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Sample records for karanj pongamia glabra

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  2. Pyrolysis kinetics of raw and hydrothermally carbonized Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combustion kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Kabir, G; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Annona glabra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Annona glabra L. (MONKEY-APPLE) of Annonaceae is a medium-sized tree with spreading branches. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong in shape, 10 x 5 cm with an acute apex. Flowers are solitary and large. Sepals and petals are fleshy whereas stamens and pistils are small and numerous. Fruit is of apple's size and is ...

  6. Dihydropyranoflavones from Pongamia pinnata

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hao; Zhang, Si; Wu, Jun; Nan, Haihan

    2006-01-01

    From the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata, two new compounds, 3-methoxy-(3²,4²-dihydro- 3²-hydroxy-4²-acetoxy)-2²,2²-dimethylpyrano-(7,8:5 ²,6²)-flavone and 3-methoxy-(3²,4²-dihydro-4²- hydroxy-3²-acetoxy)-2²,2²-dimethylpyrano-(7,8:5 ²,6²)-flavone, were isolated, along with six known compounds, caryophyllene oxide, obovatachalcone, 8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentyl-1H-isochromen-1-one, 6,7,2,2-dimethylchromono-8,gamma,gamma-dimethylallylflavanon e, isolonchocarpin, ovaliflavanone A. Their structures ...

  7. Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. from Root Nodules of Pongamia pinnata

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    Vigya Kesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata has an added advantage of N2-fixing ability and tolerance to stress conditions as compared with other biodiesel crops. It harbours “rhizobia” as an endophytic bacterial community on its root nodules. A gram-negative, nonmotile, fast-growing, rod-shaped, bacterial strain VKLR-01T was isolated from root nodules of Pongamia that grew optimal at 28°C, pH 7.0 in presence of 2% NaCl. Isolate VKLR-01 exhibits higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, for example, salt stress, elevated temperatures and alkalinity. Strain VKLR-01T has the major cellular fatty acid as C18:1  ω7c (65.92%. Strain VKLR-01T was found to be a nitrogen fixer using the acetylene reduction assay and PCR detection of a nifH gene. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic distinctiveness and molecular data (16S rRNA, recA, and atpD gene sequences, G + C content, DNA-DNA hybridization etc., strain VKLR-01T = (MTCC 10513T = MSCL 1015T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. is proposed. Rhizobium pongamiae may possess specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through biotechnological tools and can be directly used as inoculants for reclamation of wasteland; hence, they are very important from both economic and environmental prospects.

  8. Morphological Diversity of Fruits, Seeds and Seedlings of Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre in Java Island

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    NFN Supriyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre is one of a potential tree species to produce biodiesel. Pongamia-based biodiesel development program is still constrained by the availability of quality and quantity seeds due to the limited of seed sources. The purpose of this research was to identify the morphological diversity of fruits, seeds and seedlings from 5 populations in Java Island. Randomized completely design and randomized block design were used to assess the difference of fruits, seeds and seedlings morphological characteristics among populations. Principal component and hierarchy cluster analysis were used to explain variation pattern among populations. The results showed that the difference of populations was significantly affected by the difference of fruits, seeds, and seedlings morphology of pongamia. Seeds from Carita population showed good quality seed indicators with moisture content of 19.31%, and germination capacity of 74.50%. Sturdiness quotient of the seedling was 10.78. Contribution of genetic factor was higher than environtment factor is relation to the differences of morphological characteristics of fruits, seeds and seedlings of pongamia. Morphological character of the five populations can be divided into 3 groups, i.e. the first group of Batukaras and Kebumen, second group of Alas Purwo and Baluran, and group 3 was Carita.

  9. Investigation of Oxidation stability of Pongamia Biodiesel and its blends

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    Gaurav Dwivedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from Pongamia oil is one of the promising non edible sources in India. But the main problem of using Pongamia biodiesel as fuel is its poor stability characteristics. Poor stability leads to gum formation which further leads to a storage problem of these fuels for a longer period of time. This paper investigates the methodology of improving the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel by blending with diesel and use of the antioxidant Pyrogallol. The experimental investigation shows that blending with diesel and using of antioxidant Pyrogallol improves the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel significantly. Results of the study show that the optimum amount of antioxidant (PY for pure PB20 is 300 ppm to maintain the oxidation stability specification and blending of diesel with Pongamia shows that PB10 requires no additive to maintain its stability characteristics.

  10. Genetic and Genomic Analysis of the Tree Legume Pongamia pinnata as a Feedstock for Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Bandana Biswas; Stephen H. Kazakoff; Qunyi Jiang; Sharon Samuel; Peter M. Gresshoff; Paul T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The tree legume Pongamia { (L.) Pierre [syn. (L.) Panigrahi]} is emerging as an important biofuels feedstock. It produces about 30 kg per tree per year of seeds, containing up to 55% oil (w/v), of which approximately 50% is oleic acid (C). The capacity for biological N fixation places Pongamia in a more sustainable position than current nonlegume biofuel feedstocks. Also due to its drought and salinity tolerance, Pongamia can grow on marginal land not destined for production of food. As part...

  11. Quantification of glycyrrhizin biomarker in Glycyrrhiza glabra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations by validated Reverse Phase HPTLC method. Materials and Methods: RP-HPTLC Method was carried out using glass coated with RP-18 ...

  12. Genetic and Genomic Analysis of the Tree Legume Pongamia pinnata as a Feedstock for Biofuels

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    Bandana Biswas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The tree legume Pongamia { (L. Pierre [syn. (L. Panigrahi]} is emerging as an important biofuels feedstock. It produces about 30 kg per tree per year of seeds, containing up to 55% oil (w/v, of which approximately 50% is oleic acid (C. The capacity for biological N fixation places Pongamia in a more sustainable position than current nonlegume biofuel feedstocks. Also due to its drought and salinity tolerance, Pongamia can grow on marginal land not destined for production of food. As part of the effort to domesticate Pongamia our research group at The University of Queensland has started to develop specific genetic and genomic tools. Much of the preliminary work to date has focused on characterizing the genetic diversity of wild populations. This diversity is reflective of the outcrossing reproductive biology of Pongamia and necessitates the requirement to develop clonal propagation protocols. Both the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of Pongamia have been sequenced and annotated (152,968 and 425,718 bp, respectively, with similarities to previously characterized legume organelle genomes. Many nuclear genes associated with oil biosynthesis and nodulation in Pongamia have been characterized. The continued application of genetic and genomic tools will support the deployment of Pongamia as a sustainable biofuel feedstock.

  13. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

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    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  14. Chemical constituents of Bombacopsis glabra (bombacaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Bombacopsis glabra (bombacaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Vanderlucia F.; Cruz, Mariluze P. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas]. E-mail: vfpaula@uesb.br; Barbosa, Luiz C. de A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2006-03-15

    The chemical study of the barks of the stem and roots of Bombacopsis glabra (Bombacaceae) led to the isolation identification of 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (2), the naphtoquinone isohemigossypolone (3), the ester triacontyl p-coumarate (4) besides lupeol and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and MS. All these compounds, except 3, were isolated for the first time in the family. (author)

  15. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Puttaswamy; Srinikethan, Govindan; Shetty, K Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure. Cellulose microfibres of diameter 6-8 µm, hydrodynamic diameter of 58.4 nm and length of 535 nm were isolated. Thermal stability was enhanced by 70 °C and crystallinity index (CI) by 19.8% ensuring isolation of crystalline cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. pinnata seed hull. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P. pinnata seed hull. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

  16. Numerical investigation of exhaust gas emissions for a dual fuel engine configuration using diesel and pongamia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, N H; Udayakumar, M

    2016-12-01

    The investigation presented in this paper focuses on determination of gaseous exhaust emissions by computational simulation during combustion in compression ignition engine with pongamia oil substitution. Combustion is modeled using Equilibrium Constants Method (ECM) with MATLAB program to calculate the mole fraction of 10 combustion products when pongamia oil is burnt along with diesel at variable equivalence ratio and blend ratio. It had been observed that pongamia oil substitution causes decrease in the CO emission and increase in the NO x emission as the blend ratio as well as equivalence ratio increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bio-activity of oils of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different concentration of oils obtained from two plants species belonging to family Fabaceae i.e. Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia pinnata were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by MIC ...

  18. Identifying Natural syNergist from Pongamia pinnata Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Combined with Isobolographic Analysis

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    Hao Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For identifying the synergistic compounds from Pongamia pinnata, an approach based on high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC combined with isobolographic analysis was designed to detect the synergistic effects in the complex mixture [...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF EMISSION AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF PONGAMIA BIODIESEL AND HHO GAS ADDITION IN A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Jeffrey.J1, Divya Meena.S2, Balaji.P3, Bharathi.K4, Arvind Raj.R5

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays the environmental pollution has been increased incredibly by using conventional fuels. To control this increase in pollution alternate fuels has to be used as supplement for conventional fuels. While using conventional fuels such as petrol and diesel in IC engine there is a chance of increase in emissions. Alternate fuels can control emissions. This work is based on the investigation of emission parameters of pongamia biodiesel and HHO gas addition in a CI engine. Pongamia biodiesel ...

