechanism, exercise during which the injury occurred, number of days off training and work, and medical care). Injury types were described by number of injuries and risk factors per number of injured athletes. Forty-eight (28.8%) of the 186 athletes sustained 83 injuries (63 while training and 20 while competing). The annual injury rate was 44.6 per 100 athletes. Incidence rates were similar in males and females and across the three clubs but increased with age, time spent training (3.6+/-1.7 vs. 2.9+/-1.5 h/week; P=0.001), rank (lower ranks vs. brown and black belts, P=0.015), and years of practice (7.3+/-5.5 years in athletes with injuries vs. 5.1+/-4.8 in those without injuries; P=0.03). Injuries consisted of 43 (53%) hematomas, 16 (19%) sprains, seven (7%) muscle lesions, six (7%) fractures, four (5%) malaise episodes, and seven (7%) miscellaneous lesions. Time off training occurred for 26 (31.3%) injuries and ranged from 8 to >30 days. The body region involved was the head in 22 (26.5%) injuries, the torso in eight injuries (9.6%), the upper limb in 24 (28.9%) injuries, and the lower limb in 29 (35%) injuries. Karate injuries are fairly common but usually minor. They are more likely to occur during competitions than while training. The head and limbs are the main regions involved. Longer training times per week and higher rank are associated with an increased risk of injury. Prevention seems crucial.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATING THE ANTROPOMETRIC, MOTOR AND SPECIFIC MOTOR DIMENSIONS ON THE ELEMENTS OF THE ATTACK IN SPORT KARATE FIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research involved 48 participants - top male karate competitors, juniors from karate clubs from Republic of Macedonia. The subject of this research are the defining elements of karate attack in sports karate fighting, and the basic aim is to establish the influence of anthropometric, motor and specific motor dimensions on the karate elements that use in sport karate fighting. In the research were used 36 variables: 4 antropomotorical variables, 4 variables for estimate on the explosive strength, 4 variables for estimate on the segmentary speed (movement frequency, 12 variables of the specific karate elements used in the sport karate fighting and 12 variables for estimate on the specifically karate abilities in 3 motor space: 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate coordination, 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate precision and 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate balance, which are predictive system of variables. The criterion set of variables of this research are represented by 4 karate elements which define the attack in sports karate fighting. From the received results was determined existing of groups in the different spaces of the treated variables and influence of the predictive system of variables on the criterion set of variables

  15. Injuries in karate: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Ornstein, Jodie

    2018-05-22

    to identify all studies of Karate injuries and assess injury rates, types, location, and causes. Six electronic and four grey literature databases were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts, abstracted data and assessed risk-of-bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Average injury rates/1000AE (AE = athletic-encounter) and/1000minutesAE, injury location and type weighted by study size were calculated. In competitions rates of injury/1000AE and/1000 minutesAE were similar for males (111.4/1000AE, 75.4/1000 minAE) and females (105.8/1000AE, 72.8/1000 minAE). Location of injury rates/1000AE for males were 44.0 for head/neck, 11.9 lower extremities, 8.1 torso and 5.4 upper extremities and were similar for females: 41.2 head/neck, 12.4 lower extremities, 9.1 torso and 6.3 upper extremities. Injury rates varied widely by study. Rates/1000AE for type of injury were contusions/abrasions/lacerations/bruises/tooth avulsion for males (68.1) and females (30.4); hematomas/bleeding/epistaxis males (11.4) and females (12.1); strains/sprains males (3.5) and females (0.1); dislocations males (2.9) and females (0.9); concussions males (2.5) and females (3.9); and fractures males (2.9) and females (1.4). Punches were a more common mechanism of injury for males (59.8) than females (40.8) and kicks similar (males 19.7, females 21.7). Weighted averages were not calculated for weight class or belt colour because there were too few studies. Nineteen injury surveys reported annual injury rates from 30% to rates ten times higher but used different reporting methods. Studies provided no data to explain wide rate ranges. Studies need to adopt one injury definition, one data-collection form, and collect comprehensive data for each study for both training and competitions. More data are needed to measure the effect of weight, age and experience on injuries, rates and types of injury during training, and for competitors with high injury rates. RCTs are needed of

  16. Karate injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetaruk, M N; Violan, M A; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, L J

    2000-05-01

    To identify risk factors for injury and to establish safety guidelines for children in Uechi-Ryu karate. A 1-year retrospective survey of injuries. A private karate school (Uechi-Ryu style) in Plymouth, MA. A total of 68 athletes (age 6-16 years; mean age 10 years) who participated in karate during the 1995-1996 season. None. The presence or absence of injury, with grading of injuries as major, moderate or minor. The types of injuries and body region involved were also analyzed. Twenty eight percent of athletes sustained at least one injury. All injuries were minor, with no time off from training required. The injuries consisted primarily of bruises (11 of 19). Other injuries included mild sprains or strains (5 of 19) and having their 'wind knocked out' (3 of 19). Most injuries were localized to the extremities. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for injury. Risk of injury increased with number of years of training (odds ratio 2.95; 95% confidence interval 1.81-4.82; PKarate is a relatively safe sport for children and adolescents when properly taught. Risk of injury increases with experience; therefore, greater supervision is required of higher ranks. Injury increases with weekly training; however, 3 h a week or less appears to be associated with a low risk of significant injury in this age group.

  17. Prevention of injury in karate.

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, H V; Noerregaard, F O

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of knuckle protection on the type and incidence of injuries in traditional karate contests. Knuckle protection was mandatory at the Danish karate championships 1983 and 1986 (290 matches, 0.26 injuries per match), and prohibited at the championships 1984 and 1985 (620 matches, 0.25 injuries per match). Head injuries were more common in the tournaments where fist pads were used. The incidences of transitory psychomotor disturbances following b...

  18. Injury rates in Shotokan karate

    OpenAIRE

    Critchley, G. R.; Mannion, S.; Meredith, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were su...

  19. Computer Data Punch Cards

    CERN Multimedia

    Those card are printed with minimal layout aids for the formatting of FORTRAN programs, plus extra guidelines every ten columns suggesting a generic tabular data layout. A punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Punched cards were used for specialized unit record machines, organized into semiautomatic data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Furthermore many new digital computers started to used punched cards.

  20. A new virtual instrument for estimating punch velocity in combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, K S; Scheeren, E; Nohama, P

    2013-01-01

    For improving the performance in combat sport, especially percussion, it is necessary achieving high velocity in punches and kicks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of 3D accelerometry in a Virtual Instrumentation System (VIS) designed for estimating punch velocity in combat sports. It was conducted in two phases: (1) integration of the 3D accelerometer with the communication interface and software for processing and visualization, and (2) applicability of the system. Fifteen karate athletes performed five gyaku zuki type punches (with reverse leg) using the accelerometer on the 3rd metacarpal on the back of the hand. It was performed nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences in the mean linear velocity among three punches performed sequentially (p sport.

  1. PLYOMETRY TRAINING IN KARATE- SPECIFICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Vujkov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is one of the most interesting innovations in the recent few decades in the process of sport training. The experience of coaches and athletes who have practised this kind of training proces brought them to higher performance in sports results. Plyometric exercise is developed and applied in conformity with certain sport requirements. Plyometry is a training method, which should be applied in combination with other methods for strenght development in overall programme of training, all in favour of improvement of the relationship between maximal strenght and explosive strenght, being very important for karate sport. This paper deals with a proposal of a few exercises that should have a positive transfer on improvement of the performance of karate tehnique.

  2. NCDC Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the National Weather Records Center (NWRC, previous name for NCDC and NCEI). Many of these punched card...

  3. THE ASSERTIVENESS OF PEOPLE WHO PRACTICE KARATE

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    Szark-Eckardt Miroslawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Assertiveness is the ability to express your thoughts, beliefs and opinions without the feeling of internal tension, that is why it is a desired trait of character. One of the examples of sports disciplines in which assertiveness can play a desired role is karate. One of the aims of this paper was to answer the question, whether the act of doing karate influences the level of assertiveness among people who practice it and to compare the results with the level of assertiveness declared by people who do other sports. The method applied in this paper was the diagnostics survey, while the tool was the questionnaire form based on the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. 50 students who practice karate on regular basis and 50 students who do other sports participated in the research. It is undeniable that the level of assertiveness among people who practice karate is higher in comparison to people who do other sports. Karate doers, both men and women obtained better results compared to the second group of sportsmen/women. This regularity can be observed among men, but it is more perceptible among women. As the research presents, people who attend karate trainings at least three times a week are characterized by a higher level of assertiveness in comparison to those who attend the training once a week.

  4. Energetics of basic karate kata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussweiler, Jens; Hartmann, Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge about energy requirements during exercises seems necessary to develop training concepts in combat sport Karate. It is a commonly held view that the anaerobic lactic energy metabolism plays a key role, but this assumption could not be confirmed so far. The metabolic cost and fractional energy supply of basic Karate Kata (Heian Nidan, Shotokan style) with duration of about 30 s were analyzed. Six male Karateka [mean ± SD (age 29 ± 8 years; height 177 ± 5 cm, body mass 75 ± 9 kg)] with different training experience (advanced athletes, experts, elite athletes) were examined while performing one time and two time continuously the sport-specific movements. During Kata performance oxygen uptake was measured with a portable spirometric device, blood lactate concentrations were examined before and after testing and fractional energy supply was calculated. The results have shown that on average 52 % of the energy supply for one Heian Nidan came from anaerobic alactic metabolism, 25 % from anaerobic lactic and 23 % from aerobic metabolism. For two sequentially executed Heian Nidan and thus nearly doubling the duration, the calculated percentages were 33, 25 and 42 %. Total energy demand for one Kata and two Kata was approximately 61 and 99 kJ, respectively. Despite measured blood lactate concentrations up to 8.1 mmol l(-1), which might suggest a dominance of lactic energy supply, a lactic fraction of only 17-31 % during these relatively short and intense sequences could be found. A heavy use of lactic energy metabolism had to be rejected.

  5. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  6. 21 CFR 882.4750 - Skull punch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull punch. 882.4750 Section 882.4750 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4750 Skull punch. (a) Identification. A skull punch is a device used to punch holes through a patient's skull to allow fixation of cranioplasty plates or...

  7. Acute injury of anterior cruciate ligament during karate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Wang, Ting-Chung

    2007-06-01

    A 38-year-old black-belt karate practitioner presented with acute disabling injury of his knee after swift-withdrawal of a reverse-roundhouse-kick. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of grade III ACL tear. Although there are reports documenting injury rate in modern karate, no previous cases of karate-related ACL injuries have been reported. The trauma mechanism is different than ACL injuries during other non-contact and contact sports. The current case report indicates that ACL injury can occur without any contact of the lower limb as a result of dynamic muscular forces during karate training.

  8. NCDC Punched Card Inventory - 1950s

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of foreign weather data available on punched cards held at the Joint Punched Card Library in Asheville NC, produced in the late 1950s, and also station/data...

  9. Lubricant test for punching and blanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2003-01-01

    Punching/blanking is one of the tribologically wise most severe metal forming processes.Insu $cient lubrication leads to heavy pick-up of work piece material on the punch stem,bad tolerances and eventual breakdown of the punch due to excessive backstroke force,especially in case of tribologically...... of alternative lubricants the present paper describes a new lubricant test for punching....

  10. Effects of plyometric exercise training with external weights on punching ability of experienced amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzas, Vidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Mockus, Pranas

    2018-03-01

    During competition, a boxer must continue to deliver high-impact punches despite increasing fatigue. It is unclear whether the effects of plyometric training using external weights are transferred to sport-specific movements such as punching. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week cycle of plyometric training with external weights on punching ability. The study involved eight male amateur boxers aged 22.3±2.5 years with at least 7 years of competitive experience. They performed 12 plyometric training sessions, each comprising eight exercises of various muscle groups performed at maximum movement velocity. Six drills were performed with external weights, and two drills were performed using the body weight as resistance. All exercises required coordination. The punching ability was tested at baseline and after the 4 weeks of training using the Kiktest-100 boxing bag. The force of single punches and the frequency of punches within a series did not change from before to after the 4 weeks, except for increased power in the rear-hand low punch (Pplyometric training with external weights did not change the maximum punching power or movement frequency significantly, but had a beneficial effect on punching power endurance in boxers.

  11. Low Risk of Injuries in Young Adolescents Participating in Top-Level Karate Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Inman, David; Arriaza, Alvaro; Saavedra, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Prospective studies on injuries in martial arts competition are scarce, especially those involving young practitioners, but the upsurge of children and adolescents taking part in organized training and competition in these sports requires clarification of the injury risk that they represent for youths. Top-level karate competition for young adolescents (cadets, or 14- to 15-year-olds) has a low injury rate and can be safely promoted. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all bouts in 3 consecutive World Karate Championships (2009, 2011, and 2013) for cadets was performed. Data were collected prospectively in situ with checklists that described competitor sex, bout category, and weight as well as injured area, diagnosis, mechanism of injury, severity, and treatment. A total of 1020 bouts were reviewed, 671 in the male category and 349 in the female category. A total of 61 injuries were recorded. Of those, only 3 were time-loss injuries. During the 2009 and 2011 championships, there was 1 injury per 25.6 fights, while during the 2013 championship the number of injuries increased, with 1 injury per 10 fights (P = .003). There was no statistical difference in the total injury rate between the male and female categories (P = .71), with an odds ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.52-2.55). The injury rate for cadet top-level karate competition found in this prospective study is much lower than the rates previously published for karate or other martial arts competitions, but there seems to be a marked increase as more championships are held, which is a matter of concern. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Investigating neural efficiency of elite karate athletes during a mental arithmetic task using EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Adil Deniz; Assem, Moataz

    2018-02-01

    Neural efficiency is proposed as one of the neural mechanisms underlying elite athletic performances. Previous sports studies examined neural efficiency using tasks that involve motor functions. In this study we investigate the extent of neural efficiency beyond motor tasks by using a mental subtraction task. A group of elite karate athletes are compared to a matched group of non-athletes. Electroencephalogram is used to measure cognitive dynamics during resting and increased mental workload periods. Mainly posterior alpha band power of the karate players was found to be higher than control subjects under both tasks. Moreover, event related synchronization/desynchronization has been computed to investigate the neural efficiency hypothesis among subjects. Finally, this study is the first study to examine neural efficiency related to a cognitive task, not a motor task, in elite karate players using ERD/ERS analysis. The results suggest that the effect of neural efficiency in the brain is global rather than local and thus might be contributing to the elite athletic performances. Also the results are in line with the neural efficiency hypothesis tested for motor performance studies.

  13. [Risk of injury in and adolescent and junior competitive karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Rath, R; Miltner, O; Mamarvar, M; Mumme, T

    2005-12-01

    Increasing professionalism in competitive karate has led to a specific injury pattern. The aim of our study was to investigate the injury pattern in junior competitive karate and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of fist padding. During the 4 (th) Junior World Championships of the World Karate Confederation (WKC) 2004 235 karate fights were observed and injury-related data were recorded. Fist padding was used in 183 fights, 52 fights were carried out without. In 22 % of all fights we saw an injury. Most of them were mild injuries of the head and face: 32 bruises of the face (13 with epistaxis), 7 facial lacerations and 3 concussions (mild brain injury). 14 fights were stopped due to an injury. Only in the category male 18 - 20 years a higher rate of injuries was seen without fist padding (shobu ippon) compared to shobu sanbon (with fist padding). The injury pattern of junior competitive karate is comparable to senior karate. Fist padding does not generally reduce the incidence or severity of injuries.

  14. Very heavy iron-punching concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.

    1966-01-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [fr

  15. COACHES’ WORK EXPERIENCE AS AN INDICATOR OF MANAGEMENT ATTITUDES IN KARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nešić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports in general, which, self-understandably, implies karate as well, be longs to that aspect of social improvement which focuses on satisfying individual and group needs, but those of a country too. Karate does not yield any material value, but it creates certain values important for the whole society which can be materialsed by other processes. Just like any other field of work, recruiting particular management personnel in karate is significant for indicating and positioning those needs that compel them to work in this very field. Therefore, one is certain: among the most significant factors that provoke activity are motives and attitudes. In today’s karate in Vojvodina particular managerial roles have not been well defined yet. The concept and strategy of a karate club as a basic organisational unit in sport is primarily based on knowledge, interests and motivation of a karate coach. Hence, there is a different motivational structure among those who are in karate.

  16. [Injuries in Karate Sports: A Survey Performed During the World Championship 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, T; Lembcke, B; Ellenrieder, M; Glass, Ä; Weigert, W; Mittelmeier, W

    2016-12-01

    Background: In literature, the competitive sport of modern karate is almost always characterised as a combat sport involving injuries caused by impact effects and physical contact with opponents. There is a lack of data regarding the outcome after karate injuries, specifically with a view to the contact-free Kata karate. Methods: Performing a random test using a questionnaire, we collected data concerning regular medical treatment, prior surgeries of the locomotor system, and medical care. This study included 300 athletes from 65 countries (average age: 24.1 years; 176 male, 124 female) participating in the Karate World Cup 2014. Seven participants competed in both disciplines, 87 only in the Kata discipline, and 206 only in Kumite (the discipline involving physical contact with opponents). The statistical analysis was performed using a two-sided Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. Results : Recurrent medical treatment was most commonly required for the knee region (Kata 28.7 %, Kumite 26.7 %). In Kata the shoulder region came second (22.9 %), in Kumite the ankle region (21.8 %), followed by hand and foot in both groups. Medical treatment of the elbow area was more frequent in the Kata Group (p = 0.033), while in Kumite athletes' hand (p = 0.002) and foot injuries (p = 0.007) prevailed. Prior surgeries of athletes of both disciplines most commonly concerned the knee, followed by the ankle region in the Kata group and by the hand and head region in the Kumite group. Statistically significant differences between the two disciplines were found in head injuries (p = 0.004), which commonly do not occur in the Kata discipline. During the World Cup, 56.0 % of the athletes had no individual medical care and 24.6 % received no sports-related medical care in their home countries. Conclusion: Although the risk of injuries in Kumite Karate has been reduced by the introduction of gumshields, hand and foot protectors as well as a reform of

  17. Repensando a história do karate contada no Brasil Rethinking the karate history spread in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Oviedo Frosi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aborda diversos aspectos presentes na literatura e que moldam o pensamento presente no imaginário dos brasileiros sobre a identidade, história e filosofia do Karate-Dō¹. O objetivo deste estudo é produzir uma meta análise da literatura circulante sobre a inserção e o desenvolvimento do Karate no Brasil, abordando seus diferentes estilos. Justifica-se este estudo pelo fato de considerarmos que foi difundida no Brasil uma versão distorcida sobre a história do Karate por meio da mídia, pela tradição oral e pelo preconceito entre os praticantes de diferentes estilos. As reflexões aqui apresentadas buscam contribuir com informações para a construção de outra versão sobre esta prática em nosso país.This study approaches several aspects of literature that shape the present thinking in the Brazilians imaginaries about the Karate-Dō identity, history and philosophy. The objective of this research is to produce a meta-analysis of the spread literature approaching is different styles. This study is justified by the fact of we consider that a distortion of Karate-Dō history was diffused in Brazil, by the media, oral tradition and preconception between some Karate-Dō styles practitioners. The reflections presented here seek contribute with information for another version's construction about this practice in Brazil.

  18. Recent progress in shear punch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys

  19. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  20. Incidence of karate-related musculoskeletal pain among SKISA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in the philosophy, training habits, nutrition and epidemiology of martial arts athletes. Despite this interest in martial arts, there is a dearth of information on the epidemiology and training history of unique Karate martial arts athletes, more specifically Shotokhan ...

  1. Low risk of concussions in top-level karate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Cierna, Dusana; Regueiro, Patricia; Inman, David; Roman, Franco; Abarca, Benjamin; Barrientos, Mercé; Saavedra, Miguel A

    2017-02-01

    Although it is well known that injuries occur in combat sports, the true incidence of concussions is not clearly defined in the literature for karate competition. To determine the incidence of concussions in top-level (World Karate Federation World Championships) karate competition. Injuries that took place in 4 consecutive World Karate Championships (from 2008 to 2014) were prospectively registered. A total of 4625 fights (2916 in the male category and 1709 in the female category) were scrutinised, and concussions were identified and analysed separately for frequency (rate per fight) and injury risk. A total of 4 concussions were diagnosed by the attending physicians after carrying out athlete examinations. Globally, there was 1 concussion in every 1156 fights, or 0.43/1000 athlete-exposures (AE). In male athletes, the rate of concussion was 1/5832 min of fighting, and in female athletes, it was 1/6836 min. OR for concussion in women is 0.57 (95% CI 0.06 to 5.47; z=0.489; p=0.6249) and risk ratio for concussions in men is RR 1.478 (95% CI 0.271 to 8.072), p=0.528, representing a higher risk of definite concussions in men than in women, but not statistically significant. There is not a significantly higher risk of concussions in team competition (no weight limit) when compared with individual competition (held with strict weight limits for each category). The risk of concussions in top-level karate competition is low, with a tendency for an increased risk for men and for competition without weight limits, but not statistically significant with respect to women or individual competition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Effect of the techniques of karate on functional status and physical fitness of students of Flight Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymir Galimskyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the effect of the application of the techniques of karate on functional status and physical fitness of students of Flight Academy first year. Material and Methods: the study involved students of Flight Academy EG (pilots, n=25 and CG (rescuers, n=23. We determined the effect of the techniques of karate in physical fitness, running the 100 meters, bending and unbending hands ups, pull-ups on the bar, running 3,000 meters, 10 revolutions per gymnastic wheel; on functional status, body length, body weight, heart rate at rest, vital capacity, vital index (ml•kg–1 sample and test Stange and Ghencea. Results: revealed that the use of uniform and alternating load of running helped improve the outcome for 3000 m run and function of the respiratory system. Anaerobic subject to the techniques of karate contributed to increasing resistance to hypoxia. Conclusions: this study suggests the need to improve physical fitness of students by implementing motor activity of certain sports.

  3. Sport Injuries of Karate During Training: An Epidemiologic Study in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaee, Vahid; Shobbar, Montazer; Lotfian, Sara; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is a public sport that has athletes in various age ranges and abundant active sport clubs in Iran. The pattern of injury in this sport in Iranian athletes seems different from other countries. Objectives: This study was performed with the purpose of considering the incidence and type of injury of karate athletes aged below 30 years from Tehran, Iran clubs. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 10 karate clubs were selected in Tehran. Clubs were selected based o...

  4. Punch Biopsy Results in Misdiagnosis of Pilomatrixoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Temel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Punch biopsy results in misdiagnosis of clinically unsuspected giant pilomatrixoma located over the parotid gland. This study presents a case of pilomatrixoma that was misdiagnosed as a malignant epithelial tumor using punch biopsy. A 25-year-old male was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass measuring 7×8×8 cm located over the parotid gland. The patient had previously undergone punch biopsy at another clinic because of a lesion in the parotid gland. Punch biopsy revealed a malignant epithelial tumor. The patient underwent excisional biopsy at our clinic. After the biopsy, the residual skin defect was treated using full-thickness skin grafts. The facial nerve and parotid gland were preserved during the biopsy. Histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy material revealed pilomatrixoma. Punch biopsy may result in misdiagnosis of skin lesions in the parotid gland. A differential diagnosis for benign tumors such as pilomatrixoma is essential prior to an aggressive surgical intervention of the parotid gland.

  5. VVER-440 control rod follower induced local power peaking computational benchmark: MCNP and KARATE solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, G.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C.; Temesvari, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the linear pin power calculation in the KARATE-440 code system are presented. The calculation results show that: 1) The coupler mathematical benchmark was solved by the KARATE code system using the same methods and approximations as in case of NPP applications. 2) Without Hf plate in the fuel pin row next to the problematic coupler section pronounced local power peak arises. 4) Though the underprediction of the peak by KARATE-SADR is 4%, it is in accordance with the applied uncertainty of KARATE-SADR. 5) The application of Hf plate solves the problem.

  6. [Sport injuries in full contact and semi-contact karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H; Ziemska, J

    2014-03-01

    Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. A solution for the narrow rectangular punch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panek, C.F.; Kalker, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of a rectangular flat ended punch acting on an elastic half-space. An approximate solution is generated through application of the elastic line integral equations. The results produced by this method are then compared with another approximate solution already

  8. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  9. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  10. Evaluation of selected postural parameters in children who practice kyokushin karate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzał-Grabiec Justyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: martial arts can be traced back thousands of years. Karate is one of the most common martial arts, and both children and adults practice it. The aim of the study was to evaluate selected body posture parameters in children aged 7–10 years who regularly practice karate.

  11. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training.…

  12. Suur ego raskendab karateässal Marko Luhamaal pere loomist / Andres Kalvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvik, Andres, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. mai, lk. 13. Eesti parim karateka Luhamaa teinuks oma sõnul vaid raha lugedes tippspordiga ammu lõpparve. Karate maailmameister on tippu rühkinud tasapisi ja üksinda. Kommenteerib Eesti Karate Föderatsiooni peasekretär Jüri Põld

  13. Using virtual humans and computer animations to learn complex motor skills: a case study in karate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanlang Bernhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning motor skills is a complex task involving a lot of cognitive issues. One of the main issues consists in retrieving the relevant information from the learning environment. In a traditional learning situation, a teacher gives oral explanations and performs actions to provide the learner with visual examples. Using virtual reality (VR as a tool for learning motor tasks is promising. However, it raises questions about the type of information this kind of environments can offer. In this paper, we propose to analyze the impact of virtual humans on the perception of the learners. As a case study, we propose to apply this research problem to karate gestures. The results of this study show no significant difference on the after training performance of learners confronted to three different learning environments (traditional group, video and VR.

  14. Novel uses of skin biopsy punches in dermatosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Hurkudli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin punch or surgical punch is an instrument which is used almost exclusively by dermatologists. It is a circular hollow blade attached to a pencil-like handle ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 mm. It is available as a disposable, reusable, and automated instrument. The punch can be used as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic tool in dermatology. We have used punch as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic tool in our dermatosurgery practice in our hospital. Various original research articles, text book publications, and review articles were studied and compiled. Techniques used by various authors and our own experiences with punch have been described. This article aims at providing the novel usefulness of skin biopsy punch in dermatology as the basic punch surgery is quick and easy to learn. Complications such as bleeding and infection are minimal.

  15. Experimental and Computational Study of Ductile Fracture in Small Punch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Gülçimen Çakan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A unified experimental-computational study on ductile fracture initiation and propagation during small punch testing is presented. Tests are carried out at room temperature with unnotched disks of different thicknesses where large-scale yielding prevails. In thinner specimens, the fracture occurs with severe necking under membrane tension, whereas for thicker ones a through thickness shearing mode prevails changing the crack orientation relative to the loading direction. Computational studies involve finite element simulations using a shear modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman porous plasticity model with an integral-type nonlocal formulation. The predicted punch load-displacement curves and deformed profiles are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Experimental and Computational Study of Ductile Fracture in Small Punch Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülçimen Çakan, Betül; Soyarslan, Celal; Bargmann, Swantje; Hähner, Peter

    2017-10-17

    A unified experimental-computational study on ductile fracture initiation and propagation during small punch testing is presented. Tests are carried out at room temperature with unnotched disks of different thicknesses where large-scale yielding prevails. In thinner specimens, the fracture occurs with severe necking under membrane tension, whereas for thicker ones a through thickness shearing mode prevails changing the crack orientation relative to the loading direction. Computational studies involve finite element simulations using a shear modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman porous plasticity model with an integral-type nonlocal formulation. The predicted punch load-displacement curves and deformed profiles are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Small punch creep test in a 316 austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Muñoz, Maribel L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small punch creep test was applied to evaluate the creep behavior of a 316 type austenitic stainless steel at temperatures of 650, 675 and 700 °C. The small punch test was carried out using a creep tester with a specimen size of 10×10×0.3 mm at 650, 675 and 700 °C using loads from 199 to 512 N. The small punch creep curves show the three stages found in the creep curves of the conventional uniaxial test. The conventional creep relationships which involve parameters such as creep rate, stress, time to rupture and temperature were followed with the corresponding parameters of small punch creep test and they permitted to explain the creep behavior in this steel. The mechanism and activation energy of the deformation process were the grain boundary sliding and diffusion, respectively, during creep which caused the intergranular fracture in the tested specimens.El ensayo de termofluencia por indentación se utilizó para evaluar el comportamiento a la termofluencia en un acero inoxidable austenítico 316. Este ensayo se realizó en una máquina de indentación con muestras de 10×10×0,3 mm a temperaturas de 650, 675 y 700 °C con cargas de 199 a 512 N. Las curvas de termofluencia del ensayo mostraron las tres etapas características observadas en el ensayo convencional de tensión. Asimismo, las principales relaciones de termofluencia entre parámetros como velocidad de termofluencia, esfuerzo, tiempo de ruptura y temperatura se observaron en los parámetros correspondientes al ensayo de indentación, lo que permitió caracterizar el comportamiento de termofluencia en este acero. El mecanismo y la energía de activación del proceso de deformación en la termofluencia corresponden al deslizamiento de los límites de grano y la difusión a través de los mismos, respectivamente, lo cual causó la fractura intergranular en las muestras ensayadas.

  18. Validation experience with the core calculation program karate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, Gy.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Makai, M.; Maraczy, Cs.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively fast and easy-to-handle modular code system named KARATE-440 has been elaborated for steady-state operational calculations of VVER-440 type reactors. It is built up from cell, assembly and global calculations. In the frame of the program neutron physical and thermohydraulic process of the core at normal startup, steady and slow transient can be simulated. The verification and validation of the global code have been prepared recently. The test cases include mathematical benchmark and measurements on operating VVER-440 units. Summary of the results, such as startup parameters, boron letdown curves, radial and axial power distributions of some cycles of Paks NPP is presented. (author)

  19. Analysis of karate injuries sustained in 295 contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLatchie, G R

    1976-11-01

    The injuries sustained in 295 karate contests were analysed. It was noted that in 25 per cent of the contests there was some sort of injury, and in 10 per cent the injury was severe enough to cause the withdrawal of the participant. Injury seemed to occur most commonly among lower-grade participants and more often in the first hour of each day's competition. Protective padding of the arms, legs, feet and hands, and the use of gumshields and protective boxes appeared to reduce the incidence and severity of injury.

  20. Development and validation of the small punch test for UHMWPE used in total joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edidin, A.A. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Howmedica Osteonics Corp., Allendale, NJ (United States); Kurtz, S.M. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Exponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In order to better understand the mechanical effects of oxidative degradation, improved oxidative stability and crosslinking on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a unique miniature specimen mechanical testing technique, known as the small punch test, was developed for evaluating total joint replacement components. The small punch test involves deforming a disk-shaped specimen having a thickness of 0.5 mm and a diameter of 6.4 mm. In addition to its small specimen size, the small punch test differs from conventional testing in that deformation of the UHMWPE specimen occurs under multiaxial loading conditions. Using the small punch test, we have traced the evolution of mechanical behavior in UHMWPE after natural (shelf-storage) and accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we have determined relationships between the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE and the biologically relevant wear debris volume generated in total hip replacements. The small punch test has also been used to investigate the effects of radiation crosslinking which has been shown to improve the wear performance in an in vitro hip simulator. However, the crosslinking and subsequent thermal processes used to improve the wear behavior may compromise the native mechanical behavior by changing the ductility and toughness of the UHMWPE bearing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate which tradeoffs exist related to the mechanical behavior associated with various clinically available types of highly crosslinked and thermally treated UHMWPE. We also review the development and validation of the small punch disk bend test and highlight its application to problems of clinical relevance in both hip and knee arthroplasty. (orig.)

  1. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. Small Punch Test Techniques for Irradiated Materials in Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Sik; Ahn, S. B.; Oh, W. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Choo, Y. S.

    2006-06-01

    Detailed procedures of the small punch test including the apparatus, the definition of small punch-related parameters, and the interpretation of results were presented. The testing machine should have a capability of the compressive loading and unloading at a given deflection level. The small punch specimen holder consists of an upper and lower die and clamping screws. The clamped specimen is deformed by using ball or spherical head punch. Two type of specimens with a circular and a square shape were used. The irradiated small punch specimen is made from the undamaged portion of the broken CVN bars or prepared by the irradiation of the specimen fabricated from the fresh materials. The heating and cooling devices should have the capability of the temperature control within ±2 .deg. C for the target value during the test. Based on the load-deflection data obtained from the small punch test. the empirical correlation between the small punch related parameters and a tensile properties such as 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, ductile-brittle transition temperature and creep properties determined from the standard test method is established and used to evaluate the mechanical properties of an irradiated materials. In addition, from the quantitative fractographic assessment of small punch test specimens, the relationship between the small punch energy and the quantity of ductile crack growth is obtained. Analytical formulations demonstrated good agreement with experimental load-deflection curves

  4. The Effect of Increasing Volume of Exercise on Activation Pattern of Vastus Medialis and Lateralis and its Correlation With Anterior Knee Pain in Karate Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar Cherati, Afsaneh; Lotfian, Sara; Jamshidi, Aliashraf; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Razi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The effects of exercise volume on the pattern of muscle activity is one of the most important factors in training management and injury risk reduction. In the lower limb, the quadriceps muscle which plays a determining role in performing the stance and other karate techniques could be injured in intensive exercise and may induce anterior knee pain in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between training volume and muscle activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis and its association with anterior knee pain in karate elites. Male and female athletes from national junior and cadet karate team (14 to 18 years) were invited to participate in the study at the beginning and the end of the training camps. Studies involved measurement of electromyographic muscle activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in both lower extremities with surface electromyography device and assessment of movement by electrogoniometery. Muscle activity was recorded in three tests of dachi, walking up and walking down stairs. Simultaneously, anterior knee pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale and anterior knee pain scale questionnaire. Eight athletes of a total number of 23 reported increased ratings of pain in their right knees. No differences in muscle activity were observed in tests of Dachi and stairs between the groups with and without pain. Comparing Dachi task pattern at the beginning and end of training camps, there was no significant difference in pattern of biomechanical movement; however, reducing the amount of muscle activity in early and late phases of tasks was observed in electromyographic assessment. The results showed that performing the same task after a six-week training period, less muscle activity was required in all phases in two groups of tasks, including karate-specific movement (dachi) and activities of daily living (up or down stairs).

  5. Politics and Karate: Historical Influences on the Practice of Goju-ryu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Hopkins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The 1936 “masters meeting” sponsored by the Ryukyu Newspaper Company—a gathering of karate masters, journalists, and government leaders—gives us some indication of the political realities at play in Japan in the early decades of the 20th century and how they may have affected Okinawan karate. Tradition often seems as though it is a safeguard against change. However, the reality is that a resurgence of nationalism fed an anti-Chinese bias and an effort to assimilate Okinawan culture; both affected karate. With economic hardships in Okinawa and a desire to popularize karate, traditions did change. Some teachers sought ways to preserve traditional Okinawan martial arts within this changing political landscape. But at what cost?

  6. HEAD INJURIES IN FULL CONTACT KARATE COMPETITION! IS THE PREJUDICE IN MANAGEMENT MINIMISING THE REQUIRED INVESTIGATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Graham; Bruce Davies; Julien S. Baker

    2007-01-01

    A 33 year old male karate practitioner presented himself for a full-contact national karate competition. This individual competed for approximately 2 minutes and received a kick to the head. He collapsed in the competitive arena, and suffered a tonic-clonic seizure, lasting for 3 minutes 25 seconds. Examination in the competitive arena revealed an individual who was unconscious. First aid, and paramedic support was provided immediately. Medical assessment identified the presence of vital sign...

  7. Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injurie...

  8. Effect of CFRP and TRM Strengthening of RC Slabs on Punching Shear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Abbas

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents experiments involving punching of RC slabs strengthened using externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheet and textile reinforced mortar (TRM. Twelve RC slab specimens of two concrete grades (39.9 and 63.2 MPa and employing two strengthening schemes (CFRP and TRM were tested. Specimens were supported on two opposite edges. Experimental load-displacement variations show two peak loads in strengthened slabs and one peak followed by a plateau in control. Second peak or the plateau corresponds to the combined action of aggregate interlock and the dowel action of back face rebars and strengthening layers. The dowel action of back face rebars and strengthening layers had no role in ultimate punching load (i.e. first peak. Strengthened slabs showed 9-18% increase in ultimate punching load (i.e. first peak whereas there was significant increase in the second peak load (190-276% for CFRP; 55-136% for TRM and energy absorption (~66% for CFRP and 22-56% for TRM. An analytical model was also developed for predicting the punching shear strength (first and second peaks of strengthened slabs showing good comparison with experiments.