  20. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) biodiesel blend B5 as internal combustion engine fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Boruah, Dibakor

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fuel characteristics of biodiesel abstracted from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) were evaluated and compared with petroleum diesel. Various fuel properties such as density, viscosity, calorific value, ash content, cloud point, pour points, induction period and flash point were evaluated according to ASTM standards. A (5% v/v) blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel were used to run a diesel engine and their performances were investigated and compared in terms of fuel power, indicat...

  1. Test results of pongamia pinnata methyl esters with direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, MG.; Chattha, J.A.; Khan, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pongamia Pinnata oil is considered as a potential source of biodiesel production in Pakistan. When selecting source for commercial production of biodiesel several criteria are used. One of them is that biodiesel or biodiesel/diesel fuel blends must provide satisfactory performance and emissions of the diesel engine without or with a little engine modification. In this research performance and emissions characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine running on Pongamia Pinnata methyl esters were discussed. Discussion was supported by an analysis of combustion characteristics derived from in-cylinder pressure data. Engine running on a neat biodiesel showed higher brake specific fuel consumption and lower brake fuel conversion efficiency at all loads, whereas emissions were improved except of carbon monoxide emission at high loads. Decrease in brake efficiency and reduction of nitrogen oxides emissions were attributed solely to the change in the rate of heat release. Deposits on fuel infector nozzle were observed when engine was running on the neat biodiesel. Based on test results conclusion was made that Pongamia biodiesel/diesel fuel blends can effectively be used as a diesel oil substitute. (author)

  2. Synthesis of biodiesel from pongamia oil using heterogeneous ion-exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable substitute fuel for petroleum. Biodiesel could be effectively produced by transesterification reaction of triglycerides of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Conventionally, biodiesel manufacturing processes employ strong acids or bases as catalysts. But, separation of the catalyst and the by-product glycerol from the product ester is too expensive to justify the product use as an automobile fuel. Hence heterogeneous catalysts are preferred. In this study, transesterification of pongamia oil with ethanol was performed using a solid ion-exchange resin catalyst. It is a macro porous strongly basic anion exchange resin. The process parameters affecting the ethyl ester yield were investigated. The reaction conditions were optimized for the maximum yield of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) of pongamia oil. The properties of FAEE were compared with accepted standards of biodiesel. Engine performance was also studied with pongamia oil diesel blend and engine emission characteristics were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Major Constituent Glycyrrhizin on Inflammation-Associated Corneal Neovascularization

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    Syed Luqman Shah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Leguminosae is widely used in folk medicines. Glycyrrhizin, an active compound of G. glabra, possesses anti-inflammatory activity. This study investigates the G. glabra methanol extract and glycyrrhizin for the treatment of corneal neovascularization (CNV. G. glabra was extracted in 70% aqueous methanol. Phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used for the analysis of chemical composition. The topical solution of G. glabra methanol extract (2% w/v and glycyrrhizin (1% w/v was prepared in normal saline. After corneal burn (1 N NaOH, animals were left untreated for a week so that neovascularization appears in all groups. Treatments started on day 7 and continued for next 21 consecutive days. The animals were treated with 3 drops of various topical solutions thrice a day. Digital photograph analysis and histological studies were used for the evaluation of CNV. Phytochemical analysis of the G. glabra methanol extract showed the presence of saponins, phenols, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and proteins. TLC and HPLC confirmed the presence of glycyrrhizin. Photograph analysis of the extract and glycyrrhizin treated group showed a considerable decrease in CNV. Histological study of G. glabra and glycyrrhizin treated groups showed no blood vessels with properly arranged collagen fibers. This study showed that G. glabra and glycyrrhizin can be used for the treatment of CNV. Bioassay guided isolation can lead to preparation of ophthalmic solutions for the treatment of CNV.

  4. Constituintes químicos de Bombacopsis glabra (bombacaceae

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    Paula Vanderlúcia F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study of the barks of the stem and roots of Bombacopsis glabra (Bombacaceae led to the isolation and identification of 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (1, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (2, the naphtoquinone isohemigossypolone (3, the ester triacontil p-coumarate (4 besides lupeol and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and MS. All these compounds, except 3, were isolated for the first time in the family.

  5. Capturing the Biofuel Wellhead and Powerhouse: The Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Leguminous Feedstock Tree Pongamia pinnata

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakoff, Stephen H.; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Koehorst, Jasper; Biswas, Bandana; Batley, Jacqueline; Scott, Paul T.; Gresshoff, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata) is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS)' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA) and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA) genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data,...

  6. Chemistry of plants which accumulate metals. [Hybanthus floribundus; Polycarpia glabra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farago, M E; Clark, A J; Pitt, M J

    1975-01-01

    Information on the accumulation of metals in plants is reviewed. The authors report some of their investigations of the metal accumulating plants Hybanthus floribundus and Polycarpia glabra. In general, nickel levels in the aerial parts of plants are quite low, however a number of plants have been cited as nickel tolerant. The leaves of the Hybanthus plant have large epidermal cells and ridges of large cells which continue along the leaf stem and on to the main stem of the bush. It was found that nickel could be located in these large cells. The presence of nickel in the ridge cells was confirmed by an electron probe technique using a scanning electron microscope. These same areas showed high concentration of pectins. In studying the Polycarpia species, two zinc complexes were found to accumulate in the flowers and stems. 22 references.

  7. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  8. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. S.; Manjunatha, S.; Thammannigowda V, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the use of CeO 2 , ZrO 2 , Mg O and CeO 2 -ZrO 2 , CeO 2 -Mg O, CeO 2 -ZrO 2 -Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO 4 2- /CeO 2 and SO 4 2- /CeO 2 -ZrO 2 were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH 3 -Tpd for surface acidity, CO 2 -Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO 2 -ZrO 2 modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  9. PENGARUH MEDIA KOMPOS DAN ASAL BENIH KRANJI (Pongamia pinnata TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TINGGI BIBIT DI PERSEMAIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Aminah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal terpenting dalam penyediaan bibit tanaman adalah media yang digunakan dalam pembibitan.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh media kompos yang diberikan dan asal benih kranji (Pongamia pinnata terhadap pertumbuhan tinggi bibit di persemaian.  Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan benih yang berasal dari Bangka, Carita, Batukaras dan banyuwangi.  Masing-masing bibit hasil perkecambahan dilakukan penyapihan dalam polybag dan dilakukan pengukuran sebanyak 3 kali.  Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada α = 5% pertumbuhan bibit tanaman kranji sangat dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan jenis kompos dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh lokasi asal benih. Pembibitan tanaman kranji lebih membutuhkan pupuk kompos sebagai pemberi nutrisi dan perbaikan struktur media.   Media is an important in the making seedling and it use in the production of cultivated seeds have economic value, is easily available and the range of non-destructive.  Determination of nutrients in the medium nursery is one of the factors to produce seedlings with a good quality.   The aim of research is produce of good seedling based on the compost type (conventional and brand and origin of seed (Bangka, Carita and Banyuwangi. The result is  α = 5% come from type of compost (conventional of randomized block design with 4 treatments. Compost, besides as fertilizer also contribute improving the structure of media for producing kranji (Pongamia pinnata seedlings.

  10. Transesterification for the preparation of biodiesel from crude-oil of Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Veeresh A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was prepared from the non-edible oil of Pongamia pinnata L. by transesterification of the crude-oil with methanol in the presence of NAOH as catalyst. Vegetable oils can be transesterified by heating them with a large excess of anhydrous methanol and an acidic or basic reagent as catalyst. Both the acid as well as alkaline esterifications were subsequently performed to get the final product. A catalyst is usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. NaOH was found to be a better catalyst than KOH in terms of yield. In a transesterification reaction, a larger amount of methanol was used to shift the reaction equilibrium to the right side and produce more methyl esters as the proposed product. Several aspects including the type of catalyst (alkaline, acid, or enzyme, alcohol/vegetable oil molar ratio, temperature, purity of the reactants (mainly water content and free fatty acid content have an influence on the course of the transesterification. A maximum conversion of 94% (oil to ester was achieved using a 1:10 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 60 to 65 °C. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of pongamia oil (biodiesel compare well with ASTM standards.

  11. Capturing the biofuel wellhead and powerhouse: the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the leguminous feedstock tree Pongamia pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Stephen H; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Koehorst, Jasper; Biswas, Bandana; Batley, Jacqueline; Scott, Paul T; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata) is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS)' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA) and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA) genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp). The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively) and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively) protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.

  12. Capturing the biofuel wellhead and powerhouse: the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the leguminous feedstock tree Pongamia pinnata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H Kazakoff

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp. The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.