  9. Analysis of Pick-Up Development in Punching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2002-01-01

    The development of pick-up of work piece material on the punch surface with increasing number of strokes during punching of stainless steel sheet is investigated applying Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), 3D roughness mapping and measurements of the backstroke force. It is found that pick...

  10. Development of lubricant test for punching and blanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    2001-01-01

    The background for development of new lubricants Requirements to lubricant test for punching Methods of evaluating lubricants Test equipment developed at DTU Conclusion.......The background for development of new lubricants Requirements to lubricant test for punching Methods of evaluating lubricants Test equipment developed at DTU Conclusion....

  11. Applying a punch with microridges in multistage deep drawing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Tsuen; Yang, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The developers of high aspect ratio components aim to minimize the processing stages in deep drawing processes. This study elucidates the application of microridge punches in multistage deep drawing processes. A microridge punch improves drawing performance, thereby reducing the number of stages required in deep forming processes. As an example, the original eight-stage deep forming process for a copper cylindrical cup with a high aspect ratio was analyzed by finite element simulation. Microridge punch designs were introduced in Stages 4 and 7 to replace the original punches. In addition, Stages 3 and 6 were eliminated. Finally, these changes were verified through experiments. The results showed that the microridge punches reduced the number of deep drawing stages yielding similar thickness difference percentages. Further, the numerical and experimental results demonstrated good consistency in the thickness distribution.

  12. Characterization of kinesiological patterns of the frontal kick, mae-geri, in karate experts and non-karate practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. VencesBrito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently, coaches and researchers need to have a better comprehension of the kinesiological parameters that should be an important tool to support teaching methodologies and to improve skills performance in sports. The aim of this study was to (i identify the kinematic and neuromuscular control patterns of the front kick (mae-geri to a fixed target performed by 14 experienced karate practitioners, and (ii compare it with the execution of 16 participants without any karate experience, allowing the use of those references in the analysis of the training and learning process. Results showed that the kinematic and neuromuscular activity during the kick performance occurs within 600 ms. Muscle activity and kinematic analysis demonstrated a sequence of activation bracing a proximal-to-distal direction, with the muscles presenting two distinct periods of activity (1, 2, where the karateka group has a greater intensity of activation – root mean square (RMS and electromyography (EMG peak – in the first period on Rectus Femoris (RF1 and  Vastus Lateralis (VL1 and a lower duration of co-contraction in both periods on Rectus Femoris-Biceps Femoris and Vastus Lateralis-Biceps Femoris (RF-BF; VL-BF. In the skill performance, the hip flexion, the knee extension and the ankle plantar flexion movements were executed with smaller difference in the range of action (ROA in the karateka group, reflecting different positions of the segments. In conclusion, it was observed a general kinesiological pattern, which was similar in karateka and non-karateka practitioners. However, in the karateka group, the training induces a specialization in the muscle activity reflected in EMG and kinematic data, which leads to a better ballistic performance in the execution of the mae-geri kick, associated with a maximum speed of the distal segments, reached closer to the impact moment, possibly representing more power in the contact.

  13. Cracking the code: a decode strategy for the international business machines punch cards of Korean war soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Erin M

    2006-05-01

    During the Korean War, International Business Machines (IBM) punch cards were created for every individual involved in military combat. Each card contained all pertinent personal information about the individual and was utilized to keep track of all soldiers involved. However, at present, all of the information known about these punch cards reveals only their format and their significance; there is little to no information on how these cards were created or how to interpret the information contained without the aid of the computer system used during the war. Today, it is believed there is no one available to explain this computerized system, nor do the original computers exist. This decode strategy is the result of an attempt to decipher the information on these cards through the use of all available medical and dental records for each individual examined. By cross-referencing the relevant personal information with the known format of the cards, a basic guess-and-check method was utilized. After examining hundreds of IBM punch cards, however, it has become clear that the punch card method of recording information was not infallible. In some cases, there are gaps of information on cards where there are data recorded on personal records; in others, information is punched incorrectly onto the cards, perhaps as the result of a transcription error. Taken all together, it is clear that the information contained on each individual's card should be taken solely as another form of personal documentation.

  14. Effects of one-night sleep deprivation on selective attention and isometric force in adolescent karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Ridha; Latiri, Imed; Dogui, Mohamed; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2017-06-01

    Most of the available literature related to aspects of sleep deprivation is primarily focused on memory and learning, and studies regarding its effects on selective attention and/or physical performance are scarce. Moreover, the available literature includes general population or people involved in team sports (e.g. volleyball). However, only few studies were performed on athletes involved in combat sports (e.g. karate). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a total one-night sleep deprivation (1NSD) on activation and inhibition processes of selective attention and on maximal isometric force in karate athletes. Twelve young karate athletes (mean age 16.9±0.8 years) were enrolled. The protocol consists of two successive sessions: a normal night's sleep (NNS) and a total 1NSD. After each night, athletes performed selective attention and muscle strength tests during the same following three times (T) of the day: T1NNS or T11NSD: 8-9 a.m.; T2NNS or T21NSD: 12 a.m.-1 p.m.; T3NNS or T31NSD: 4-5 p.m. Activation (simple [SRT] and choice reaction times [CRT]) and inhibition (negative priming) processes were evaluated using Superlab v. 4.5 software (Cedrus Corporation, San Pedro, CA, USA). Maximal force and maximal force time (MFT) of brachial biceps isometric contraction were evaluated (Ergo System®, Globus, Codognè, Italy). A non-parametric test was used to evaluate the sessions (NNS vs. SND for the same time period) and time (T1NNS vs. 1NSD) effects. All athletes completed all tests after a NNS. Twelve, eleven and four athletes completed all tests at T11NSD, T21NSD and T31NSD, respectively. As for sessions effects, no statistically significant difference was found. As for time effects, a significant increase in SRT at T21NSD vs. T1NNS (345±47 vs. 317±33 ms, respectively), a significant increase in MFT at T21NSD vs. T1NNS (2172±260 vs.1885±292 ms, respectively), and no significant changes in CRT and negative priming reaction time or MFT data

  15. The subtractive fight: the spirituality of the empty hands method as the north of the body philosophy in Karate-Do / O combate subtrativo: a espiritualidade do esvaziamento como norte da filosofia corporal no Karate-Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Roque Antunes Barreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Karate is a fight practice that does not make use of weapons. It is based on old traditions and its main aim is to develop a sense of personality in the practitioner. Karate originated from unique spiritual and psychological dynamics, which are of utmost importance for the full understanding of this practice. The objective of this research is to analyze karate-do by means of its spirituality. This is because, together with the fundamental texts about the recent tradition of this fight, spirituality is considered to be the essence present in all dimensions of the artistic expression of karate. To this end, the historiographical methodology of phenomenological perspective was employed in this study. Karate-do has the spirituality of the empty hands method as the north of its body philosophy. Themes with blurred borders are analyzed from this spiritual point of view herein. This dynamics includes the subtractive fight, aiming at the fluid and intuitive understanding of reality.

  16. "One can't shake off the women": images of sport and gender in Punch, 1901-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constanzo, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Examining the manner in which the popular press portrayed middle-class Edwardian women's activity in sport provides insight into the social liberation of English women. The popular middle-class British journal Punch included thousands of images of sportswomen. Despite the misogynistic satirizing of inept women, Punch's cartoons and articles depict distinct changes in women's behavior and social expectations that are linked to their increasing involvement in sport. By engaging in sport, women unconsciously challenged and permanently altered the pervasive middle-class Victorian ideology. The contents of Punch suggests that middle-class women's participation in sport, though perhaps begun in a conservative manner, completely altered and expanded their social role and changed the traditional image of womanhood.

  17. Research on the Visual Processing System of the Punch Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of raw materials of small hardware processing for plate scraps, and it’s realized through the manual operation of ordinary punch, which way has the low production efficiency and the high labor intensity. In order to improve the automation level of production, developing and designing of a visual processing system for punch press manipulator which based on the MFC tools of Visual Studio software platform. Through the image acquisition and image processing, get the information about the board to be processed, such as shape, length, the center of gravity position and pose, and providing relevant parameters for positioning gripping and placing into the punch table positioning of the feeding manipulator and automatic programming of punching machine, so as to realize the automatic operation about press feeding and processing.

  18. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-04-01

    regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5-11, "Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l'Et à Evolutiva": Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p attention and executive functions. karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children.

  19. Vividness and transformation of mental images in karate and ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corrado, Donatella; Guarnera, Maria; Quartiroli, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    While imagery research has become popular in recent years, little research has specifically investigated differences in imagery ability between open- and closed-skill sport activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the type of task, open or closed, affects vividness and controllability differently. Thirty female classic dancers (closed skill), 30 female karate athletes (open skill), and 30 female non-athlete students, between 14 and 20 years of age (M = 17.0, SD = 1.6), participated. They completed the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire, and the Subtraction of Parts Task. There was no difference in imagery ability between open- and closed-skill sport groups. Furthermore, dancers and karatekas had higher mean scores on imagery ability than the non-athlete group. A positive correlation was observed between the two questionnaires, supporting findings on the componential basis of imagery. This study contributed to increase the research in the specific area of open- and closed-skill sports and imagery ability.

  20. Vividness and Transformation of Mental Images in Karate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guarnera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systematic reviews have shown that imagery improves performance in motor tasks. Objective: In order to observe the function of imagery in sport, this study investigated modifications in Imagery Ability, in terms of  both controllability (i.e., the accurateness with which an image can be operated mentally and vividness (i.e., the precision richness of an image, in competitive  and recreational karateka. Method: Thirty volunteers karateka  completed the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2, and the Subtraction of parts Task. Results: Competitive athletes reported higher scores on imagery ability than recreational athletes. No correlations were found between the variables of Vividness and the Subtraction of parts Task for any of the two groups. All analyses were two-tailed with α at .05. Conclusion: The study has risen the investigation in the particular ambit of imagery ability, providing an additional support for the multidimensional nature of mental imagery and for its usefulness in athletes.  Keywords: imagery, motor tasks, karate, static vividness

  1. Countering Stryker’s Punch: Algorithmically Filling the Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Two current digital image editing programs are examined in the context of filling in missing visual image data from hole-punched United States Farm Security Administration (FSA) negatives. Specifically, Photoshop's Content-Aware Fill feature and GIMP's Resynthesizer plugin are evaluated and contrasted against comparable images. A possible automated workflow geared towards large scale editing of similarly hole-punched negatives is also explored. Finally, potential future research based upon th...

  2. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.

  3. Solution of the new Dukovany benchmark using the new version of the KARATE-440 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C.

    2008-01-01

    A new -so called second generation - fuel type developed by Russian vendor (TVEL) for WWER-440 has been introduced. Even the outer parameters of the assembly remain unchanged, the length of the pins was increased and 6 of the 126 pins have been doped by gadolinium. The above mentioned modifications requiring more accurate calculations have necessitated the further development and validation of our KARATE code system. The paper summarizes the capabilities of the new version of the KARATE program concerning the properties of currently used and newly developed fuel types. On the basis of an international benchmark published from Dukovany NPP validation procedure has been started. (Authors)

  4. Prediction of effects of punch shapes on tableting failure by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Osamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously determined “Tableting properties” by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press (GTP-1. We proposed plotting “Compactability” on the x-axis against “Manufacturability” on the y-axis to allow visual evaluation of “Tableting properties”. Various types of tableting failure occur in commercial drug production and are influenced by the amount of lubricant used and the shape of the punch. We used the GTP-1 to measure “Tableting properties” with different amounts of lubricant and compared the results with those of tableting on a commercial rotary tableting machine. Tablets compressed with a small amount of lubricant showed bad “Manufacturability”, leading to sticking of powder on punches. We also tested various punch shapes. The GTP-1 correctly predicted the actual tableting results for all punch shapes. With punches that were more likely to cause tableting failure, our system predicted the effects of lubricant quantity in the tablet formulation and the occurrence of sticking in the rotary tableting machine.

  5. Circumferential scouting punch biopsies to delineate surgical margin for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Mao Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is an uncommon soft-tissue tumor involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with a high local recurrence rate after standard excision. Mohs micrographic surgery offers a lower recurrence rate. However, the procedure requires multiple stages of excision with intraoperative histopathological mapping, which is time consuming and expensive. We report our experience of using circumferential scouting punch biopsy technique in five patients to determine in advance the resection margins for DFSP prior to wide excision. Multiple 4 mm punches, usually eight in number, were performed 1–2.5 cm around the palpable borders of DFSP to delineate the resection margins in five consecutive patients. Tumors were excised at a later date along the margin defined by these biopsies and the wounds were repaired with skin graft. The operation was completed in 2 hours in all cases excluding one that required frozen sections for deep margin. No recurrence was noted 2–10 years after the operations. The results suggest that circumferential scouting punch biopsies before wide excision may be an alternative method to define the resection margins for DFSP when Mohs surgery is not available.

  6. VISUALISASI TEKNIK KOLASE DALAM FOTOGRAFI EKSPRESI GURAT KARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Gura Arta Laras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of photography work object was not always in the beautiful shape. The uniqueness of an object could become its own attraction and inspiration in creating the photography work. The expression of the composition and visualization in a work art became the characteristic of the artist himself. Gurat Karat was a concept of photography work art which explored the shape, texture and color of the rust of metal, especially in the rust of iron. We could explore the simple items in our surrounding which were not longer used and already broken. The iron which was rusted had its own uniqueness and attraction to observe. The change of the characteristic and the shape was v ery contrast. Before being rusted, the surface of the iron would be smooth, but after being rusted, the surface would be rough and the color would change. It was a result of rusting process of the iron itself. The phenomenon eventually stimulated the researcher to take the rust theme of the iron as an object in this photography work art creation. In arranging this photography work, the researcher used esthetic theory of Monroe Beardsley which listed three basic esthetic charac teristics as follow: unity, intensity and complexity. The visual work in 3D display created the image of space and dimension in this work. Colase technique was used in creating this work by combining 2D photography work and the object in the original item in the photography work itself, or using the construction which was suitable with the stuck object which was adjusted with the weight of that object. In a display, this work was not only enjoyed by the sense of sight but also the sense of touch since the texture in this work art could be touch. Keywords : Expressie Photography, Rust, and Collage

  7. The injury profile of Karate World Championships: new rules, less injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Leyes, Manuel; Zaeimkohan, Hamid; Arriaza, Alvaro

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to document the injury rate in high-level modern competitive karate after a change of competition rules was implemented in the year 2000, and to compare it with the injury rate found before the rules were changed. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from 2,762 matches in three consecutive World Karate Championships (representing 7,425 min of active fighting) was performed, and compared with the results from 2,837 matches from the three last World Karate Championships (representing 7,631 min of active fighting) held before the change of competition rules. In total, 497 injuries were recorded, with an incidence of 0.180 injuries per match or 6.7 per 100 min of active fighting. There were 1,901 male category fights (in which 383 injuries were recorded), and 861 female category fights (in which 114 injuries were recorded). The global injury incidence was almost double with the old rules compared to the one with the new rules [OR 1.99, 95% CI (1.76-2.26); p injuries was not different before and after the change of rules. The implementation of the new competition rules in competitive karate has been associated with a significant reduction in injury rate, making competition safer for athletes.

  8. Multi-segmental movements as a function of experience in karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Codari, Marina; Iaia, F Marcello; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    Karate is a martial art that partly depends on subjective scoring of complex movements. Principal component analysis (PCA)-based methods can identify the fundamental synergies (principal movements) of motor system, providing a quantitative global analysis of technique. In this study, we aimed at describing the fundamental multi-joint synergies of a karate performance, under the hypothesis that the latter are skilldependent; estimate karateka's experience level, expressed as years of practice. A motion capture system recorded traditional karate techniques of 10 professional and amateur karateka. At any time point, the 3D-coordinates of body markers produced posture vectors that were normalised, concatenated from all karateka and submitted to a first PCA. Five principal movements described both gross movement synergies and individual differences. A second PCA followed by linear regression estimated the years of practice using principal movements (eigenpostures and weighting curves) and centre of mass kinematics (error: 3.71 years; R2 = 0.91, P ≪ 0.001). Principal movements and eigenpostures varied among different karateka and as functions of experience. This approach provides a framework to develop visual tools for the analysis of motor synergies in karate, allowing to detect the multi-joint motor patterns that should be restored after an injury, or to be specifically trained to increase performance.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL LATIHAN KARATE KIDS PADA ANAK USIA SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS ATAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widha Srianto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model latihan karate kids pada anak usia sekolah dasar (SD kelas atas (10-12 tahun. Penelitian pengembangan ini dilakukan dengan mengadaptasi langkah-langkah penelitian sebagai berikut: (1 pengumpulan informasi di lapangan, (2 melakukan analisis terhadap informasi yang telah dikumpulkan, (3 mengembangkan produk awal, (4 validasi ahli dan revisi, (5 uji coba lapangan skala kecil dan revisi,  (6 uji coba lapangan skala besar dan revisi, dan (7 pembuatan produk final. Uji coba skala kecil dilakukan di klub Forki Kota Yogyakarta berjumlah 7 anak. Uji coba skala besar di klub Inkanas DIY berjumlah 16 anak. Instrumen pengumpulan data yang digunakan yaitu: (1 pedoman wawancara, (2 skala nilai, (3 pedoman observasi model, (4 pedoman observasi keefektifan model, dan (5 kuesioner untuk siswa. Teknik analisis data yang dilakukan yaitu analisis deskriptif kuantitatif dan analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini berupa model latihan karate kids pada anak usia SD kelas atas (10-12 tahun yaitu: (1 model latihan maegeri, (2 model latihan gyaku tsuki, (3 model latihan mawashigeri, dan (4 model latihan oi tsuki. Dari hasil analisis data penilaian para ahli materi dan kuesioner anak, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa model latihan karate kids pada anak usia SD kelas atas (10-12 tahun ini dinilai baik dan efektif. Kata kunci: model latihan, karate kids

  10. Shear punch and microhardness tests for strength and ductility measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.E.; Odette, G.R.; Sheckherd, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    In response to the requirements of the fusion reactor materials development program for small-scale mechanical property tests, two techniques have been developed, namely ball microhardness and shear punch tests. The ball microhardness test is based on the repeated measurement at increasing loads of the chordal diameter of an impression made by a spherical penetrator. A correlation has been developed to predict the constitutive relation of the test material from these data. In addition, the indentation pile-up geometry can be analyzed to provide information on the homogeneity of plastic flow in the test material. The shear punch test complements the microhardness test. It is based on blanking a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen. The test is instrumented to provide punch load-displacement data, and these data can be used to determine flow properties of the test material such as yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work-hardening exponent, and reduction of area

  11. Physical and Physiological Profile of Elite Iranian Karate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Faraji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No study to date, has investigated the physiologic and anthropometric of Iranian elite Karatekas profile. Forty men internationally ranked karatekas in kumite field took part in this study. They were selected for national camp for participation in world karate championships in Germany 2014. The anthropometric and physiological profiles were measured. The major results were as follows: body height (177.9±6.20 kg, weight (72.8±9.98 cm, BMI (23.2±2.36 kg/m2, fat mass (9.5±2.47 kg, lean body mass (64.1±8.89 kg, percentage of body fat (12.9±2.36, sitting height (95.1±4.21 cm, arm span (180.5±7.87 cm, sit and reach (38.7±5.71 cm, pull up (15.7±8.37 rep, shuttle run 4×9 m (8.4±0.28 sec, 40-yd sprint (5.0±0.16 sec, vertical jump Sargent (56.6±8.14 cm, standing broad jump (151.1±13.90 cm, peak power (957.5±164.11 W, anaerobic threshold (165.5±8.05 HR pm and visual reaction time (378.8±63.82 ms. Significant correlations occurred between peak power with weight, BMI, height, lean body mass, arm span and sitting height (r = 0.75, 0.70, 0.53, 0.77, 0.44, and 0.63, respectively. Also, both arm span and height was negatively correlated to standing broad jump results (r= -0.41 and -0.34, respectively (p< 0.05. These anthropometric and physiological profiles from elite Iranian Karatekas can be used in evaluating for talent identification and are important for the optimal construction of training programs the sport scientific, coaches and these athletes.

  12. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...

  13. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Didin Zakaria Lubis; Ichsan Ristiawan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr h...

  14. Comparing of athletic performance and biometric features of selected teenagers based on the specific talent identification pattern of Karate with elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    seyed Ehsan Naghibi; Mehrdad Anbarian; Mohammad Reza Mahmoodkhani

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparing the athletic performance and biometric features in elite karate players teenagers with a specific talent identification pattern of  karate in a professional gyms in Iran. Methods: Subjects available for sampling were divided into two groups teenagers karate athletes elite (n=19) and members developmental center and the Club Championship (n=19) for assessing the biometric data of the sport performance tests respectively. Shapiro-Wilk te...

  15. Measuring the force of punches using an accelerometric punching bag - Relationship between force of punches and power of jump - An example of application of the modern information technology in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewska, Wiesława; Buśko, Krzysztof; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the study was to design a new system to measure punching forces in boxers. In addition, the study examined whether there were any relationship between force of punches and power of jump. A total of 9 boxers (age: 17.5±1.2 years, body height: 174.1±8.1 cm, body mass: 73.9±11.8 kg) participated in the study. The punching bag was equipped with acceleration transducers and gyroscopes embedded in a cylinder covered with a layer to absorb shock as well as a set of colour signal diodes. Value of the punching bag's acceleration was used for calculating: strike force; the punching location on the bag; and time of a strike. The relative error of force calculation was 3%; the relative error in acceleration measurement was less than 1%. The maximal straight of rear and lead punching forces were 1702.4±497.8 N and 1262.0±417.7 N in boxers, respectively. Strong correlations were found between the punching force and power of lower limbs developed for the ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ jump. Height of rise of the body mass centre and punching force correlated insignificantly. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the modified punching bag is a good diagnostic tool for combat sports. The measurement of power during the jump may be a good diagnostic test in boxers.

  16. APPLICATION OF THE GAP TECHNIQUE IN MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY IN EGYPTIAN FEDERATION KARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Samira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the gap between the administration and the beneficiaries of the quality of the service in the federation and sport regions of Karate. The sample of this study was chosen randomly between the members of the board of directors of the Federation and regions, the coaches , referees and players registered in theEgyptian Federation of Karate whose numbers are (149. The sample of the study was classified into two beneficiary classes. The first beneficiary class is coaches and referees whose number are (70 persons and their administration is the members of the board of directors of the Federation and its regions whose number are (14persons. The second class is the players whose number are (65 players and their administration is the members ofthe board of directors of the Federation and its regions the referees and coaches' number are (84 persons. This study used a questionnaire (SERVQUAL to measure the quality of the service. Results pointed to a negative gap between the expectations of the beneficiaries of the excellent service level and the perceptions of the administrations of these expectations.These results refer to the weakness of administration ability in the Egyptian Federation of Karate to know the needs and desires of beneficiaries from (coaches-referees- players of the quality level in the service provided to them. The existence of a relative gap between the perceptions of the beneficiaries of the service actually provided and the administration of the qualities of the service actually provided, therefore itrefers to the decline the motive level of the administration of Egyptian Federation of Karate to provide the service to the beneficiaries in a form that conforms with what the administration already decided for the specifications. The existence of a negative gap between the expectations of the beneficiaries of the level of theexcellent service and its perception of the actual performance of this service refers to

  17. Recent developments in small punch testing: Applications at elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 86, DEC (2016), s. 25-33 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Creep rupture * Stress relaxation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016

  18. A Semiotics of Cartoons in Two Nigerian Newspapers: The Punch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explores the semiotics of cartoons using selected samples from The punch and The Guardian, newspapers based in Nigeria. It seeks to bridge the gap between semiotics and the act of cartooning. It also attempts to show the relationship between the cartoons and the semiotic resources employed. It analyses how ...

  19. Configurational phases in elastic foams under lengthscale-free punching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuwala, Tapan; Dai, Xiangyu; Gioia, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    We carry out experiments with brick-like specimens of elastic open-cell (EOC) foams of three relative densities. Individual specimens may be "tall" (height = width = depth) or "short" (2 height = width = depth). We place each specimen on a supporting plate and use a lengthscale-free (wedge-shaped or conical) punch to apply forces downward along the specimen's height. Regardless of the type of specimen, the force-penetration curves remain linear, for the wedge-shaped punch, or quadratic, for the conical punch, up to a sizable penetration commensurate with the smallest lengthscale of the specimen. After that there is an abrupt, all-but-discontinuous change in stiffness: if the specimen is tall, the stiffness drops; if the specimen is short, the stiffness shoots up. To analyze these curious experimental results, we posit that EOC foams can be found in either of two configurational phases, here termed the low-strain phase and the high-strain phase, which share a two-dimensional interface (a surface of strain discontinuity). The analysis may be outlined as follows. In the first part of an experiment, there obtains a "similarity regime" in which the penetration of the punch and the radius of the interface are the only prevailing lengthscales (because the punch is lengthscale free). In this case, it is possible to show that the force-penetration curve must be linear, or quadratic, depending on whether the punch be wedge-shaped or conical, respectively. This prediction of the analysis is consistent with the experiments. In time, the similarity regime breaks down when the interface reaches one of the specimen's boundaries distal to the tip of the punch. If the specimen is tall, the soft, stress-free lateral boundary is reached first, and the stiffness must drop; if the specimen is short, the hard boundary in contact with the supporting plate is reached first, and the stiffness must shoot up. These predictions too are consistent with the experiments. To provide direct

  20. TRANSFORMED MOTORIC CHARACTERISTICS AFTER RECEIVED PROGRAMMED TRAINING PROCESS ON SUPERIOR KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is made on intentional sample of participants, members of Macedonian Karate Representation, in the period of preparing to qualify for the world championship in Tokyo 2008. Within the research, were used 19 (nineteen variables for evaluation the following motorics areas: tests for evaluate muscles strength, explosive strength, movement frequency of lower extremity, rhythmic and coordination. Basic purpose of the research was to establish difference within the variables to evaluate motorics abilities between male karate athletes on the age of 18 to 28 (seniors, after a nine-day programmed training in the period of preparing. Using comparative method the results from the both measures, whereby there were evident numerical improvement in the whole motorist abilities, but no difference in the levels of statistic significances.

  1. [Competitive karate and the risk of HIV infection--review, risk analysis and risk minimizing strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Rath, R; Mumme, T; Miltner, O; Skobel, E

    2004-03-01

    Bleeding facial injuries are not uncommon in competitive karate. Nevertheless, the risk of an infection with HIV is extremely low. Guidelines about the prevention of HIV infections are presented. Especially in contact sports and martial arts the athletes, judges and staff have to recognize and employ these recommendations. Bleeding wounds of the hands due to contact with the opponents teeth can be minimized by fist padding.

  2. Epidemiology of competition injuries in youth karate athletes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čierna, Dušana; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-09-01

    To determine the injury incidence rate and injury pattern among youth karate athletes competing in national tournaments in Slovakia, and to identify risk factors for injury. Data were collected at nine national youth karate tournaments in Slovakia in 2015 and 2016. Injury incidence rates were calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (IIR AE ) and per 1000 min of exposure (IIR ME ) with 95% CIs. Subgroups were compared by calculating their rate ratios (RR) with 95% CIs. The overall IIR AE and IIR ME were 45.3 (95% CI 38.7 to 52.6) and 35.9 (95% CI 30.7 to 41.7), respectively. The most frequently injured anatomical region was the head/neck (57%), while the most common type of injury was contusion (85%). The risk of injury for the 12-17-year-old age group was almost twice that of the 6-12-year-old age group, after accounting for exposure time (RR ME 1.92 (95% CI 1.39 to 2.65)), and the difference was more pronounced for girls than boys (RR ME 2.47 (95% CI 1.52 to 4.00) vs RR ME 1.62 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.49), respectively). Youth karate has a relatively large proportion of head injuries. Adolescent and female youth karate athletes are at higher risk of injury compared with their child and male counterparts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, U. M.; Taimela, S.; Antti-Poika, I.; Orava, S.; Tuominen, R.; Myllynen, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. DESIGN--Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. SETTING--Finland during 1987-91. SUBJECTS--621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and...

  4. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training load in karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, M; Tourny, C; Haddad, M; Chaabane, H; Chamari, K; Coquart, J B

    2015-04-24

    To test the construct validity and reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method by examining the relationship between RPE and physiological parameters (heart rate: HR and blood lactate concentration: [La --] ) and the correlations between sRPE and two HR--based methods for quantifying internal training load (Banister's method and Edwards's method) during karate training camp. Eighteen elite karate athletes: ten men (age: 24.2 ± 2.3 y, body mass: 71.2 ± 9.0 kg, body fat: 8.2 ± 1.3% and height: 178 ± 7 cm) and eight women (age: 22.6 ± 1.2 y, body mass: 59.8 ± 8.4 kg, body fat: 20.2 ± 4.4%, height: 169 ± 4 cm) were included in the study. During training camp, subjects participated in eight karate--training sessions including three training modes (4 tactical--technical, 2 technical--development, and 2 randori training), during which RPE, HR, and [La -- ] were recorded. Significant correlations were found between RPE and physiological parameters (percentage of maximal HR: r = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64--0.86; [La --] : r = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.49--0.75; P training load ( r = 0.65--0.95; P reliability of the same intensity across training sessions (Cronbach's α = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.61--0.92). This study demonstrates that the sRPE method is valid for quantifying internal training load and intensity in karate.

  5. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U. M.; Taimela, S.; Antti-Poika, I.; Orava, S.; Tuominen, R.; Myllynen, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. DESIGN--Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. SETTING--Finland during 1987-91. SUBJECTS--621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors. RESULTS--54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability. CONCLUSIONS--Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball. PMID:8520333

  6. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Antti-Poika, I; Orava, S; Tuominen, R; Myllynen, P

    1995-12-02

    To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. Finland during 1987-91. 621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors. 54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability. Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball.

  7. Analysis of the Strength on the Rotor Punching Sheet of Nuclear Reactor Cooling Medium Driving Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Bao-jun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A strong stress is withstood by the rotor punching sheet during the running of nuclear reactor cooling medium driving motor. In order to study the strength on the rotor punching sheet and the influential factor of its stress,the rotor of driving motor was the research object, the three-dimensional rotor model of driving motor is established by the finite element method to obtain the Mires equivalent stress nephogram and check the rotor’s strength with setting parameters and constraints. According to different rotor speeds,the different average temperatures of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the different static magnitude of interference between rotor punching sheet and shaft,the research about how the contact pressure of matching surface between rotor punching sheet and shaft and the Mires equivalent stress are impacted is carried on. The results show that the maximum Miser equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet emerges on the axial vents,the stress value is beyond the tensile limit of the materialand. The greater the static magnitude of interference and the smaller temperature difference of rotor punching sheet and shaft lead to the greater interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater maximum Mires equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet. The higher the rotor speed lead to the smaller interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet.

  8. Powder properties and compaction parameters that influence punch sticking propensity of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Taylor, Lisa J; Murphy, Brendan; Krzyzaniak, Joseph F; Dawson, Neil; Mullarney, Matthew P; Meenan, Paul; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-04-15

    Punch sticking is a frequently occurring problem that challenges successful tablet manufacturing. A mechanistic understanding of the punch sticking phenomenon facilitates the design of effective strategies to solve punch sticking problems of a drug. The first step in this effort is to identify process parameters and particle properties that can profoundly affect sticking performance. This work was aimed at elucidating the key material properties and compaction parameters that influence punch sticking by statistically analyzing punch sticking data of 24 chemically diverse compounds obtained using a set of tooling with removable upper punch tip. Partial least square (PLS) analysis of the data revealed that particle surface area and tablet tensile strength are the most significant factors attributed to punch sticking. Die-wall pressure, ejection force, and take-off force also correlate with sticking, but to a lesser extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. O combate subtrativo: a espiritualidade do esvaziamento como norte da filosofia corporal no Karate-Do The subtractive fight: the spirituality of the empty hands method as the north of the body philosophy in Karate-Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Roque Antunes Barreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O karate é uma técnica de combate sem armas que, sustentada por uma antiga tradição, tem como seu principal objetivo a formação do caráter do praticante. A compreensão da visão de mundo na qual o karate nasceu e se desenvolveu é debitária de uma dinâmica espiritual e psicológica singular cujo conhecimento é imprescindível para apreendê-la. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar o karate por meio de sua espiritualidade, já que, junto aos textos fundamentais de sua tradição recente, ela é tida como a essência presente em todas as dimensões da expressão da arte. Para tanto, vale-se de uma metodologia historiográfica de perspectiva fenomenológica. Karate-do veicula a espiritualidade do esvaziamento como norte de sua filosofia corporal. Temas com linhas fronteiriças tênues entre si são analisados pela perspectiva de tal espiritualidade. A abrangência desta dinâmica corresponde a um combate subtrativo visando uma apreensão fluida e intutitiva da realidade.Karate is a fight practice that does not make use of weapons. It is based on old traditions and its main aim is to develop a sense of personality in the practitioner. Karate originated from unique spiritual and psychological dynamics, which are of utmost importance for the full understanding of this practice. The objective of this research is to analyze karate-do by means of its spirituality. This is because, together with the fundamental texts about the recent tradition of this fight, spirituality is considered to be the essence present in all dimensions of the artistic expression of karate. To this end, the historiographical methodology of phenomenological perspective was employed in this study. Karate-do has the spirituality of the empty hands method as the north of its body philosophy. Themes with blurred borders are analyzed from this spiritual point of view herein. This dynamics includes the subtractive fight, aiming at the fluid and intuitive understanding of

  10. Epidemiology of injuries in juniors participating in top-level karate competition: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čierna, Dušana; Barrientos, Merce; Agrasar, Carlos; Arriaza, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Karate is a popular combat semi-contact sport among juniors, but there are only few studies available on the epidemiology of injuries in karate junior athletes. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and pattern of injuries in top-level karate competition for athletes aged 16 to 20 years, and to compare injury rates between age groups (ie, under 18-year-old [U18] and under 21-year-old [U21]) and genders, following the introduction of new weight categories. A prospective injury surveillance was undertaken at four consecutive World Karate Championships (2009 to 2015), following the same protocols used in previous investigations. During the four championships, a total of 257 injuries were recorded, with an incidence of 41.4/1,000 athlete exposures (AEs, 95% CI 36.4 to 46.3). The injury rate was significantly lower for females with a rate ratio 0.63 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.82). Most of the injuries were minor ones: contusions (n=100), followed by abrasions (n=63) and epistaxis (n=62). Only 10% of the injuries were time-loss injuries (injury incidence rates 4.2/1,000 AEs; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.1). Face injuries represented 69.6% of the injuries, most of them were minor ones (light abrasions 24.5%, epistaxis 24.1%, contusion 16.7%). Change of rules (raising the number of weight categories from three to five) reduced injury incidence in the U21 category. The total injury rate in junior competitions is lower compared with elite adult athletes and higher compared with younger elite athletes. Time-loss injuries are rare. The implementation of the new competition categories in U21 karate has been associated with a significant reduction in injury rate. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  12. Small punch test evaluation methods for material characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janča, Adam, E-mail: adam.janca@fjfi.cvut.cz; Siegl, Jan, E-mail: jan.siegl@fjfi.cvut.cz; Haušild, Petr, E-mail: petr.hausild@fjfi.cvut.cz

    2016-12-01

    The Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most widespread mechanical testing methods using miniaturized specimens. The paper presented deals with the time independent SPT, in which a flat specimen is bent by means of a (hemi)spherical punch moving at a constant velocity. The main goal is to relate the measured data to deformation processes taking place during specimen loading. Understanding of such relations is crucial for characterizing a material using any non-standardized experimental procedure. Using enhanced instrumentation, not only traditional load-displacement or load-deflection curves could be obtained, but also specimen thinning could be continuously measured and evaluated. Five alloys having a broad range of mechanical properties were tested. The results obtained were evaluated using both traditional and newly proposed methods and they were correlated with results of the conventional tensile test. The methods proposed seem to lead to a universal correlation between SPT results and tensile characteristics. - Highlights: • The newly proposed methodology significantly improved results of SPT. • Plastic deformation starts inside the specimen from the very beginning of loading. • Specimen thinning = punch displacement−specimen deflection. • Material response to loading is well illustrated by the novel load-thinning curve.