  13. Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, P V V; Sunita, K

    2017-09-11

    The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain), cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). The plant Pongamia pinnata was collected from the herbal garden of Acharya Nagarjuna University of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sequentially crude extracts of methanol (polar), chloroform (non-polar), hexane (non-polar), ethyl acetate (non-polar) and aqueous (polar) of dried leaves, bark, flowers and roots of Pongamia pinnata were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The cytotoxicity studies of crude extracts were conducted against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was carried out by following the standard methods. The chemical injury to erythrocytes due to the plant extracts was checked. The in vivo study was conducted on P. berghei (ANKA) infected BALB/c albino mice by following 4-Day Suppressive, Repository, and Curative tests. Out of all the tested extracts, the methanol extract of the bark of Pongamia pinnata had shown an IC 50 value of 11.67 μg/mL with potent in vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that this extract was not toxic against Brine shrimp and THP-1 cells. The injury to erythrocytes analysis had not shown any morphological alterations and damage to the erythrocytes after 48 h of incubation. Because methanolic bark extract of Pongamia pinnata has shown good antimalarial activity in vitro, it was also tested in vivo. So the extract had exhibited an excellent activity against P. berghei malaria parasite while decrement of parasite counts was moderately low and

  14. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. S.; Manjunatha, S.; Thammannigowda V, V., E-mail: mohamed.shamshuddin@gmail.com [HMS Institute of Technology, Chemistry Research Laboratory, NH4, Kyathsandra, Tumkur, 572104 Karnataka (India)

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the use of CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Mg O and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}-Mg O, CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/CeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH{sub 3}-Tpd for surface acidity, CO{sub 2}-Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  16. Dermatitis herpetiformis misdiagnosed and treated as tinea cutis glabrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare bullous disorder. Autoimmunological disturbances associated with hypersensitivity to gluten play the main role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Clinical manifestations include polymorphic skin lesions which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Objective. To present a case of dermatitis herpetiformis diagnosed and treated without any clinical improvement as tinea cutis glabrae. Case report . A 20-year-old male patient was admitted for the evaluation of polymorphic skin lesions of 7-month duration distributed symmetrically on the skin of elbows, knees, face and the gluteal and sacral region. The patient was previously treated with systemic and topical antimycotic drugs. Due to a typical distribution of skin lesions as well as symptoms reported by the patient, we started to suspect Duhring’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence of skin biopsy and serological tests. Systemic treatment with dapsone and a gluten-free diet led to clinical improvement. Conclusions . The morphology and localization of skin lesions in Duhring’s disease may be similar to the clinical presentation of fungal infection of the skin, which in equivocal cases should be excluded by a mycological test.

  17. Glycyrrhiza glabra HPLC fractions: identification of Aldehydo Isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin having activity against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hazir; Khan, Ilyas; Hussain, Anwar; Shahat, Abdelaaty Abdelaziz; Tawab, Abdul; Qasim, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ullah, Riaz; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-05-02

    Medicinal plants have been founded as traditional herbal medicine worldwide. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and volatile oil. The present investigation analyzed the High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethanol and Hexane) against multidrug resistant human bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All the fractions showed antibacterial activity, were subjected to LC MS/MS analysis for identification of bioactive compounds. Among total HPLC fractions of G. glabra (n = 20), three HPLC fractions showed potential activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates. Fraction 1 (F1) of aqueous extracts, showed activity against A. baumannii (15 ± 0.5 mm). F4 from hexane extract of G. glabra showed activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.2 mm). However, F2 from ethanol extract exhibited activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.3 mm). These active fractions were further processed by LC MS/MS analysis for the identification of compounds. Ellagic acid was identified in the F1 of aqueous extract while 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone was present in F4 of hexane extract. Similarly, Liquirtigenin was identified in F2 of ethanol. Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts HPLC fractions showed anti-MDR activity. Three bioactive compounds were identified in the study. 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin were for the first time reported in G. glabra. Further characterization of the identified compounds will be helpful for possible therapeutic uses against infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  18. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Anand, R B

    2015-11-01

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extracts and compounds active on TRP ion channels from Waldheimia glabra, a ritual medicinal plant from Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bassoli, Angela; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Panseri, Sara; Manzo, Alessandra; Pentimalli, Daniela; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; De Petrocellis, Luciano

    2017-08-15

    Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel is a wild plant from the Himalayan Mountains, commonly known as Smooth Ground Daisy. This plant is traditionally used by local populations in religious rituals (incense) or in traditional herbal medicine to treat skin diseases, headache, joint pain and fever. In literature few data are available on the investigation of this aromatic plant. The present work aims at deepening knowledge about the chemical composition of W. glabra extracts and incense, as well as its activity on TRP ion channels. Extracts and incense of W. glabra were analyzed by using HS-SPME GC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis. Tests on the activity of W. glabra extracts and isolated compounds (+)-ludartin 1 and B-ring-homo-tonghaosu 2 on TRP channels were also performed. Some extracts and pure compounds from W. glabra showed an interesting activity in terms of efficacy and potency on rat TRPA1, an ion channel involved in several sensory mechanisms, including pungency, environmental irritation and pain perception. Activity is discussed and compared with that of other known TRPA1 natural agonists with different chemical structures. All compounds showed only a negligible inhibition activity on rat TRPM8 ion channel. Our findings demonstrate that W. glabra is involved in the receptor activation mechanism and therefore represents a new natural product potentially useful in pharmaceutical and agrifood research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  1. In vitro H1-receptor antagonist activity of methanolic extract of tuber of Stephania glabra

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    Nisar Ahmad Khan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, methanolic extract of tuber of Stephania glabra was evaluated for H1-bloker activity by employing in vitro screening models of guinea pig ileum and goat tracheal chain preparation. Goat isolated trachea and guinea pig ileum contracted to histamine in a dose-dependent manner while chlorpheniramine blocked this effect. The methanolic extract produced significant dose-dependent H1-receptor antagonist activity by blocking histamine-induced contraction.

  2. Complete chloroplast genome and 45S nrDNA sequences of the medicinal plant species Glycyrrhiza glabra and Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun Oh; Ahn, Byoung Ohg; Won, So Youn; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Jung Sun

    2017-10-06

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively. The three chloroplast genomes harbored 110 annotated genes, including 76 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The 45S nrDNA sequences were either 5,947 or 5,948 bp in length. Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. glabra × G. uralensis showed two types of nrDNA, while G. uralensis contained a single type. The complete 45S nrDNA sequence unit contains 18S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 26S rRNA. We identified simple sequence repeat and tandem repeat sequences. We also developed four reliable markers for analysis of Glycyrrhiza diversity authentication.

  3. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury via reducing inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Yin; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-12-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Chinese name, Zhongjiefeng) is an important herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Lycopene has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI). Metabolomics approach combined with pathological inspection, serum biochemistry examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting were used to explore the protective effects of Sarcandra glabra and lycopene on LPS-induced ALI, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Sarcandra glabra and lycopene could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced histopathological injuries, improve the anti-oxidative activities of rats, decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, suppress the activations of MAPK and transcription factor NF-κB and reverse the disturbed metabolism towards the normal status. Taken together, this integrated study revealed that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene had great potential in protecting rats from LPS-induced ALI, which would be helpful to guide the clinical medication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  6. Pachira glabra Pasq. essential oil: chemical constituents, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Oladipupo A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Salvador, Atinuke F; Sanni, Adetayo A; Opoku, Andy R

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Pachira glabra Pasq., (PgEO) has been studied by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty three constituents representing 98.4% of total contents were identified from the essential oil. The major constituents of oil were limonene (23.2%), β-caryophyllene (14.5%), phtyol (8.5%) and β-bisabolene (6.3%). The antimicrobial activity of the PgEO was evaluated against a panel of ten bacteria and three fungal strain using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the PgEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms except Citrobacter youagae, Micrococcus spp. and Proteus spp. The activity zones of inhibition (ZI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged between 13.7 mm-24.0 mm and 0.3 mg/mL-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The insecticidal activity of PgEO was assayed against the adult Sitophilus zeamais. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of the PgEO showed it to be toxic against adult S. zeamais at 32.2 and 53.7 mg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of essential oil of P. glabra growing in Nigeria.

  7. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogish, H.; Chandrashekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M.R. [S.J. College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mysore (India)

    2012-11-15

    India is looking at the renewable alternative sources of energy to reduce its dependence on import of crude oil. As India imports 70 % of the crude oil, the country has been greatly affected by increasing cost and uncertainty. Biodiesel fuel derived by the two step acid transesterification of mixed non-edible oils from Jatropha curcas and Pongamia (karanja) can meet the requirements of diesel fuel in the coming years. In the present study, different proportions of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, variation of Reaction time, Sulfuric acid and Reaction Temperature were adopted in order to optimize the experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. The preliminary studies revealed that biodiesel yield varied widely in the range of 75-95 % using the laboratory scale reactor. The average yield of 95 % was obtained. The fuel and chemical properties of biodiesel, namely kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, density, flash point, fire point, calorific value, pH, acid value, iodine value, sulfur content, water content, glycerin content and sulfated ash values were found to be within the limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 15607: 2005). The optimum combination of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Reaction Time and Reaction Temperature are established. (orig.)