  13. Sport Injuries of Karate During Training: An Epidemiologic Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Vahid; Shobbar, Montazer; Lotfian, Sara; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi

    2015-06-01

    Karate is a public sport that has athletes in various age ranges and abundant active sport clubs in Iran. The pattern of injury in this sport in Iranian athletes seems different from other countries. This study was performed with the purpose of considering the incidence and type of injury of karate athletes aged below 30 years from Tehran, Iran clubs. In a cross-sectional study, 10 karate clubs were selected in Tehran. Clubs were selected based on a cluster method from 5 different geographical regions of Tehran. All injuries were collected based on athletes' or clubs' weekly report with a designed questionnaire. The injuries were classified according to: low, medium and severe injury. Collected data was analyzed with SPSS software version 17. 620 athletes were studied totally and incidence rate of injury per athletes was 16.1% and 20.2 per 100 athletes. Ninety percent of injuries were during bout practice, 6% during fitness and 4% during kata. The rate of injury was more common in athletes with weight less than 70 kg and lower sport experience (P ≤ 0.05). The commonest locations for injury were head and neck followed by trunk, lower and upper limb, respectively. Just 2 cases needed surgical intervention and no one led to decreased level of consciousness. The most common type of injury was contusion, bruise and superficial scratch (64%). Severe injury was uncommon in this study and similar to other Iranian studies head and neck had the most injuries. Athletes with lower experience and lower weight were associated with higher injuries.

  14. Effects of the new karate rules on the incidence and distribution of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, J; Bundalo-Vrbanac, D; Romić, G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence and distribution of injuries in karate before and after the implementation of new rules established by the World Karate Federation in 2000. Injury incidence was followed up during the official karate competition seasons of 1997 and 2002 in Croatia. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the age and sex of the competitor and localisation and severity of injury. Data were analysed separately for female and male competitors and age categories or = 18 years. A total of 2023.5 and 2584 minutes of active fighting (exposure time) was assessed for 1997 and 2002 respectively. The overall injury incidence rate (IR) was similar in 1997 and 2002 (10.28 and 9.82/100 exposure minutes respectively). The relative risk (RR) of injury was significantly higher in 1997 than in 2002 for competitors younger than 18 years (RR 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 2.16). The overall RR of head injury was significantly higher in 1997 than in 2002 (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.49), but the RR of leg injury was significantly lower in 1997 than in 2002 (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.28). Most injuries (> 98%) were categorised as mild (grade 1) in both periods studied. The results of this study confirm the importance of the new competition rules in the distribution and prevention of injuries in martial arts. Strict judging and heavy penalties for uncontrolled blows, particularly for the youngest competitors, can significantly decrease the risk of injury.

  15. Measurement of tensile and fracture toughness properties using small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Shah Priti Kotak

    2005-05-01

    Small punch test wu carried out at room temperature on five different steels using 10 mm by 10 mm specimens of 0.4 mm thickness in a univesal testing machine. The tensile and fracture toughness properties of the five steels obtained from small punch test were compared with those obtained from the standard test method. The results (except in one steel) show that the tensile properties obtained from small punch test are in close proximity to those obtained ftom uni-axial tension test. The results also show that fracture toughness (Jic) properties obtained ftom small punch test are within ±20% of the corresponding values obtained using standard test procedures. (author)

  16. FORTRAN text correction with the CDC-1604-A console typewriter during reading a punched card program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotorobaj, F.; Ruzhichka, Ya.; Stolyarskij, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes FORTRAN text correction with the CDC 1604-A console typewriter during reading a punched card program. This method gives one more possibility of FORTRAN program correction during program's input to the CDC 1604-A computer. This essentially reduced the time necessary for punched card correction with other methods. Possibility of inputting desired number of punched cards one after another allows one writing small FORTRAN programs to computer core storage with simultaneous punching of the cards. The correction program has been written to the CDC 1604 COOP monitor

  17. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Huixia Liu; Jianwen Li; Zongbao Shen; Qing Qian; Hongfeng Zhang; Xiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is emp...

  18. Precision hole punching on composite fiber reinforced polymer panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Chan, H. Y.; Samad, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, can only be assembled, and in most cases through the use of fasteners, which are fitted into the drilled holes. However, drilling is costly and time consuming, thus affecting productivity. This research aims to develop an alternative method to drilling. In this paper, the precision of the holes was measured and the effects of the die clearance to the areas around the holes were evaluated. Measurement and evaluation were performed based on the profile of the holes constructed using Alicona IFM, a 3D surface measurement technique. Results showed that punching is a potential alternative to drilling but still requires improvements.

  19. Shear Punch Testing of BOR-60 Irradiated TEM Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-13

    As a part of the project “High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation” an Integrated Research Program (IRP) project from the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), TEM geometry samples of ferritic cladding alloys, Ni based super alloys and model alloys were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to ~16 dpa at ~370°C and ~400°C. Samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory and subjected to shear punch testing. This report presents the results from this testing.

  20. Advanced Modelling of Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jacob

    Most of the finite element programs for design of timber trusses with punched metal fasteners are based on models using beam and fictitious elements. Different models have been used for different types of joints. Common problems for all the models are how to calculate the forces in the nail groups...... and the plates and furthermore, how big 'the deformations in the joints are. By developing an advanced model that includes all parts of the joint, i.e. plate, nail groups and contact it is possible to give a better description of the joint. An advanced model with these properties is presented. The advanced model...

  1. Small Punch Tests applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Gongora, P.; Bertolino, G; Yawny, A.

    2012-01-01

    The interest on miniaturized specimen techniques for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of materials was strongly motivated in the early eighties by the different programs associated with the development of fusion reactor technology. The importance of such developments is obvious in the case of the nuclear industry where the limited space available, the presence of fluence gradients in large specimens, the concern about gamma heating and dose to personnel in post-irradiation testing have all been motivations for reducing specimen size. Testing of miniature specimen includes a wide spectrum of techniques such as tensile, instrumented micro-hardness, small punch, bend, fracture, impact and fatigue. Small Punch Testing (SPT) techniques use a spherical penetrator which deforms to failure a miniature disc shaped flat specimen (typically, 3-10 mm in diameter and 0.25-0.50 mm in thickness) supported on its outer rim. Analysis of load-displacement data recorded along the test is performed for the determination of the property of interest. The present work focuses on the characterization of the elastoplastic response of pure Al, ADN 420 structural steel and AISI 304L using SPT and its correlation with the associated standard uniaxial testing behavior. In addition, the sensitivity of the technique to the specific material under study and to different experimental parameters, i.e. specimen diameter and thickness, clearance or clamping force and friction between disc and dies have been assessed both experimentally and by performing simulations using the finite element method (author)

  2. Characteristics of intercommunications of sport results and indexes of technique and tactic of competition activity of highly qualified sportsmen of karate-do.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov M.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the individualization of technical and tactical training of athletes of karate-offensive, maneuver, and expectant management style duels. By analyzing the competitive activities of representatives of these styles, world and European champion 2007-2009 classification features were identified techniques and tactics of karate-do and established differences in their use of technical-tactical vehicles. Results of correlation analysis of the relationship of sports results and performance of technical and tactical actions of these athletes can determine the direction of individualization of training in different styles of karate fights.

  3. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  4. HEAD INJURIES IN FULL CONTACT KARATE COMPETITION! IS THE PREJUDICE IN MANAGEMENT MINIMISING THE REQUIRED INVESTIGATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Graham

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 33 year old male karate practitioner presented himself for a full-contact national karate competition. This individual competed for approximately 2 minutes and received a kick to the head. He collapsed in the competitive arena, and suffered a tonic-clonic seizure, lasting for 3 minutes 25 seconds. Examination in the competitive arena revealed an individual who was unconscious. First aid, and paramedic support was provided immediately. Medical assessment identified the presence of vital signs. Glasgow coma scale (GCS, post trauma was recorded as 3/15 until the fifth minute. A patent airway was established and a neck brace was applied. Blood pressure within 1 minute of trauma was 195/98 mm.Hg, heart rate was 185 bpm and respiratory rate was 40 breaths·min-1. Oxygen was administered via a ventimask. The patient was conveyed to the medical area. The patient regained consciousness one minute after the seizure had resolved, but had amnesia concerning the event. GCS at five minutes was recorded as 13/15. The patient was transferred by ambulance to the nearest Hospital. The patient was discharged, following examination without further investigation. The finding of this study suggests that an individual with a history of head injury should have received computerised tomography as a minimum investigation. This may help eleviate the risk of further medical complications

  5. [Tumor-like bone lesions of the forearm after karate training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, H; Oldenburg, M; Klinger, H M; Schultz, W

    2005-03-01

    Differentiation between malignant bone tumors and tumor-like lesions after repetitive microtrauma following sport activities can be difficult just using radiographic methods. We present the case of a fifteen year old karate fighter, who was examined by imaging diagnostics because of a progressive swelling and pain in the distal right forearm. A tumor-like appearance with bone mass formation in the x-ray, an enhancement in the surrounding tissue shown in the MRI and an increased activity in the bone scintigraphy made the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma very likely. Blood tests were not helpful. Only the evaluation of a bone biopsy could demonstrate hypertrophic reparative bone formation after multiple osseous microtrauma. Cast immobilisation reduced the osseous alteration. With the start of the training the swelling reappeared again but then finally vanished after modifying the training technique. The case demonstrates that even modern imaging techniques cannot always distinguish between tumor and tumor-like lesions caused by sports. It also stresses the importance of a correct technique in sports like karate.

  6. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain.

  7. The Effect of Karate Practice on Self-Esteem in Young Adults with Visual Impairment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Samir; Ravenscroft, John; Sproule, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has not examined the potential relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological domains of young adults with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to investigate whether karate practice improves the self-esteem of young adults with VI. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the exercise and…

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of confocal microscopy imaging vs. punch biopsy for diagnosing and subtyping basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadouch, D. J.; Leeflang, M. M.; Elshot, Y. S.; Longo, C.; Ulrich, M.; van der Wal, A. C.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Bekkenk, M. W.; de Rie, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundIn vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique that could facilitate early diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) instead of routine punch biopsies. However, the clinical value and utility of RCM vs. a punch biopsy in diagnosing and

  9. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...

  10. Punch grafts to treat lower limb intractable sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIO WILSON FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lower limb recurrent ulcers, usually caused by prolonged decubitus, trauma, diabetes or burns, may not heal with conventional clinical or surgical treatment. Frequently, laminated skin grafts do not integrate with the recipient layer, and the only alternatives are neighbor microsurgical flaps. These have higher morbidity and create secondary defects, to be corrected with skin grafts, when fasciocutaneous or miocutaneous segments are removed for the treatment of the primary defect. We describe the non-conventional use of punch grafts in the treatment of lower limb ulcers, when conventional skin laminated graft failed, without the use of flaps. Since this is a very successful technique, its use should be considered as a valuable alternative for the treatment of recurrent lower limb ulcers. It is a simple and easy-learned technique that may be used by different surgeons, even in remote places without correct specialized hospital facilities.

  11. Návrh a ověření programu výuky základních technik karate

    OpenAIRE

    Faktorová, Dominika

    2008-01-01

    Title: Production and verification of teaching project of elementary arts of karate. Objective: Production and verification of efficient and methodical training programme of karate for children and youth, which increases technical ability and fitness. Methods: Experiment was made by the simple direct method and it took part in the observing five test's groups (one group was made nearly from 25 observed subjects). And than was used the testing and measuring method Eurofit test and test order Č...

  12. Solution of the 'MIDICORE' WWER-1000 core periphery power distribution benchmark by KARATE and MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temesvari, E.; Hegyi, G.; Hordosy, G.; Maraczy, C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'MIDICORE' WWER-1000 core periphery power distribution benchmark was proposed by Mr. Mikolas on the twentieth Symposium of AER in Finland in 2010. This MIDICORE benchmark is a two-dimensional calculation benchmark based on the WWER-1000 reactor core cold state geometry with taking into account the geometry of explicit radial reflector. The main task of the benchmark is to test the pin by pin power distribution in selected fuel assemblies at the periphery of the WWER-1000 core. In this paper we present our results (k eff , integral fission power) calculated by MCNP and the KARATE code system in KFKI-AEKI and the comparison to the preliminary reference Monte Carlo calculation results made by NRI, Rez. (Authors)

  13. Karat, pulque, and gac: three shining stars in the traditional food galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2004-11-01

    Karat banana, pulque prepared from Agave species, and gac fruit are three traditional local food items recently studied intensively for their nutrition potential among traditional and indigenous peoples, and are examples of how local food-based strategies can be used to ensure micronutrient nutrition. Successful health promotion and intervention programs emphasizing traditional food systems are few in the international literature, but offer promise in understanding the potential of food-based strategies. Traditional food strategies could be used not only for alleviating malnutrition, but also for developing locally relevant programs for stemming the nutrition transition and preventing chronic disease, particularly among indigenous and traditional peoples who retain knowledge of using food species in their local ecosystems.

  14. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  15. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates automation of DNA sequencing.

  16. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr height and rollover, and a larger shear zone. Furthermore, it could be observed that the part-edge quality improvement when blanking with high punch velocity is much more distinct for stele than for copper. According to blanking theory, this improvement was expected because copper have much higher heat conduction coefficients. Therefore, the heat dissipates faster and the desired stress relief effect does not take place to the same degree as for stele.

  17. Effect of Punch Stroke on Deformation During Sheet Forming Through Finite Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen; Akinlabi, Esther

    2017-08-01

    Forming is one of the traditional methods of making shapes, bends and curvature in metallic components during a fabrication process. Mechanical forming, in particular, employs the use of a punch, which is pressed against the sheet material to be deformed into a die by the application of an external force. This study reports on the finite element analysis of the effects of punch stroke on the resulting sheet deformation, which is directly a function of the structural integrity of the formed components for possible application in the automotive industry. The results show that punch stroke is directly proportional to the resulting bend angle of the formed components. It was further revealed that the developed plastic strain increases as the punch stroke increases.

  18. Relationship between strain and central deflection in small punch creep specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Wang Zhiwen

    2003-01-01

    Acquiring information about creep strain directly from small punch creep tests is difficult because the deformation behaviour of the small punch specimen is complicated. A routine is suggested in the present paper to treat this problem indirectly. Based on a finite element analysis, it is proposed that the relationship of central deflection δ to central creep strain ε c of a specimen subjected to creep can be represented approximately by the relationship of central deflection δ to central (elastic-plastic) strain ε of a specimen not subjected to creep. With this hypothesis, the δ∼ε c relation of the small punch creep specimen is obtained by resorting to a rigid-plastic membrane stretch forming model. Finally, small punch creep test results are used to evaluate creep strain and creep strain rate by taking advantage of this δ∼ε c relation

  19. Changes in foot pressure on the ground during mae-geri kekomi (front kick in karate athlete - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cynarski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aim : Biomechanical analysis of martial art techniques are objective and quantitative method, which may be useful in training practice for the purpose of improving these techniques as well as monitoring and enhancing athletes performance. The aim of this study was to assess selected kinetic parameters and lower limb loading during karate front kick, using force platforms, for both kicking and support leg. Material and Methods : Karate athlete, second dan, black belt holder in Idokan style, participated in this case study. The subject performed front kick in the air (without a physical target, both for his right and left leg, while standing on the force platforms. For the purpose of kinetic data recording two force platforms were used in this study (Kistler force plate, type 9286AA, Kistler, Switzerland. Selected kinetic parameters for kicking and support leg as well as front kick execution time were analysed. Results : Results of our case study revealed higher values of the kinetic parameters for the right leg, comparing to the left leg. This results confirm athlete’s declaration of being right leg dominant. Conclusions : Analysis of selected kinetic parameters may be useful in identifying lower leg laterization (leg dominance, as well as existing asymmetries between the dominant and non-dominant leg in karate and other martial art athletes.

  20. Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenetsky, Seth; Nates, Roy J; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    The segmental and muscular complexity of the human body can result in challenges when examining the kinetics of impacts. To better understand this complexity, combat sports literature has selected effective mass as a measure of an athlete's inertial contribution to the momentum transfer during the impact of strikes. This measure helps to clarify the analysis of striking kinetics in combat sports. This paper will review: (1) effective mass as a concept and its usage as a measure of impact intensity in combat sports, (2) the neuromuscular pattern known as "double peak muscle activation" which has been theorized to help enhance initial hand velocity upon impact and joint stiffening during impact, (3) the methods and equations used to calculate effective mass, and (4) practitioner recommendations based on the literature. We will argue in this manuscript that the act of punching presents unique challenges to the current understanding of effective mass due to additional force application during impact. This review will improve the understanding of effective mass and its roles in effective striking serving to underpin future research into performance enhancement in striking based combat sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of potential factors influencing the relation between small punch and conventional creep test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr; Milička, Karel; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, Spp. Issue (2010), s. 50-53 ISSN 0018-8069. [International Conference "Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials by Small Punch and Other Miniature testing Techniques" /1./. Ostrava, 31.08.2010-02.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200410801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * small punch test * chromium steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  2. Punching influence on magnetic properties of the stator teeth of an induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Cornut, B.; Perrier, J.C.; Manfe, Ph.; Chevalier, Th.

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the effects of punching of electrical steel sheets, a suitable geometrical structure able to characterize the stator teeth behavior of an induction motor is proposed and validated. The influence of the punching on a fully processed M330-65A is then characterized. A spectacular degradation of loss and B(H) curves is observed. This leads to a perceptible increase of the no-load machine current

  3. Control program for punched paper tape for the PDP-8/1 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.

    1976-01-01

    A program was developed for the PDP-8/1 computer to control the punched paper tape supplied by the measuring instruments. Any departure from the program is detected by an optical reader which stops the tape and displays the error on an accumulator. This program which is suitable for large amounts of data punched on paper tape has been in use at the Beer-Sheva laboratories for detecting errors in the sample changing operation. (B.G.)

  4. Application of Small Punch Test for Estimation of Fracture Properties of Fe-Al Alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Milička, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Iss. (2010), s. 83-86 ISSN 0018-8069. [Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials by Small Punch and Other Miniature Testing Techniques/1./. Ostrava, 31.08.2010-02.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : small punch test * ductility * iron aluminides Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  5. The Influence of a Padded Hand Wrap on Punching Force in Elite and Untrained Punchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Galpin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Punching is integral to success in combat sports, making it a frequent activity during practice/training. Improving safety of this activity benefits both the athlete and training partners. This study was designed to 1 test the precision and reliability of a commercially available striking device and 2 assess the influence of a novel padded hand wrap on punching force in elite and untrained punchers. Fourteen male professional boxers and mixed martial artists (PRO; age=29.2±5.6y; height=180.3±9.0cm; mass=87.1±17.9kg, winning %=73.8±13.8%, number of victories via knockout/technical knockout=35.6± 21.9% and 24 untrained male punchers (UNT; 27.6±6.9y, 177.6±18.3cm, 84.3±16.9kg wore a standardized boxing glove and performed 20 maximal punches (4 sets of 5 into a device designed to measure punching force. All participants performed, in a counterbalanced order, 2 sets of 5 with a standardized hand wrap and 2 sets of 5 with the same wrap plus an additional 1.2cm thick cylinder 4g foam-like pad (WRAP placed over the knuckles. PRO produced significantly more punching force than UNT, regardless of condition. Punching force was lower by 12.6% (p<0.05 for PRO and 8.9% (p<0.05 for UNT with WRAP (compared to no WRAP. These findings suggest WRAP significantly reduces punching force, which may be important for long-term safety of the puncher’s hand and/or the person receiving the strike. Keywords: safety, punching, striking, hitting, combat, pad

  6. Effects of Plyometric and Cluster Resistance Training on Explosive Power and Maximum Strength in Karate Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric and cluster resistance training on explosive power and maximum strength in karate players. Eighteen women, karate players (age mean ± SD 18.22 ± 3.02 years, mean height 163 ± 0.63cm, and mean body mass 53.25 ± 7.34 kg were selected as volunteer samples. They were divided into two groups with respect to their recorded one repetition maximum squat exercise: [1] plyometric training (PT=9 and [2] Cluster training (CT=9 groups and performed a 9-week resistance training protocol that included three stages; [1] General fitness (2 weeks, [2] Strength (4 weeks and [3] Power (3 weeks. Each group performed strength and power trainings for 7 weeks in stage two and three with owned protocol. The subjects were evaluated three times before stage one and after two and three stages for maximum strength and power. Data was analyzed using two way Repeated Measures (ANOVA at a significance level of (P≤0.05. The statistical analysis showed that training stages on all research variables had a significant impact. The maximum strength of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power were in cluster group: 29.05 ± 1.54; 32.89 ± 2.80 and 48.74 ± 4.33w and in plyometric group were 26.98 ± 1.54; 38.48 ± 2.80 and 49.82 ± 4.33w respectively. The explosive power of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power in cluster group were 359.32±36.20; 427.91±34.56 and 460.55±36.80w and in plyometric group were 333.90±36.20; 400.33±34.56 and 465.20±36.80w respectively. However, there were not statistically significant differences in research variables between resistance cluster and plyometric training groups after 7 weeks. The results indicated both cluster and plyometric training program seems to improve physical fitness elements at the same levels.

  7. Application of the small punch test to determine the fatigue properties of additive manufactured aerospace alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancaster Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive layer manufacturing (ALM processes are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aerospace industry as design engineers look to profit from the numerous advantages that these advanced techniques can offer. However, given the safety critical nature and arduous operating conditions to which these components will be exposed to whilst in service, it is essential that the mechanical properties of such structures are fully understood. Transient microstructures are a typical characteristic of ALM components and resulting from the thermal cycles that occur during the build operation. Those microstructures make any mechanical assessment an involved procedure when assessing the process variables for any given parameter set. A useful mechanical test technique is small-scale testing, in particular, the small punch (SP test. SP testing is capable of localised sampling of a larger scale component and presents an attractive option to mechanically assess complex parts with representative geometries, that would not be possible using more conventional uniaxial test approaches. This paper will present the recent development of a small-scale testing methodology capable of inducing fatigue damage and a series of novel tests performed on different variants of Ti-6Al-4V.

  8. Vibration Control of a High-Speed Precision Servo Numerically Controlled Punching Press: Multidomain Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-degree-of-freedom mathematical vibration model of a high-speed punching press was developed in order to explore the vibration modes of the punching press. A multidomain model of the punching press was established to predict the kinematic state during different conditions, as well as the effects of load fluctuation on the motor speed. Experimental measurements of the acceleration of the punching press were carried out. The results comparison reveals that the multidomain model is consistent with the vibration model and the experimental measurements. Modal analysis and structure modification of the punching press were conducted. The foundation at the base of the punching press was improved against excess of vibration. The effects of the dimensions of the foundation on the vibration were discussed with the aid of the multidomain model. Finally, proper foundation design, able to reduce the vibration, was obtained.

  9. Shear punch testing as a tool for evaluating welded pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.R.; Elwazri, A.; Varano, R.; Yue, S.; Jonas, J.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering; Pokutylowicz, N. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the mechanical properties across a welded joint in a 35 mm steel pipe. Results were compared with microhardness measurements. The chemical composition of the 4130 steel and welding wire included carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium and molybdenum. The thermal cycles experienced during welding can result in differences in the grain size, phase, composition and morphology of precipitates. These thermal cycles can upset the balance of high strength and good toughness in steels, producing poor toughness in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the shear punch test, a flat-ended cylindrical punch was used to produce a 3 mm diameter disk from a sheet specimen with a recommended thickness of 300 to 350 {mu}m. The shear punch test provided tensile property data with only a very small amount of material, which is ideal for testing welds. It also provides full tensile data (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation) which are not specifically provided by hardness testing. Shear punch techniques can also improve the across-weld resolution of tensile testing. The results showed that the changes in strength properties across the weld were consistent with the microhardness measurements. The change in elongation across the weld joint was successfully measured using the punch test method. The HAZ in the welded joint in this study had a good combination of high strength and ductility, while the weld bead had moderate strength and relatively low ductility. 7 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  10. Flexural behaviour and punching shear of selfcompacting concrete ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hazrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of steel fibres as a replacement to the conventional reinforcement under flexural behaviour and punching shear in self-compacting (SCC ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres. Four ribbed slabs with similar dimensions of 2.8 m length × 1.2 m width and 0.2m thickness were constructed. Two of the samples were considered as control samples (conventionally reinforced with reinforcement bars and welded mesh while another two samples were fully reinforced with 1% (80 kg/m3 volume of steel fibres incorporated to the SCC mix. For the flexural behaviour study, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to two line loads under four point bending. Meanwhile, for the punching shear analysis, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to a point load to simulate loading from the column. The analysis of the experimental results displayed that steel fibres incorporation had been found to effectively delay the first crack occurrence under both flexural and punching shear. The steel fibre replacement has been proven to be able to sustain up to 80% and 73% of the ultimate load resistance for flexural and punching shear, respectively, in comparison to conventionally reinforced ribbed slab structure. The visual observation carried out during the experiment exhibited similar failure mode for both steel fibre reinforced and control samples. This was observed for both flexural and punching shear samples. Overall, it can be concluded that the steel fibres had displayed a promising potential to effectively replace the conventional reinforcements.

  11. Shear punch tests performed using a new low compliance test fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Kurtz, R.J.; Hasegawa, A.; Abe, K.

    2002-01-01

    Based on a recent finite element analysis (FEA) study performed on the shear punch test technique, it was suggested that compliance in a test frame and fixturing which is quite acceptable for uniaxial tensile tests, is much too large for shear punch tests. The FEA study suggested that this relatively large compliance was masking both the true yield point and the shape of the load versus displacement trace obtained in shear punch tests. The knowledge gained from the FEA study was used to design a new shear punch test fixture which more directly measures punch tip displacement. The design of this fixture, the traces obtained from this fixture, and the correlation between uniaxial yield stress and shear yield stress obtained using this fixture are presented here. In general, traces obtained from the new fixture contain much less compliance resulting in a trace shape which is more similar in appearance to a corresponding uniaxial tensile trace. Due to the more direct measurement of displacement, it was possible to measure yield stress at an offset shear strain in a manner analogous to yield stress measurement in a uniaxial tensile test. The correlation between shear yield and uniaxial yield was altered by this new yield measurement technique, but the new correlation was not as greatly improved as was suggested would occur from the FEA study

  12. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is employed. Appropriate thickness and hardness of soft punch is necessary. Silica gel with 200 µm in thickness is beneficial to not only homogenize energy but also propagate the shock wave. Polyurethane films need more energy than silica gel with the same thickness. In addition, blank-holders with different weight levels are used. A heavier blank-holder is more beneficial to improve the cutting quality. Furthermore, the simulation is conducted to reveal typical stages and the different deformation behavior under high and low pulse energy. The simulation results show that the fracture mode changes under lower energy.

  13. Frictionless contact of a rigid punch indenting a transversely isotropic elastic layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the study of frictionless contact between a rigid punch and a transversely isotropic elastic layer. The rigid punch is assumed to be axially symmetric and is being pressed towards the layer by an applied concentrated load. The layer is resting on a rigid base and is assumed to be ufficiently thick in comparison with the amount of indentation by the rigid punch. The relationship between the applied load $P$ and the contact area is obtained by solving the mathematically formulated problem through use of Hankel transform of different order. Effect of indentation on the distribution of normal stress at the surface as well as the relationship between the applied load and the area of contact have been shown graphically.

  14. Dynamics of special working capacity of skilled athlete’s karate under the influence of anaerobic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Rovnyy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental verification of hypothetical models of planning a large volume glycolytic loads of targeted development of special endurance karate. Material and Methods: the experiment was attended by 25 athletes aged 16-18 years, who were divided into 5 groups (5 athletes each. We determined the rates of overall disability (IGST and special endurance (CSR. Results: analyzed the effectiveness of the training program a combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Conclusions: established the optimum combination of loads, which contributed to the development of special anaerobic endurance.

  15. Composition calculations by the KARATE code system for the spent-fuel samples from the Novovoronezh reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordosy, G.

    2006-01-01

    KARATE is a code system developed in KFKI AERI. It is routinely used for core calculation. Its depletion module are now tested against the radiochemical measurements of spent fuel samples from the Novovoronezh Unit IV, performed in RIAR, Dimitrovgrad. Due to the insufficient knowledge of operational history of the unit, the irradiation history of the samples was taken from formerly published Russian calculations. The calculation of isotopic composition was performed by the MULTICEL module of program system. The agreement between the calculated and measured values of the concentration of the most important actinides and fission products is investigated (Authors)

  16. Flat punch adhesion: transition from fracture-based to strength-limited pull-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yijie; Turner, Kevin T; Grierson, David S

    2014-01-01

    The adhesion of a cylindrical flat punch to a surface due to interatomic forces is a well-known problem that is important in many applications, including indentation experiments and the adhesion of fibrillar structures. Traditionally, the pull-off force has been related to the work of adhesion and punch geometry via the Kendall solution that uses a Griffith energy balance to assess crack propagation and pull-off. More recently, it has been shown that under certain conditions, notably at small punch diameters, the contact can behave in a ‘strength-limited’ fashion in which the interface separates uniformly rather than via crack propagation. Here, a Maugis-Dugdale-type analysis of power-law-shaped bodies in contact is used to examine the change in behaviour from the fracture-based Kendall solution to strength-limited pull-off for cylindrical flat punches. The transition from fracture-based to strength-limited behaviour is described in terms of a non-dimensional parameter that is similar to previous quantities used to describe the transition and is a function of the punch size, the elasticity of the contact, and the adhesion properties. The results of this relatively simple analysis compare favourably with results from more complex computational simulations. In addition, the results are used to develop a function that quantifies the transition between the Kendall solution and the strength-limited solution in order to facilitate interpretation of adhesion measurements in the transition regime between the two limits. Finally, the power-law analysis is used to assess the sensitivity of the transition to the exact shape of the punch. (paper)

  17. Numerical investigation by finite element simulation of the bail punch test: application to tempered martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campitelli, E.; Spatig, P.; Bertsch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Over the years, the small ball punch test technique has been used to evaluate conventional tensile properties of a variety of materials. The development and use of this type of small specimen techniques is indispensable for an efficient use of the limited irradiation volume of the future fusion material intense neutron source. Up to now, empirical correlations between features of the load-displacement curves of the ball punch test and the mechanical properties, such as the yield stress or the ultimate tensile stress, are established on materials in the unirradiated condition. These correlations are believed to be applicable to irradiated materials and they have been very often used to estimate the irradiation hardening. However, it is well known that the overall constitutive behavior of the materials is generally affected by neutron irradiation. Therefore, there is a need to quantify the effect of the constitutive behavior on the correlations. In this paper, we employ a 3D non-linear finite element model for the ball punch test to address these effects of the irradiation-induced changes on the ball punch test curve. We apply first the model on the tempered martensitic steel EUROFER97 in the unirradiated condition with variations in the post-yield behavior, either in the low strain domain ( 10%). The effects on the ball punch test load deflection curve are outlined. Second, we study the effects of the irradiation hardening on the same constitutive behaviors as those used for the unirradiated condition. We show that that the usual correlations must be considered with great care on irradiated materials since strong variation on the strain-hardening may lead to erroneous estimation of the irradiation hardening. We also propose a novel approach to calibrate the yield stress to features of the ball punch test curve that decreases the uncertainty related to the post-yield behavior and that, as a consequence, makes the technique more

  18. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  19. Prediction of punching shear capacities of two-way concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Metwally

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Where corrosion of steel reinforcement is a concern, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcing bar or grid reinforcement provides an alternative reinforcement for concrete flat slabs. The existing provisions for punching of slabs in most international design standards for reinforced concrete are based on tests of steel reinforced slabs. The elastic stiffness and bonding characteristics of FRP reinforcement are sufficiently different from those of steel to affect punching strength [1]. This paper evaluates the punching shear strength of concrete flat slabs reinforced with different types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. A total of 59 full-size slabs were constructed and tested collected from the literature of FRP bars reinforced concrete slabs. The test parameters were the amount of FRP reinforcing bars, Young’s modulus of FRP bars, slab thickness, loaded areas and concrete compressive strength. The experimental punching shear strengths were compared with the available theoretical predictions, including the ACI 318 Code, BS 8110 Code, ACI 440 design guidelines, and a number of models proposed by some researchers in the literature. Two approaches for predicting the punching strength of FRP-reinforced slabs are examined. The first is an empirical new model which is considered as a modification of El-Gamal et al. [2] model. The second is a Neural Networks Technique; which has been developed to predict the punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete slabs. The accuracies of both methods were evaluated against the experimental test data. They attained excellent agreement with available test results compared to the existing design formulas.

  20. Usage of prestressed vertical bolts for retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Askar

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation with the objective of retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear using prestressed vertical bolts is presented in this paper. The parameters examined in this study are vertical prestressed bolts with different ratios within the slab thickness, slab thickness and central column size. Through the experimental tests the load carrying capacity, deformation characteristics and the cracking behavior have been investigated. A comparison between the behavior of retrofitted slabs and their references showed that the proposed system of repair is effective and could be used in practice. A comparison between the experimental results and calculated punching failure load based on the formulas adopted by different codes, showed a reasonable agreement.

  1. Fabrication and loading of oral drug delivery microcontainers using hot punching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Borre, Mads T.; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) solution is spin coated to achieve a PLLA layer of 55 μm thickness. Hot punching with a Ni stamp is optimized to fabricate microcontainers in PLLA. Process optimization of thermal bonding of the microcontainers to a poly acrylic acid (PAA) layer is perform...... by modifying sample preparation and varying temperature. The fabricated microcontainers are loaded by hot punching in a spin coated drug polymer film of furosemide and poly-e-caprolactone (PCL)....

  2. Effect of mid-thickness rebar mesh on the behavior and punching shear strength of interior slab–column connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    The obtained results indicate that, the proposed shear reinforcement system has a positive effect in the enhancement of both the punching shear capacity and the strain energy of interior slab–column connection of both normal and high strength concrete. The general finite element software ANSYS can be used successfully to simulate the punching shear behavior of reinforced concrete flat plates.

  3. Development of small punch tests for ductile-brittle transition temperature measurement of temper embrittled Ni-Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, J.M.; Kameda, J.; Buck, O.

    1983-01-01

    Small punch tests were developed to determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) steels having various degrees of temper embrittlement and various microstructures. It was found that the small punch test clearly shows the ductile-brittle transition behavior of the temper-embrittled steels. The measured values were compared with those obtained from Charpy impact and uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of punch tip shape, a notch, and the strain rate on the ductile-brittle transition behavior were examined. It was found that the combined use of a notch, high strain rates, and a small punch tip strongly affects the ductile-brittle transition behavior. Considerable variations in the data were observed when the small punch tests were performed on coarse-grained steels. Several factors controlling embrittlement measurements of steels are discussed in terms of brittle fracture mechanisms

  4. Data on treatment of sewage wastewater by electrocoagulation using punched aluminum electrode and characterization of generated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Khandegar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrocoagulation setup must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. Therefore, in this work, the effect of the punched aluminum electrode on the performance of the electrocoagulation (EC has been investigated. A series of experiments were performed for treatment of sewage wastewater using plane electrode and compare with punched electrodes. Effect of contact time, voltage, electrode spacing and stirring speed has been optimized for removal of Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and Total dissolved solids (TDS. It was observed that the performance of electrocoagulation process increased using punched electrode. Also, the less operating cost noticed in punched electrode as compared to a plane electrode for (70–80% removal of BOD and TDS. These data would be useful in designing of an EC reactor to obtain high removal efficiency at low energy consumption. Keywords: Electrocoagulation, Sewage wastewater, Aluminum, Plane, Punched electrode

  5. As competições de karate-do : perspectivas à formação e educação de crianças e jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Aires

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo trata do tema das competições esportivas infantojuvenis, mais especificamente este estudo abordou as competições de Karate-do do estilo Shotokan organizadas pela Japan Karate Association. A partir da teoria proposta por Marques (2004), que aborda o tema das competições infantojuvenis como pressupostos para a formação e educação, procurou-se investigar se na perspectiva dos dirigentes e treinadores as competições infantojuvenis de Karate-do JKA estão adequadas aos interesses ...

  6. Some uncertainty results obtained by the statistical version of the KARATE code system related to core design and safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panka, Istvan; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Temesvari, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Reactor Analysis Dept.