  8. KARAKTERISTIK DAN ANALISIS HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN MALAPARI (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre SEBAGAI TANAMAN PENGHASIL MINYAK DI DUA AKSESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferliana Febritasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malapari (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre is an oil-producing plant which has the potential for biodiesel feedstock. This becomes a reason that Malapari plants need to be developed and cultivated. Malapari grow naturally in lowland forests on calcareous soils, rocks on the beach, along the edge of the mangroves and along stream and river tides. This study aims to determine the characteristics of Malapari and relationship between the two accessions grown in North Bali (Pemaron, Uma Anyar, Kalisada, Pengulon, Sumber Kelampok and East Java (Alas Purwo National Park and Baluran National Park based on morphological characters and oil content. The research was conducted in July-November 2015. The method used in this research was observation of morphological characters as well as the analysis of the oil content of seeds. Relationship among trees that grow in the two accessions was analyzed using Minitab Vis 14. Results showed that there were differences in morphological characteristics, namely the leaves, flowers, fruits, pod and seeds dimension and oil content.  Analysis of relationships among trees at similarity level above 80% classified them into 3 major groups, namely group I Malapari from Uma Anyar village with similarity level of 59,51%, group II Malapari from  Pengulon village with  similarity level of 80,16% and group III  Malapari from  Alas Purwo National Park and 32 other trees from various villages  having similarity level of 84,53%.

  9. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogish, H.; Chandrashekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2012-11-01

    India is looking at the renewable alternative sources of energy to reduce its dependence on import of crude oil. As India imports 70 % of the crude oil, the country has been greatly affected by increasing cost and uncertainty. Biodiesel fuel derived by the two step acid transesterification of mixed non-edible oils from Jatropha curcas and Pongamia (karanja) can meet the requirements of diesel fuel in the coming years. In the present study, different proportions of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, variation of Reaction time, Sulfuric acid and Reaction Temperature were adopted in order to optimize the experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. The preliminary studies revealed that biodiesel yield varied widely in the range of 75-95 % using the laboratory scale reactor. The average yield of 95 % was obtained. The fuel and chemical properties of biodiesel, namely kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, density, flash point, fire point, calorific value, pH, acid value, iodine value, sulfur content, water content, glycerin content and sulfated ash values were found to be within the limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 15607: 2005). The optimum combination of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Reaction Time and Reaction Temperature are established.

  10. Reproductive isolation between host races of Phytomyza glabricola on Ilex coriacea and I. glabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B Hebert

    Full Text Available Recently diverged taxa often show discordance in genetic divergence among genomic loci, where some loci show strong divergence and others show none at all. Genetic studies alone cannot distinguish among the possible mechanisms but experimental studies on other aspects of divergence may provide guidance in the inference of causes of observed discordances. In this study, we used no-choice mating trials to test for the presence of reproductive isolation between host races of the leaf-mining fly, Phytomyza glabricola on its two holly host species, Ilex coriacea and I. glabra. These trials inform our effort to determine the cause of significant differences in the degree of divergence of nuclear and mitochondrial loci of flies collected from the two host plants. We present evidence of reproductive isolation between host races in a controlled greenhouse setting: significantly more mate pairs consisting of flies from the same host plant species produced offspring than inter-host mate pairs, which produced no offspring. We also tested whether the presence of the natal or non-natal host plant affects reproductive success. Flies collected from I. coriacea were more likely to produce offspring when in the presence of the natal host, whereas the presence or absence of either the natal or non-natal host had no effect on flies collected from I. glabra. The results indicate discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial divergence among host races of P. glabricola are likely due to incomplete lineage sorting, and the host races may be well on their way to becoming biological species.

  11. Overexpressing CAPRICE and GLABRA3 did not change the anthocyanin content of tomato (solanum lycopersicum) fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Takuji; Onishi, Mio; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledo...

  12. Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) biodiesel production in Bangladesh, characterization of karanja biodiesel and its effect on diesel emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Hoque, S.M. Najmul; Akhter, Md. Shamim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, RUET (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents production of biodiesel (BD) from non-edible renewable karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) oil, determination of BD properties and influence of BD on engine performance and emissions. Bangladesh imports 2.4 million metric ton (MT) DF each year [M.N. Nabi, M.S. Akhter, K.M.F. Islam, Prospect of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas, a promising non edible oil seed in Bangladesh, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (ICME, Dhaka, Bangladesh) Proceedings 2007, paper no. ICME07-TH-06. ]. It has 0.32 million hectare of unused land [M.N. Nabi, S.M.N. Hoque, M.S. Uddin, Prospect of Jatropha curcas and pithraj cultivation in Bangladesh, Journal of Engineering and Technology, IUT, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 7 (1) (2009) 41-54. ]. It has been found that cultivating of karanja plant in such unused land; Bangladesh can reduce DF import by 28%. Karanja methyl ester (KME), which is termed as BD, has been produced by well-known transesterification process. The properties of B100 (B100) and its blends were determined mainly according to ASTM standard and some of them were as per EN14214 standard. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the DF fuel contained mainly alkanes and alkens, while the B100 contained mainly esters. The gas chromatography (GC) of B100 revealed that a maximum of 97% methyl ester was produced from karanja oil. Engine experiment result showed that all BD blends reduced engine emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), smoke and engine noise, but increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Compared to DF, B100 reduced CO, and smoke emissions by 50 and 43%, while a 15% increase in NOx emission was observed with the B100. Compared to DF, engine noise with B100 was reduced by 2.5 dB. (author)

  13. Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) biodiesel production in Bangladesh, characterization of karanja biodiesel and its effect on diesel emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Hoque, S.M. Najmul; Akhter, Md. Shamim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents production of biodiesel (BD) from non-edible renewable karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) oil, determination of BD properties and influence of BD on engine performance and emissions. Bangladesh imports 2.4 million metric ton (MT) DF each year [M.N. Nabi, M.S. Akhter, K.M.F. Islam, Prospect of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas, a promising non edible oil seed in Bangladesh, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (ICME, Dhaka, Bangladesh) Proceedings 2007, paper no. ICME07-TH-06. ]. It has 0.32 million hectare of unused land [M.N. Nabi, S.M.N. Hoque, M.S. Uddin, Prospect of Jatropha curcas and pithraj cultivation in Bangladesh, Journal of Engineering and Technology, IUT, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 7 (1) (2009) 41-54. ]. It has been found that cultivating of karanja plant in such unused land; Bangladesh can reduce DF import by 28%. Karanja methyl ester (KME), which is termed as BD, has been produced by well-known transesterification process. The properties of B100 (B100) and its blends were determined mainly according to ASTM standard and some of them were as per EN14214 standard. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the DF fuel contained mainly alkanes and alkens, while the B100 contained mainly esters. The gas chromatography (GC) of B100 revealed that a maximum of 97% methyl ester was produced from karanja oil. Engine experiment result showed that all BD blends reduced engine emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), smoke and engine noise, but increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Compared to DF, B100 reduced CO, and smoke emissions by 50 and 43%, while a 15% increase in NOx emission was observed with the B100. Compared to DF, engine noise with B100 was reduced by 2.5 dB. (author)

  14. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  15. The Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Root Against Liver-related Biochemical Factors Changes Induced by Thioacetamide in Male Rats

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    D. Moghadamnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thioacetamide is a liver toxin that causes centrilobular necrosis. In this study, the protective effect of aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root against liver-related biochemical factors changes induced by thioacetamide in male rats was investigated. Materials and Methods: 35 male rats were divided into 5 groups of 7 : control group; sham group: receiving a single dose of 150mg/kg thioacetamide intraperitoneally; experimental groups 1 and 2 and 3: they received the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at the doses of 100,200,300mg/kg daily orally during 3 months respectively and then a single dose of thioacetamide at 150 mg/kg as intraperitoneal injection . The serum levels of albumin, bilirubin and total protein were measured. Results: The mean of body weight in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean levels of serum bilirubin in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean of serum albumin concentration in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean of serum total protein concentration in experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide( p<0. 05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root had protective effects against liver-related biochemical factors changes induced by thioacetamide in male rats. 

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

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    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, Dikonketso Cathrine; Prasad, Preety; Srivastava, Ajay; Crampton, Brigdet; Lall, Namrita Sharan

    2018-01-01

    Curative plants have reportedly been used to make chewing sticks/toothbrushes intended for the treatment of oral diseases. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials. The effect of M. indica on the expression of crucial virulence genes spaP and gtfB of S. mutans was determined. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt assay. Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. M. indica and A. indica had the highest antibacterial activity at concentrations of 0.3 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. A. indica had the best free radical scavenging of DPPH, exhibiting 50% inhibition at 28.72 μg/ml; while M. indica showed better superoxide scavenging potential than the positive control quercetin. Both M. indica and A. indica had adequate activity against the nitric oxide-free radical (12.87 and 18.89 μg/ml, respectively). M. indica selectively reduced the expression of the gtfB gene, indicating a mechanism involving Glucotranferases, specifically targeting bacterial attachment. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. indica had the best antioxidant capacity overall M. indica reduced the expression of gtfB gene at 0.5 mg/ml. Abbreviations used : AA: Ascorbic acid; BHI

  18. Bombacopsis glabra (Pasquale A. Robyns (Bombacaceae espèce utile pour l'élevage et pour l'alimentation humaine

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    Breyne, H.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Usefulness of Bombacopsis glabra (Pasquale A. Robyns (Bombacaceae for animal and human nutrition. After some botanical reflections, the author gives agronomical and practical facts about Bombacopsis glabra (Pasquale A. Robyns. He insists especially how easy it is to multiply this species with cuttings. This characteristic is largely used in some countries of the third world to erect fences. Chemical analysis of the leaves has shown that this Bombacaceae can produce a good fodder. After analysis of the seeds, the author comes to conclusion that they are interesting for human food supply.

  19. Flavonoid constituents of Dobera glabra leaves: amelioration impact against CCl4-induced changes in the genetic materials in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Ahmed; Abdel Latif, Rasha R; Marzouk, Mona M; Hussein, Sameh R; Kassem, Mona E S; Khalil, Wagdy K B; El-Ansari, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Poir (Salvadoraceae) is a highly valued tree with diverse importance as special mineral sourced feed and a folkloric tool for forecasting droughts. However, there are no reports on its phytochemical and biological investigations. Phytochemical investigation of D. glabra leaves and its protective potential against CCl 4 inducing changes in the genetic materials. D. glabra extract, DGE (70% MeOH/H 2 O), was applied to polyamide column chromatography, eluting with MeOH/H 2 O of decreasing polarities, followed by preparative chromatographic tools, yielded seven compounds. Three DGE doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw/d) were administrated for 8 weeks intragastrically to male albino rats prior treated with CCl 4 (0.5 mL/kg/bw). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, expression changes of glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1 and SNAT3) mRNA, DNA fragmentation and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were investigated in the liver tissues of these rats. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin and kaempferol were identified. DGE (200 mg/kg bw) + CCl 4 exhibited the most significant reduction in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation with 251.3% and141% compared to 523.1% and 273.2% for CCl 4 , respectively. Additionally, it increased significantly the mRNA expression of GLAST, GLT-1 and SNAT3 to 2.16-, 1.72- and 2.09-fold, respectively. Also, GPx activity was increased to 4.8 U/mg protein/min compared to CCl 4 (1.8 U/mg protein/min). Flavonoid constituents, antioxidant effect and genotoxic protection activity of D. glabra were first reported. DGE may be valuable in the treatment and hindrance of hepatic oxidative stress and genotoxicity.

  20. UJI AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK AIR LIDAH BUAYA ( Aloe vera L.) DAN AKAR MANIS (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) SEBAGAI PENYUBUR RAMBUT

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiorini Indriaty; Teti Indrawati; Shelly Taurhesia

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) contains amino acids, vitamins, folic acid, and liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) containing glisirizin, and flavonoids, which have properties as fertilizer hair. This study aims to obtain a combination of extracts with activity most optimal fertilizer hair, made 3 combination with a combination of 1 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 2.5% and 7.5% aloe vera), a combination of 2 (the water extract of liquorice concentrations of 2, 5% and 2.5% aloe vera), ...

  1. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  2. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  3. Study on absorption and translocation amounts of 2,4-D on perennial weed( Glycyrrhiza glabra) by 19 C- labelled herbicides tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fatholahi, H.; Naserian, B.

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra a perennial broad leaf weed, is very difficult to control due to it's powerful root system. The best chemical treatment to perennial weeds control is the application of systemic herbicides and their effect is related to amount of permeability and mobility

  4. Overexpressing CAPRICE and GLABRA3 did not change the anthocyanin content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuji; Onishi, Mio; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems. In contrast, introduction of GL3::GL3 strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems of tomato. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPC and GL3 on anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of tomato fruit. Unlike the results with vegetative tissues, overexpression of CPC and GL3 did not influence anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato fruit peel.

  5. Genome-wide identification of GLABRA3 downstream genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenhao; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Wang, Hanchen; Ma, Haoli; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-04-01

    GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes. This study provides new clues to further understand the GL3-mediated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins (Monimiaceae in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da S. Novaes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalarifor perforation plates, ood parenchya scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees ay be due to the greater diaeters of their branches. ur results suggest that . glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.Este trabalho objetiva caracterizar a estrutura anatômica do lenho de Mollinedia glabra, ocorrente em duas formações vegetais contíguas na restinga da Praia Virgem, município de Rio das Ostras, RJ. Essas formações Arbustiva Aberta de Pal-mae (AAP e Arbustiva Fechada do Cordão Arenoso (AFCA estão sobre cordão arenoso e recebem precipitações anuais de 1.100-1.300 mm. Foram obtidas amostras do lenho das duas forações. São características anatôicas gerais da espécie: elementos de vasos solitários, em arranjos radiais ou cachos, de seção de circular a angular; placa de perfuração es

  7. Chemical constituents from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra and evaluation of their antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Marcelo Francisco de Araujo

    Full Text Available From the hexanic extract of the stem from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra were isolated one stilbene (1, one flavanone (2, one pterocarpan (3, one triterpene (4 and a mixture of three steroids (5 to 7. The crude extract and the compounds isolated were submitted to evaluation of the antifungal activity against nine yeast standard ATCC of the Candida genus. Among the compounds only the triterpene (4 and the mixture of steroids (5 to 7 showed no activity. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectral data analysis of GC/MS and ¹H and 13C NMR (1D and 2D experiments, as well as comparison with literature values.

  8. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

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    Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  9. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

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    Perwez Alam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC- densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods: Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/ v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf =0.280±0.001. The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band, limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band, recovery (99.4%-99.8% and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%; intraday and interday were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20- 200 ng (r 2 =0.996. The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions: This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  10. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sureshkumar, K.; Ganesan, R.; Velraj, R.

    2008-01-01

    Transport vehicles greatly pollute the environment through emissions such as CO, CO 2 , NO x , SO x , unburnt or partially burnt HC and particulate emissions. Fossil fuels are the chief contributors to urban air pollution and major source of green house gases (GHGs) and considered to be the prime cause behind the global climate change. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement fossil fuels, reduce GHGs and mitigate their adverse effects on the climate resulting from global warming. This paper presents the results of performance and emission analyses carried out in an unmodified diesel engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. Engine tests have been conducted to get the comparative measures of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and emissions such as CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x to evaluate the behaviour of PPME and diesel in varying proportions. The results reveal that blends of PPME with diesel up to 40% by volume (B40) provide better engine performance (BSFC and BSEC) and improved emission characteristics. (author)

  11. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

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    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  12. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to o...... and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  13. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns sob condição de sombreamento Initial growth of Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns seedlings under shading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento de mudas de Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns (castanha-do-maranhão sob diferentes intensidades luminosas. A capacidade de emergência das plântulas foi determinada pela porcentagem e pelo índice de velocidade de emergência, utilizando quatro repetições de 100 sementes (1 semente/saco. Após 40 dias, 75 mudas foram transferidas para condições de 30 e 50% de sombreamento e para pleno sol. O desenvolvimento das mudas foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições de cinco mudas, nas quais foram avaliados a altura do caule e o diâmetro do colo aos 61, 82, 103 e 124 dias após a emergência das plântulas; o teor de clorofila a, b, total e a razão a/b; a massa seca da planta (MS; a área foliar (AF; a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR; a razão de área foliar (RAF; a taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL; e a sobrevivência aos 103 e 124 dias após a emergência, quando o experimento foi encerrado. As sementes apresentaram 95% de emergência e alto de índice de velocidade de emergência (1,7. As mudas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência em todos os tratamentos. Os níveis de luz estudados não afetaram a sobrevivência das mudas, o diâmetro do caule, a área foliar, a clorofila a e b, a TCR, a TAL e a RAF, nos intervalos de tempo estudados. As mudas crescidas sob 50% de sombra apresentaram maior altura, maior clorofila total e menor relação a/b. A castanha-do-maranhão é uma espécie de fácil propagação, apresentando bom desenvolvimento das mudas sob pleno sol e tolerando o sombreamento de 30 e 50%.This experiment was carried out to study the growth of Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns seedlings under different light intensities. The germination capacity of the seeds was determined by the index and percentage of germination speed of a hundred seeds (1 seed/sac. After 40 days, seventy-five saplings were transferred to 50% and 30

  14. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

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    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

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    Chuan-li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1, lasiodiplodin (2, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3, syringic acid (4, 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol (5, lyoniresinol (6, trans-resveratrol (7, trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8, and dihydrokaempferol (9. Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra.