    2017-11-15

    The best-estimate KARATE code system has been widely used for core design calculations and simulations of slow transients of VVER reactors. Recently there has been an increasing need for assessing the uncertainties of such calculations by propagating the basic input uncertainties of the models through the full calculation chain. In order to determine the uncertainties of quantities of interest during the burnup, the statistical version of the KARATE code system has been elaborated. In the first part of the paper, the main features of the new code system are discussed. The applied statistical method is based on Monte-Carlo sampling of the considered input data taking into account mainly the covariance matrices of the cross sections and/or the technological uncertainties. In the second part of the paper, only the uncertainties of cross sections are considered and an equilibrium cycle related to a VVER-440 type reactor is investigated. The burnup dependence of the uncertainties of some safety related parameters (e.g. critical boron concentration, rod worth, feedback coefficients, assembly-wise radial power and burnup distribution) are discussed and compared to the recently used limits.

  7. Professional karate-do and mixed martial arts fighters present with a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel; Namba, Eli Luis; Veiga, Danielle Medeiros; Wandembruck, Fernanda; Mussi, Felipe; Afonso Cunali, Paulo; Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma in sports has been associated with temporomandibular disorders. Because of the intensity and duration of training needed for elite-level competitions, high-performance athletes can have two to five times more traumatic injuries than recreational athletes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in high-performance martial arts fighters and compare it with the prevalence in recreational athletes and non-athletes. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders was used to diagnose and classify professional karate-do practitioners (group I; n = 24), amateur karate-do practitioners (group II; n = 17), high-performance mixed martial arts fighters (group III; n = 13), and non-athletes (n = 28). The groups were compared with the chi-square test and tested for the difference between two proportions using a significance level of 5% (P 0.05). A diagnosis of arthralgia from disk displacement was made more frequently in groups I (45.8%; P = 0.013) and III (38.5%; P = 0.012) than in group IV (7.1%). The chronic pain associated with TMD was low intensity and low disability. While there was a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the professional athletes in our study, the prevalence of the condition in recreational athletes was similar to that in individuals who did not practice martial arts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic Of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.

  9. Changes in dual-task performance after 5 months of karate and fitness training for older adults to enhance fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, Gerald; Emmermacher, Peter; Weinbeer, Veronika; Witte, Kerstin

    2016-12-01

    Demographic changes resulting in an aging population are major factors for an increase of fall-related injuries. Especially in situations where dual tasks such as walking whilst talking have to be performed simultaneously the risk of a fall-related injury increases. It is well known that some types of martial art (e.g. Tai Chi) can reduce the risk of a fall. It is unknown if the same is true for karate. In this randomized, controlled study 68 people with a mean age of 69 years underwent 5-month karate training, 5-month fitness training or were part of a control group. Before and after the time of intervention a gait analysis with normal walk, a cognitive dual task and a motor dual task were performed. The gait parameter step frequency, walking speed, single-step time and single-step length were investigated. It could be seen that all groups improved their gait parameters after a 5-month period, even the control group. A sporty intervention seems to affect mainly the temporal gait parameters positively. This effect was especially demonstrated for normal walk and cognitive dual task. An improvement of the human walk seems to be possible through karate and fitness training, even under dual-task conditions. A prolonged intervention time with multiple repetitions of gait analysis could give better evidence if karate is a useful tool to increase fall prevention.

  10. VARIATION IN RESISTIVE FORCE SELECTION DURING BRIEF HIGH INTENSITY CYCLE ERGOMETRY: IMPLICATIONS FOR POWER ASSESSMENT AND PRODUCTION IN ELITE KARATE PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Steven Baker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure power values generated in elite karate fighters during brief high intensity cycle ergometry when resistive forces were derived from total - body mass (TBM or fat - free mass (FFM. Male international karate practitioners volunteered as participants (n = 11. Body density was calculated using hydrostatic weighing procedures with fat mass ascertained from body density values. Participants were required to pedal maximally on a cycle ergometer (Monark 864 against randomly assigned loads ranging from 70 g·kg-1 - 95 g·kg-1 (using a TBM or FFM protocol for 8 seconds. The resistive force that produced the highest peak power output (PPO for each protocol was considered optimal. Differences (p 0.05 were observed between time to PPO, or heart rate when the TBM and FFM protocols were compared. The findings of this study suggest that when high intensity cycle ergometer resistive forces are derived from FFM, greater peak powers can be obtained consistently in karate athletes. Resistive forces that relate to the active muscle tissue utilised during this type of exercise may need to be explored in preference to protocols that include both lean and fat masses. The findings have implications for both exercise prescription and the evaluation of experimental results concerning karate athletes

  11. The effects of different doses of caffeine on performance, rating of perceived exertion and pain perception in teenagers female karate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study set to examine the effects of different doses of caffeine on performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and pain perception in female teenager athletes of karate. Ten female karate athletes (16.8±1.23 years; height 1.59±0.28 m; body-mass 57.73±8.33 kg; BMI 22.71±3.05 kg/m2 participated in the study. A double-blind, randomized, and crossover counterbalanced design was used. In three sessions (with an interval of seven days', ten female karate athletes ingested low dose (2 mg/kg, moderate dose (5 mg/kg caffeine, and placebo. Sixty minutes after consumption, they performed the tests as below: one repetition maximum and 60% of one repetition maximum in the leg press, explosive power test, and anaerobic RAST test. After the tests, the participants' RPE (6-20 scale and pain perception (0-10 scale were recorded using various categorical scales. The results showed that caffeine ingestion at moderate dose significantly reduced RPE and pain perception values compared with the placebo during muscular endurance test (P=0.0001 and P=0.039, respectively. The findings suggest that caffeine dose of 5 mg/kg body mass appears to improve RPE and pain perception in female teenager athletes of karate. The dose of 2 mg/kg body mass does not confer any additional improvement in performance.

  12. Investigating the effect of tablet thickness and punch curvature on density distribution using finite elements method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Harona; Mazel, Vincent; Busignies, Virginie; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2015-09-30

    Finite elements method was used to study the influence of tablet thickness and punch curvature on the density distribution inside convex faced (CF) tablets. The modeling of the process was conducted on 2 pharmaceutical excipients (anhydrous calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose) by using Drucker-Prager Cap model in Abaqus(®) software. The parameters of the model were obtained from experimental tests. Several punch shapes based on industrial standards were used. A flat-faced (FF) punch and 3 convex faced (CF) punches (8R11, 8R8 and 8R6) with a diameter of 8mm were chosen. Different tablet thicknesses were studied at a constant compression force. The simulation of the compaction of CF tablets with increasing thicknesses showed an important change on the density distribution inside the tablet. For smaller thicknesses, low density zones are located toward the center. The density is not uniform inside CF tablets and the center of the 2 faces appears with low density whereas the distribution inside FF tablets is almost independent of the tablet thickness. These results showed that FF and CF tablets, even obtained at the same compression force, do not have the same density at the center of the compact. As a consequence differences in tensile strength, as measured by diametral compression, are expected. This was confirmed by experimental tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancements to the Image Analysis Tool for Core Punch Experiments and Simulations (vs. 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    A previous paper (Hogden & Unal, 2012, Image Analysis Tool for Core Punch Experiments and Simulations) described an image processing computer program developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program has proven useful so developement has been continued. In this paper we describe enhacements to the program as of 2014.

  14. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effect of Friction Coefficient on the Small Punch Creep Behavior of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Cho, Nam-Hyuck; Kim, Moon-K; Lim, Byeong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Small punch creep testing has received attention due to the convenience of using smaller specimens than those of conventional uniaxial creep tests, which enables creep testing on developing or currently operational components. However, precedent studies have shown that it is necessary to consider friction between the punch and specimen when computing uniaxial equivalent stress from a finite element model. In this study, small punch creep behaviors of AISI 316L stainless steel, which is widely used in high temperature-high pressure machineries, have been compared for the two different ceramic balls such as Si 3 N 4 and Al 2 O 3 . The optimal range of the friction coefficient is 0.4⁓0.5 at 650°C for the best fit between experimental and simulation data of AISI 316 L stainless steel. The higher the friction coefficient, the longer the creep rupture time is. Therefore, the type of ceramic ball used must be specified for standardization of small punch creep testing.

  16. Short term creep small punch testing of P91 and P92 steels,

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 179-182 ISSN 1013-9826. [Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture 6. Brno, 28.6.2010-30.6,2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200410801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * small punch test * chromium steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  17. Splitting behaviour of timber loaded perpendicular to the grain by punched metal plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, J.C.M.; Jorissen, A.J.M.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Aratake, S. xx

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, prefabricated timber trusses are widely used as load-bearing roof structures. The majority of these trusses are produced with punched metal plates (PMP) to connect two or more timber elements of the same thickness, see Figure 2. In these structures sufficient overlap is required to prevent

  18. Analysis of ancient Indian silver punch-marked coins by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, Tapash R.; Nayak, Suman S.; Tripathy, Bipin B.; Das, Saubhagyalaxmi; Das, Manas R.; Das, Satya R.; Chattopadhyay, Pranab K.

    2011-01-01

    Seven silver punch-marked coins were analysed using external particle induced X-ray emission technique. The main group of elements like Ag, Cu, Au, Pb and Fe were estimated along with a number of trace/minor elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Rb in the analysed silver coins. Gold was found in all the coins and varied between 0.7% and 6.2% indicating the better economic condition of that civilisation. - Highlights: → The silver punch-marked coins, in the current study, were in use in India between 6th century BC to 6th century AD and have been analysed by in-air PIXE. → These sets of coins have immense archaeological importance because of their very rare availability. → These coins are distinguished from other coins because of the presence of gold as major element. → While the British period coins were fabricated using modern technologies, the punch-marked coins were shaped manually with developed metal technology. → The analysis of punch-marked coins using external PIXE beam has been done for the first time, which is unique of its kind.

  19. Book review: Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Third Edition, by Keith F Punch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2014-01-01

    In Introduction to Social Research, Keith F. Punch wants to ‘demystify’ and ‘simplify’ the research process, in an attempt to show that quality research can always be achieved. With its straightforward language, an intuitive structure, and well-defined learning objectives, this book does just that,

  20. Evaluation of Replacement Grafts and Punch Grafts in the Treatment of Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajit Kumar

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirtycasesof vitiligo eachwithminimum of two lesions undent replacement graft and multiple punch grafts in one lesion each. Complications observed at the recipient site like infection and raised nigosed surface were significantly more in replacement grafts. Hypopigmentation of the graft was significantly more when the disease was progressive.

  1. Small Punch Tests at Oxide Scales Surface of Structural Steel and Low Silicon Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, J.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Horský, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, 3-4 (2014), s. 297-310 ISSN 0030-770X Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch * Oxide scales * X-ray diffraction * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2014

  2. Review of Punching Shear Behaviour of Flat Slabs Reinforced with FRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania

    2017-10-01

    Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars to reinforce two-way concrete slabs can extend the service life, reduce maintenance cost and improve-life cycle cost efficiency. FRP reinforcing bars are more environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional reinforcing steel. Shear behaviour of reinforced concrete structural members is a complex phenomenon that relies on the development of internal load-carrying mechanisms, the magnitude and combination of which is still a subject of research. Many building codes and design standards provide design formulas for estimation of punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced flat slabs. Building code formulas take into account the effects of the axial stiffness of main reinforcement bars, the ratio of the perimeter of the critical section to the slab effective depth, and the slab thickness on the punching shear capacity of two-way slabs reinforced with FRP bars or grids. The goal of this paper is to compare experimental data published in the literature to the equations offered by building codes for the estimation of punching shear capacity of concrete flat slabs reinforced with FRP bars. Emphasis in this paper is on two North American codes, namely, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12. The experimental data covered in this paper include flat slabs reinforced with GFRP, BFRP, and CFRP bars. Both ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are shown to be in good agreement with test results in terms of predicting the punching shear capacity.

  3. Fracture-based correlation of uniaxial and small punch creep data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Dymáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 86, DEC (2016), s. 34-38 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Creep * Small punch test * Chromium steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016

  4. HOW BOXERS DECIDE TO PUNCH A TARGET: EMERGENT BEHAVIOUR IN NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL MOVEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hristovski

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown how dynamical systems theory provides a relevant framework for investigating decision-making behavior in sport. The aim of this study was to adopt concepts and tools from nonlinear dynamics in examining effects of boxer-target distance and perceived punching efficiency on emergent decision-making during a typical practice task in boxing. Results revealed the existence of critical values of scaled distances between boxers and targets for first time appearance and disappearance of a diverse range of boxing actions including jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the diversity of actions were twofold: i abrupt (qualitative changes in the number of the possible punches, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; and ii, fine modification of the probabilities of selecting specific striking patterns. Boxers were able to exploit the emerging perception of strikeability, leading to a changing diversity of selected actions and a cascade of abrupt changes in the perceptual-motor work space of the task. Perceived efficiency of a punching action by the participants also changed as a function of the scaled distance to a target and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of specific boxing actions. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems an important perceptual constraint in the training task of punching a heavy bag in boxers

  5. Very heavy iron-punching concretes; Betons tres lourds a base de riblons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [French] Le present rapport traite de l'ensemble des betons lourds realises a l'aide de riblons, dechets metalliques fournis par l'industrie de transformation. Apres une description detaillee des proprietes physiques des agregats metalliques, les mortiers lourds sont d'abord presentes en les classant en trois grandes categories: les mortiers a base de grenailles d 5,3 a 6; les mortiers a base de grenailles avec addition d'un mineral d 3,7 a 4,2; les mortiers lourds injectables d = 3,5 a 4. Le chapitre suivant decrit les betons a base de riblons les plus utilises, dans l'industrie atomique: les betons de riblons avec addition de fonte; les betons de riblons avec addition de magnetite; les betons de riblons avec addition de barytine; les betons de riblons avec addition de limonite; les betons de riblons avec addition de bore. Les compositions de ces betons ainsi que leurs caracteristiques

  6. Very heavy iron-punching concretes; Betons tres lourds a base de riblons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [French] Le present rapport traite de l'ensemble des betons lourds realises a l'aide de riblons, dechets metalliques fournis par l'industrie de transformation. Apres une description detaillee des proprietes physiques des agregats metalliques, les mortiers lourds sont d'abord presentes en les classant en trois grandes categories: les mortiers a base de grenailles d 5,3 a 6; les mortiers a base de grenailles avec addition d'un mineral d 3,7 a 4,2; les mortiers lourds injectables d = 3,5 a 4. Le chapitre suivant decrit les betons a base de riblons les plus utilises, dans l'industrie atomique: les betons de riblons avec addition de fonte; les betons de riblons avec addition de magnetite; les betons de riblons avec addition de barytine; les betons de riblons avec addition de limonite; les betons de riblons avec addition de bore. Les compositions de ces betons ainsi que

  7. POTÊNCIA E CAPACIDADE ANAERÓBIA EM ATLETAS DE KARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sato Urbinati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o nível de potência muscular, bem como a intensidade de esforço durante prova de potência e capacidade anaeróbia em atletas de Karate. Participaram do estudo treze karatekas especialistas em prova de kumitê (luta,sexo masculino, idade média de 20,7±3,79 anos. Realizou-se a avaliação de potência e capacidade anaeróbia (Wingate test, com coleta das variáveis fisiológicas:frequência cardíaca (FC, pressão arterial (PA e lactato sanguíneo (LAC de repouso, imediatamente após e em 5 min de recuperação. Para verificar se ocorrem diferenças nas variáveis fisiológicas durante o teste, realizou-se análise de variância, post hoc de Bonferronie (p?0,05. Verificou-se potência de pico(PP de 8,77 ± 0,99 W/kg-1, potência média (PM de 5,13± 0,49 W.kg-1 e % de fadiga de 50,5 ± 6,45%. Para as variáveis fisiológicas,a FC (F=9,79; p=0,00 pós-teste de Wingate foi estatisticamente maior e diferenteda FC de repouso e recuperação. Não foram encontradas diferenças nos níveis pressatórios e nas concentrações de LAC. Em relação aos valores de FC e LAC tais variáveis pós-teste não se apresentaram elevados. Os valores de potência anaeróbia estão de acordo com a necessidade da modalidade esportiva. Assim, verificou-se menores intensidades de esforço em teste de Wingate quando comparados a de situação real de competição. O nível de potência muscular parece estar adequado ao kumitê.

  8. Effect of cutter tip angle on cutting characteristics of acrylic worksheet subjected to punch/die shearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Kojima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the effect of tool geometry on cutting characteristics of a 1.0 mm thickness acrylic worksheet subjected to a punch/die shearing. A set of side-wedge punch and side-wedge die which had the edge angle of 30°, 60° and/or 90° was prepared and used for cutting off the worksheet. A load cell and a CCD camera were installed in the cutting system to investigate the cutting load resistance and the side-view deformation of the worksheet. From experimental results, it was revealed that a cracking pattern at a sheared zone was remarkably affected by the edge angle of cutting tool. A cracking direction was almost coincident to the edge angle when considering the punch/die edge angle of 30°, while any matching of them was not observed in case of the punch/die edge angle of 60°, 90°. By using the 30° side-wedge tool, a flat-smooth sheared surface was generated. When combing the punch edge angle of 90° and the die edge angle of 60°, the cracking profile was characterized by the both edge angles for each part (die and punch. Carrying out an elasto-plastic finite element method analysis of cutter indentation with a few of symmetric and asymmetric punch/die edges, the stress distribution and deformation flow at the sheared zone were discussed with the initiation of surface cracks

  9. A karate program for improving self-concept and quality of life in childhood epilepsy: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Kerry D; Morgan, Amy K; Muzykewicz, David; Clark, Derrick C; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    The potential cognitive and psychosocial effects of childhood epilepsy have significant implications for a child's self-image and academic achievement. This study focuses on a 10-week karate program for children and adolescents with epilepsy aimed at increasing social confidence, self-concept, and quality of life, as well as reducing parental anxiety. Eleven children (8-16 years old) and their parents participated in this questionnaire study, and complete data were available for nine of these families. Measures consisted of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, and the Parental Stress Index. By parental report, significant improvement in memory function and largely positive trends in quality of life on multiple subscales were observed. By child report, intellectual self-esteem and social confidence also improved. Parental stress decreased, although not significantly, suggesting a potential benefit and indicating a role for future interventions targeting family anxiety.

  10. The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom); Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within {+-}53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within {+-} MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa.

  11. A possible mechanism for electron-bombardment-induced loop punching in helium-implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The recently proposed mechanism for the punching of dislocation loops by overpressurized helium bubbles in molybdenum is studied quantitatively. According to this mechanism, under the electron beam of the transmission microscope, He atoms are excited or ionized and the resulting excited species (excited He atoms and free electrons) are responsible for the pressure rise in the gas beyond the threshold for loop punching. In the model, the pressure increase is attributed to a reduction of the effective volume accessible to the gas due to the formation of a cavity around each excited species. The radius of this cavity is evaluated and, also, the excited fraction required to reach the threshold is discussed in terms of excitation life times. (author)

  12. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  13. The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within ±53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within ± MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa

  14. Love-type wave propagation in a pre-stressed viscoelastic medium influenced by smooth moving punch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Parween, Z.; Chatterjee, M.; Chattopadhyay, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model studying the effect of smooth moving semi-infinite punch on the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed viscoelastic strip is developed. The dynamic stress concentration due to the punch for the force of a constant intensity has been obtained in the closed form. Method based on Weiner-hopf technique which is indicated by Matczynski has been employed. The study manifests the significant effect of various affecting parameters viz. speed of moving punch associated with Love-type wave speed, horizontal compressive/tensile initial stress, vertical compressive/tensile initial stress, frequency parameter, and viscoelastic parameter on dynamic stress concentration due to semi-infinite punch. Moreover, some important peculiarities have been traced out and depicted by means of graphs.

  15. Influence of friction on stress and strain distributions in small punch creep test models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr; Seitl, Stanislav; Milička, Karel; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    417-418, - (2010), s. 561-564 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /8./. Malta, 08.09.2009-10.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200410801; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : small punch test * creep * chromium steel * finite element method Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy www.scientific.net/KEM.417-418.561

  16. Hot embossing and mechanical punching of biodegradable microcontainers for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Mahshid, Rasoul; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    A process has been developed to fabricate discrete three-dimensional microcontainers for oral drug delivery application in Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) polymer. The method combines hot embossing for the definition of holes in a PLLA film and mechanical punching to penetrate the polymer layer around...... and shapes of microcontainers. Finally, the process is compatible with roll-to-roll processing that could lead to low cost high volume production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Treatment of Die-Punch Fractures with 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhui; Cai, Leyi; Zhang, Chuanxu; Wang, Jianshun; Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Yifei

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the feasibility, accuracy and effectiveness of applying three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for preoperative planning for die-punch fractures. A total of 107 patients who underwent die-punch fracture surgery were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups: 52 cases in the 3D model group and 55 cases in the routine group. A 3D digital model of each die-punch fracture was reconstructed in the 3D group. The 3D digital model was imported to a 3D printer to build the full solid model. The operation time, blood loss volume, and the number of intraoperative fluoroscopy were recorded. Follow-up was performed to evaluate the patients' surgical outcomes. Treatment of die-punch fractures using the 3D printing approach reduced the number of intraoperative fluoroscopy, blood loss volume, and operation time, but did not improve wrist function compared to those in the routine group. The patients wanted the doctor to use the 3D model to introduce the condition and operative plan because it was easier for them to understand. The orthopedic surgeons thought that the 3D model was useful for communicating with their patients, but their satisfaction with the preoperative plan was much lower than the benefit of using the 3D model to communicate with their patients. 3D printing technology produced more accurate morphometric information for orthopedists to provide personalized surgical planning and communicate better with their patients. However, it is difficult to use widely in the department of orthopedics.

  18. Estimation of ductility of Fe-Al alloys by means of small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Milička, Karel

    Roč.18, č.7 (2010), s. 1357-1359 ISSN 0966-9795. [Discussion Meeting on the Development of Innovative Iron Aluminium Alloys /5./. Praha, 21.09.2009-24.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : iron aluminides * brittleness * small punch test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2010

  19. Study of the upper die clamping conditions in the small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrés, D.; Dymáček, Petr

    86A, DEC (2016), s. 117-123 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Finite element method * Parametric study * High temperature * Creep Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167844216301835

  20. The Effects of Biomechanical Factors to Teach Different Hook Punch Techniques in Boxing and Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingul, Bergun Meric; Bulgun, Cigdem; Tore, Ozlem; Bal, Erdal; Aydin, Mensure

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biomechanic factors to teach different hook punches in boxing. Eight light middleweight boxing athletes (mean age ± SD 19.00 ± 2.00 yrs, mean height ± SD 173.88 ± 3.89 cm, mean weight ± SD 64.25 ± 4.66 kg) participated in this study. Athletes performed a trial using three different hook punch…

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of micromechanical damage in the punching process for High-Strength Low-Alloy steels

    OpenAIRE

    ACHOURI, Mohamed; GERMAIN, Guénaël; DAL SANTO, Philippe; SAIDANE, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Sequential sheet metal forming processes can result in the accumulation of work hardening and damage effects in the workpiece material. The mechanical strength of the final component depends on the “evolution” of these two characteristics in the different production steps. The punching process, which is usually in the beginning of the production chain, has an important impact on the stress, strain and damage states in the punched zones. It is essential that the influence of these mechanical f...

  2. Examining the microtexture evolution in a hole-edge punched into 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.H.; Kim, M.S. [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-950 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.I.; Seo, S.J. [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-H., E-mail: shihoon@sunchon.ac.kr [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-950 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The deformation behavior in the hole-edge of 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel during the punching process was investigated via microstructure characterization and computational simulation. Microstructure characterization was conducted to observe the edges of punched holes through the thickness direction, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the heterogeneity of the deformation. Finite element analysis (FEA) that could account for a ductile fracture criterion was conducted to simulate the deformation and fracture behaviors of 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel during the punching process. Calculation of rotation rate fields at the edges of the punched holes during the punching process revealed that metastable orientations in Euler space were confined to specific orientation groups. Rotation-rate fields effectively explained the stability of the initial texture components in the hole-edge region during the punching process. A visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to calculate the microtexture evolution in the hole-edge region during the punching process. FEA revealed that the heterogeneous effective strain was closely related to the heterogeneity of the Kernel average misorientation (KAM) distribution in the hole-edge region. A simulation of the deformation microtexture evolution in the hole-edge region using a VPSC model was in good agreement with the experimental results. - Highlights: •We analyzed the microstructure in a hole-edge punched in HR 780HB steel. •Rotation rate fields revealed the stability of the initial texture components. •Heterogeneous effective stain was closely related to the KAM distribution. •VPSC model successfully simulated the deformation microtexture evolution.

  3. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    OpenAIRE

    Prillia Ayudia; Rachmat Haris; Mulyana Tatang

    2017-01-01

    PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement are...

  4. Repetitive forging (RF) using inclined punches as a new bulk severe plastic deformation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faraji, G., E-mail: ghfaraji@ut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mashhadi, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamdi, M. [Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    A new bulk severe plastic deformation method based on repetitive forging (RF) using inclined punches is proposed. This process consists of two half cycles. In the first half cycle, a square cross section deforms to parallelogram by forging with two inclined punches, and the parallelogram cross section is forged back to square using two flat punches in the second half cycle. This method was applied to commercially pure copper and significant grain refinement was achieved after four passes of RF. The results showed that significant improvement in the mechanical properties was obtained. Notable increase of yield and ultimate strengths corresponding to 358 MPa and 381 MPa after four passes of RF from the initial values of 121 MPa and 230.5 MPa is detectable. Microhardness increases to about 100 Hv after four passes of RF from the initial value of 53 Hv. Finite element (FE) results illustrate that RF is able to impose extremely high plastic strains to the materials. In the RF process, the processed samples have the same dimensions and geometry as those of the initial sample without any waste material and there is no need for back pressure.

  5. Using Teamcenter engineering software for a successive punching tool lifecycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, F.; Pele, A.-V.; Stǎnǎşel, I.; Buidoş, T.; Hule, V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents studies and researches results of the implementation of Teamcenter (TC) integrated management of a product lifecycle, in a virtual enterprise. The results are able to be implemented also in a real enterprise. The product was considered a successive punching and cutting tool, designed to materialize a metal sheet part. The paper defines the technical documentation flow (flow of information) in the process of constructive computer aided design of the tool. After the design phase is completed a list of parts is generated containing standard or manufactured components (BOM, Bill of Materials). The BOM may be exported to MS Excel (.xls) format and can be transferred to other departments of the company in order to supply the necessary materials and resources to achieve the final product. This paper describes the procedure to modify or change certain dimensions of sheet metal part obtained by punching. After 3D and 2D design, the digital prototype of punching tool moves to following lifecycle phase of the manufacturing process. For each operation of the technological process the corresponding phases are described in detail. Teamcenter enables to describe manufacturing company structure, underlying workstations that carry out various operations of manufacturing process. The paper revealed that the implementation of Teamcenter PDM in a company, improves efficiency of managing product information, eliminating time working with search, verification and correction of documentation, while ensuring the uniqueness and completeness of the product data.

  6. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Gavagan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was first, to determine whether there were differences in the roundhouse kicking leg kinematics performed by highly skilled Muay Thai, Karate and Taekwondo practitioners (n = 8 per group. Next, analysis aimed to identify the kinematic determinants of effective roundhouse kicking performance. Three-dimensional (3D lower limb kinematics were recorded using a nine camera infra-red motion capture system (500 Hz during three maximal roundhouse kicks. Impact forces were recorded using a strain gauge (1000 Hz attached to a kicking pad positioned at the height of each participant's mastoid process. Results showed that linear foot velocity at impact was moderately correlated with relative impact force (r = 0.66, P = 0.001. Discipline specific analyses of the temporal data indicated that the Muay Thai group had a shorter execution time (1.02 ± 0.15 s than Taekwondo (1.54 ± 0.52 s, P = 0.028. Analysis of lower limb kinematic data indicated that both Karate (-947 ± 94 deg/s, P = 0.010 and Taekwondo (-943 ± 106 deg/s, P = 0.011 practitioners had faster knee extension velocities than the Muay Thai group (-706 ± 200 deg/s. Conversely, the Muay Thai practitioners (1.24 ± 0.15 m/s had greater vertical centre of mass movement than both Karate (0.78 ± 0.24 m/s, P = 0.001 and Taekwondo groups (0.93 ± 0.19 m/s, P = 0.02. Our findings show that several fundamental movement patterns were common to the roundhouse kicking techniques across the Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo disciplines. Effective roundhouse kicking performance was characterized by rapid pelvic axial rotation, hip abduction, hip flexion and knee extension velocities, combined with rapid movements of the COM towards the target.

  7. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagan, Colin J; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first, to determine whether there were differences in the roundhouse kicking leg kinematics performed by highly skilled Muay Thai, Karate and Taekwondo practitioners (n = 8 per group). Next, analysis aimed to identify the kinematic determinants of effective roundhouse kicking performance. Three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics were recorded using a nine camera infra-red motion capture system (500 Hz) during three maximal roundhouse kicks. Impact forces were recorded using a strain gauge (1000 Hz) attached to a kicking pad positioned at the height of each participant's mastoid process. Results showed that linear foot velocity at impact was moderately correlated with relative impact force (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). Discipline specific analyses of the temporal data indicated that the Muay Thai group had a shorter execution time (1.02 ± 0.15 s) than Taekwondo (1.54 ± 0.52 s, P = 0.028). Analysis of lower limb kinematic data indicated that both Karate (-947 ± 94 deg/s, P = 0.010) and Taekwondo (-943 ± 106 deg/s, P = 0.011) practitioners had faster knee extension velocities than the Muay Thai group (-706 ± 200 deg/s). Conversely, the Muay Thai practitioners (1.24 ± 0.15 m/s) had greater vertical centre of mass movement than both Karate (0.78 ± 0.24 m/s, P = 0.001) and Taekwondo groups (0.93 ± 0.19 m/s, P = 0.02). Our findings show that several fundamental movement patterns were common to the roundhouse kicking techniques across the Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo disciplines. Effective roundhouse kicking performance was characterized by rapid pelvic axial rotation, hip abduction, hip flexion and knee extension velocities, combined with rapid movements of the COM towards the target.

  8. Comparing of athletic performance and biometric features of selected teenagers based on the specific talent identification pattern of Karate with elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Ehsan Naghibi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: According to that no significant difference in both groups between athletic performance and biometric parameters except one variable, we can conclude that the process of talent identification in the club studied, in order to distinguish and talented people from other potentially effective. Also according to the native data used in the analysis of the tests in this process can be patterns of biometric indices based on talent and sport performance in karate developed.

  9. As idéias psicopedagógicas e a espiritualidade no karate-do segundo a obra de Gichin Funakoshi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira Cristiano Roque Antunes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O karate é uma forma de luta com origens remotas, pouco conhecidas e marcado desenvolvimento na ilha de Okinawa do arquipélago japonês. Outrora praticado às escondidas, no século XX Gichin Funakoshi tornou-o público e o difundiu. Partiu de Funakoshi a denominação karate-do, "o caminho das mãos vazias", que dá um caráter doutrinário à arte que deveria servir, mais do que como mera forma de luta, ao desenvolvimento da personalidade. Procura-se fazer um resgate teórico das idéias psicopedagógicas e da espiritualidade próprias do karate sob a luz dos paradigmas culturais de maior influência no pensamento de Funakoshi. Observa-se claramente a influência e complementaridade entre confucionismo e zen-budismo além da herança prática do bushidô que permitem compreender o pensamento de Funakoshi acerca da espiritualidade e transmissão do conhecimento.

  10. Study of the mechanical properties of the electric power station components: the punch test; Etude des proprietes mecaniques des composants de centrales thermiques: l'essai punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselin, J

    2003-03-15

    The aging of the electric production park implies an increasing need of knowledge concerning the evolution of the mechanical properties of its components. With regard to this problem, the availability in material is more and more small. This work proposes to characterize these properties through a mechanical test called Punch test. The main characteristic of this test is to use very small volume samples. The development of this test has been carried out by the study of a 15 MDV 4-05 steel coming from a steam drum of a thermal power plant after 145000 hours of service. At first, we have measured the influence of the parameters of this test. Then, the study has dealt more particularly on the transition temperature of the material. With the finite element simulation method, the strain hardening coefficient of the material has been determined. (O.M.)

  11. Feasibility of attaining uniform grain structure and enhanced ductility in aluminum alloy by employing a beveled punch in equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejadseyfi, Omid, E-mail: o.nejadseyfi@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, Ali [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Seyedali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-10

    The advantage of using a beveled-edge punch in equal-channel angular pressing is investigated. Lambda angle (λ), the clockwise angle between the theoretical shear plane and punch/billet interface, is used to demonstrate how the punch tip is inclined. Transmission electron microscope is used to assess the microstructure of the samples processed using a beveled-edge punch. In addition, tensile tests at elevated temperature are performed. The results show that using a beveled-edge punch (λ=90°) in the process leads to formation of uniform subgrain structure and increases the tensile ductility for the samples at elevated temperature. Additionally, finite element simulations are performed to study the correlation between measured properties and mechanism of material deformation by employing a beveled-edge punch. Numerical simulations confirm the irregular deformation in case of λ=0° and uniform strain distribution for λ=90°, which were the main reasons of variation in mechanical properties.

  12. Moving Griffith crack in an orthotropic strip with punches at boundary faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral transform technique is employed to solve the elastodynamic problem of steady-state propagation of a Griffith crack centrally situated along the midplane of orthotropic strip of finite thickness 2h and subjected to point loading with centrally situated moving punches under constant pressure along the boundaries of the layer. The problem is reduced to the solution of a pair of simultaneous singular integral equations with Cauchy-type singularities which have finally been solved through the finite Hilbert transform technique. For large h, analytical expression for the stress intensity factor at the crack tip is obtained. Graphical plots of the numerical results are also presented.

  13. Contact stresses by rounded punch subject to axial and transverse shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    Contact shear stresses by rounded punch were evaluated numerically. Numerical program was successfully implemented by using an influence function method. To simulate the physical fretting problem, a closed load path of shear was considered. The influence functions on surface displacements fo both axial and transverse direction were calculated using a triangular shear traction element. Behaviour of the contact surface, such as stick and slip region during the load path was investigated together with compliance change. Irreversibility of the shear stress was shown. The importance and the utilization of the present research were discussed for analyzing the material failure induced by contact such as fretting wear and fatigue.

  14. Contact stresses by rounded punch subject to axial and transverse shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu

    1999-01-01

    Contact shear stresses by rounded punch were evaluated numerically. Numerical program was successfully implemented by using an influence function method. To simulate the physical fretting problem, a closed load path of shear was considered. The influence functions on surface displacements fo both axial and transverse direction were calculated using a triangular shear traction element. Behaviour of the contact surface, such as stick and slip region during the load path was investigated together with compliance change. Irreversibility of the shear stress was shown. The importance and the utilization of the present research were discussed for analyzing the material failure induced by contact such as fretting wear and fatigue

  15. Backward can extrusion with conical,rotating punch as a cold forging tribology test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Tetsuo, A.

    2011-01-01

    with an analysis of the sliding velocity distribution along the punch nose. The latter is determined by FE analysis of the test. Results show friction stress for unalloyed low C-steel provided with different types of lubricants, e.g. phosphate coating plus soap, phosphate coating plus MoS2 and single bathe...... lubrication with PULS. The new test is so severe, that it is possible to break down the best lubrication systems for cold forging, such as phosphate coating plus soap and MoS2....

  16. Tooling solutions for sheet metal forming and punching of lean duplex stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Madsen, Erik; Bay, Niels

    2012-01-01

    .4509 and lean duplex EN1.4162 in a production designed for austenitic stainless steels, such as EN1.4301 and 1.4401. The result is a guideline that summarizes how stainless material properties may affect tool degradation, and suggests tool solutions for reduced production disturbances and tool maintenance cost.......For producers of advanced stainless components the choice of stainless material influences not only the product properties, but also the tooling solution for sheet metal stamping. This work describes how forming and punching tools will be affected when introducing the stainless alloys ferritic EN1...

  17. Strain gradient effects in periodic flat punch indenting at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on soft polycrystalline aluminum have yielded evidence that, besides the required punch load, both the size and shape of imprinted features are affected by the scale of the set-up, e.g. substantial details are lost when the characteristic length is on the order of 10μm. The objective...... are employed. During a largely non-homogeneous deformation, the material is forced up in between the indenters so that an array of identical imprinted features is formed once the tool is retreated. It is confirmed that the additional hardening owing to plastic strain gradients severely affects both the size...

  18. Contact Problem for an Elastic Layer on an Elastic Half Plane Loaded by Means of Three Rigid Flat Punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ozsahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frictionless contact problem for an elastic layer resting on an elastic half plane is considered. The problem is solved by using the theory of elasticity and integral transformation technique. The compressive loads P and Q (per unit thickness in direction are applied to the layer through three rigid flat punches. The elastic layer is also subjected to uniform vertical body force due to effect of gravity. The contact along the interface between elastic layer and half plane is continuous, if the value of the load factor, λ, is less than a critical value, . In this case, initial separation loads, and initial separation points, are determined. Also the required distance between the punches to avoid any separation between the punches and the elastic layer is studied and the limit distance between punches that ends interaction of punches is investigated for various dimensionless quantities. However, if tensile tractions are not allowed on the interface, for the layer separates from the interface along a certain finite region. Numerical results for distance determining the separation area, vertical displacement in the separation zone, contact stress distribution along the interface between elastic layer and half plane are given for this discontinuous contact case.

  19. Joint punching and frequency effects on practical magnetic characteristics of electrical steels for high-speed machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Messal, O.; Youmssi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical punching of electrical steels causes a degradation of their magnetic characteristics which can extend several millimeters from the cut edge. So, in the field of industrial applications, particularly that of small electrical machines, the stator core made of rigid and thin teeth would be subject to more losses. Thus, this topic of the effect of punching has to be submitted to further deep characterization and development in order to give some insight into the different mechanisms. In this framework, this paper evaluates the combined effect of punching and frequency on the magnetization curve and iron losses in thin SiFe and CoFe soft magnetic sheets. These alloys are typically suitable for the manufacture of high-speed electrical machines used in on board applications (aircraft power generators, automotive, etc). Two SiFe alloys and a CoFe alloy have been investigated. First, different rectangular samples of variable width (15, 10, 5, 3 mm) have been industrially punched. Then, a dedicated magnetic characterization has been made, using basically a mini-Epstein frame. Measurements have been performed from 50 Hz to 1 kHz and from 0.3 T to near saturation. Both rolling and transverse directions have been considered. Finally, a first attempt to predict the degradation due to the punching is presented. A useful description of the magnetic permeability as a function of B and f is given and the degradation parameters are estimated based on the knowledge of the reference permeability.

  20. Joint punching and frequency effects on practical magnetic characteristics of electrical steels for high-speed machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedous-Lebouc, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble, France — CNRS, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Messal, O., E-mail: oualid.messal@g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble, France — CNRS, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Youmssi, A. [Université de N’gaoundéré, BP. 455 N’Gaoundéré (Cameroon)

    2017-03-15

    Mechanical punching of electrical steels causes a degradation of their magnetic characteristics which can extend several millimeters from the cut edge. So, in the field of industrial applications, particularly that of small electrical machines, the stator core made of rigid and thin teeth would be subject to more losses. Thus, this topic of the effect of punching has to be submitted to further deep characterization and development in order to give some insight into the different mechanisms. In this framework, this paper evaluates the combined effect of punching and frequency on the magnetization curve and iron losses in thin SiFe and CoFe soft magnetic sheets. These alloys are typically suitable for the manufacture of high-speed electrical machines used in on board applications (aircraft power generators, automotive, etc). Two SiFe alloys and a CoFe alloy have been investigated. First, different rectangular samples of variable width (15, 10, 5, 3 mm) have been industrially punched. Then, a dedicated magnetic characterization has been made, using basically a mini-Epstein frame. Measurements have been performed from 50 Hz to 1 kHz and from 0.3 T to near saturation. Both rolling and transverse directions have been considered. Finally, a first attempt to predict the degradation due to the punching is presented. A useful description of the magnetic permeability as a function of B and f is given and the degradation parameters are estimated based on the knowledge of the reference permeability.

  1. Interaction between a punch and an arbitrary crack or inclusion in a transversely isotropic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, I.; Karapetian, E.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the problem of an arbitrary shaped rigid punch pressed against the boundary of a transversely isotropic half-space and interacting with an arbitrary flat crack or inclusion, located in the plane parallel to the boundary. The set of governing integral equations is derived for the most general conditions, namely the presence of both normal and tangential stresses under the punch, as well as general loading of the crack faces. In order to verify correctness of the derivations, two different methods were used to obtain governing integral equations: generalized method of images and utilization of the reciprocal theorem. Both methods gave the same results. Axisymmetric coaxial case of interaction between a rigid inclusion and a flat circular punch both centered along the z-axis is considered as an illustrative example. Most of the final results are presented in terms of elementary functions.

  2. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prillia Ayudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement area to be optimized and analyzed. Improvement plan at this stage that is focusing on energy area and technology. Thirdly is process applies by modifying the technology through implementing automation system on the punching machine so that there is an increase of green level on the process machine. The result obtained after implement the method can save cost on electrical energy consumption in the amount of Rp 1.068.159/day.

  3. Design of punching shear for prestressed slabs with unbonded tendons on internal columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. R. Luchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper is related to the punching shear in prestressed slabs with unbonded tendons for interior columns calculated by the codes ABNT NBR 6118:2007, ABNT NBR 6118:2014, EN 1992-1-1:2004 e ACI 318-11. To calculate the punching shear resistance the formulations of the NBR 6118:07, effective until April/2014, did not consider the compression of the concrete in the plane of the slab, due to prestressing. Just the inclined components of some tendons were considered for total load applied relief, but this fact did not generate a significant difference, compared to reinforced concrete, because the inclination angle is very close to zero. The American and European provisions consider a portion related to the compression of the concrete in the planeof the slab. Differences in the results obtained by the four design codes will be exposed, showing that the EC2:04 and the NBR6118:14 achieved the best results.

  4. Optimal design of a main driving mechanism for servo punch press based on performance atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanhua; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xinjun

    2013-09-01

    The servomotor drive turret punch press is attracting more attentions and being developed more intensively due to the advantages of high speed, high accuracy, high flexibility, high productivity, low noise, cleaning and energy saving. To effectively improve the performance and lower the cost, it is necessary to develop new mechanisms and establish corresponding optimal design method with uniform performance indices. A new patented main driving mechanism and a new optimal design method are proposed. In the optimal design, the performance indices, i.e., the local motion/force transmission indices ITI, OTI, good transmission workspace good transmission workspace(GTW) and the global transmission indices GTIs are defined. The non-dimensional normalization method is used to get all feasible solutions in dimensional synthesis. Thereafter, the performance atlases, which can present all possible design solutions, are depicted. As a result, the feasible solution of the mechanism with good motion/force transmission performance is obtained. And the solution can be flexibly adjusted by designer according to the practical design requirements. The proposed mechanism is original, and the presented design method provides a feasible solution to the optimal design of the main driving mechanism for servo punch press.

  5. Development of a miniaturized bulge test (small punch test) for post-irradiation mechanical property evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Suzuki, Masahide; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Misawa, Toshihei

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the small punch test for evaluating strength and toughness of irradiated ferritic steels, detailed procedures are described aiming at standardization of the test. The statistical approach to analysis of the SP energy as a function of temperature for evaluation of DBTT was also reviewed. The method was then applied to neutron-irradiated ferritic steels, which included F-82, F-82H, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel. Fluence and irradiation temperatures ranged from 2 to 12 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) and from 573 to 673 K, respectively. Comparison of parameters obtained from the small punch test with the properties measured by the conventional method indicated that: (a) the 0.2% offset stress and the ultimate tensile strength at room temperature can be correlated well with the parameters, P y /(t 0 ) 2 and P max /(t 0 ) 2 , respectively. Here, P y and P max are the loads corresponding to the yield and the maximum, and t 0 is the initial thickness of a specimen; (b) fracture toughness, J IC , can be evaluated using equivalent fracture strain, anti ε qf , and the previously established relationship between these values; and (c) DBTT measured by a Charpy test can be predicted from the results of temperature dependence of SP energy determined from the area under the load-deflection curve using a statistical analysis based on a Weibull distribution

  6. Treatment of a Refractory Skin Ulcer Using Punch Graft and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carducci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic ulceration of the lower legs is a relatively common condition amongst adults: one that causes pain and social distress and results in considerable healthcare and personal costs. The technique of punch grafting offers an alternative approach to the treatment of ulcers of the lower limbs. Objective. Combining platelet-rich plasma and skin graft enhances the efficacy of treating chronic diabetic wounds by enhancing healing rate and decreasing recurrence rate. Platelet-rich plasma could, by stimulating dermal regeneration, increase the take rate after skin grafting or speed up reepithelialization. Methods and Materials. The ulcer was prepared by removing fibrin with a curette and the edges of the ulcer were freshened. The platelet-rich plasma has been infiltrated on the bottom and edges of the ulcer. The punch grafts were placed in 5 mm holes arranged. The ulcer was medicated with hydrogel and a pressure dressing was removed after 8 days. Results. After a few days the patient did not report more pain. Granulation tissue appeared quickly between implants. Most of the grafts were viable in 2-3 weeks. The grafts gradually came together to close the ulcer and were completed in four months.

  7. Studying the sensor response in the punch-through-protection region

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam (2 × 3 µm) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon (≤ 2 μm), local signal collection in different sensor areas can be studied with...

  8. Effects of laser power density and initial grain size in laser shock punching of pure copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Xiu; Zhang, Yiliang; Ji, Zhong; Luan, Yiguo; Song, Libin

    2018-06-01

    The effects of laser power density and initial grain size on forming quality of holes in laser shock punching process were investigated in the present study. Three different initial grain sizes as well as three levels of laser power densities were provided, and then laser shock punching experiments of T2 copper foil were conducted. Based upon the experimental results, the characteristics of shape accuracy, fracture surface morphology and microstructures of punched holes were examined. It is revealed that the initial grain size has a noticeable effect on forming quality of holes punched by laser shock. The shape accuracy of punched holes degrades with the increase of grain size. As the laser power density is enhanced, the shape accuracy can be improved except for the case in which the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size is approximately equal to 1. Compared with the fracture surface morphology in the quasistatic loading conditions, the fracture surface after laser shock can be divided into three zones including rollover, shearing and burr. The distribution of the above three zones strongly relates with the initial grain size. When the laser power density is enhanced, the shearing depth is not increased, but even diminishes in some cases. There is no obvious change of microstructures with the enhancement of laser power density. However, while the initial grain size is close to the foil thickness, single-crystal shear deformation may occur, suggesting that the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size has an important impact on deformation behavior of metal foil in laser shock punching process.

  9. A DLC-Punch Array to Fabricate the Micro-Textured Aluminum Sheet for Boiling Heat Transfer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhio Aizawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A diamond-like carbon (DLC film, coated on an SKD11 (alloy tool steel substrate, was shaped by plasma oxidation to form an assembly of DLC macro-pillars and to be used as a DLC-punch array that is micro-embossed into aluminum sheets. First, the SKD11 steel die substrate was prepared and DLC-coated to have a film thickness of 10 μm. This DLC coating worked as a punch material. The two-dimensional micro-patterns were printed onto this DLC film by maskless lithography. The unprinted DLC films were selectively removed by plasma oxidation to leave the three-dimensional DLC-punch array on the SKD11 substrate. Each DLC punch had a head of 3.5 μm × 3.5 μm and a height of 8 μm. This DLC-punch array was fixed into the cassette die set for a micro-embossing process using a table-top servo-stamper. Furthermore, through numerically controlled micro-embossing, an alignment of rectangular punches was transcribed into a micro-cavity array in the aluminum sheet. The single micro-cavity had a bottom surface of 3.2 μm × 3.2 μm and an average depth of 7.5 μm. A heat-transfer experiment in boiling water was also performed to investigate the effect of micro-cavity texture on bubbling behavior and the boiling curve.

  10. Effects of Sparring Load on Reaction Speed and Punch Force During the Precompetition and Competition Periods in Boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkanen, Esa; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-06-01

    Seven, male, national-level boxers (age, 20.3 ± 2.7 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.06 m; mass, 73.8 ± 11.1 kg) participated in this study to investigate the effects of sparring on reaction time and punch force of straight punches measured during the precompetition and competition periods. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were also monitored. Sparring load was chosen in accordance with the current rules: 3 × 3-minute bouts with 1-minute break in between. Reaction time of rear straight lengthened (p boxing-specific and explosive strength training.

  11. Long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris and segmental vitiligo: effect of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fongers, A.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, L.; Krawczyk, P.; Tóth, G. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Punch grafting is a simple and frequently used technique for the treatment of stable vitiligo, resistant to medical therapy. However, studies reporting long-term results are exceptional. Objectives To evaluate the long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris

  12. Long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris and segmental vitiligo : effect of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fongers, A.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, L.; Krawczyk, P.; Toth, G. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    Background Punch grafting is a simple and frequently used technique for the treatment of stable vitiligo, resistant to medical therapy. However, studies reporting long-term results are exceptional. Objectives To evaluate the long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris

  13. Long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris and segmental vitiligo : effect of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fongers, A.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, L.; Krawczyk, P.; Toth, G. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Punch grafting is a simple and frequently used technique for the treatment of stable vitiligo, resistant to medical therapy. However, studies reporting long-term results are exceptional. Objectives To evaluate the long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris

  14. Microsistemas deportivos de alto nivel. Un estudio descriptivo de clubes de karate de elite de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Salinero Martín

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El deporte de alto rendimiento exige un conocimiento exhaustivo de todos los aspectos implicados en el desarrollo deportivo. Por tanto, se antoja imprescindible profundizar, no solo en las características de los actores principales, entrenador y deportista, sino también en las de los sistemas de desarrollo deportivo en que se desenvuelven. Nos decantamos por el karate como objeto de estudio por ser esta una modalidad en la que nuestro país ocupa un lugar en la élite mundial. Se analizaron 15 clubes de elite de España, incluyendo a sus entrenadores (n = 17 y deportistas competidores senior y junior (n = 67. Se ha mostrado que uno de los puntos fuertes de los clubes deportivos que tienen grandes éxitos deportivos, es la contrapartida que reciben a su vez de estos deportistas de alto nivel. Al entrenar éstos en el club, están aumentando el nivel de entrenamiento y hacen que los demás deportistas se beneficien de este mayor nivel. Se crea lo que hemos denominado como Clima de excelencia, que se vive en el club y del que se hacen partícipes todos los integrantes del mismo, y que no solo sirve para aumentar el nivel deportivo, sino que además refuerza la motivación de los demás deportistas que perciben que pueden aspirar a esos niveles de rendimiento, al compartir el mismo sistema deportivo. Algo similar ocurre a nivel regional o local. Donde existe un mayor nivel, las competiciones (campeonatos regionales, locales, ligas de clubes tienen mayor exigencia y esto propicia la mejora. En estos microsistemas deportivos, en virtud de lo citado por los deportistas, la clave de su buen funcionamiento radica en el factor humano, pues señalan las características del entrenador y del grupo como los puntos fuertes del club. Los entrenadores de estos clubes de elite se presentan como entrenadores expertos, con un amplio bagaje en el mundo del karate, con un conocimiento en primera persona de todas las facetas de este deporte, habiendo pasado

  15. The influence of punching process on residual stress and magnetic domain structure of non-oriented silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hao, Linpo; Yi, Jingwen; Zhang, Xianglin; Luo, Zhonghan; Chen, Shenglin; Li, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of punching process on residual stress and magnetic domain structure. The residual stress in non-oriented silicon steel after punching process was measured by nanoindentation. The maximum depth was kept constant as 300 nm during nanoindentation. The material around indentation region exhibited no significant pile-up deformation. The calculation of residual stress was based on the Suresh theoretical model. Our experimental results show that residual compressive stress was generated around the sheared edge after punching. The width of residual stress affected zone by punching was around 0.4–0.5 mm. After annealing treatment, the residual stress was significantly decreased. Magnetic domain structure was observed according to the Bitter method. The un-annealed sample exhibited complicated domain patterns, and the widths of the magnetic domains varied between 3 µm and 8 µm. Most of the domain patterns of the annealed sample were 180°-domains and 90°-domains, and the widths of the domains decreased to 1–3 µm. - Highlights: • The residual stress distribution on sheared edge was measured. • The residual compressive stress was generated around the sheared edge. • The width of residual stress affected zone was about 0.4–0.5 mm. • The shape and width of the domain structure would be changed by annealing.

  16. Study of neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroatomic punch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, M.M.; Negro Vilar, A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to demonstrate an experimental method to study neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system, the content of beta-endorphin present in several brain regions was determined by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroanatomic punch technique described by Palkovits. (author)

  17. Automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation and punch planting to improve the selectivity of mechanical intra-row weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nielsen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    in sugar beet and carrot crops showed no synergistic effects between plant establishment procedures and selectivity of post-emergence weed harrowing. Even if punch planting and automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation were not combined, the results indicated that there was no reason to believe...... that mainly work through soil burial....

  18. Assessment of strength characteristics of Al2024 ECAP metal using small punch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Young Wha; Choi, Jeong Woo; Yoon, Kee Bong; Kim, Seon Hwa

    2006-01-01

    When subjected to severe shear deformation by ECAP, microstructure of Al2024 becomes extremely refined. To measure the strength of that, Small Punch(SP) testing method was adopted as a substitute for the conventional uniaxial tensile testing because the size of material processed by ECAP were limited to ψ12 mm in transverse direction. SP tests were performed with specimens in longitudinal and transverse directions of Al2024 ECAP metal. For comparing the strength values with those assessed by SP tests, uniaxial tensile tests were also conducted with specimens in longitudinal direction. Failure surfaces of the tested SP specimens showed that failure mode was shear deformation and Al2024 ECAP metal has an anisotropy in strength. Thus, conventional equations proposed for assessing the strength characteristics were improper to assess those of Al2024 ECAP metal. In this paper a way of assessing the strength of Al2024 ECAP metal was proposed and was proven to be effective

  19. Study of the mechanical properties of the electric power station components: the punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isselin, J.

    2003-03-01

    The aging of the electric production park implies an increasing need of knowledge concerning the evolution of the mechanical properties of its components. With regard to this problem, the availability in material is more and more small. This work proposes to characterize these properties through a mechanical test called Punch test. The main characteristic of this test is to use very small volume samples. The development of this test has been carried out by the study of a 15 MDV 4-05 steel coming from a steam drum of a thermal power plant after 145000 hours of service. At first, we have measured the influence of the parameters of this test. Then, the study has dealt more particularly on the transition temperature of the material. With the finite element simulation method, the strain hardening coefficient of the material has been determined. (O.M.)

  20. From Punched Cards to "Big Data": A Social History of Database Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Driscoll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the diffusion of the punched card tabulator following the 1890 U.S. Census, mass-scale information processing has been alternately a site of opportunity, ambivalence and fear in the American imagination. While large bureaucracies have tended to deploy database technology toward purposes of surveillance and control, the rise of personal computing made databases accessible to individuals and small businesses for the first time. Today, the massive collection of trace communication data by public and private institutions has renewed popular anxiety about the role of the database in society. This essay traces the social history of database technology across three periods that represent significant changes in the accessibility and infrastructure of information processing systems. Although many proposed uses of "big data" seem to threaten individual privacy, a largely-forgotten database populism from the 1970s and 1980s suggests that a reclamation of small-scale data processing might lead to sharper popular critique in the future.

  1. The small punch assessment of toughness losses in low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation deals at length with the relationship between the Small Punch, SP, test transition temperature Tsp, behaviour and those displayed by the conventional Charpy Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature, FATT, obtained from large test specimens. Essentially it was demonstrated that the total test temperature range trends could reasonably be described by a non-linear expression such as FATT varied inversely with the square of the Tsp. Finally when the Tsp against FATT trends were separated into different steel classes an encouraging picture emerged inasmuch that a reasonable amount of data exhibited good agreement with the predicted effects of grain size. Fractographic details were also discussed and strong effects of strain or loading rates were identified. (orig.) 19 refs.

  2. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...... the behavior of the joints very well at lower load levels. At higher load levels the stiffness is overestimated due to development of cracks in the timber and the linear-elastic timber properties in the finite-element model....

  3. The small punch assessment of toughness losses in low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J H [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    The presentation deals at length with the relationship between the Small Punch, SP, test transition temperature Tsp, behaviour and those displayed by the conventional Charpy Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature, FATT, obtained from large test specimens. Essentially it was demonstrated that the total test temperature range trends could reasonably be described by a non-linear expression such as FATT varied inversely with the square of the Tsp. Finally when the Tsp against FATT trends were separated into different steel classes an encouraging picture emerged inasmuch that a reasonable amount of data exhibited good agreement with the predicted effects of grain size. Fractographic details were also discussed and strong effects of strain or loading rates were identified. (orig.) 19 refs.

  4. Performance improvement in a tubular heat exchanger by punched delta-winglet vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanoknaiyakarn, C.; Promvonge, P.; Thianpong, C.; Skullong, S.

    2018-01-01

    A novel tubular heat exchanger incorporated with punched delta-winglet vortex generators (called perforated delta-winglet vortex generator, P-DWVG) is proposed for improving its thermal performance and energy saving. The P-DWVG elements are punched out from a straight tape having its width nearly equal to the tube diameter before insertion. The main aim at employing the P-DWVG insert is to produce counter-rotating vortices along the tube to promote turbulence intensity inside as well as to transport the cold fluid at the central core to the near-wall regions. The experiment was performed to study thermal behaviors in a uniform heat-fluxed tube inserted with P-DWVGs. The P-DWVGs with the attack angle of 45° were mounted periodically with three different blockage ratios (BR = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and two pitch ratios (PR = 2 and 3). Air as the test fluid was varied to obtain turbulent airflow for Reynolds number (Re) in a range of 4,150-25,500. The experimental results show that the P-DWVG provides a considerable increase in the rate of heat transfer around 3.1-4.01 times whereas friction factor increases around 11.44- 34.23 times higher than the plain tube. To assess the real benefits of P-DWVGs, thermal performance factor (TEF) is examined and in the range of 1.39-1.48 where its maximum is at BR = 0.1 and PR = 2.

  5. The use of a custom-made mouthguard stabilizes the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles among Karate-Dō athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquel, Gilsane; Namba, Eli Luis; Bonotto, Daniel; Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo Antônio; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Vianna-Lara, Michelle Santos; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2017-01-01

    To analyze and compare the electromyographic activity of the temporal (anterior portion) and masseter muscles among Karate-Dō athletes before and after training, with and without the use of a mouthguard. Twenty athletes (14 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 23.7 ± 7.5 years participated. They had surface electromyography recordings taken of their bilateral temporal and masseter muscles before and after training under the following conditions: no mouthguard, with a ready-made mouthguard, and with a custom-made mouthguard. Activity was examined at mandibular rest, while clenching, and at maximum voluntary contraction. The data were normalized using the mean maximum voluntary contraction. The right (p = 0.005) and left (p = 0.015) temporal muscles showed significantly lower electromyographic activity with a custom-made mouthguard compared with no mouthguard after training while clenching. The electromyographic activity of the temporal and masseter muscles did not show significant differences when tested at mandibular rest and while clenching before or after training with a custom-made mouthguard (p > 0.05). The use of a custom-made mouthguard preserved participants' electromyographic profiles before and after training; thus, they allow for stable muscle activity during the training of Karate-Dō athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AFM Colloidal Probe Measurements Implicate Capillary Condensation in Punch-Particle Surface Interactions during Tableting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal Tejedor, Maria; Nordgren, Niklas; Schuleit, Michael; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Rutland, Mark W

    2017-11-21

    Adhesion of the powders to the punches is a common issue during tableting. This phenomenon is known as sticking and affects the quality of the manufactured tablets. Defective tablets increase the cost of the manufacturing process. Thus, the ability to predict the tableting performance of the formulation blend before the process is scaled-up is important. The adhesive propensity of the powder to the tableting tools is mostly governed by the surface-surface adhesive interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is a surface characterization technique that allows the measurement of the adhesive interactions between two materials of interest. In this study, AFM steel colloidal probe measurements were performed on ibuprofen, MCC (microcrystalline cellulose), α-lactose monohydrate, and spray-dried lactose particles as an approach to modeling the punch-particle surface interactions during tableting. The excipients (lactose and MCC) showed constant, small, attractive, and adhesive forces toward the steel surface after a repeated number of contacts. In comparison, ibuprofen displayed a much larger attractive and adhesive interaction increasing over time both in magnitude and in jump-in/jump-out separation distance. The type of interaction acting on the excipient-steel interface can be related to a van der Waals force, which is relatively weak and short-ranged. By contrast, the ibuprofen-steel interaction is described by a capillary force profile. Even though ibuprofen is not highly hydrophilic, the relatively smooth surfaces of the crystals allow "contact flooding" upon contact with the steel probe. Capillary forces increase because of the "harvesting" of moisture-due to the fast condensation kinetics-leaving a residual condensate that contributes to increase the interaction force after each consecutive contact. Local asperity contacts on the more hydrophilic surface of the excipients prevent the flooding of the contact zone, and there is no such adhesive

  7. Delamination measurement of a laminates composite panel due to hole punching based on the focus variation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Abdullah, M. S.; Samad, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, must be assembled, and such panels are typically constructed via the insertion of a fastener through a drilled hole. The main problem encountered in drilling is delamination, which affects assembly strength. The cost of drilling is also high because of the severe wear on drill bits. The main goal of this research is to develop a new punching method as an alternative to drilling during hole preparation. In this study, the main objective is to investigate the effect of different puncher profiles on the quality of holes punched into carbon fiber reinforcement polymer (CFRP) composite panels. Six types of puncher profiles were fabricated with minimum die clearance (1%), and two quality aspects, namely, incomplete shearing and delamination factor, were measured. The conical puncher incurred the least defects in terms of delamination and yielded an acceptable amount of incomplete shearing in comparison with the other punchers.

  8. Influence of the column rectangularity index and of the boundary conditions in the punching resistance of slab-column connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. PAIVA

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that both the column rectangularity index and the boundary conditions of the connection may affect the ultimate punching resistance. This paper presents general aspects of these topics and, through the analysis of experimental results of tests on 131 slabs, evaluates the accuracy and suitability of recommendations presented by ABNT NBR 6118, Eurocode 2, ACI 318 and fib Model Code 2010. Experimental results showed that the security level of normative estimates trend to reduce as the column rectangularity increases, and in some cases, the punching resistance was overestimated. Finally, adjustments are suggested in equations presented by NBR 6118 and MC2010 in order to eliminate this trend of unsafe results.

  9. MULTIVARIANT AND UNIVARIANT INTERGROUP DIFFERENCES IN THE INVESTIGATED SPECIFIC MOTOR SPACE BETWEEN RESPONDENTS JUNIORS AND SENIORS MEMBERS OF THE MACEDONIAN NATIONAL KARATE TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kеnan Аsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to establish intergroup multivariant and univariant investigated differences in specific motor space between respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. The sample of 30 male karate respondents covers juniors on 16,17 and seniors over 18 years.In the research were applied 20 specific motor tests. Based on Graph 1 where it is presented multivariant analysis of variance Manova and Anova can be noted that respondents juniors and seniors, although not belonging to the same population are not different in multivariant understudied area.W. lambda of .19, Rao-wool R - Approximation of 1.91 degrees of freedom df 1 = 20 and df 2 = 9 provides the level of significance of p =, 16. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in sagital plane for 15 sec. SUDMNR (hitting a moving target with weaker hand and SUDMPN (hitting a moving target with favoritism foot of twenty applied manifest variables. There are no intergroup differences in multivariant investigated specific - motor space among the respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in

  10. Knowledge and attitudes about sports-related dental injuries and mouthguard use in young athletes in four different contact sports-water polo, karate, taekwondo and handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Tea; Kuncic, Domagoj; Poklepovic Pericic, Tina; Galic, Ivan; Mihanovic, Frane; Bozic, Josko; Herceg, Mark

    2018-03-11

    The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-related orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use. A total of 229 young athletes from four different sports (water polo (n = 59), karate (n = 58), taekwondo (n = 57) and handball (n = 55)) participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire about the frequency of orofacial and dental injuries was used. Questions were also asked about athletes' habits related to mouthguard use. Mean age of the participants was 12.9 ± 3.2 years, and the average time of playing experience was 4.8 ± 3.1 years. Orofacial injury had been experienced by 58 athletes (25.3%), while 31 athletes (13.5%) suffered dental injury. Higher rate of dental injuries was observed in water polo (18.6%), karate (17.2%) and handball (21.8%) than in taekwondo (3.5%) (P = .035). Most participants were aware of mouthguards for dental trauma prevention and considered them efficient for preventing dental injuries during sports activities, but only 94 (41%) used them. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of mouthguards between taekwondo (73.7%) and karate (70.7%) players compared to handball (14.5%) and water polo players (5.1%) (P art sport. Therefore, the classification of sports according to the risk of dental trauma should be reconsidered. It would be beneficial to make wearing a mouthguard mandatory in all high-risk sports, as well as in those with medium-risk for dental injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. "Center punch" and "whole spot" bioanalysis of apixaban in human dried blood spot samples by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Yuan, Long; Ji, Qin C; Mangus, Heidi; Song, Yan; Frost, Charles; Zeng, Jianing; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Apixaban (Eliquis™) was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Pfizer to use as an antithrombotic/anticoagulant agent and has been recently approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A clinical study of apixaban, sponsored by BMS and Pfizer, included a pilot exploratory portion to evaluate the potential for future drug concentration monitoring using dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection. For DBS sample collection, a fixed blood volume was dispensed onto a DBS card by either regular volumetric pipette (venous blood collection) or capillary dispenser (finger prick blood collection). A 96-well semi-automated liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation procedure was developed to provide clean extracts for UHPLC-MS/MS quantitation. Assays using both partial-spot center punch and whole spot punch were developed and validated. The linear dynamic ranges for all the analyses were from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) values was >0.9944 for all the validation runs. For the center punch approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 4.4% and inter-assay precision was within 2.6%. The assay accuracy, expressed as %Dev., was within ± 5.4% of the nominal concentrations. One accuracy and precision run was performed using the whole spot approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 7.1% and the accuracy was within ± 8.0% of the nominal concentrations. In contrast to the center punch approach, the whole spot approach eliminated the effect of hematocrit and high lipids on the analysis of apixaban in human DBS when an accurate sample blood volume was collected on DBS cards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analytical and experimental investigation of the elastic and plastic behavior of plates on foundations subjected to dynamic punch loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H.; Cheresh, M.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical solutions and experimental results are presented for the response of foundation-backed plates to static and dynamic punch loading. Tests were performed on polyurethane foam-backed and unbacked plates; plates were centrally loaded over a range-in plastic deformations up to complete failure. This is part of an attempt to understand the puncture resistance of the sidewalls of containers used to ship hazardous wastes

  13. Numerical And Experimental Analysis Of The Process Of Aviation Drawpiece Forming Using Rigid And Rubber Punch With Various Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kut S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the numerical analysis and experimental research of the forming process of aviation drawpiece made from 0.6 mm thick Inconel 625 sheet metal. First phase of testing was conducted using rigid steel tools for drawpiece forming. Results of conducted simulations show that during rigid tool forming, the middle of the drawpiece losses stability. In consequence, rigid tool forming leads to the formation of unacceptable wrinkles on the drawpiece. Subsequent experimental research confirmed wrinkles of the metal drawpiece in this area. It was assumed that in order to eliminate this negative phenomenon, minor changes in technology and tool construction would have to be made. The drawpiece will be shaped by means of a flexible tool, than re-shaped using rigid tools. In the second phase of the research, tooling design changes have been made. They consisted of replacing the steel punch with a specially designed stamp susceptible for deformation. FEM numerical simulations were performed for flexible punch forming made of polyurethane elastomer with different hardness (50, 70, 85 and 90 Sh A. On their basis, the effect on the mechanical characteristics of the elastomeric drawing process and the formation of wrinkles was shown. They can be effectively eliminated by the use of a punch with hardness of 90 Sh A, which has also been confirmed by experimental research. In addition, the paper presents a comparative analysis of the deformations in selected actual drawpiece areas and in the elastomeric punch with hardness 90 Sh A computer model. The actual drawpiece deformation schedule and the values were determined using photogrammetric system Argus v.6.3., while the computer modeled drawpiece was based on FEM calculations performed in the MARC / Mentat system. In conclusion the difficulties as well as the advantages and disadvantages in determining the deformation of sheet metal parts were indicated using photogrammetric system

  14. Findings from the experience with the punch technique for auditory osseointegrated implants: A retrospective single center comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alfonso; Magri, Carlos; Juan, Eulalia

    To compare the punch technique and linear incision with soft tissue reduction for the placement of auditory osseointegrated implants (AOI) and analyze results of osseointegration obtained with the punch technique as measured with the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ). Case review of 34 patients who received auditory osseointegrated implants between January 2010 and July 2015 and were divided into two groups according to the surgical technique: 18 with the punch technique (PT) and 16 with the linear incision technique (LI). Minimum follow-up was four months (mean: 24 months; range 4-64 months). Included in the analysis were patient profiles and records of the demographic data, surgical indications, surgical technique, implant placement, surgical time, intraoperative complications, as well as postsurgical complications (Holgers classification) and implant stability quotients (ISQ). Use of larger abutments was significantly greater in the PT group (PT, 10mm; LI, 6mm, p<0.001). The PT technique resulted in a shorter procedure than the LI (PT, 20min; LI, 45min, p<0.001). Holgers classification scores identified significantly fewer skin complications one week after surgery for the PT group; however, only small differences were seen between the two groups at the one- and three-month control visits. As shown for our cohort, the punch technique for surgical placement of AOI is faster and presents fewer immediate postoperative complications when compared to the linear incision technique. The clinical application of the ISQ is a useful, easy method to demonstrate the status of osseointegration and, thus, the stability of the device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  15. Punching shear in reinforced concrete flat slabs with hole adjacent to the column and moment transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The structural behavior and the ultimate punching shear resistance of internal reinforced concrete flat slab-column connections, with one hole adjacent to the column, with or without flexural moment transfer of the slab to the column was investigated. Main variables were: the existence whether or not hole, flexural reinforcement layout and ratio, the direction and sense of the moment transferred and the eccentricity of the load (M (moment transferred to column / V (shear ratio at the connection - 0,50 m or 0,25 m. Seven internal slab-column joining were tested and ultimate loads, cracking, deflections, concrete and reinforcement strains were analyzed. The existence of hole adjacent to the smaller column dimension, the hole dimension, flexural reinforcement rate and placing, the variation of relation Mu/Vu in function of the load, and, than, of eccentricity of the load, influenced the slabs behavior and rupture load. Test results were compared with the estimations from CEB-FIP/MC1990 [7], EC2/2004 [12], ACI-318:2011 [1] and NBR 6118:2007 [5]. ACI [1] and EC2 [12] presented most conservative estimates, although have presented some non conservative estimates. Brazilian NBR [5], even though being partly based in EC2 [12], presented smaller conservative estimates and more non conservative estimates. A modification on all codes is proposed for taking in account the moment caused by the eccentricity at the critical perimeter for slabs with holes.

  16. Creep damage evaluation of low alloy steel weld joint by small punch creep testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Tomoya; Sawaragi, Yoshiatsu; Uemura, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sampling location on SPC (Small Punch Creep) tests were investigated for weld joints to establish evaluation method of Type IV creep behavior. The SPC specimen shape was 10mm diameter and 0.5mm thick round disc prepared from weld joints of 2.25Cr-1Mo low alloy steel. It was found that the center of SPC specimen should be 2mm apart from the weld interface as the recommended sampling location. Creep damage was imposed for large weld joint specimens by axial creep loading at 620degC, 52MPa with the interrupted time fraction of 0.34, 0.45, 0.64 and 0.82.SPC samples were prepared from those damaged specimens following the recommended way described in this paper. Among the various SPC tests conducted, good relationships were found for the test condition of 625degC, 200N. Namely, good relationships were obtained both between minimum deflection rate and creep life fraction, and between rupture time and creep life fraction. Consequently, creep life assessment of Type IV fracture by SPC tests could be well conducted using the sampling location and the test condition recommended in this paper. (author)

  17. A creep life assessment method for boiler pipes using small punch creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Toru; Kobayashi, Toshimi; Kusumoto, Junichi; Kanaya, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) test is considered as a highly useful method for creep life assessment for high temperature plant components. SPC uses miniature-sized specimens and does not cause any serious sampling damages, and its assessment accuracy is at a high level. However, in applying the SPC test to the residual creep life assessment of the boiler in service, there are some issues to be studied. In order to apply SPC test to the residual creep life assessment of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel boiler pipe, the relationship between uniaxial creep stress and the SPC test load has been studied. The virgin material, pre-crept, weldment and service aged samples of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel were tested. It was confirmed that the relationship between uniaxial creep stress and the SPC test load at the same rupture time can be described as a single straight line independent of test conditions and materials. Therefore a life assessment is possible by using SPC test in place of uniaxial creep tests. The creep life assessment using SPC was applied to actual thermal power plant components which are in service.