  16. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

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    Natasha Saint Savage

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  17. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P retention time in sheep with sarcoptic mange. Post -treatment, the BSP retention time decreased in all treated groups and the decrease was maximum in OJC-AA treated group. The carcasses of sheep treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P water holding capacity, rib eye area and back fat thickness than the untreated infected control group. The muscle pH and tenderness values were significantly lower in OJC-AA treated group post-slaughter than infested untreated control group. Muscle colour of OJC-AA treated group was maximum bright red. The lambs treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P meat production.

  19. Estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro de Annona glabra L., I. desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e da parte aérea Stimulus of the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting of Annona glabra L., I. development of root system and shoot

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    José Raniere Ferreira de Santana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de induzir a estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro em brotações de Annona glabra L. Brotações oriundas de cultivo em tubos fechados com tampa e película de PVC (cultivo sem aeração, com tampa sem a película de PVC e tampão de algodão (cultivo com aeração foram inoculadas em meio WPM suplementado com 4,9 µ M de AIB e 164,4mM de carvão ativado na presença (58,42mM ou ausência de sacarose. Durante o enraizamento, foram mantidas as mesmas condições de vedação dos tubos de ensaio em que as brotações foram induzidas. Após a inoculação, os tubos contendo os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento sob radiação fotossintética ativa de 45-56 µ mol.m-2.s-1 a 25±3ºC. Os resultados mostraram que o enraizamento das brotações de A. glabra não dependeu do suprimento de sacarose no meio de cultura, em tubos fechados com o tampão de algodão ou tampa plástica sem PVC. A aeração dos tubos de ensaio trouxe incrementos de significativos (até 250% na matéria seca radicular. A indução de raízes secundárias (laterais em A. glabra só ocorreu em culturas com aeração, independentemente da presença ou ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura. Com os resultado desse experimento, conclui-se que o estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico em A.glabra pode ser obtido com sucesso durante a fase de enraizamento in vitro.The objective of the present work was to evaluate whether Annona glabra L. shoots are able to acquire the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting. In vitro A. glabra shoots originated from cultures in vessels sealed with cap and PVC film (culture without aeration, cap without PVC film or cotton tampon (cultures with aeration, were inoculated in WPM medium supplemented with 4.9 µ M IBA and 164,4mM activated charcoal in the presence (58.42mM or absence of sucrose. During rooting, the same conditions in which shoots

  20. Dust loadings on some common plants near Lucknow city. [Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Eight plant species - Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum - were collected from a newly established suburb colony of Lucknow city, where the major pollutant is dust, to study the dust cleansing efficiency of the plant canopy and also to establish the correlation between the leaf morphological characteristics and their dust trapping potential. The dust load, in milligrams per square centimeter of leaf surface, was measured and related to foliar epidermal and cuticular characteristics, and morphological features.

  1. Pharmacognostic Assesment of the Endemic and Vulnerable Medicinal Climber-Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble and Its Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, S; Kalaichelvi, K; Dhivya, S M; Premamalini, P; Abirami, P; Jayanthi, G

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed. The antibacterial activity of this study plant is also analyzed. C. pedata var. glabra belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known as "Kattuppirandai" is one such endemic and endangered species in Thaisholai, Nilgiris South Division, Western Ghats. With the patronage of veteran ethnic group traditional knowledge of this region, the species C. pedata var. glabra was selected for the pharmacognostical examination and antibacterial screening. There were no pharmacognostical reports of this plant, specifically to determine the anatomical and other physicochemical standards required for its quality control. The current study deals with pharmacognostical parameters for the aerial parts of study plant, which mainly consists of macromorphological and microanatomical characters, physicochemical constants (ash values and extractive values), fluorescence analysis, and phytochemical screening, one of the WHO accepted parameter for the identification of medicinal plants. The pharmacognostical exploration was undertaken for this species with the purpose of sketch the pharmacopeial standards. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirms the therapeutic power. The information obtained from pharmacognostical studies will be of used for supplementary pharmacological and therapeutical evaluation of

  2. Macrophage biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao-Guang; Duan, Ting-Ting; He, Bao; Tang, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhu, Jia-Xiao; Xu, You-Hua; Zhu, Quan; Feng, Liang

    2013-04-15

    A cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell insert Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays, has been developed as a tool for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR). In this research, components in the water extract of SGR (ESGR) might conjugate with the receptors or other targets on macrophages which invaded Transwell inserts, and then the eluate which contained components biospecific binding to macrophages was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Six compounds, which could interact with macrophages, were detected and identified. Among these compounds, taxifolin (2) and astilbin (4) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of standards, while the four others including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1), neoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (5) and isoastilbin (6), were elucidated by their structure clearage characterizations of tandem mass spectrometry. Then compound 1 was isolated and purified from SGR, along with 2 and 4, was applied to the macrophage migration and adhesion assay in HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) -macrophages co-incultured Transwell system for immunological activity assessment. The results showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 with concentration of 5μM (H), 500nM (M) and 50nM (L) could remarkably inhibit the macrophage migration and adhesion (Vs AGEs (Advanced Glycation End Produces) group, 1-L, 2-H and 4-L groups: pgroups: pESI-MS(n) analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method for screening immunological active components from Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

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    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  4. Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhaponticum cathamoides (RC) is an endemic wild Siberian herb with marked medicinal properties that are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of RC extract (ERC) compared to the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (EGG) and Punica granatum extracts (EPG) in a rat model with high-fat diet-(HFD)-induced signs of metabolic syndrome; therefore, this study addresses a significant global public health problem. Methods Six-month-old male Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were subjected to eight weeks of a standard diet (SD), HFD, or HFD in which ERC, EGG, or EPG powders were incorporated at 300 mg/kg/day. The serum lipid profile, corticosterone and cytokine concentrations, glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol accumulation, and PPARα DNA-binding activities in the liver samples were determined. Results In contrast to EGG and EPG, an ERC supplement significantly reduced the weight of epididymal tissue (19.0%, p < 0.01) and basal serum glucose level (19.4%, p < 0.05). ERC improved glucose intolerance as well as dyslipidemia more efficiently than EGG and EPG. EGG but not ERC or EPG supplementation decreased systolic blood pressure by 12.0% (p < 0.05). All of the tested extracts reduced serum IL6 and corticosterone levels induced by HFD. However, the lowering effects of ERC consumption on the serum TNF-α level and its restoring effect on the adrenal corticosterone level significantly exceeded the improvements induced by EGG and EPG. ERC intake also reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and increased the PPARα DNA-binding activity in the liver more significantly than EGG and EPG. Conclusions ERC powder supplementation improved glucose and lipid metabolism more significantly than EGG and EPG in rats fed on HFD, supporting the strategy of R. carthamoides use for safe relief of metabolic syndrome and its related disturbances such as inflammation, stress, and hepatic steatosis. PMID:24444255

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ OrbitrapXL Hybrid Mass Spectrometry

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    Shao-Dan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM as well as a functional food, has been commonly used for detoxification treatments, relieving dampness and as a diuretic. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of Smilacis glabrae, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of its bioactive constituents. A total of 56 compounds, including six new compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced on the basis of their retention behaviors, mass spectra, or by comparison with reference substances and literature data. The identified compounds belonged to flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoid glycosides. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS method was established for quantitative determination of six marker compounds from five batches. The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity (LOQ, precision, repeatability and spike recoveries, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. The results suggested that the established method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM.

  6. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

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    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  7. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  9. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

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    Rogelio Rodriguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO2 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density JSC of 2.29 mA/cm2 using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C.

  10. Estudo fitoquímico e atividades leishmanicida, anticolinestarásica e antioxidante de extratos de Annona glabra L. (araticum panã

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    Antonio Adailson de Sousa Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as principais classes de compostos químicos presentes em Annona grabra L. (Araticum panã, e avaliar o seu potencial biológico analisando suas atividades antioxidante, antiacetilcolinesterase e leishmanicida. Para tanto, a entrecasca e sementes foram submetidas à extração em aparelho de soxhlet com os solventes orgânicos hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e metanol, obtendo-se os respectivos extratos. Com os extratos foram realizados testes de prospecção fitoquímica, determinação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição do radical livre DPPH e inibição da acetilcolinesterase em ensaio de cromatografia em camada delgada. Os testes de atividade leishmanicida in vitro em formas promastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi foram realizados em placa de 96 poços em aparelho ELISA. Os extratos foram testados a 100 μg/ mL. Os testes fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de esteroides, triterpenos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e saponinas. Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição da acetilcolinesterase e os extratos hexânicos de ambas partes mostraram maior percentual de inibição de L. infantum chagasi. Nestes extratos, compostos apolares como esteroides e triterpenos podem contribuir para a atividade leishmanicida. Os extratos de melhor atividade antioxidante foram o acetato de etila e metanólico da entrecasca e metanólico das sementes que correspondem aos que contem compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que A. glabra constitui uma fonte potencial de agentes leishmanicida com possível mecanismo de ação pela inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase das membranas da L. infantum chagasi, causador da leishmaniose visceral.Phytochemical study and leishmanicidal, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Annona glabra L. (araticum panã extracts ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the main types of chemical constituents present in Annona grabra L. (araticum pan