  18. Development of small specimen test techniques. Development of a remote controlled small punch testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Masao; Saito, Junichi; Ooka, Norikazu; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi; Umino, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    An accelerator-driven deuterium-lithium (d-Li) stripping reaction-type neutron source, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) planned by the International Energy Agency is recognized as one of the most promising facility to obtain test environments of high-energy neutrons for fusion reactor materials development. The limitation on the available irradiation volume of the irradiation facility requires the development of the small specimen test techniques (SSTT). Application of SSTT to evaluate the degradation of various components in the light water reactor for the life extension is expected to be also quite beneficial. A remote-controlled testing machine for the Small Punch (SP) and miniaturized tensile tests was developed at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The machine is designed for testing at temperatures ranging between 93 and 1,123 K to evaluate the temperature dependence of the strength of materials including the embrittlement at low temperatures and the softening at elevated temperatures. The tests are performed in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. The machine has been installed in a hot cell and is being used for the round robin test program of the SP test method. The round robin test program is planned to identify the capability of the test method and to establish a standard test procedure. The configuration and the specifications of the test machine are introduced and the results of the SP tests are also shown. (author)

  19. Failure criterion of concrete type material and punching failure analysis of thick mortar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, T.; Kuroiwa, M.; Irobe, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper falure surface of concrete type material is proposed and its validity to structural analysis is examined. The study is an introductory part of evaluation for ultimate strength of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in reactor technology. The failure surface is expressed in a linear form in terms of octahedral normal and shear stresses. Coefficient of the latter stress is given by a trigonometric series in threefold angle of similarity. Hence, its meridians are multilinear and traces of its deviatoric sections are smooth curves having periodicity of 2π/3 around space diagonal in principal stress space. The mathematical expression of the surface has an arbitraty number of parameters so that material test results are well reflected. To confirm the effectiveness of proposed failure criterion, experiment and numerical analysis by the finite element method on punching failure of thick mortar plate in axial symmetry are compared. In the numerical procedure yield surface of the material is assumed to exist mainly in compression region, since a brittle cleavage or elastic fracture occurs in the concrete type material under stress state with tension, while a ductile or plastic fracture occurs under compressive stress state. (orig.)

  20. Recommended practice for small punch (SP) testing of metallic materials (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Mao, Xinyuan

    1988-09-01

    This practice covers the determination of fracture toughness characteristics of metallic materials such as ductile to brittle transition temperature (SPDBTT) and elastic-plastic fracture toughness (J ICSP ) using miniature small punch (SP) specimens. Three kinds of specimens with different shape; 10 by 10 by 0.5 mm, 10 by 10 by 0.25 mm and φ3 by 0.25 mm, are selected as the standard SP specimens. Two types of fixture shall be respectively used for the 10 and φ3 specimens. The relationship between load and deflection during buldge tests shall be recorded from low to high temperatures. Following two parameters in relation to fracture toughness are obtained from analyses of load-deflection curves: (1) The SP energy is calculated from the area surrounded with load-deflection curves, which corresponds to the total energy consumed up to the fracture. (2) The equivalent fracture strain (ε-bar qf ) is calculated from the maximum deflection at fracture (δ*). The SPDBTT can be derived from temperature dependence of SP energy, and the J ICSP can be estimated from the rational correlation curve between ε-bar qf and J IC . (author)

  1. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR "DIE PUNCH" DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  2. Evaluation of toughness degradation by small punch (SP) tests for neutron irradiated structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Toshihei; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Akihiko; Eto, Motokuni; Suzuki, Masahide; Nakajima, Nobuya.

    1992-01-01

    The small punch (SP) test as one of the useful small specimen testing technique (SSTT) has been developed to evaluate the fracture toughness, ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and tensile properties for neutron irradiated structural materials. The SP tests using the miniaturized specimens of φ3 mm TEM disk and 10 mm 2 coupon were performed for six kinds of ferritic steels of F-82, F-82H, HT-9, JFMS, 2.25-1Mo and SQV2A. It was shown that the temperature dependence of SP fracture energies with scatter in miniaturized testing can give reliable information on the DBTT by use of the statistical analysis based on the Weibull distribution. A good correlation between the DBTT of the SP tests and that of the standard CVN test has been obtained for the various nuclear ferritic steels. The SP test was performed for cryogenic austenitic steels as a way of evaluating elastic-plastic fracture toughness, J IC , on the basis of a universal empirical relationship between J IC and SP equivalent fracture strain, ε-bar qf . The SP testing using the neutron irradiated specimens of 2.25Cr-1Mo, F-82, F-82H and HT-9 steels was successfully applied and presented the neutron radiation induced changes on the DBTT, fracture toughness and tensile properties. (author)

  3. On the correlation between minimum thickness and central deflection during small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Present paper deals with a detailed study on the correlation between minimum thickness (t/t_0) and central deflection (δ/t_0). Such data are obtained during the deformation of a small punch test of miniaturized specimen. Finite element studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of various parameters which are expected to influence this correlation. The parameters under consideration are material hardening, material yield stress, coefficient of friction and initial thickness of the specimen. It is shown that the correlation remains unaffected with respect to change in material parameters. Similarly, the coefficient of friction beyond 0.2 also does not affect the correlation. However, change in thickness has significant effect on the correlation. A modification has been suggested in the existing correlation to consider the influence of thickness change. The modified correlation is then used to calculate fracture toughness using the experimental results quoted in the literature. It is shown that the modified correlation improves the fracture toughness prediction considerably.

  4. User-Authentication on Wearable Devices Based on Punch Gesture Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guan-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to commoditization and convenience, wearable technology are interwoven with our daily life. However, privacy sensitive data stored on those devices such as personal email, message can be easily stolen. Most devices require a PIN input to unlock. However, this mechanism is vulnerable to shoulder surfing attack. Thus many novel authentication approaches have been proposed to solve this problem. And biometric-based methods have been adopted by many researchers because of the efficiency and excellent performance. In this paper, we propose a new biometric-based authentication system. We focus on how the user performs a straight punch gesture subconsciously. By analysis the acceleration data from the smartwatch when user performing the gesture, we are able to profile the user. And we authenticate the user according to the biometrics of this action. This mechanism is light-weighted and do not require user to remember any secret code. We develop an authentication system on Samsung Gear Fit 2 and conducted a real-world experiment on 20 volunteers. And we collected 13000 gesture samples to evaluate our system. Results show that our system can achieve a classification accuracy of at least 95.45%. In attacking scenario, our system can achieve an equal error rate lower than 4%. The maximum number of samples required by a well-trained classifier is 25.

  5. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-04-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  6. Accelerated aging, natural aging, and small punch testing of gamma-air sterilized polycarbonate urethane acetabular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Siskey, R; Reitman, M

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to determine the applicability of the small punch test to characterize Bionate 80A polycarbonate urethane (PCU) acetabular implants; (2) to evaluate the susceptibility of PCU acetabular implants to exhibit degradation of mechanical behavior following gamma irradiation in air and accelerated aging; and (3) to compare the oxidation of gamma-air sterilized PCU following accelerated aging and 5 years of natural shelf aging. In addition to attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we also adapted a miniature specimen mechanical test, the small punch test, for the deformable PCU cups. Accelerated aging was performed using ASTM F2003, a standard test that represents a severe oxidative challenge. The results of this study suggest that the small punch test is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to discriminate slight differences in the large-deformation mechanical behavior of Bionate 80A following accelerated aging. The gamma-air sterilized PCU had a reduction of 9% in ultimate load after aging. Five years of shelf aging had little effect on the mechanical properties of the PCU. Overall, our findings suggest that the Bionate 80A material has greater oxidative stability than ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene following gamma irradiation in air and exposure to a severe oxidative challenge. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. APPLICATION OF PBL IN THE COURSE FLUID AND ELECTRICAL DRIVE SYSTEMS, CASE STUDY: MANUFACTURING AN AUTOMATED PUNCH MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sedaghat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PBL unit of fluid and electrical drive systems is taught in final semester of undergraduates in mechanical engineering department of the Australian College of Kuwait (ACK. The recent project on an automated punching machine is discovered more appealing to both students and instructors in triggering new ideas and satisfaction end results. In this case study, the way this PBL unit is coordinated and facilitated is explained. Two examples of student works are presented. The aim is to expose the students to real world engineering problems but in a satisfying manner. Similar to real life problems for engineers, restrictions are applied for the students on costs, availability of ACK facilities, and application of automation tools. Students are directly engaged by using technical standards on punching heads and dies, standard tensile testing of plates, and so on. Arduino microprocessor programming, an open-source hardware and software electronic platform, and electro-pneumatic devices are adopted for developing the automated punching machine. The goal of the PBL course is to acquaint students learning based on the concepts of team working, engineering design, professional manufacturing, and sequential testing of the end product. It is found that students achieved their best and developed new skills in this PBL unit as reflected in their portfolios.

  8. The The Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Anaerobic Power, Dynamic Balance and Muscle Activation After a karate kumite fighting in Female Karateka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Afshar Nezhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many athletes are using specific techniques to minimize fatigue and accelerate recovery processes. Cold water immersion (CWI is one of the most popular interventions used by athletes to potentially return to their pre-fatigue performance level. the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI on anaerobic performance, balance and muscle activation of female karateka after a simulated match. 15 young female karateka (age: 18.7±1.7 years, body mass: 55.5±6.3 kg, height:165±5.1 cm with at least three years' experience in karate kumite fighting were included in the study. After three round 3-minute competition, participants were grouped into a CWI group (20 min at 12±1°C and a control group (CTL. Anaerobic power (30 s Wingate test, and dynamic balance (Star-Excursion test were measured before the competition and 24 h after intervention. Surface electromyography (EMG was sampled from quadriceps femoris muscles. Peak normalized muscle activation levels and force were identified during maximal isometric test. A significant decrease in the anaerobic performance after the competition was observed for both groups (p<0.05. CWI were effective in enhancing the anaerobic performance after competition compared with the CTL. Dynamic balance decreased for two groups, although CWI resulted in the smallest reduction in balance. There was a significant difference in peak and mean RMS values of the EMG in Rectus Femoris but not Vastus muscles after the CWI intervention when compared to CTL (p<0.05. CWI improve recovery related to dynamic balance and anaerobic performance of karate kumite fighter. It can be concluded that CWI appears to promote muscle activation and reduce fatigue that is related to better performance in 24 hours post intervention.

  9. Tensile properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel by shear punch testing and correlation with microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, V., E-mail: karthik@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel (P91) is subjected to a series of heat treatments consisting of soaking for 5 min at the selected temperatures in the range 973 K-1623 K (below Ac{sub 1} to above Ac{sub 4}) followed by oil quenching and tempering at 1033 K for 1 h to obtain different microstructural conditions. The tensile properties of the different microstructural conditions are evaluated from small volumes of material by shear punch test technique. A new methodology for evaluating yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and strain hardening exponent from shear punch test by using correlation equations without employing empirical constants is presented and validated. The changes in the tensile properties are related to the microstructural changes of the steel investigated by electron microscopic studies. The steel exhibits minimum strength and hardness when soaked between Ac{sub 1} and Ac{sub 3} (intercritical range) temperatures due to the replacement of original lath martensitic structure with subgrains. The finer martensitic microstructure produced in the steel after soaking at temperatures above Ac{sub 3} leads to a monotonic increase in hardness and strength with decreasing strain hardening exponent. For soaking temperatures above Ac{sub 4}, the hardness and strength of the steel increases marginally due to the formation of soft {delta} ferrite. - Highlights: > A methodology presented for computing tensile properties from shear punch test. > UTS and strain hardening estimated using extended analysis of blanking models. > The analysis methodology validated for different heat treated 9Cr-1Mo steel. > Changes in tensile properties of steel correlated with microstructures.

  10. Demonstration of the self-magnetic-pinch diode as an X-ray source for flash core-punch radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Portillo, Salvador; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Bruner, Nichelle Lee; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of the radiographic spot size and maximization of the radiation dose is a continuing long-range goal for development of electron beam driven X-ray radiography sources. In collaboration with members of the Atomic Weapons Establishment(AWE), Aldermaston UK, the Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept. 1645 is conducting research on the development of X-ray sources for flash core-punch radiography. The Hydrodynamics Dept. at AWE has defined a near term radiographic source requirement for scaled core-punch experiments to be 250 rads(at)m with a 2.75 mm source spot-size. As part of this collaborative effort, Dept. 1645 is investigating the potential of the Self-Magnetic-Pinched (SMP) diode as a source for core-punch radiography. Recent experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator [1,2] demonstrated the potential of the SMP diode by meeting and exceeding the near term radiographic requirements established by AWE. During the demonstration experiments, RITS-6 was configured with a low-impedance (40 (Omega)) Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL), which provided a 75-ns, 180-kA, 7.5-MeV forward going electrical pulse to the diode. The use of a low-impedance MITL enabled greater power coupling to the SMP diode and thus allowed for increased radiation output. In addition to reconfiguring the driver (accelerator), geometric changes to the diode were also performed which allowed for an increase in dose production without sacrificing the time integrated spot characteristics. The combination of changes to both the pulsed power driver and the diode significantly increased the source x-ray intensity

  11. Postawa trenera wobec filozofii karate i jego system wartości, a postawy i systemy wartości jego uczniów = The attitude of the coach to the philosophy of karate and his system of values and attitudes and value systems of its students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zienowicz

    2015-09-01

    (2 Uniwersytet Gdański   „O ile rozwój fizyczny jest początkiem karate, o tyle rozwój duchowy jest celem ostatecznym tej sztuki walki.” Sosai Masutatsu Oyama     Streszczenie Wprowadzenie: Problematyka utrzymania równowagi między życiem osobistym a zawodowym, pęd społeczeństwa, nastawienie na „mieć” (por. Gałkowska-Jakubik, 2007 skłania do refleksji na temat roli systemów wartości w życiu człowieka (Matusewicz, 1975. Punktem wyjścia były założenia filozofii karate oraz komercjalizacja tej sztuki walki, która wyłania dwa style: sportowy, skupiony na wyniku, sukcesie oraz styl tradycyjny, który koncentruje się na utrzymywaniu równowagi psychofizycznej, rozwoju duchowym prowadzącym do doskonałości moralnej (Miłkowski, 1983, Budnik, 2005. Cel pracy: Celem przedstawionego badania jest eksploracja systemów wartości trenerów oraz ich uczniów, z uwzględnieniem opinii uczniów na temat swoich wychowawców, w oparciu o praktykowany styl. Materiał i metoda: Uczestnikami badania było 22 trenerów oraz 54 uczniów karate. Analiza wyników skali, stworzonej na potrzeby badania, postawa wobec filozofii (PwF, wyłoniła 11 trenerów, 35 uczniów „sportowych” oraz 11 trenerów, 19 uczniów „tradycjonalistów”. Badanie przeprowadzono wykorzystując skalę wartości schelerowskich (Brzozowski, 1995 Wyniki: Zgodnie z założeniami trenerzy i uczniowie “tradycjonaliści” uzyskali wyższe wyniki na skali wartości moralnych oraz podskali czynnikowej świętości religijnych Wnioski:  „Tradycjonaliści” kierują się ascetycznym wzorem edukacyjnym, który zakłada, że poprzez rozwój fizyczny oraz duchowy dąży się do doskonałości moralnej. Wartości wynikające z duchowości stanowią nierozłączny element dobrego życia.   Słowa kluczowe: karate, wartości, trener-uczeń.   Abstract Introduction: The issue of maintaining the balance between personal and professional lives, society  ofrush, the attitude to "be

  12. Effects of Polarization on Mechanical Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Evaluated by Modified Small Punch Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihuang; Fan, Yuchi; Wang, Lianjun; Xiong, Zhi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Kawasaki, Akira; Jiang, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method, and the strength of the resultant PZT ceramics was evaluated using modified small punch (MSP) tests. Load-displacement curve test results showed that the crack-initiation and fracture strengths of PZT ceramics decreased after polarization. The effect of the polarization accelerated the fatigue properties of PZT ceramics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that microcracks were formed before the maximum load in the MSP test, and the first load drop corresponded to crack initiation.

  13. Criteria for initiation of delamination in quasi-static punch-shear tests of a carbon-fiber composite material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Eric Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    V arious phenomenological delamination initiation criteria are analyzed in quasi - static punch - shear tests conducted on six different geometries. These six geometries are modeled and analyzed using elastic, large - deformation finite element analysis. Analysis output is post - processed to assess different delamination initiation criteria, and their applicability to each of the geometries. These criteria are compared to test results to assess whether or not they are appropriate based on what occurred in testing. Further, examinations of CT scans and ultrasonic images o f test specimens are conducted in the appendix to determine the sequence of failure in each test geometry.

  14. Task Shifting and Skin Punch for the Histologic Diagnosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Public Health Solution to a Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker-Oketta, Miriam O; Wenger, Megan; Semeere, Aggrey; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Kambugu, Andrew; Lukande, Robert; Asirwa, F Chite; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Diero, Lameck; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Strother, Robert Matthew; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Mbidde, Edward; Maurer, Toby; Martin, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Fueled by HIV, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world. Despite this, KS diagnosis in the region is based mostly on clinical grounds. Where biopsy is available, it has traditionally been excisional and performed by surgeons, resulting in multiple appointments, follow-up visits for suture removal, and substantial costs. We hypothesized that a simpler approach - skin punch biopsy - would make histologic diagnosis more accessible. To address this, we provided training and equipment for skin punch biopsy of suspected KS to three HIV clinics in East Africa. The procedure consisted of local anesthesia followed by a disposable cylindrical punch blade to obtain specimens. Hemostasis is facilitated by Gelfoam®. Patients removed the dressing after 4 days. From 2007 to 2013, 2,799 biopsies were performed. Although originally targeted to be used by physicians, biopsies were performed predominantly by nurses (62%), followed by physicians (15%), clinical officers (12%) and technicians (11%). There were no reports of recurrent bleeding or infection. After minimal training and provision of inexpensive equipment (USD 3.06 per biopsy), HIV clinics in East Africa can integrate same-day skin punch biopsy for suspected KS. Task shifting from physician to non-physician greatly increases access. Skin punch biopsy should be part of any HIV clinic's essential procedures. This example of task shifting may also be applicable to the diagnosis of other cancers (e.g., breast) in resource-limited settings.

  15. Performance testing of a semi-automatic card punch system, using direct STR profiling of DNA from blood samples on FTA™ cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Samantha J; Horton, Jeffrey K; Stubbs, Simon L; Tatnell, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The 1.2 mm Electric Coring Tool (e-Core™) was developed to increase the throughput of FTA(™) sample collection cards used during forensic workflows and is similar to a 1.2 mm Harris manual micro-punch for sampling dried blood spots. Direct short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling was used to compare samples taken by the e-Core tool with those taken by the manual micro-punch. The performance of the e-Core device was evaluated using a commercially available PowerPlex™ 18D STR System. In addition, an analysis was performed that investigated the potential carryover of DNA via the e-Core punch from one FTA disc to another. This contamination study was carried out using Applied Biosystems AmpflSTR™ Identifiler™ Direct PCR Amplification kits. The e-Core instrument does not contaminate FTA discs when a cleaning punch is used following excision of discs containing samples and generates STR profiles that are comparable to those generated by the manual micro-punch. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. MODERN METHODS OF DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENT OF RAMMING PILES IN PUNCHED HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOTSENKO N. L.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Ramming piles in punched holes (RPPH differ of high degree of use of supporting capacity of base because of forming in it a compacted zone at the expense of displacement of soil in the volume rammer and compacted material of expansion. The method of their construction almost exclude excavation and formwork, reducing the consumption of concrete, metal, accelerates zero cycle compared to the foundations raised and excavation and immersion into the soil of precast elements. The expansion of the normative base, their design and construction should be for further implementation of of natural objects. The correctness of the geomechanical model of plane and spatial version of finite element method (FEM should be proved for the calculation of cooperative work of RPPH as part of grillages with base. The most effective kinds of equipment and technological schemes of construction of RPPH should be noticed. Conclusions. The paper presents the main regulations on the design and the arrangement RPPH, corresponding of construction norms of Ukraine. The results of experimental and theoretical studies conducted by the authors for over thirty years, and the experience of the use of these piles on the objects of civil engineering, industrial and agricultural construction made their base. The use of the elastoplastic model with the criterion of Mohr-Coulomb strength for designing of the system "grillage -RPPH- soil" was substantiated. The designing in plane and spatial problems of FEM is proved that in the distance between the axes of adjacent piles up to five diameters is a correct choice of a flat version and simplifying of calculating scheme to the conventional strip foundation. An improved. The method of calculating of RPPH as part of grillages ribbon, where as the width of the foundation was taken a diameter of the broadening of the pile, and the depth of its inception corresponds to the bottom of it. The supporting layer of base under the

  17. Highly sensitive photodetector based on ge double-barrier punch-through structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkhaev O. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, transmission and reception systems of optical signals are widely used. Receiving the optical signal in such systems is carried by photoreceiving modules based on a photodetector, which defines the quality of the received signal, the range and speed of the entire system. However, hitherto used p–i–n- and avalanche photodiodes do not fully meet the growing demands. The present work is devoted to investigate the photovoltaic characteristics of semiconductor thin base transistor structure based on germanium, which is superior the silicon counterparts by speed and gain. Investigated p+–n–p-structures were obtained by diffusion of antimony onto the substrate of p-type germanium to a depth of 1 micron and alloying of indium to the part of its surface which creates diffusion layer of ?+-type and with thickness of 0,5 microns. Experiments have shown that the reverse biasing of a single p+-n-emitter-base junction leads to a smooth increase in reverse current, at the same time when it is connected in series to forward biased collector p-n-junction there is a sharp increase in the current by voltage, giving properties of voltage surge suppressor. This behavior of the current-voltage characteristics can be explained by the punch-through effect when the space charge regions of the emitter junction and the space charge region of collector junction touch each other and the conditions are realized for double carrier injection into a fully depleted region of the transistor. At the same time giving small fixed voltages 0,1—0,15 V to the collector-base junction the output static characteristics can be received with an operating voltage of 3—3,5 V. A characteristic feature of the investigated transistor is that when the base region under illumination by integrated light intensity (50 and 3000 lux light current appears, whose magnitude with the increase of operating voltage (up to 1.7 V increases nonlinearly, resulting in increased

  18. High temperature strength analysis of welded joint of RAF's by small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Hokkaido (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nucleation and growth of microvoids and/or small cracks in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ) after long-term service operation, which is recognized as Type IV creep damage, has recently been a worldwide issue for high Cr ferritic steels. In our group, a small punch (SP) creep test has been successfully applied to evaluate this damage of low alloy ferritic steel. However, the HAZ of fusion reactor material welded by electron-beam (EB) welding is so narrow that it is not easy to evaluate its mechanical properties by conventional tests including the SP creep test with a plate-type specimen (10 x 10 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}). In this study, the SP creep test using a further miniaturized specimen was developed and applied to the welded joint of reduced activation ferritic steels (RAFs), F82H-IEA (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), for measuring creep properties of the HAZ. For the SP creep test, TEM disk-type samples (diam. 3.0 x 0.30 mm) were removed from the base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and HAZ, respectively. The specimen surfaces were polished up to a 0.05 {mu}m alumina powder finish and the specimen's thickness was finally adjusted to 0.25 mm. The SP creep tests were performed at temperatures of 823{approx}973 K and under loads ranging from 20 to 200 N. A constant load was applied to the center of the specimen through the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} bail (diam. 1.0 mm) using the electric servo motor. The central deflection of the specimen was monitored by measuring the displacement of the compression rod. The tests were carried out in an argon gas atmosphere and the gas was continuously passed through during the test to prevent severe oxidation of the specimen. The differences in SP creep properties such as rupture time and minimum creep rate between the BM, WM and HAZ were discussed in terms of microstructural changes during welding thermal cycles. In addition, the result obtained from the BM was correlated with those of uniaxial creep test

  19. Development of a New Punch Head Shape to Replicate Scale-Up Issues on a Laboratory Tablet Press III: Replicating sticking phenomenon using the SAS punch and evaluation by checking the tablet surface using 3D laser scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Manabu; Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Yamato, Keisuke

    2018-04-20

    Sticking is a common observation in the scale-up stage on the punch tip using a commercial tableting machine. The difference in the total compression time between a laboratory and a commercial tableting machine is considered one of the main root causes of scale up issues in the tableting processes. The proposed Size Adjusted for Scale-up (SAS) punch can be used to adjust the consolidation and dwell times for commercial tableting machine. As a result, the sticking phenomenon is able to be replicated at the pilot scale stage. As reported in this paper, the quantification of sticking was measured using a 3D laser scanning microscope to check the tablet surface. It was shown that the sticking area decreased with the addition of magnesium stearate in the formulation, but the sticking depth was not affected by the additional amount of magnesium stearate. It is proposed that use of a 3D laser scanning microscope can be applied to evaluate sticking as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and so sticking can be monitored continuously without stopping the machine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  1. Impact of Martial Arts (Judo, Karate, and Kung Fu) on Bone Mineral Density Gains in Adolescents of Both Genders: 9-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor H; Kemper, Han C G; Agostinete, Ricardo R; Lynch, Kyle R; Christofaro, Diego G D; Ronque, Enio R; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2017-11-01

    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) gains in adolescents of both genders stratified according to different martial art styles in a 9-month follow-up study. The longitudinal study consisted of 29 adolescents of both genders and age between 11 and 17 years stratified into a control group (not engaged in any sport) and 50 fighters (kung fu/karate, n = 29; judo, n = 21). All 79 subjects underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, leg length, and height set) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (BMD, in g/cm 2 ) at 2 moments, baseline and 9 months later. Maturity offset (age at peak height velocity), lean soft tissue, chronological age, and resistance training were treated as covariates. Male judoists presented higher gains in BMD-spine [0.098 g/cm 2 (95% confidence interval, 0.068-0.128)] than control group [0.040 g/cm 2 (95% confidence interval, 0.011-0.069)] (post hoc test with P = .030). There was no effect of martial art on BMD gains among girls. Independently of gender, in all multivariate models, lean soft tissue constituted the most relevant covariate. Judo practice in adolescents affected the bone accrual significantly after 9-month follow-up compared with controls, mainly in boys.

  2. Study of the mechanical properties of the electric power station components: the punch test; Etude des proprietes mecaniques des composants de centrales thermiques: l'essai punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselin, J

    2003-03-15

    The aging of the electric production park implies an increasing need of knowledge concerning the evolution of the mechanical properties of its components. With regard to this problem, the availability in material is more and more small. This work proposes to characterize these properties through a mechanical test called Punch test. The main characteristic of this test is to use very small volume samples. The development of this test has been carried out by the study of a 15 MDV 4-05 steel coming from a steam drum of a thermal power plant after 145000 hours of service. At first, we have measured the influence of the parameters of this test. Then, the study has dealt more particularly on the transition temperature of the material. With the finite element simulation method, the strain hardening coefficient of the material has been determined. (O.M.)

  3. Automated washing of FTA Card punches and PCR setup for reference samples using a LIMS-controlled Sias Xantus automated liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Olsen, Addie Nina; Frøslev, Tobias G.

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated methods for washing FTA Card punches containing buccal samples and subsequent PCR setup using a Sias Xantus automated liquid handler. The automated methods were controlled by worklists generated by our LabWare Laboratory Information Management System...

  4. A small punch test technique for characterizing the elastic modulus and fracture behavior of PMMA bone cement used in total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V L; Kurtz, S M; Jewett, C W; Foulds, J R; Edidin, A A

    2001-07-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is used in total joint replacements to anchor implants to the underlying bone. Establishing and maintaining the integrity of bone cement is thus of critical importance to the long-term outcome of joint replacement surgery. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a novel testing technique, the small punch or miniaturized disk bend test, to characterize the elastic modulus and fracture behavior of PMMA. We investigated the hypothesis that the crack initiation behavior of PMMA during the small punch test was sensitive to the test temperature. Miniature disk-shaped specimens, 0.5 mm thick and 6.4 mm in diameter, were prepared from PMMA and Simplex-P bone cement according to manufacturers' instructions. Testing was conducted at ambient and body temperatures, and the effect of test temperature on the elastic modulus and fracture behavior was statistically evaluated using analysis of variance. For both PMMA materials, the test temperature had a significant effect on elastic modulus and crack initiation behavior. At body temperature, the specimens exhibited "ductile" crack initiation, whereas at room temperature "brittle" crack initiation was observed. The small punch test was found to be a sensitive and repeatable test method for evaluating the mechanical behavior of PMMA. In light of the results of this study, future small punch testing should be conducted at body temperature.

  5. Foulant analysis of hollow fine fiber (HFF) membranes in Red Sea SWRO plants using membrane punch autopsy (MPA)

    KAUST Repository

    Green, Troy N.

    2017-06-12

    Membrane punch autopsy (MPA) is a procedure for quantitative foulant analysis of hollow fine fiber (HFF) permeators. In the past, quantitative autopsies of membranes were restricted to spiral wound. This procedure was developed at SWCC laboratories and tested on permeators of two commercial Red Sea reverse osmosis plants. For membrane autopsies, stainless steel hollow bore picks were penetrated to membrane cores and fibers extracted for foulant analysis. Quantitative analysis of extracted materials contained inorganic and organic foulants including bacteria. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of organic fouling functional groups and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the presence of diatoms and silica most likely not from particulate sand. API analysis revealed the presence of Shewanella and two Vibrio microbial species confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence library. It was observed that fouling content of HFF cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were more than 800 times than polyamide spiral wound membranes.

  6. Machine for casting and punching grids for lead batteries. Maschine zum Giessen und Stanzen von Gittern fuer Bleiakkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, F; Hennecke, A

    1981-10-29

    The invention describes a machine, which places the cast parts from a two-part, vertical casting mould onto a transport unit using a lifting device, without any danger of deformation of the not yet hardened grid plates by mechanical loads. The lifting device and rider of the transport unit have guides, in which the plate rests with its grid wings. The transport unit consists of endless chains of variable distance and is also used for cooling, by taking air, for example, as cooling medium through a suitably shaped metal jacket. At the end of the cooling area, the castings are gripped at the bottom by axially controlled pegs pointing towards the inside, and are brought into the horizontal level by a movement of the chains. They are laid on a plate fitted between the chain wheels and are taken by side cams to the punch, from which they are discharged via a further pair of cams on to a belt.

  7. Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete members and punching shear strength of HSC slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Kernou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A rational three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model (NLFEAS is used for evaluating the behavior of high strength concrete slabs under monotonic transverse load. The non-linear equations of equilibrium have been solved using the incremental-iterative technique based on the modified Newton-Raphson method. The convergence of the solution was controlled by a load convergence criterion. The validity of the theoretical formulations and the program used was verified, through comparison with results obtained using ANSYS program and with available experimental test results. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of different parameters on the behavior of slabs which was evaluated in terms of loaddeflection characteristics, concrete and steel stresses and strains, and failure mechanisms. Also, punching shear resistance of slabs was numerically evaluated and compared with the prediction specified by some design codes.

  8. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  9. Resultados de la técnica de karate prechop en la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación: Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología “Ramón Pando Ferrer”, 2002-2004 Results of karate prechop technique in cataract surgery using phacoemulsification in “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Hernández Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba desde el año 2000 se introdujeron nuevas técnicas quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de la catarata, y se han publicado trabajos valorando diferentes prácticas para realizar la cirugía de catarata. Con la realización de este trabajo, se pretende determinar los resultados de la técnica de karate prechop en la facoemulsificación. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo de de corte transversal, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes (ojos con diagnóstico de catarata presenil y senil que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico con la técnica karate prechop por facoemulsificación en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular (CMO desde enero de 2002 hasta enero 2004. Se seleccionó una muestra mediante un muestreo simple aleatorio de 198 pacientes. La mayoría de los pacientes estudiados poseían más de 60 años de edad. La agudeza visual con corrección alcanzada mejoró como promedio en 4 líneas en la cartilla de Snellen, con un astigmatismo inducido promedio de 0,29 D. El tiempo promedio de ultrasonido utilizado fue de 1,26 min, proporcional a la dureza del núcleo. El número de complicaciones fue bajo, las más frecuentes fueron la ruptura de cápsula posterior y la salida de vítreoSince 2000, new surgical procedures for the extraction of cataract had been implemented, thus a number of papers that assess different practices for this end have been published. This paper was aimed at determining the results of karate prechop technique in phacoemulsification. A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in which the universe of study was made up of all the patients (eyes diagnosed with presenile and senile cataract and surgically treated with karate prechop technique using phacoemulsification from January 2000 to January 2004 at the Ocular Microsurgery Center . A simple randomized sampling provided a selected sample of 198 patients. The majority of these people were over 60 years. Corrected visual

  10. Conjunto de ejercicios para mejorar la concentración en los practicantes de karate-do estilo Masubayashi ryu Shorin ryu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Martínez Vidal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante  este  trabajo  pretendemos  que  los  practicantes  de  karate  do  estilo Masubayashi ryu  Shorin ryu  comprendan que cada paso que damos en nuestro andar por la vida requiere concentración, de la importancia de esta para dar respuestas  más aceptadas a cada problemática, y sobre todo para ser mejores personas cada día. Los antiguos guerreros veían en el zazen un método importante  en su formación ellos lo estudiaban y ejercitaban  a diario. Como resultado de  los cambios sociales que se han venido realizando en nuestro entorno, le restamos importancia al estudio y practica de la concentración, por lo que  con  nuestro  trabajo  brindamos  un  conjunto  de  ejercicios  prácticos  que ayudaran a ejercitar la mente, siendo de gran utilidad para la practica de esta hermosa arte marcial, La concentración es especialmente importante para el proceso de aprendizaje. De ahí que se intente por todos los medios potenciar esta capacidad que es imprescindible para la adquisición de nuevos conocimientos. La concentración mental se usa en casi todos los deportes individuales, donde ayuda al ejecutor a enfocarse en las acciones que están siendo desarrolladas en la toma de decisiones y como un método de salud mental , buscando la formación del hombre socialista mas preparado multifacéticamente , inteligente y con mayor poder de análisis .

  11. A novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model for assessing the regeneration of focal cartilage defects with biocompatible bacterial nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current therapies for articular cartilage defects fail to achieve qualitatively sufficient tissue regeneration, possibly because of a mismatch between the speed of cartilage rebuilding and the resorption of degradable implant polymers. The present study focused on the self-healing capacity of resident cartilage cells in conjunction with cell-free and biocompatible (but non-resorbable) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). This was tested in a novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model. Methods Standardized bovine cartilage discs with a central defect filled with BNC were cultured for up to eight weeks with/without stimulation with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Cartilage formation and integrity were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Content, release and neosynthesis of the matrix molecules proteoglycan/aggrecan, collagen II and collagen I were also quantified. Finally, gene expression of these molecules was profiled in resident chondrocytes and chondrocytes migrated onto the cartilage surface or the implant material. Results Non-stimulated and especially TGF-β1-stimulated cartilage discs displayed a preserved structural and functional integrity of the chondrocytes and surrounding matrix, remained vital in long-term culture (eight weeks) without signs of degeneration and showed substantial synthesis of cartilage-specific molecules at the protein and mRNA level. Whereas mobilization of chondrocytes from the matrix onto the surface of cartilage and implant was pivotal for successful seeding of cell-free BNC, chondrocytes did not immigrate into the central BNC area, possibly due to the relatively small diameter of its pores (2 to 5 μm). Chondrocytes on the BNC surface showed signs of successful redifferentiation over time, including increase of aggrecan/collagen type II mRNA, decrease of collagen type I mRNA and initial deposition of proteoglycan and collagen type II in long-term high-density pellet cultures

  12. Small punch tensile/fracture test data and 3D specimen surface data on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel from cryogenic to room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Matthias; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Ripplinger, Stefan; Austin, Tim

    2016-12-01

    Raw data from small punch tensile/fracture tests at two displacement rates in the temperature range from -196 °C to room temperature on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel are presented. A number of specimens were analyzed after testing by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Based on the CT volume data detailed 3D surface maps of the specimens were established. All data are open access and available from Online Data Information Network (ODIN)https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu. The data presented in the current work has been analyzed in the research article "On the determination of the ductile to brittle transition temperature from small punch tests on Grade 91 ferritic-martensitic steel" (M. Bruchhausen, S. Holmström, J.-M. Lapetite, S. Ripplinger, 2015) [1].