  11. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts. PMID:26101754

  12. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

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    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  13. Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Russo, Mariateresa; Postorino, Santo; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-02-20

    Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethyl acetate extract of Chinese medicinal herb Sarcandra glabra induces growth inhibition on human leukemic HL-60 cells, associated with cell cycle arrest and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

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    Li, W Y; Chiu, Lawrence C M; Lam, W S; Wong, W Y; Chan, Y T; Ho, Y P; Wong, Elaine Y L; Wong, Y S; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2007-02-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai, colloquially known as Caoshanhu, is a Chinese medicinal herb with reported anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and non-specific immunoenhancing properties. Although the plant has been clinically used for treating a variety of diseases, its bioactive ingredients are largely unknown and its mode of action has never been investigated. In this study, the anti-tumor property of ethyl acetate (EA) extract of S. glabra was investigated by determining its in vitro growth-inhibitory effects on a panel of human cancer cell lines of different histotypes. Growth inhibition of the EA extract on the cancer cells seemed to be selective, and the leukemic HL-60 was found to be the most responsive after 48 h of treatment (IC50=58 microg/ml). Flow cytometric studies further illustrated that the extract might interfere with DNA replication and thus arrested the cell cycle at S phase in the leukemic cells, followed by DNA fragmentation and loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the plasma membrane after 72 h of treatment. Concurrently, the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was also up-regulated by more than 178% of the control level. All these findings suggested that the extract had initiated apoptosis to kill the leukemic cells. Results from this pioneer study help to establish a scientific foundation for future research and development of the bioactive ingredients in EA extract of S. glabra as efficacious anti-cancer agents.

  15. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous "Green" carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of "Green" carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  16. An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75 mg twice daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale, the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra root by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

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    Ambika Chamoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present research work is to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA and 18β-GA (18β-GA of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Materials and Methods: About 20 μL aliquots of each 18α-GA and 18β-GA were analyzed using reversed-phase C-18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran:water (10:80:10, v/v/v. The run time was 10 min at flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 254 nm. Results: 18α-GA and 18β-GA were well resolved in reversed phase C-18 column using mobile phase acetonitrile: tetrahydrofuran: water (10:80:10, v/v/v, pH 7.9. The Rtof 18α-GA and 18β-GA was detected at 2.091 and 2.377 min, respectively. Conclusion: The developed chromatography method could be extended for potential quantification or simultaneous determination of these markers in plant as well as in herbal formulation.

  18. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems

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    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.

  19. Brassica napusGLABRA3-1 promotes anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in true leaves when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Li, D; Liu, K; Qi, S; Jin, C; Duan, S; Gong, J; Li, Z; Chen, M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that GLABRA3 (AtGL3), a bHLH transcription factor, plays essential roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, there have been no such studies of a homologue, BnGL3, from the closely related crop, Brassica napus. Here, we analysed the BnGL3-1 coding domain sequence from the B. napus cultivar QINYOU Seven, identified conserved protein domains and performed a phylogenetic analysis to elucidate its relationship with homologues form a range of plant species. When expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnGL3-1 accumulated in the nucleus, consistent with its predicted function as a transcription factor. Ectopic expression of the BnGL3-1 gene in the A. thaliana gl3-3 mutant resulted in levels of anthocyanins and numbers of trichomes in true leaves that were higher than in wild-type plants. Moreover, overexpression of BnGL3-1 in gl3-3 compensated for the promotion and repression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation, respectively, that has been reported in gl3-3 young shoots and expanding true leaves. This study provides new insights into GL3 function in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in crucifers, and represents a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-12-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardio toxicity in which reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play an important role in the pathological process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of three medicinal plants, Nigella sativa (N), Glycyrrhiza glabra (G) and Zingiber officinale (Z), and their combination (NGZ), against DOX-induced apoptosis and death in H9c2 cells. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of each extract or NGZ for 4 hr which continued in the presence or absence of 5µM doxorubicin for 24 hr. Cell viability and the apoptotic rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively. The level of ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods. Treatment with doxorubicin increased ROS generation, enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and induced apoptosis. Co-treatment of the cells with each herb extract increased viability of cells dose-dependently with a maximum protection effect of about 30%, and their potencies were N>G>Z. The combination of the threshold dose of each extract (NGZ) produced a similar effect, which was increased dose-dependently to a maximum protection of 70%. These effects were correlated with the effects of NGZ on ROS and MDA. All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.

  1. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica

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    Michael E. Loik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species. We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content, and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vcmax and Jmax and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  2. Determination of the best application time of 2,4-D 14C-labelled herbicides and 14C-labelled glyphosate for translocation to the root system of Glycyrrhiza Glabra vegetative growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fathollahi, H.; Naserian, B.; Majd, F.; Rahimian, H.; Ghanbari, A.; Minbashi, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this research work, four different growth stages of Glycyrrhiza Glabra were studied separately and under green house conditions, and in all of these stages the plants were treated by labelled herbicides 14 C-2,4-D and 14 C-Glyphosate through the ad axial surface with activity of 0.60μci up to 0.1018 μci (in each 10μLi of solution). The plants were harvested 72 hours after treatment. They were divided into treated leaf, leaves and stem above the treated leaf and leaves and stem below the treated leaf and root. The amount of radio labelled herbicides in each homo genus solution (produced from extraction of herbicides from plants samples) was quantified using liquid scintillation counter. The amount of herbicide mobility and transfer to different parts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra in each growth stage were determined. This study shows that the best application time of 2,4-D for translocation to the root system of the plant is at 6- leaf stage, and 2,4-D indicates more trans loc ability as compared with Glyphosate

  3. An investigation of compositions and effects of local herbal Glycyrrhiza glabra and Mentha pulegium extracts on Helicobacter pylori and cell Line of stomach cancer (AGS by MTT assays

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    Fereshteh Salmani Jamaat1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:According to globally development of stomach cancer especially in Ardabil, Iran, as the second major cause of mortality throughout the world, increased drug-resistant bacteria including Helicobacter pylori as the most important risk factors for stomach cancer, and side effects of antibiotics and chemical drugs normally used to treat. Experimental: The current research was conducted to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial effects of native herbs of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium extractions for finding a solution with the lowest complications in control or treatment of stomach cancer.The extractions were firstly obtained using Soxhlet and methanol solvent and then their compounds were determined by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activity, MIC and MBC of the extractions were assessed respectively using agar diffusion and broth dilution test and the anticancer effect on stomach cancer (cell line AGS was assessed by MTT assay. H. pylori ATCC 26695 was respectively revived and purified on Brucella broth containing 7% citrated horse serum and Columbia agar. Results: The analysis showed that liquorice extract contains 15 compositions, mainly consists of 26.48% Nonane, 23.38% Ethylcyclohexan, 8.29% 3-Bromodecane, 10.31% trans-2-Heptenal, 8.93% 9-Octadecenamide and 4.68% β-pregna and pennyroyal extract contains 17 compositions, mainly including 3.36% Camphor, 22.79% Pulegone, 4.92% Paramenth-3-n8-l, 8.06% Menthoforan, 7.54% Cis-Isopulegon and 24.58% α-Selinene. The bacteria were resistant or semi-sensitive to common antibiotics, whereas had considerable sensitivity to herbal extracts and liquorice showed almost three times more antibacterial effect. Pennyroyal extract had no cytotoxic effects, but the anticancer effect was observed in liquorice extract with optimal concentration of 25 μg/ml after 48 hours. Recommended applications/industries: In conclusion, liquorice extract due to the significant health

  4. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems Investigação do efeito citotóxico e mutagênico da polpa da fruta Malpighia glabra L. (acerola e da vitamina C em sistema teste vegetal e animal

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    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.As frutas são importantes fontes de nutrientes na dieta humana e a Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é de particular interesse devido ao seu alto teor de antioxidantes. Dietas ricas em frutas e legumes protegem os indivíduos contra doenças e câncer, mas a ingestão excessiva de vitaminas pode atuar como pró-oxidante e gerar alterações no DNA. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da polpa in natura da Acerola (BAN e congelada (BAF, e da vitamina C sintética na forma líquida (VC, em nível cromossômico e sobre o ciclo de divisão celular, foram utilizadas células meristemáticas de raiz de Allium cepa L. e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, Rattus norvegicus, como sistema teste. Em Allium cepa L., BAN, na maior concentração (0,4 mg.mL-1 e BAF

  5. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

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    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  6. Chemical Constituents from Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns: Complete 1H and 13C NMR Assignments and X Ray Structure of 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone

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    Paula Vanderlúcia F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavone 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (1 and the triterpenes lupenone, 9,19-cyclolanost-23-ene-3beta,25-diol (2, (24R-9,19-cyclolanost-25-ene-3beta,24-diol (3 and (24S-9,19-cyclolanost-25-ene-3beta,24-diol (4 were isolated from the hexane extract of the stem bark of Bombacopsis glabra (Bombacaceae. The structures were determined by 13C and ¹H NMR (1D and 2D and mass spectrometry, and by comparison with literature data for triterpenes. The structure of the flavone 1 was unambiguously confirmed by a X-ray diffraction study. The five substances were isolated for the first time from Bombacaceae species.