  13. A distinct species, Dodona formosana, detected in the Dodona eugenes species complex: clarification of the taxonomic status of the Punch butterfly in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Wen-Jie; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Tailed Punch, Dodona eugenes, is widely distributed in East Asia with seven subspecies currently recognized. However, two of them, namely ssp. formosana and ssp. esakii found in Taiwan, are hard to distinguish from each other due to ambiguous diagnostic characters. In this study, their taxonomic status is clarified by comparing genitalia characters and phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial sequences, COI and COII (total 2211 bps). Our results show that there is no reliable feature to separate these two subspecies. Surprisingly we found that Dodona in Taiwan is more closely related to the Orange Punch, D. egeon, than to other subspecies of D. eugenes. Therefore, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Dodona eugenes formosana is revised to specific status as Dodona formosana Matsumura, 1919, stat. rev, and ssp. esakii is sunk to a junior synonym of Dodona formosana syn. n. PMID:29674868

  14. A distinct species, Dodona formosana, detected in the Dodona eugenes species complex: clarification of the taxonomic status of the Punch butterfly in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tailed Punch, Dodona eugenes, is widely distributed in East Asia with seven subspecies currently recognized. However, two of them, namely ssp. formosana and ssp. esakii found in Taiwan, are hard to distinguish from each other due to ambiguous diagnostic characters. In this study, their taxonomic status is clarified by comparing genitalia characters and phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial sequences, COI and COII (total 2211 bps. Our results show that there is no reliable feature to separate these two subspecies. Surprisingly we found that Dodona in Taiwan is more closely related to the Orange Punch, D. egeon, than to other subspecies of D. eugenes. Therefore, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Dodona eugenes formosana is revised to specific status as Dodona formosana Matsumura, 1919, stat. rev, and ssp. esakii is sunk to a junior synonym of Dodona formosana syn. n.

  15. Efficacy of Punch Elevation Combined with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing in Facial Atrophic Acne Scarring: A Randomized Split-face Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Nouraei, Saeid; Asilian, Ali; Keyvan, Shima; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Rakhshanpour, Mehrdad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18–55) with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56). Their evaluation found that fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02). Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring. PMID:26538695

  16. Efficacy of punch elevation combined with fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in facial atrophic acne scarring: A randomized split-face clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18-55 with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO 2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO 2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56. Their evaluation found that fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO 2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02. Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO 2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring.

  17. Observation of Anisotropy of Creep Fracture Using Small Punch Test for Al-Al4C3 System Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Besterci, M.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Ballóková, B.; Sülleiová, K.; Kvačkaj, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2011), s. 205-210 ISSN 0334-6455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA AV ČR IAA200410801 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 2/0025/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Equal channel angular pressing * small-punch creep * fracture * metal-matrix composites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2011

  18. A Study on the Small Punch Test for Fracture Strength Evaluation of CANDU Pressure Tube Embrittled by Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Seung Hwan; Ong, Jang Woo; Yu, Hyo Sun; Chung, Se Hi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of small punch(SP) test using miniaturized specimens as a method for fracture strength evaluation of CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen. According to the test results, the fracture strength evaluation as a function of hydrogen concentration at -196 .deg. C was much better than that at room temperature, as the difference of SP fracture energy(Esp) with hydrogen concentration was more significant at -196 .deg. C than at room temperature for the hydrogen concentration up to 300ppm-H. It was also observed that the peak of average AE energy, the cumulative average AE energy and the cumulative average AE energy per equivalent fracture, strain increased with the increase of hydrogen concentration. From the results of load-displacement behaviors, Esp behaviors, macro- and micro-SEM fractographs and AE test it has been concluded that the SP test method using miniaturized specimen(10mmx10mmx0.5mm) will be a useful test method to evaluate the fracture strength for CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen

  19. Pleuroscopic punch biopsy using insulated-tip diathermic knife-2 for the diagnosis of desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Kyohei; Sasada, Shinji; Izumo, Takehiro; Taniyama, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukiko; Chavez, Christine; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchida, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare subtype of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and is often difficult to distinguish from pleural fibrosis and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia, especially if the biopsy samples are small. We performed full-thickness pleural biopsy on a lesion suspected to be DMM using an insulated-tip diathermic knife-2 (IT knife-2) during flex-rigid pleuroscopy. IT knife-2 is a novel electrosurgical device for endoscopic submucosal dissection in the early gastrointestinal cancer. It consists of a needle knife with 3 short blades at the distal end attached to an insulated ceramic tip. A 54-year-old man presenting with chest wall mass and thickened pleura, in whom a computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration had remained negative, underwent flex-rigid pleuroscopy for definitive diagnosis. While applying electric current, we used the IT knife-2 to incise the pleura in a circular shape just above the endothoracic fascia. The incised pleura was removed by forceps and examined pathologically. The microscopic examination was compatible with DMM. We discovered that pleuroscopic punch biopsy using IT knife-2 can diagnose DMM. Use of IT knife-2 during flex-rigid pleuroscopy can obtain sufficient samples from densely thickened pleura, which is difficult to diagnose with small biopsies.

  20. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: the tubular breast cancer pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrame Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue areas within paraffin blocks: no utilities have been developed for the identification of areas to be punched from the donor block and assembled in the recipient block. Results The presented work supports, in the specific case of a primary subtype of breast cancer (tubular breast cancer, the semi-automatic discrimination and localization between normal and pathological regions within the tissues. The diagnosis is performed by analysing specific morphological features of the sample such as the absence of a double layer of cells around the lumen and the decay of a regular glands-and-lobules structure. These features are analysed using an algorithm which performs the extraction of morphological parameters from images and compares them to experimentally validated threshold values. Results are satisfactory since in most of the cases the automatic diagnosis matches the response of the pathologists. In particular, on a total of 1296 sub-images showing normal and pathological areas of breast specimens, algorithm accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are respectively 89%, 84% and 94%. Conclusions The proposed work is a first attempt to demonstrate that automation in the Tissue MicroArray field is feasible and it can represent an important tool for scientists to cope with this high-throughput technique.

  1. Evaluation of slim-edge, multi-guard, and punch-through-protection structures before and after proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, S.; Unno, Y.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Hara, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Nagai, R.; Kishida, T.; Yorita, K.; Hanagaki, K.; Takashima, R.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Planar geometry silicon pixel and strip sensors for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) require a high bias voltage of 1000 V in order to withstand a radiation damage caused by particle fluences of 1×1016 1 MeV neq/cm2 and 1×1015 1 MeV neq/cm2 for pixel and strip detectors, respectively. In order to minimize the inactive edge space that can withstand a bias voltage of 1000 V, edge regions susceptible to microdischarge (MD) should be carefully optimized. We fabricated diodes with various edge distances (slim-edge diodes) and with 1-3 multiple guard rings (multi-guard diodes). AC coupling insulators of strip sensors are vulnerable to sudden heavy charge deposition, such as an accidental beam splash, which may destroy the readout AC capacitors. Thus various types of punch-through-protection (PTP) structures were implemented in order to find the most effective structure to protect against heavy charge deposition. These samples were irradiated with 70 MeV protons at fluences of 5×1012 1 MeV neq/cm2-1×1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. Their performances were evaluated before and after irradiation in terms of an onset voltage of the MD, a turn-on voltage of the PTP, and PTP saturation resistance.

  2. Evaluation of ductile-brittle transition behavior with neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels using small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. C.; Lee, B. S.; Oh, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    A Small Punch (SP) test was performed to evaluate the ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after neutron irradiation in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels produced by different manufacturing (refining) processes. The results were compared to the standard transition temperature shifts from the Charpy test and Master Curve fracture toughness test in accordance with the ASTM standard E1921. The samples were taken from 1/4t location of the vessel thickness and machined into a 10x10x0.5mm dimension. Irradiation of the samples was carried out in the research reactor at KAERI (HANARO) at about 290 .deg. C of the different fluence levels respectively. SP tests were performed in the temperature range of RT to -196 .deg. C using a 2.4mm diameter ball. For the materials before and after irradiation, SP transition temperatures (T sp ), which are determined at the middle of the upper and lower SP energies, showed a linear correlation with the Charpy index temperature, T 41J . T sp from the irradiated samples was increased as the fluence level increased and was well within the deviation range of the unirradiated data. The TSP had a correlation with the reference temperature (T 0 ) from the master curve method using a pre-cracked Charpy V-notched (PCVN) specimen

  3. A study on stress analysis of small punch-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial-creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song In; Baek, Seoung Se; Kwon, Il Hyun; Yu, Hyo Sun

    2002-01-01

    A basic research was performed to ensure the usefulness of Small Punch-creep(SP-creep) test for residual life evaluation of heat resistant components effectively. This paper presents analytical results of initial stress and strain distributions in SP specimen caused by constant loading for SP-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial creep(Ten-creep) test on 9CrlMoVNb steel. It was shown that the initial maximum equivalent stress, σ eq · max from FE analysis was correlated with steady-state equivalent creep strain rate, ε qf-ss , rupture time, t r , activation energy, Q and Larson-Miller parameter, LMP during SP-creep deformation. The simple correlation laws, σ SP - σ TEN , P SP -σ TEN and Q SP -Q TEN adopted to established a quantitative correlation between SP-creep and Ten-creep test data. Especially, the activation energy obtained from SP-creep test is linearly related to that from Ten-creep test at 650 deg. C as follows : Q SP-P =1.37 Q TEN , Q SP-σ =1.53 Q TEN

  4. Development of evaluation technique of high temperature creep characteristics by small punch-creep test method (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Se; Na, Sung Hun; Yu, Hyo Sun; Na, Eui Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a Small Punch Creep(SP-Creep) test using miniaturized specimen(10 x 10 x 0.5mm) is described to develop the new creep test method for high temperature structural materials. The SP-Creep test is applied to 2.25Cr-1Mo(STBA24) steel which is widely used as boiler tube material. The test temperatures applied for the creep deformation of miniaturized specimens are between 550∼600 .deg. C. The SP-Creep curves depend definitely on applied load and creep temperature, and show the three stages of creep behavior like in conventional uniaxial tensile creep curves. The load exponent of miniaturized specimen decrease with increasing test temperature, and its behavior is similar to stress exponent behavior of uniaxial creep test. The creep activation energy obtained from the relationship between SP-Creep rate and test temperature decreases as the applied load increases. A predicting equation of SP-Creep rate for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel is suggested, and a good agreement between experimental and calculated data has been found

  5. Importance of punching and workability in non-oriented electrical steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Yousuke; Mogi, Hisashi; Fujii, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Takeshi; Shiozaki, Morio

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce energy loss in motors, the use of high-efficiency non-oriented electrical steel sheets and an optimal motor core design are important. It is also crucial to minimize the deterioration of magnetic properties during the motor core manufacturing process. Accordingly, this report evaluates the effects of cutting and clamping methods on the deterioration factors of motor cores. Magnetic properties are largely influenced by both cutting and clamping methods. While it is difficult to avoid cutting and clamping altogether, it is necessary to adopt suitable production conditions and minimize the deterioration involved

  6. Mechanical modeling and characterization of meniscus tissue using flat punch indentation and inverse finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Behzad; Fatouraee, Nasser; Imeni, Milad

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, to characterize the mechanical properties of meniscus by considering its local microstructure, a novel nonlinear poroviscoelastic Finite Element (FE) model has been developed. To obtain the mechanical response of meniscus, indentation experiments were performed on bovine meniscus samples. The ramp-relaxation test scenario with different depths and preloads was designed to capture the mechanical characteristics of the tissue in different regions of the medial and lateral menisci. Thereafter, a FE simulation was performed considering experimental conditions. Constitutive parameters were optimized by solving a FE-based inverse problem using the heuristic Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm. These parameters were ranged according to previously reported data to improve the optimization procedure. Based on the results, the mechanical properties of meniscus were highly influenced by both superficial and main layers. At low indentation depths, a high percentage relaxation (p < 0.01) with a high relaxation rate (p < 0.05) was obtained, due to the poroelastic and viscoelastic nature of the superficial layer. Increasing both penetration depth and preload level involved the main layer response and caused alterations in hyperelastic and viscoelastic parameters of the tissue, such that for both layers, the shear modulus was increased (p < 0.01) while the rate and percentage of relaxation were decreased (p < 0.01). Results reflect that, shear modulus of the main layer in anterior region is higher than central and posterior sites in medial meniscus. In contrast, in lateral meniscus, posterior side is stiffer than central and anterior sides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid basal cell carcinoma by 2-mm punch biopsy: prospective and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Luiz Angelo; Carneiro, Rachel Camargo; Macedo, Erick Marcet Santiago de; Lima, Patrícia Picciarelli de; Miyazaki, Ahlys Ayumi; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    : to compare the accuracy of preoperative 2-mm punch biopsy at one site and at two sites in the diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid basal cell carcinoma (BCC). : we randomly assigned patients to Group 1 (biopsy at one site) and Group 2 (biopsy at two sites). We compared the biopsy results to the gold standard (pathology of the surgical specimen). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and Kappa coefficient to determine the level of agreement in both groups. : we analyzed 105 lesions (Group 1: n = 44; Group 2: n = 61). The agreement was 54.5% in Group 1 and 73.8% in Group 2 (p = 0.041). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the distribution of quantitative and qualitative variables (gender, age, disease duration, tumor larger diameter, area and commitment of margins). Biopsy at two sites was two times more likely to agree with the gold standard than the biopsy of a single site. : the accuracy and the performance indicators were better for 2-mm punch biopsy in two sites than in one site for the diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid BCC. comparar a acurácia da biópsia pré-operatória por trépano de 2mm em um sítio e em dois sítios no diagnóstico dos subtipos agressivos de carcinoma basocelular (CBC) palpebral. os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em Grupo 1 (biópsia em um sítio) e Grupo 2 (biópsia em dois sítios). Os resultados das biópsias foram comparados com o padrão-ouro (exame anatomopatológico da peça cirúrgica). A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo, precisão e coeficiente Kappa foram calculados para determinar o nível de concordância nos dois grupos. foram analisadas 105 lesões (Grupo 1: n = 44; Grupo 2: n = 61). A concordância foi de 54,5% no Grupo 1 e 73,8% no Grupo 2 (p-valor = 0,041). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto à distribuição das vari

  8. Narrar la historia: la internacionalización de las ideas en las portadas de Punch-Puk-Caras y Caretas

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Juárez, María Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene por objeto el estudio de la caricatura como género de opinión en la revista inglesa Punch, la estadounidense Puck y la uruguaya Caras y Caretas. Si bien pertenecen a distintos países, las tres fueron fundadas durante el siglo XIX. El trabajo presenta una aproximación a cómo las distintas publicaciones plasman los acontecimientos y personajes de la época por medio de la caricatura. Existe un gran valor testimonial en ellas que permite conocer la Historia desde otro lug...

  9. Contact problem on indentation of an elastic half-plane with an inhomogeneous coating by a flat punch in the presence of tangential stresses on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Sergei S.; Vasiliev, Andrey S.; Aizikovich, Sergei M.; Sadyrin, Evgeniy V.

    2018-05-01

    Indentation of an elastic half-space with functionally graded coating by a rigid flat punch is studied. The half-plane is additionally subjected to distributed tangential stresses. Tangential stresses are represented in a form of Fourier series. The problem is reduced to the solution of two dual integral equations over even and odd functions describing distribution of unknown normal contact stresses. The solutions of these dual integral equations are constructed by the bilateral asymptotic method. Approximated analytical expressions for contact normal stresses are provided.

  10. Numerical development of a new correlation between biaxial fracture strain and material fracture toughness for small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pradeep [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Dutta, B.K., E-mail: bijon.dutta@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Chattopadhyay, J. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The miniaturized specimens are used to determine mechanical properties of the materials, such as yield stress, ultimate stress, fracture toughness etc. Use of such specimens is essential whenever limited quantity of material is available for testing, such as aged/irradiated materials. The miniaturized small punch test (SPT) is a technique which is widely used to determine change in mechanical properties of the materials. Various empirical correlations are proposed in the literature to determine the value of fracture toughness (J{sub IC}) using this technique. bi-axial fracture strain is determined using SPT tests. This parameter is then used to determine J{sub IC} using available empirical correlations. The correlations between J{sub IC} and biaxial fracture strain quoted in the literature are based on experimental data acquired for large number of materials. There are number of such correlations available in the literature, which are generally not in agreement with each other. In the present work, an attempt has been made to determine the correlation between biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and crack initiation toughness (J{sub i}) numerically. About one hundred materials are digitally generated by varying yield stress, ultimate stress, hardening coefficient and Gurson parameters. Such set of each material is then used to analyze a SPT specimen and a standard TPB specimen. Analysis of SPT specimen generated biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and analysis of TPB specimen generated value of J{sub i}. A graph is then plotted between these two parameters for all the digitally generated materials. The best fit straight line determines the correlation. It has been also observed that it is possible to have variation in J{sub i} for the same value of biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) within a limit. Such variation in the value of J{sub i} has been also ascertained using the graph. Experimental SPT data acquired earlier for three materials were then used to get J

  11. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  12. Characterization of a 14Cr ODS steel by means of small punch and uniaxial testing with regard to creep and fatigue at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchhausen, M., E-mail: matthias.bruchhausen@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Turba, K. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lund University, Division of Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Haan, F. de; Hähner, P.; Austin, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Carlan, Y. de [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    A 14Cr ODS steel was characterized at elevated temperatures with regard to its behavior in small punch and uniaxial creep tests and in low cycle fatigue tests. A comparison of small punch and uniaxial creep tests at 650 °C revealed a strong anisotropy of the material when strained parallel and perpendicular to the extrusion direction with rupture times being several orders of magnitude lower for the perpendicular direction. The stress-rupture and Larson–Miller plots show a very large scatter of the creep data. This scatter is strongly reduced when rupture time is plotted against minimum deflection rate or minimum creep rate (Monkman–Grant plot). Fatigue tests have been carried out at 650 °C and 750 °C. The alloy is cyclically very stable with practically no hardening/softening. Results from the tests at both temperatures can be described by a common power law. An increase in the test temperature has little influence on the fatigue ductility exponent. For a given total strain level, the fatigue life of the alloy is reduced with increasing temperature.

  13. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  14. Development of a Small Punch Test Technique for an Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Choo, Yong-Sun; Hong, Kwon-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized specimens have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical properties of steels and plastics. Especially for a study on the irradiation effects in nuclear materials, the small specimen test techniques have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, it is essential that the test techniques be developed and verified to extract the mechanical properties information from small specimens. Among the test techniques using small specimens, the small punch (SP) test technique using small disc-sized specimen has been successfully used to estimate the tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength), DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature), fracture toughness and creep properties of metals irradiated in a reactor or a proton accelerator. In this paper, the existing SP test techniques are reviewed and summarized. In addition, the information on the development of the SP test procedure is obtained to evaluate the radiation effects on the mechanical properties of nuclear materials in a hot cell

  15. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Marble Dust Particulate-Filled Needle-Punched Nonwoven Jute Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankush; Patnaik, Amar

    2018-03-01

    The present investigation evaluates the effects of waste marble dust, collected from the marble industries of Rajasthan, India, on the mechanical properties of needle-punched nonwoven jute fiber/epoxy composites. The composites with varying filler contents from 0 wt.% to 30 wt.% marble dust were prepared using vacuum-assisted resin-transfer molding. The influences of the filler material on the void content, tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), and thermal conductivity of the hybrid composites have been analyzed experimentally under the desired optimal conditions. The addition of marble dust up to 30 wt.% increases the flexural strength, ILSS, and thermal conductivity, but decreases the tensile strength. Subsequently, the fractured surfaces of the particulate-filled jute/epoxy composites were analyzed microstructurally by field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Raman chemical mapping of magnesium stearate delivered by a punch-face lubrication system on the surface of placebo and active tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šašiċ, Slobodan; Ojakovo, Peter; Warman, Martin; Sanghvi, Tapan

    2013-09-01

    Raman chemical mapping was used to determine the distribution of magnesium stearate, a lubricant, on the surface of tablets. The lubrication was carried out via a punch-face lubrication system with different spraying rates applied on placebo and active-containing tablets. Principal component analysis was used for decomposing the matrix of Raman mapping spectra. Some of the loadings associated with minuscule variation in the data significantly overlap with the Raman spectrum of magnesium stearate in placebo tablets and allow for imaging the domains of magnesium stearate via corresponding scores. Despite the negligible variation accounted for by respective principal components, the score images seem reliable as demonstrated through thresholding the one-dimensional representation and the spectra of the hot pixels that show a weak but perceivable magnesium stearate band at 1295 cm(-1). The same approach was applied on the active formulation, but no magnesium stearate was identified, presumably due to overwhelming concentration and spectral contribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  17. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  18. Invite, include, and involve: racial groups, ethnic groups, and leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2000-01-01

    All people recreate. Most of us read book and/or magazines, take walks, watch television, tend gardens. Some people enjoy high-risk activities, such as bungee jumping, others prefer to participate in karate at the local boys' club or bingo at the local senior center, while others prefer family-oriented leisure adivities such-as miniature golf. Whatever the leisure...

  19. 煤层底板穿层钻孔水力冲孔技术的应用及效果考察%Coal Floor Layer of Drilling Hydraulic Punching Technology Application and Effect of Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷庆超; 廉有轩; 王恩营; 刘度

    2015-01-01

    End of the alley pumping wear layer drilling hydraulic punching pressure, the anti-reflection measures can effectively en-hance the permeability of coal seam, expanding radius of extraction and improve the effect of the gas extraction., on the basis of the principle of antireflection unloading hydraulic punching in for zhengzhou mining revitalization of two coal mine hydraulic punching plate wear layer, gas drainage concentration before and after the hydraulic punching, the change of coal seam permeability and the gas flow attenuation coefficient and so on.The test results show that the average single-hole gas drainage concentration is 11.02%, after hy-draulic punching is 2.14%, the anti-reflection measures of improve 4 times; Coefficient of permeability of coal seam after taking steps to improve the 39 times;The gas flow attenuation coefficient is reduced nearly 3 times.Using the method of pressure measured at the same time the mine hydraulic punching effective drainage radius to 10 m.%采用底抽巷穿层钻孔水力冲孔卸压增透措施,可以有效增强煤层的透气性、扩大抽采半径和提高瓦斯抽采效果。基于水力冲孔卸压增透原理,对郑州矿区振兴二矿突出煤层实施底板穿层水力冲孔,考察水力冲孔前后瓦斯抽放浓度、煤层透气性和瓦斯流量衰减系数等的变化。试验结果表明:单孔平均瓦斯抽放浓度在水力冲孔后为11.02%,较未采取增透措施时的2.14%,提高了4倍;煤层透气性系数在采取措施后提高了39倍;瓦斯流量衰减系数则减小了近3倍。同时运用压力法测得该矿水力冲孔有效抽放半径为10 m。

  20. Desenvolvimento e avaliação do desempenho de uma semeadora puncionadora para plantio direto de milho Development and evaluation performance of a punch planter for direct sowing of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Frabetti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de desenvolver uma semeadora pontual para o semeio de milho em sistema de plantio direto e avaliar seu sistema de dosagem e distribuição de sementes. Primeiro, elaborou-se uma lista de requisitos os quais a máquina deveria atender; depois, foi feito o projeto conceitual do corpo da máquina e, em seguida, o projeto detalhado de todas as partes e conjuntos, para posterior construção do protótipo. Em bancada de ensaio avaliou-se o desempenho do sistema dosador e distribuidor de sementes, em relação à variação da velocidade e da quantidade de punções utilizada. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados arranjados em parcelas subdivididas com a parcela principal composta por 6, 9 e 12 punções e a subparcela sendo quatro rotações da roda dosadora correspondentes às velocidades de deslocamento de 4, 6, 8 e 10 km h-1. De modo geral, tanto o aumento da velocidade como do número de punções nas rodas, diminuiu o número de duplas e aumentou o número de faltas, porém a diminuição do número de duplas não foi significativo quanto ao aumento do número de faltas. A semeadora exerceu desempenho satisfatório, com média geral do número de normais de 91%.The present work was accomplished to develop a punch planter to sow corn seeds in no-tillage system, and also to evaluate the performance of its seed metering and delivery systems. First of all, a requirement list was established, that the machine would have to attend. Next, the conceptual and the embodiment designs of the machine was made. Then, the detailed design of all machine parts was made and a prototype was constructed. In a testing bench the performance of the seed metering unit and its seed delivery system was assessed in relation to the punch wheel speed and the quantity of punches on the wheel. The statistical design was in random blocks arranged in sub-divided plots with the main plot made of 6, 9 and 12 punches and

  1. Source-Drain Punch-Through Analysis of High Voltage Off-State AlGaN/GaN HEMT Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Li, X.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Wang, H.; Liu, J.; Wang, M.; Yu, M.; Wu, W.; Zhou, Y.; Dai, G.

    2017-06-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor’s (HEMT’s) off-state breakdown is investigated using conventional three-terminal off-state breakdown I-V measurement. Competition between gate leakage and source-injection buffer leakage (SIBL) is discussed in detail. It is found that the breakdown is dominated by source-injection which is sensitive to gate voltage and gate length at large gate-to-drain spacing (Lgd > 7μm), where a threshold drain voltage of the occurrence of the SIBL current in GaN buffer exists, and after this threshold voltage the SIBL current continually increased till the buffer breakdown. Our analysis showed that due to the punch-through effect in the buffer, a potential barrier between 2DEG and GaN buffer at the source side mainly controlled by the drain voltage determines the buffer leakage current and the occurrence of the following buffer breakdown, which could explain the experimentally observed breakdown phenomenon.

  2. In Vitro Analysis of Cartilage Regeneration Using a Collagen Type I Hydrogel (CaReS) in the Bovine Cartilage Punch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbert, Victoria; Xin, Long; Foehr, Peter; Brinkmann, Olaf; Bungartz, Matthias; Burgkart, Rainer H; Graeve, T; Kinne, Raimund W

    2018-02-01

    Objective Limitations of matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation to regenerate functional hyaline cartilage demand a better understanding of the underlying cellular/molecular processes. Thus, the regenerative capacity of a clinically approved hydrogel collagen type I implant was tested in a standardized bovine cartilage punch model. Methods Cartilage rings (outer diameter 6 mm; inner defect diameter 2 mm) were prepared from the bovine trochlear groove. Collagen implants (± bovine chondrocytes) were placed inside the cartilage rings and cultured up to 12 weeks. Cartilage-implant constructs were analyzed by histology (hematoxylin/eosin; safranin O), immunohistology (aggrecan, collagens 1 and 2), and for protein content, RNA expression, and implant push-out force. Results Cartilage-implant constructs revealed vital morphology, preserved matrix integrity throughout culture, progressive, but slight proteoglycan loss from the "host" cartilage or its surface and decreasing proteoglycan release into the culture supernatant. In contrast, collagen 2 and 1 content of cartilage and cartilage-implant interface was approximately constant over time. Cell-free and cell-loaded implants showed (1) cell migration onto/into the implant, (2) progressive deposition of aggrecan and constant levels of collagens 1 and 2, (3) progressively increased mRNA levels for aggrecan and collagen 2, and (4) significantly augmented push-out forces over time. Cell-loaded implants displayed a significantly earlier and more long-lasting deposition of aggrecan, as well as tendentially higher push-out forces. Conclusion Preserved tissue integrity and progressively increasing cartilage differentiation and push-out forces for up to 12 weeks of cultivation suggest initial cartilage regeneration and lateral bonding of the implant in this in vitro model for cartilage replacement materials.

  3. Punch up your podium presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tim J; Hollier, Amelie

    2017-08-01

    The goal of most presentations is to engage audience participants. Effective presenters go beyond content expertise to connect with audiences through various techniques, formats, and presentation styles. Mayer's theory of multimedia learning, neurocognitive factors, and the assertion-evidence approach are essential elements that presenters can use if they have not had formal training in creating presentations. Tips are offered on how to connect with the audience and how to avoid known pitfalls. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Kinesiological characterization of choku-tsuki done with impact and its comparison with its execution without impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. VencesBrito

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aims to characterize the kinematics and electromyography of a basic karate punch (choku-zuki made with an impact on a target (makiwara by experienced karateka, and compares it with the execution without real impact on the target (control. This characterization allows to the coach (sensei to know how training influences the performance of the punch in each one of these circumstances, and from that information it is possible to define strategies of training that considers adapted to its goals.Method: In a sample of ten male karateka of the Portuguese Karaté Team the kinematic and electromyographic data of the arm and forearm segments were collected during the execution of choku-zuki, with impact and no impact.Results: It was found that the kinematics and neuromuscular activity in the performance of choku-zuki happens in a time interval less than 300ms. The studied muscles activity and segments of the upper limb shows a trend of activation sequence with a proximal to distal direction, with the intervening segment arm muscles having a greater intensity of activation that the muscles involved in the forearm segment. The arm flexion at the shoulder joint and the forearm extension at the elbow joint are done with greater amplitude, and the forearm pronation is not complete at the time of impact. The forearm pronation at the elbow joint is not complete and tends to be the first segmental movement in the choku-zuki execution.Conclusion: The executions of choku-zuki with impact and no impact are kinesiologically different. This difference highlights the importance that coaches should provide to teach and training the punch execution with an effective impact on the target.

  5. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  6. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  7. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...... in perspectives, values and understandings between patients and healthcare professionals, or the lack of managerial attention and prioritization....

  8. 利用响应面法研究微孔处理杨木单板的胶合性能%Bonding Properties of Poplar Veneer Punched with Micro-holes by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠荣; 黄健; 戴玉玲; 丰江拓

    2015-01-01

    利用响应面法分析研究了经微孔处理后的杨木单板的胶合性能。通过对杨木单板进行微孔处理,可使胶黏剂通过微孔渗入单板体内,增加杨木单板的本体强度,同时也可使相邻胶层透过微孔形成一体而增加单板的胶合强度等,以期制造出一种高性能的地板基材。结果表明:在试验范围内,随微孔孔径增大,孔距减小和施胶量的增加,其胶合强度增加;随热压压力增加,胶合强度先增强,当压力超过0.8 MPa,胶合强度反而降低。%We studied the bonding properties of poplar veneer punched with micro-holes by using response surface experiment. The permeability of poplar veneer increased after micro-hole punching.The adhesive could penetrate into the veneer through these micro holes, and the poplar veneer was strengthened.Through micro holes, the neighboring glue lines formed a whole to increase the bonding strength of veneers.Expecting to produce a high performance floor material.The bonding strength of poplar plywood increased with the increasing of micro-hole diameter,resin content , and the decreasing of holes distance.With the increasing of hot pressing pressure, the bonding strength was improved firstly, however, it declined when the pressure exceeded 0.8 MPa.

  9. The martial arts and mental health: the challenge of managing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, F C; Olson, G D; Locke, B; Quam, R

    1990-04-01

    The effective management of energy is an important dimension in the martial arts as well as the mental health professions. The Oriental concept of Ki is described, noting its Indian, Chinese, and Japanese development. Ki and the transfer of energy is studied through the martial encounter, using concepts borrowed from Japanese swordsmanship. Ki is also discussed from a developmental context as youngsters progress in Tae Kwon Do training. In examining the disciplines of Aikido, Tae Kwon Do, and Karate, it becomes clear that more is involved than kicking, punching, and throwing bodies on the floor. These martial arts have some important statements to make in the area of mental health, particularly in terms of energy--within our bodies, psyches, interpersonal relationships, and the universe.

  10. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  11. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  12. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities......-natal data. Data revealed that men, according to their partner’s perceptions, used consumption as a virtual umbilical cord, although levels of consumption involvement varied from co-involvement for most purchases, to limited involvement, and/or involvement for ‘large’ items, particularly travel systems...... and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...

  13. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  14. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  15. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  16. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  17. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  18. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  19. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  20. Reactors also involve people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    As the nuclear industry develops it is to be hoped that high quality occupational health programs will evolve along with other sound operational procedures and practices. The immediate involvement of occupational health personnel may well afford a safety factor which will minimize the likelihood of either the selection of personnel not adequate for the full responsibilities of their work or the continuation in responsible positions of personnel who develop handicaps of either a physical or mental nature

  1. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  2. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  3. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  4. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  5. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  6. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  7. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  8. PUNCH. GENIE MK.2.2 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Johnson, M.W.; Knowles, K.J.; Crosbie, G.D.; Graham, S.P.; Campbell, E.P.; Lyall, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    GENIE is a language for spectrum manipulation and display, that has been developed to satisfy the data-analysis requirements for all the neutron-scattering instruments at the spallation neutron source. The manual contains: the GENIE 'keyboard' commands, GENIE 'GCL' commands, command file examples, and the adding of non-standard facilities. (U.K.)

  9. Another punch in the wall (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhedetsky, B. [Rock Ignition Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    Based on feedback from readers to the story of coal mining extraction techniques in the July-August 2009 edition of this journal the overview is continued and more detail is given on certain methods and equipment used. Section headings are: draglines; bucket wheel excavators; truck and shovel; overburden slusher; and underground gasification.

  10. Flexowriters, Punch Paper Poetry and Ontological Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    What is an unheard avant-garde? Of course, the answer may be tautological: no one has ever heard of the unheard avant-garde, as it were. However, rumors and academic intuition has it that the archives are full of unheard stuff. And as everyone working with archives may tell you: the greatest thri...

  11. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish whether students' involvement in sports activities affected their involvement in academic activities. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses that guided ...

  13. Evolution de la résistance au poinçonnement d’un matériau cimentaire soumis à la flamme Evolution of the punching strength of mortar subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauberthie R.

    2012-09-01

    test specimens in the presence of a propane flame. The fibre-reinforced mortar is subjected to the flame on one face; the evolution of the temperature gradient is followed in time. The influence of fibre type is quantified. The cracks appear both on the side exposed to the flame but also, and to a lesser extent on the cold face. After a certain exposure time, the mechanical properties are compared. A mechanical test was developed to determine the influence of cracking on the punching strength. The role of fibres, by their nature and by their position relative to the hot face is analysed. When the plates tested are designed with a low water to cement ratio, the phenomenon of spailling appears. The intensity of this phenomenon varies with the nature of the fibering.

  14. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  15. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  16. Esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M A; Daneman, A

    1983-02-01

    The radiologic appearance of esophageal involvement due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 15-year-old boy is presented. The lower two thirds of the esophagus was narrowed and the peristalsis diminished. The mucosa appeared smooth. This is the fourth reported case of esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  17. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  18. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  19. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  20. Black parental involvement in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. ... Review of selected studies on parental involvement in ..... Anna, a Grade 11 teacher, summed up the feelings of the.

  1. Determination of Commercial Karats on Gold Alloys for Jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, S.E.A.

    1986-12-01

    An XRF method for the gold content determination in gold alloys was proposed and tested. Gold coins and ingot samples were analyzed. Monoelemental standards and two pint regression curves calculated with the NBSGSC program, Cd-109 annular source, Si-Li detector, 4096 channels analyzer and AXIL deconvolution software were employed. Good precision better than 1.5% and accuracy better than 2% were obtained. (author)

  2. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  3. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari) or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when ...

  4. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  5. Renal involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Noshad, Hamid; Sadreddini, Shahram; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar; Molaeefard, Mahsheed; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Shoja, Mohammadali Mohajel

    2009-01-01

    There are conflicting reports about the renal involvement in Behcet's disease (BD). In this study we aimed to study the frequency and type of renal involvement in a group of patients with BD in Azerbaijan province that is one of the prevalent areas of BD in Iran. All cases of BD were prospectively followed between June 2004 and January 2007, and evaluated for renal dys-function (serum creatinine > 1.7 mg/dL), glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Those patients with proteinuria > 500 mg/day and serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL, underwent renal biopsy. From a total number of 100 patients, six patients (6%) had obvious renal involvements. Four patients had glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy in two of them revealed measangial proliferative glumerulonephritis with IgA deposit in one of them and membranoproliferative glumerolonephritis in another one. Two remaining patients had serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL without any hematuria or proteinuria. Serologic study for viral agents and collagen vascular disease were negative in all patients with renal involvements. In conclusion, renal involvement in BD is not infrequent, although in most cases it is mild in nature and may be missed. (author)

  6. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  7. 2D CFD description of the kinematic effects of movable inlet and outlet die wall transport motion and punch shape geometry on the dynamics of viscous flow during ECAE through Segal 2θ-dies for a range of channel angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Perig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the dead zone (DZA in the process of material forming is a materials science problem. Geometric and kinematic approaches to the minimization of the DZA during Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE have been proposed, developed, analyzed, and documented. The present article is focused on a 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD description of the kinematic effects of punch shape geometry and inlet (IDW and outlet (ODW die wall motion on the DZA during ECAE of Viscous Incompressible Continuum (VIC through a Segal 2θ-die for a range of channel angles 60° ≤ 2θ ≤ 135°. Due attention has been given to the independent alternating transport motions of the IDW and ODW. Punch shape geometry and the kinematic modes of IDW and ODW motions for DZA minimization have been determined with a numerical solution of the boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in curl transfer form for VIC. Experimental verification was accomplished with an introduction of initial circular gridlines-based physical simulation techniques. For the first time, experimental verification of CFD-derived results was made through an additional superposition of empirically-derived digital photos with deformed elliptical gridlines in the channel intersection deformation zones and correspondent 2D numerical plots with CFD-derived flow lines and full flow velocities. An empirical DZA localization was experimentally determined as the location of minimally-deformed near circular markers. The computational DZA localization was numerically determined as a flow-lines-free zone (the first hypothesis or as a zone with near-zero values of full flow velocities (the second hypothesis. The relative DZA was estimated as a ratio of the measured DZA with respect to the area of the deformation zone in the channel intersection region. A good agreement was obtained between DZA values obtained with the first hypothesis and experimental results.

  8. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... by top management. The article describes the briefing processes and the methods for user involvement, identifies problem areas and points out possible improvements. The author was actively involved in the project as deputy project director, with responsibility for the briefing process, and is now...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  9. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  10. User involvement in care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kamp, Annette

    In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost effectiven...... forms of professionalism, and imply tensions in health and social care work.......In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost...... addressed the way this paradigm affects the users, in specific sectors. However user involvement also affects working life. It may imply change and redistribution of tasks and identities between users and professionals, and may also transform the relations of care. In this paper we explore the possible...

  11. User interface and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users.

  12. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  13. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  14. Multisystem involvement in neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of pediatric neuromyelitis optica (NMO with muscle and lung involvement in addition to central nervous system disease. Our patient initially presented with features of area postrema syndrome, then subsequently with optic neuritis. The patient also had recurrent hyperCKemia that responded to corticosteroids. Finally, axillary and hilar adenopathy with pulmonary consolidation were noted as well and responded to immunomodulation. Our case highlights multisystem involvement in NMO including non-infectious pulmonary findings which have not been described in the pediatric population previously.

  15. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  16. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving ...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  17. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  18. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  19. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  20. Patient involvement in hospital architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2017-01-01

    the structure of the design process, identification and ranking of stakeholders, the methods of user-involvement and approaches to accessibility. The paper makes recommendations for a change of approach to user-participation in large-scale, long-duration projects. The paper adds new insight on an under...

  1. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  2. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy

    2006-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  3. Corporate Involvement in C AI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Justine C.

    1978-01-01

    Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to CAI. Corporate CAI products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information. (RAO)

  4. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  5. Parental involvement and educational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.

  6. Eye involvement in haematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the involvement of the eye in haematological malignancies and focuses on two topics; primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). The aim of this thesis is first: to compare the efficacy of diverse treatment options of PVRL with regard to

  7. Lupus panniculitis involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, Josep M.; Gomez, Antonio; Torrubia, Sofia; Salinas, Teresa; Clotet, Montse; Lerma, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Lupus panniculitis is an unusual immunological disease that characteristically affects the subcutaneous fat and occurs in 2% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a case of lupus panniculitis involving the breast, which represents a very uncommon location. Mammographically, it presented as a suspicious irregular mass involving the subcutaneous fat pad with skin thickening. High echogenicity constituted the most relevant sonographic finding. To the best of our knowledge, the magnetic resonance (MR) features have not been previously described. High signal intensity was found on both T1- and T2-weighted precontrast MR images. A dynamic contrast-enhanced study revealed a suspicious focal mass with irregular margins and rim enhancement, with a type 3 time-signal intensity curve. Differential diagnosis with carcinoma and fat necrosis and the value of core biopsy are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Multiobjective Optimization Involving Quadratic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Brito Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization is nowadays a word of order in engineering projects. Although the idea involved is simple, the implementation of any procedure to solve a general problem is not an easy task. Evolutionary algorithms are widespread as a satisfactory technique to find a candidate set for the solution. Usually they supply a discrete picture of the Pareto front even if this front is continuous. In this paper we propose three methods for solving unconstrained multiobjective optimization problems involving quadratic functions. In the first, for biobjective optimization defined in the bidimensional space, a continuous Pareto set is found analytically. In the second, applicable to multiobjective optimization, a condition test is proposed to check if a point in the decision space is Pareto optimum or not and, in the third, with functions defined in n-dimensional space, a direct noniterative algorithm is proposed to find the Pareto set. Simple problems highlight the suitability of the proposed methods.

  9. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    OpenAIRE

    Vancassel Sylvie; Aïd Sabah; Denis Isabelle; Guesnet Philippe; Lavialle Monique

    2007-01-01

    The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3), is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6) and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3). Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved ...

  10. Stakeholder involvement - a japanese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional societal and cultural background of Japanese in general indicates the intrinsic difficulty in involving the public as stakeholders in the process of any type of decision making in policy matters. It is characterized by the long-taught virtue of harmonization and obedience to others. In addition, characteristic system of Japanese traditional industrial society, such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage system, and enterprise-based labour union, encourages the loyalty to the employer/company, but not to the public. The public or ordinary citizens would seldom come out as stakeholders and express their true feelings or real opinions, even though younger generation is notably getting out from such a trend. On the other hand, it is a common practice in Japanese society for any business or administrative transactions to try to obtain 'consensus' among relevant parties concerned (stakeholders) by negotiations behind the curtain prior to the formal discussion. In this sense, 'stakeholders involvement' is accepted and practised as a matter of course, but mostly for actions between parties of equivalently influential status levels or between 'directly relevant' parties such as those between the different government agencies, between regulators and industries. The concept of 'Involving the public in decision making as stakeholders' is not yet fully understood nor accepted in Japan both by regulators and by the public so far as the issue of radiation protection is concerned. These situations are explained with some examples. (author)

  11. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  12. Stakeholder involvement in developing brochures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.; Garing, K.; Waldrop, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management involved stakeholders (i.e., people who perceive themselves to be affected by the DOE's activities) in a pre-decisional draft of a DOE public document-a practice that the public has called for if the DOE is to begin real public participation. Early and ongoing public input is key to realizing Environmental Management's goal of increasing public participation. The stakeholder review process employed in the development of this document, a brochure outlining public participation information, demonstrates that Environmental Management is open-quotes practicing what it preachesclose quotes about institutionalizing public participation in its program. environmental Management's objective for the brochure is to create a document that uses plain, direct language that encourages citizens to become involved in its decision making process. The information in the brochure provides the public with the information they need to become involved stakeholders. The breadth and volume of comments received assisted in the development of a brochure that includes many viewpoints

  13. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  14. Relapsing polychondritis and airway involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Boiselle, Phillip; Sung, Arthur; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Michaud, Gaetane; Majid, Adnan; Herth, Felix J F; Trentham, David

    2009-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP). Retrospective chart review and data analysis of RP patients seen in the Rheumatology Clinic and the Complex Airway Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from January 2004 through February 2008. RP was diagnosed in 145 patients. Thirty-one patients had airway involvement, a prevalence of 21%. Twenty-two patients were women (70%), and they were between 11 and 61 years of age (median age, 42 years) at the time of first symptoms. Airway symptoms were the first manifestation of disease in 17 patients (54%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 20 patients (64%), followed by cough, stridor, and hoarseness. Airway problems included the following: subglottic stenosis (n = 8; 26%); focal and diffuse malacia (n = 15; 48%); and focal stenosis in different areas of the bronchial tree in the rest of the patients. Twelve patients (40%) required and underwent intervention including balloon dilatation, stent placement, tracheotomy, or a combination of the above with good success. The majority of patients experienced improvement in airway symptoms after intervention. One patient died during the follow-up period from the progression of airway disease. The rest of the patients continue to undergo periodic evaluation and intervention. In this largest cohort described in the English language literature, we found symptomatic airway involvement in RP to be common and at times severe. The nature of airway problems is diverse, with tracheomalacia being the most common. Airway intervention is frequently required and in experienced hands results in symptom improvement.

  15. Behcet's disease involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleto, Maria Jesus; Marcos, Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin that was traditionally defined by oral and genital ulcers and uveitis. We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome who presented a palpable lesion in the right breast with inflammatory signs. X-ray findings posed a differential diagnosis between tumoral and inflammatory pathology. The pathological findings confirmed a small-vessel vasculitis. We found two reports of breast involvement by this disease in the literature. Our patient was studied by mammogram and sonogram which together with clinical history are important to prevent delay in diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  16. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal......Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...

  17. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...... of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes...

  18. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Fabry's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenvuo, Juha W; Kantola, Ilkka M; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani; Parkkola, Riitta; Mononen, Ilkka; Hurme, Saija; Kalliokoski, Riikka; Viikari, Jorma S; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Hartiala, Jaakko J

    2010-04-01

    Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A enzyme activity. Decreased enzyme activity leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipid in different tissues, including endothelial and smooth-muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. There is controversial data on cardiopulmonary involvement in Fabry's disease, because many reports are based on small and selected populations with Fabry's disease. Furthermore, the aetiology of cardiopulmonary symptoms in Fabry's disease is poorly understood. We studied cardiopulmonary involvement in seventeen patients with Fabry's disease (20-65 years, 6 men) using ECG, bicycle stress, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry, diffusing capacity and pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) tests. Cardiopulmonary symptoms were compared to observed parameters in cardiopulmonary tests. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and reduced exercise capacity are the most apparent cardiac changes in both genders with Fabry's disease. ECG parameters were normal when excluding changes related to LVH. Spirometry showed mild reduction in vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV I), and mean values in diffusing capacity tests were within normal limits. Generally, only slight morphological pulmonary changes were detected using pulmonary HRCT, and they were not associated with changes in pulmonary function. The self-reported amount of pulmonary symptoms associated only with lower ejection fraction (P routine cardiopulmonary evaluation in Fabry's disease using echocardiography is maybe enough when integrated to counselling for aerobic exercise training.

  19. Subfascial involvement in glomuvenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Raja; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P.W. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is an inherited autosomal dominant trait. The lesions, which appear as bluish nodules or plaque-like cutaneous elevations, are usually tender and more firm than sporadic venous malformations. Conventionally, the lesions are thought to be limited to the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue planes. The objective was to characterize the depth of involvement of GVM lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in GVM were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The signal characteristics, tissue distribution, pattern of contrast enhancement of the lesions in GVM were documented. Thirty patients (19 female) aged 1-35 years (mean 18 years) were diagnosed with GVM based on clinical features (n = 20) and/or histopathological findings (n = 10). The lesions were present in the lower extremity (n = 15), upper extremity (n = 6), cervico-facial region (n = 6), pelvis (n = 2), and chest wall (n = 1). All patients had skin and subcutaneous lesions. Fifty percent of the patients (n = 15) demonstrated subfascial intramuscular (n = 15), intra-osseous (n = 1), and intra-articular involvement (n = 1). Contrary to the conventional belief that GVMs are generally limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, deep subfascial extension of the lesions is common. (orig.)

  20. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  1. Measuring Purchase‐decision involvement ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, increasing competition is forcing businesses to pay more attention on customer satisfaction providing strong customer services. Increased competition has also increased marketing activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing purchase decision involvement in food industry in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 270 experts in food industry and, using principle component (PCA analysis, extracts important group of factors. The questionnaire consists of 27 questions, which is reduced to 23 questions because of sensitivity of the PCA to Skewness of data. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.81, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that there were four factors including individual differences, product validation, triggers and dependent behavior influencing purchasing decisions.

  2. Pulmonary involvement of secondary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Imai, Yuichiro; Yoshihara, Shingo; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Sato, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Taku; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Yano, Hisakazu; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. Since clinical manifestations of syphilis are highly variable, clinicians should bear in mind that pleural chest pain with bilateral subpleural nodules can be caused by pulmonary syphilis.

  3. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  4. Involve women at many levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1995-03-01

    The organizers of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) realize that slowing the rate of population growth requires the involvement of women at many levels. The planning processes in countries leading up to the ICPD were required to include women, and funds became available for women to attend regional and international preparatory meetings. National delegations at the ICPD also included many more women than the previous two world population conferences in 1974 and 1984. Space was also provided at the ICPD for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. Naripokkho, a women's advocacy organization in Bangladesh, was therefore able to communicate its message at the conference. In preparation, the organization held consultations and workshops with grassroots women in thirteen regions of Bangladesh. Approximately one third of the women in the workshops had more children than they desired, many felt that they had to have at least two sons, poor services led women to discontinue contraceptive use, and very few women reported that a lack of access to contraception or method failure was responsible for their large families. It was also determined during the preparatory phase that environmental damage cannot be linked to population in a simplistic manner, history, politics, geography, business, and economics play important roles. Once at the ICPD, Naripokkho they negotiated and lobbied the governments to influence the ICPD program of action. Gains for women were made in both language and substance. Indeed, the program of action is the most progressive population document ever issued by a mainstream institution, gives women's goals new legitimacy, and is a powerful tool for groups working at the grassroots level. Governments must now be held to their commitments made in the program.

  5. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Physiological demands of simulated elite Karate kumite matches · EMAIL FULL ... Parental involvement in school sport: Perceptions of competitive rugby union players ...

  6. Nail involvement in psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobolewski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nail psoriasis is considered a significant psychological and social problem causing functional impairment in affected patients. Nail changes hamper their daily and occupational activities and contribute to a worse quality of life. Almost 50% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis are afflicted with nail lesions. The important correlation between psoriatic arthritis and nail changes is well established – the presence of the latter is a strong predictor of the development of arthritis. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting, subungual hyperkeratosis and loosening of the nail plate to less frequent discolouration and splinter haemorrhages. Some of these symptoms are also observed in other nail diseases, and further diagnostics should be performed. The assessment tools NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, mNAPSI (Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, and PNSS (Psoriasis Nail Severity Score are most commonly used to grade the severity of nail involvement in psoriasis and enable the evaluation of therapy effectiveness. The treatment of nail psoriasis is a major clinical challenge. It should be adjusted to the extent of dermal, articular and ungual lesions. Systemic therapies of psoriasis, especially biological agents, are most likely to be effective in treating nail psoriasis. However, as their use is limited in scope and safety, topical therapy remains a mainstay, and the combination of corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues is considered to be most helpful.

  7. Public involvement in nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. De La

    1993-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the environment has gained an understandable degree of political prominence, drawing attention to the concept of direct participation of the public in decision-making. As part of that process, the first World Environmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the final act of the 1975 Helsinki Conference, the Global Nature Charter of the UN General Assembly of 1982 and the 1992 Rio conference have all increased the obligation of governments to inform their publics, and to give individuals and all categories of the public some degree of involvement in decisions that will directly affect their surroundings. The use of nuclear energy fits clearly into this process. Uncertainty in the public mind about the scientific foundation of nuclear-energy exploitation often motivates the public to intervene in the decision-making process, as does fear of catastrophic consequences. There can also be a specific reaction -crystallizing on nuclear energy - against uncontrolled technological and unlimited industrial development. In any event, there is a direct relationship between public pressure for participation and the perception of the ability - or inability - of the relevant authorities to act with a genuine sense of the wider interest. But, although the nuclear industry has often been taken as a scapegoat, the problems of public acceptance and government management that it raises are not substantially different from those in other branches of heavy industry, particularly in their social and environmental impacts. Indeed, in a large number of countries (France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States are examples) the mechanisms for public participation are broadly similar for both conventional industrial and nuclear installations

  8. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  9. Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children’s lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers’ reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers’ reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior. PMID:29515272

  10. In pursuit of empowerment: Sensei Nellie Kleinsmidt, race and gender challenges in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D E

    2001-01-01

    This chapter traces the way in which Nellie Kleinsmidt, known as the grandmother of karate in Africa, has negotiated discriminatory practices and overcome race and gender-related struggles, including the struggle to free the female body, in pursuit of empowerment. It explores her expectations and the constraints and frustrations she experienced, as well as the many contributions she has made to women's karate in South Africa. Nellie Kleinsmidt's karate career, which began in 1965, coincided with the early developments of South African karate. As a woman of colour her life and karate career were significantly shaped by apartheid legislation. It divided the country into areas of occupancy and residency according to race and was designed to prevent contact between the people of the government defined race groups. Black karate-kas were prohibited by law from practising karate in white designated areas. Lack of facilities and qualified instructors in areas allocated to Kleinsmidt's race group meant that she received very little formal karate instruction between 1966 and 1973. Soon after, she met Johan Roux, a white male. He was to become her chief karate instructor and life-long companion. They defied the apartheid legislation and in 1978 set up home together. They organized defiance campaigns, resisting the pressures from government to close their dojo because of its non-racial policies. Freeing her body at the broader political level involved the abolition of the race categories and all other apartheid legislation which impacted on her life choices and experiences. Initially this struggle and that of freeing her body occurred simultaneously. In her ongoing struggle against gender discrimination in the sport, it was in karate that Nellie Kleinsmidt could strive for the personal empowerment she sought. She could however not translate this into freedom in South African society itself. The impact of apartheid legislation together with the imposition of a sports moratorium

  11. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  12. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  13. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  14. Quality assurance - how to involve the employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation.......An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation....

  15. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  16. Cross-Cultural Issues in Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach-Tuyet Pham; And Others

    Four papers address cultural issues related to the involvement of limited-English-proficient parents in public schools in the United States. "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement" (Bach-Tuyet (Pham) Tran) outlines the linguistic, social, and practical barriers to Indochinese immigrant parent involvement and makes suggestions for…

  17. Radiologic science students' perceptions of parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Cheryl; Barymon, Deanna; Vanderford, Virginia; Hensley, Chad; Shaver, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A new generation of students is in the classroom, and they are not always alone. Helicopter parents, those who hover around the student and attempt to ease life's challenges, are accompanying the students to radiologic science programs across the nation. To determine radiologic science students' perception regarding their parents' level of involvement in their lives. A survey focused on student perceptions of parental involvement inside and outside of the academic setting was completed by 121 radiologic science students at 4 institutional settings. The analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationships between student sex, age, marital status, and perceived level of parental involvement. In addition, as financial support increases, students' perception of the level of parental involvement also increases. Radiologic science students want their parents to be involved in their higher education decisions. Research indicates that students with involved parents are more successful, and faculty should be prepared for increased parental involvement in the future. Radiologic science students perceive their parents to be involved in their academic careers. Ninety-five percent of respondents believe that the financial support of their parent or parents contributes to their academic success. Sixty-five percent of participants are content with their parents' current level of involvement, while 11% wish their parents were more involved in their academic careers.

  18. Top Management Involvement in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2010-01-01

    a broader conceptual space than this participation. This paper reviews the literature on top management involvement in new product development (NPD) and discusses relevance of different theoretical perspectives from other disciplines such as management, organisational behaviour and communication to analyse......Involvement of top managers in new product development (NPD) is a critical factor affecting NPD performance and frequently considered to be the participation of top management to certain activities in NPD or their NPD related behaviours. However, “Top management involvement in NPD” occupies...... antecedents, realisation and consequences of top management involvement in NPD. It is argued that top management has different involvement at different NPD levels: organisation level and project level. Resulting from this literature review, a tentative framework for top management involvement in NPD...

  19. How can stakeholder involvement be improved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as environment, risk management, sustainability, energy and health policy. In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement, participation or engagement. Guidance for public authorities also generally encourages greater involvement of the public. Involvement may take different forms at different phases and can include sharing information, consulting, dialoguing or deliberating on decisions with relevant stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement should be seen as a meaningful part of formulating and implementing public policy. There is no single technique for organising engagement. Initiatives should respond to their context and to stakeholders' particular needs. As the number of stakeholder involvement approaches and publications describing them continues to grow, new opportunities are opening up through social media, which has become an important tool for stakeholder involvement in recent years

  20. Does employee involvement work? Yes, sometimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J L

    1997-12-01

    Employee involvement per se is not always effective for improving performance and/or employee attitudes. Rather, there are several different forms of employee involvement, some of which are effective, while others are not. This article describes seven forms of employee involvement, giving examples, and summarizes research findings for each form, concluding with a summary of which are the best and which are worst. This article also describes what is necessary for effective employee involvement, focusing on management commitment and training for both management and employees.

  1. Client Involvement in Home Care Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Stinne; Henriksen, Nina; Kjær, Lone

    2013-01-01

    , political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: ‘Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care’; ‘Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life......’; ‘Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting’; and ‘Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life’. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which...

  2. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak; Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  3. Initial thoracic involvement in lymphoma. CT assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, A.; Corredoira, J.; Ferreiros, J.; Cabeza, B.; Jorquera, M.; Pedrosa, I.; Martinez, R.; Fernandez, C.

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the initial thoracic involvement by CT in a consecutive series of patients with lymphoma. A retrospective analysis was made of thoracic CT studies made at the time of diagnosis of 259 patients with lymphoma. Mediastinal pulmonary, pleural, pericardial and chest wall involvement was assessed by CT. Of 259 patients (129 men y 130 women), 56 had Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 203 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Forty-two percent (42.5%, 110/259) of the patients had chest involvement on CT: 33 of 56 patients with HD (58.9%) and 77 of 203 patients with NHL (37.9%). All the patients with thoracic HD) and 71.4% of patients with thoracic NHL, had mediastinal lymph node involvement. of the patients with thoracic involvement 12.1% (4/33) of the patient with HD and 23.3% (18/77) of the patients with NHL had pulmonary involvement. Thoracic involvement on CT was more frequent in HD. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was the most common finding fundamentally in HD. Pulmonary disease always occurred in the presence of mediastinal lymph node involvement in HD but could occur as an isolated finding in NHL. (Author) 24 refs

  4. Parent Involvement: Turning Up the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that parent involvement makes a significant difference in children's achievement, especially during elementary and middle school. Even though the school year is well underway, there is still plenty of time to make this your school's best year ever for parent involvement. Here are some of the most effective strategies I've come…

  5. Understanding the Value of Volunteer Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…

  6. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  7. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  8. Parent Education: A Perspective on Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Jean

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews ways in which parents of handicapped children can become involved with the schools, and two models (an oral program for deaf students in which parents are trained to provide language stimulation, and a program for autistic children involving parents in behavioral treatment) are described. (CL)

  9. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  10. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  11. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  12. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  13. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  14. Patient involvement in Danish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework for anal......PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework...... for analysis of patient involvement in health care. This framework is used to analyze key governance features of patient involvement in Denmark based on previous research papers and reports describing patient involvement in Danish health care. FINDINGS: Patient involvement is important in Denmark...... be identified when pursuing the strategies at the same time. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed framework further. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The paper includes...

  15. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  16. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  17. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  18. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  19. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  20. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  1. User involvement in the innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Saugstrup

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in the innovation process is not a new phenomenon. However, combined with the growing individualisation of demand and with highly competitive and dynamic environments, user involvement in the innovation process and thereby in the design, development, and manufacturing process, can...... nevertheless provide a competitive advantage. This is the case as an intensified user involvement in the innovation process potentially results in a more comprehensive understanding of the user needs and requirements and the context within which these are required, and thereby provides the possibility...... of developing better and more suitable products. The theoretical framework of this thesis is based on user involvement in the innovation process and how user involvement in the innovation process can be deployed in relation to deriving and colleting user needs and requirements, and thereby serves...

  2. Using employee involvement in upgrading radiological work practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.

    1987-01-01

    Following the shutdown of the Midland Plant in 1984, Consumers Power Company found itself with a need to reorganize its nuclear operations department (NOD). The NOD support staff no longer needed to be located in the company headquarters and was integrated into the Palisades Plant organization. In an attempt to understand the problems confronting the plant, the new organization set up a group of meetings for each department to identify barriers to becoming a high-performance organization. In addition to the barrier meetings, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) assisted in identifying additional problem areas during their normal inspection. Support was also provided by INPO during an assist visit in early 1985. That assist visit provided new ideas as well as impetus and credibility to many of the planned corrective actions determined from the barrier meetings. Corrective actions were collected, placed on a punch list, and worked off over an 18-month period. The results of these actions have been encouraging. The number and significance of NRC violations and NPO findings have been reduced. Radwaste generation and auxiliary building contamination have decreased significantly. Costs have been reduced due to reductions in staff, contract services, and radioactive waste. The most significant improvements have been in worker morale and increased cooperation from other plant departments

  3. Comparing methods for involving users in ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Scupola, Ada; Sørensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    workshop method (involving users and employees) is especially good at qualifying and further developing ideas. The findings suggest that methods for involving users in ideation should be carefully selected and combined to achieve optimum benefits and avoid potential disadvantages.......In this paper we discuss how users may be involved in the ideation phase of innovation. The study compares the use of a blog and three future workshops (students, employees and a mix of the two) in a library. Our study shows that the blog is efficient in giving the users voice whereas the mixed...

  4. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  5. User involvement in mental health rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten; Hounsgaard, Lise; Borg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation. Findings: The study showed that user involvement in rehabilitation was experienced by the users as a struggle for self-determination and recognition. Being able to decide and to have influence on daily activities and everyday life, together...... with having goals to reach during rehabilitation, were viewed as valuable. Situations without influence or involving coercion were reported especially during periods of illness or hospitalization. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to knowledge about user involvement from service users...

  6. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Multibusiness Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    The strategy literature has shown that headquarters involve themselves into subsidiary operations to add value. Yet, little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters do so. Therefore, we investigate antecedents of corporate and divisional headquarters’ involvement in innovation...... development projects of subsidiaries. Analyses of 85 innovation development projects reveal that dual innovation importance (innovation that is important for the division and the rest of the firm), and dual dual embeddedness (innovating subsidiary is embedded both within the division and in the rest...... of the firm) lead to greater dual headquarters involvement, especially when the innovation development network is large. The results contribute to the literature on complex parenting and theory of selective headquarters involvement....

  7. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    INVOLVEMENT OF METHYLTRANSFERASES ENZYMES DURING THE. ENERGY METABOLISM OF ..... cell extract still exhibited relatively high methanogenesis with methanol (Fig ... product CH3-CoM into methane (see Fig. 1). The HS-CoM ...

  8. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, I.; Saiz, A.; Bustos, A.; Hernando, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present two cases of pulmonary lumphangioleiomyomatosis and one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement describing the most characteristic features according to plain chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). (Author) 14 refs

  9. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    This study explores the interaction between professional imprinting and age in the context of industry-science collaboration. Specifically, we examine the impact of localized and personal peer effects on academics’ involvement with industry and how these effects are moderated by the career age...... of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...

  10. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  11. Healthcare decisions: a review of children's involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Jenny

    2008-04-01

    Children's rights, their ability to consent to treatment and their involvement in healthcare decisions have received considerable attention in recent years. There is some evidence to suggest that when children are involved in the decision-making process, they retain a sense of control over their situation. However there are still unresolved issues related to a child's right to decide and nurses may be confused about the extent to which children can and should be involved in decision-making. A code of practice for involving children in decisions was first suggested in 2001 and there is still a need for a consistent, structured and robust method of ensuring that children are included in the decision-making process at all stages of their health care.

  12. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  14. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  15. Neurologic involvement in scleroderma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Marques-Neto, João Francisco; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-12-01

    To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment. We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses. A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described

  16. Parents’ Perceptions of Their Involvement in Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children’s educational engagementduring the elementary years. The objective of this study was to examine theperceptions of rural Turkish parents about their involvement in schooling withelementary school students based on Epstein’s (1995) six types of parentalinvolvement (parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home,decision-making, and collaborating with the community).  This study also investigated the differencesamong parent demographic ch...

  17. Patient empowerment and involvement in telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge Nielsen, Marie; Johannessen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Basic ideas of empowerment and user involvement in relation to telemedicine are presented, as is a case implying user resistance to telemedicine. Four logics of empowerment are employed to identify the underlying rationale of specific cases of telemedicine. The article concludes, that although...... telemedicine is acknowledged as relevant, the approach to it is often too mechanical to imply empowerment of the patient. Some patient groups may not feel safe by using telemedicine, and user involvement and empowerment will not be possible....

  18. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of cranial nerve involvement in cryptococcal meningitis.

  19. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  20. Reliability of Roof Truss with Punched Nail Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Martin; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    characteristic values as input to the model. The system effect is also determined on the basis of reliability analyses. The found system effect depends on the coefficient of variation, the distribution of the random load variable and the reliability level. Depending on the assumptions, the system effect...

  1. Growth, physiology and flowering of chrysanthemum var. Punch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth retardants have been proven to prevent excessive stem elongation and reduce internode length in plants by inhibiting the effect of cell division and enlargement of cell in plants. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrations of daminozide and maleic hydrazide on growth, physiology and flowering of ...

  2. Elaboration: The Power Punch of "Body Language" Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joan

    2003-01-01

    "Zooming in" with a camera lens led students in Joan Berger's class to enrich their writing exponentially. Through class discussion of body language, along with the use of worksheets (provided), role-playing, modeling, and conferencing, one aspect of lively writing became a part of their writing repertoire. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Punching above their weight: the role of networking in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Lisa; Rae, Alan; Misner, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:We draw upon the findings of a research project which investigated networking styles by owner/managers of small businesses. Our specific objective was to analyse the impact of such networking activities on business growth to develop a taxonomy of networking based on size, business model and attitudes of the owner to their use of online and offline networking.Design/methodology/approach: Our data comes from analysis of an online survey completed by 645 firms based in both the USA and E...

  4. Research of the punch interaction with composite protective panel

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, N.; Lyubin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The work examines the structure of a protection composite panel consisting of a crushing layer (ceramic discrete elements of a cylindrical shape) and a restraining layer below (metallic leaf). This protection panel can be used for an armour-piercing bullet protection of the car. Here is the strength calculation of ceramic elements and metallic protective layer dynamic interaction under bullet impact. The problem was solved under a variety of protection panel parameters in order to define thei...

  5. Punching shear strength of transversely prestressed concrete decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, S.; Van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is a need to determine the capacity of bridge decks as a large number of them were built back in the 60’s and 70’s. Since then, not only a lot of additional safety requirements have been incorporated into the modern codes but the traffic flow has also increased drastically.

  6. Lean Customer Involvement : A Multiple Case Study on the Effects of Kanban on Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Lundheim, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Customer involvement is an important, but challenging part of software development. Delays and failures can often be attributed to a lack of customer involvement. Different development methodologies provide different strategies for customer involvement, all with their own challenges. Kanban is a new development methodology quickly gaining popularity in the software development community. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does Kanban influence customer involvement? The main prob...

  7. Motivational Influences on Cognition: Task Involvement, Ego Involvement, and Depth of Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Golan, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Task involvement and ego involvement were studied in relation to depth of information processing for 126 fifth and sixth graders in 2 experiments. Ego involvement resulted in poorer word recall at deep rather than shallow information processing levels. Implications for the study of motivation are discussed. (SLD)

  8. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  9. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  10. [Xanthoma disseminatum with asymptomatic multisystem involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H

    2015-04-01

    Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal

  11. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed.

  12. Creating Learning at Conferences Through Participant Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    as a forum for learning, mutual inspiration and "human co-flourishing." We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may involve participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research and development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers......The typical conference is brimming with PowerPoint presentations that leave very little time for participant involvement. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies this massive show of one-way communication. We propose an alternative theory of the conference...... in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...

  13. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The strategy and international business literature has identified the overall potential for headquarters to add value by allocating resources to subsidiary activities, but little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters simultaneously involves itself in subsidiary operations....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  14. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  15. Peer Involvement in University Students' Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlations between peer involvement in students’ education and their self-perception, attachment style, relationships with peers, personality and well-being. We used the Inventory of parent and peer attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991, Questionnaire of the subjects’ self-perceptions (Cugmas, 2012 and The big five questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara et al, 2002. We developed the questionnaires of peer involvement and subjects’ well-being. Positive relationships with peers, secure attachment style, positive self-perceptions, some personal characteristics and well-being were positively associated with peer support, and negatively with peer pressure.

  16. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, Jon.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperation agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons [fr

  17. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Involving Maxilla and Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guna Shekhar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a relatively rare unique disease process characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells usually affecting children and young adults. Jaws are involved in less than 10% of children with the disease while mandibular involvement in young children is uncommon and bilateral affection is very rare. The purpose of this report is to describe a unique and very rare case of simultaneous and bilateral occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in both the jaws of a four-year-old boy.

  18. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperative agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons. (author)

  19. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  20. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  1. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  2. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design....

  3. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  4. Involving IDPs in the Darfur peace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lanz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The UN estimates that there are 2.4 millionIDPs in Darfur –over one third of the totalpopulation. There can be no meaningfulpeace process without their involvement.Giving IDPs a formal seat in official peacenegotiations is problematic but there areother ways to ensure their participation.

  5. Involving Families and Community through Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Gardens are complex and require a variety of skills. Gross- and fine-motor activities, science concepts, language and literacy development, math, and community involvement are all part of the preschool gardening project the authors describe. They list gardening books for children and suggest container gardens for urban school settings. The authors…

  6. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Librarian Involvement in Grant Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Marci D.; Cordell, Sigrid Anderson; Joque, Justin; MacEachern, Mark P.; Song, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Librarians are excellent research collaborators, although librarian participation is not usually considered, thereby making access to research funds difficult. The University of Michigan Library became involved in the university's novel funding program, MCubed, which supported innovative interdisciplinary research on campus, primarily by funding…

  7. Parent Involvement, Technology, and Media: Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakou, Eva N.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid technological advances, the expansion of online media use, and the declining cost of mobile technology have introduced a communication factor that has precipitously affected parent involvement and the relationship between parents and children. The present article explores ways through which technology and online media have affected…

  8. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  9. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  10. Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Afifi, Tracie O; Shaffer, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    A growing literature is addressing the nature of the relationships among gambling activity, gambling involvement, and gambling-related problems. This research suggests that among the general population, compared to playing any specific game, gambling involvement is a better predictor of gambling-related problems. To date, researchers have not examined these relationships among casino patrons, a population that differs from the general population in a variety of important ways. A survey of 1160 casino patrons at two Las Vegas resort casinos allowed us to determine relationships between the games that patrons played during the 12 months before their casino visit, the games that patrons played during their casino visit, and patrons' self-perceived history of gambling-related problems. Results indicate that playing specific gambling games onsite predicted (i.e., statistically significant odds ratios ranging from .5 to 4.51) self-perceived gambling-related problems. However, after controlling for involvement, operationally defined as the number of games played during the current casino visit and self-reported gambling frequency during the past 12 months, the relationships between games and gambling-related problems disappeared or were attenuated (i.e., odds ratios no longer statistically significant). These results extend the burgeoning literature related to gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling-related problems.

  11. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  12. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  13. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  14. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  15. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  16. Spinal cord involvement in Balo's concentric sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreft, Karim L.; Mellema, S. Jouke; Hintzen, Rogier Q.

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with a history of myelitis, who had a steroid refractory attack of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease that developed into cerebral concentric sclerosis of Balo after plasma exchange. The acute inflammatory disease involved the spinal cord, a phenomenon rarely demonstrated.

  17. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methyl group transfer from dimethylsulfide (DMS), trimethylamine and methanol to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were investigated from cell extracts of Methanosarcina semesiae sp. nov. to evaluate whether the enzyme systems involved were constitutive or inductive. The extracts from cells grown on ...

  18. Epiphyseal involvement in unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capanna, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Biagini, R.; Horn, J. van

    1986-01-01

    Twelve patients are reported in whom a unicameral bone cyst was found to involve the epiphysis or apophysis across an open growth plate. Nine patients showed pathologic fracture. In four patients a growth disturbance was found. A varying amount of varus angulation was present in most cases. No patient had functional impairment. (orig.)

  19. Epiphyseal involvement in unicameral bone cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capanna, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Biagini, R.; Horn, J. van

    1986-08-01

    Twelve patients are reported in whom a unicameral bone cyst was found to involve the epiphysis or apophysis across an open growth plate. Nine patients showed pathologic fracture. In four patients a growth disturbance was found. A varying amount of varus angulation was present in most cases. No patient had functional impairment.

  20. Comparison of Learner Involvement in Biology Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance in the biology practical paper has been poor at Kenya national examinations in the past five years (1998-2002). This may imply a lack of emphasis on the teaching of biology through the process-based approach. This study investigated the level of learner involvement in biology practical investigations in ...