  7. Normalização dos níveis séricos de ácido ascórbico por suplementação com suco de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. ou farmacológica em idosos institucionalizados Normalize the ascorbic acid serum levels the ascorbic acid of the for suplementation with acerola juice (Malpighia glabra L. and the pills, institutionalized elderly

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    Flávia Queiroga Aranha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo investigou o tempo necessário de suplementação com vitamina C, para a normalização dos níveis séricos em idosos com deficiência dessa vitamina e comparar o efeito da vitamina natural do suco de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. com o da vitamina na forma de fármaco. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 37 idosos institucionalizados do município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, divididos em 3 grupos: Grupo I - controle, Grupo II - suplementação com o suco de acerola e Grupo III - suplementação com fármaco. A metodologia empregada consistiu na dosagem sérica de ácido ascórbico e na verificação do consumo alimentar por inquérito dietético. Constatou-se um aumento significativo (pINTRODUCTION: Thirty-seven elderly citizens, deficient in vitamin C and institutionalized in the city of João Pessoa/Paraíba/Brazil, were studied with the objective of investigating the period of vitamin C supplementation necessary to normalize their blood serum levels. METHODS: The study also compared the efficiency of the natural vitamin, supplied in the form of West Indian cherry juice, (Malpighia glabra L. to that of the pharmaceutical product (tablets. The aged citizens were divided into 3 groups: Group I - control, Group II - supplemented with West Indian cherry juice, and Group III - supplemented with tablets. The methodology applied consisted of dosing the serum vitamin C levels and making a dietary enquiry to determine food consumption. RESULTS: A significant increase (p<0.05 in the mean serum ascorbic acid levels was shown after 10 (1.27±0.41mg/dL, 20 (1.69±0.45mg/dL and 30 (1.55±0.42mg/dL days of supplementation, as compared to the initial values (0.38±0.28mg/dL. On the 10th day of supplementation, those supplemented with West Indian cherry juice showed levels significantly higher (1.41±0.43mg/dL than those supplemented with tablets (1.03±0.25mg/dL. CONCLUSION: On the 20th day, the supplementation had satisfactorily

  8. Effect of Chemical Refining on Citrullus Colocynthis and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil from the both plant seeds was evaluated (both before and after refining) for different physico-chemical parameters like free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Oil yield (30-35 %) in both plants was found average. After refining, per cent reduction ...

  9. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mariprasath

    water content analysis are performed to without catalytic added PPO ... Also, the water content of PPO ... and sludge which have effectively reduced breakdown strength [9]. ..... tion of non-edible oil plant in uncultivable waste lands in. India.

  10. Influence of depectinization in the ultrafiltration of West Indian cherry (Malpighia glabra L. and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Meer juices Influência da despectinização sobre a ultrafiltração dos sucos de acerola e abacaxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli T. D. Barrosi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available West Indian cherry (Malpighia glabra L. and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Meerjuice clarification by cross-flow UF, using polysulphone hollow fiber and ceramic tubular membranes with, respectively, nominal molecular weight cut off values of 100kDaltons and average pore diameters of 0.01mm, were studied. The influence of enzymatic treatment using enzyme concentrations of 20, 100 and 300mg/L, a time of 90min and a temperature of 40ºC for depectinization was verified. The juices were then clarified in a laboratory scale filtration unit, with an effective filtration area of 0.12m² for the polysulphone hollow fiber membrane and of 0.005m² for the ceramic tubular membranes. The influence of enzymatic treatment on viscosity, turbidity and total pectin of the juice, before ultrafiltration, is reported. Membrane performance was evaluated in terms of flow rate and clarity of the permeate. The permeate flow rate of depectinized pineapple juice was higher (30 - 60% for both membranes. Depectinized West Indian cherry juice presented a lower permeate flow rate for the polysulphone hollow fiber membrane. The increase in permeate flow rate, with the use of the 300mg/L and 100mg/L enzyme concentration was not significant, so it is economically advantageous to ultrafilter depectinized juice, treated with an enzyme concentration of 20mg/L.Foi estudada a clarificação através da ultrafiltração por flow rateo cruzado, dos sucos de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. e Abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L. Meer, usando membranas de polisulfona fibra oca e tubular cerâmica com peso molecular de corte de 100kDaltons e diâmetro médio de poro de 0,01mm, respectivamente. A influência do tratamento dos sucos, com concentrações de enzima de 20, 100 e 300mg/L, tempo de tratamento de 90min a temperatura de 40ºC, foi verificada, e então os mesmos foram clarificados numa unidade de ultrafiltração com uma área efetiva de 0,12m² para a membrana de polisulfona e de 0,005m² para

  11. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of vegetation on urban climate and healthy urban colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S.H.; Murthy, M.S.R.; Bhagya Lakshmi, O.; Shylaja, G. (Ecology and Environmental Biology Lab., Dept. of Botany, Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India))

    1991-01-01

    The role of plants in developing a healthy atmosphere is very desirable in the context of deteriorating environment resulting from increased urbanization, industrialization and improper environmental management. This investigation has attempted to screen plants for their ability to improve the design and development of healthy environments around buildings and urban centres of Hyderabad. Ability index values were computed on the basis of canopy area, physiological characters of trees growing in polluted environments, pollution stress and population load. Azadirachta indica, Pithecolobium dulce and Cassia fistula are suggested for plantations around buildings and urban centres for minimizing pollution. Certain susceptible trees like Pongamia glabra and Polyalthia longifolia have been suggested in the diagnosis and investigation of air quality through biological means. (orig.).

  13. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  14. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sadhan Kumar; Malodia, Lalit

    2017-11-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out using Calotropis leaf extract with zinc acetate salt in the presence of 2 M NaOH. The combination of 200 mM zinc acetate salt and 15 ml of leaf extract was ideal for the synthesis of less than 20 nm size of highly monodisperse crystalline nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). Effects of biogenic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on growth and development of tree seedlings in nursery stage were studied in open-air trenches. The UV-Vis absorption maxima showed peak near 350 nm, which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. DLS data showed that single peak is at 11 nm (100%) and Polydispersity Index is 0.245. XRD analysis showed that these are highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles having an average size of 10 nm. FTIR spectra were recorded to identify the biomolecules involved in the synthesis process, which showed absorption bands at 4307, 3390, 2825, 871, 439, and 420 cm-1. SEM images showed that the particles were spherical in nature. The presence of zinc and oxygen was confirmed by EDX and the atomic % of zinc and oxygen were 33.31 and 68.69, respectively. 2D and 3D images of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by AFM studies, which indicated that these are monodisperse having size ranges between 1.5 and 8.5 nm. Significant enhancement of growth was observed in Neem ( Azadirachta indica), Karanj ( Pongamia pinnata), and Milkwood-pine ( Alstonia scholaris) seedlings in foliar spraying ZnO nanoparticles to nursery stage of tree seedlings. Out of the three treated saplings, Alstonia scholaris showed maximum height development.

  15. Evaluation of wound healing, anti-microbial and antioxidant potential of Pongamia pinnata in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dwivedi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased wound contraction and tensile strength, augmented hydroxyproline and hexosamine content, antioxidative activity and moderate antimicrobial activity support the early wound healing exhibited by P. pinnata. Induction in cytokine production may be one of the mechanisms in accelerating the wound healing. Results suggest that P. pinnata may be useful in tropical management of wound healing.

  16. Study on cow urine and Pongamia pinnata Linn seed in farmyard: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TRUST IN GOD

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... method has been followed to prepare the extract and incubation of pot inside the soil providing ... HPLC and FT-IR spectral analysis to elucidate the structure of the active principle. .... quantity of flavonoids. This extract which ...

  17. Possible role of licorice roots (glycyrrhiza glabra) as a natural radioprotector against oxidative damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M. M.; Hussien, E. M.; Haggag, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of Licorice against damages induced by gamma rays. Adult female albino rats (130-140 g) were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: rats whole body exposed to gamma radiations (6.5 Gy), group 3: animals received Licorice in drinking water for four weeks (100 mg/ kg body wt/ day), and group 4: received Licorice two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Blood and liver samples were obtained two weeks post-irradiation. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) levels were determined in serum. Per oxidative hepatic damage was studied by assessing; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver tissue. The data obtained revealed a significant increase in serum glucose, K + , TC, TG and LDL-C and liver TABRs. While, significant decreases were recorded for serum Na + and HDL-C levels, liver GSH content, SOD and CAT activities. On the other hand, Licorice treated irradiation rats showed a significant amelioration in the changes produced by gamma radiation with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that Licorice might provide protection against radiation-induced disturbances in metabolic activities and oxidative damage in liver tissues

  18. Gastroprotective Properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Seeds; Role as Antioxidant and H+, K+-ATPase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vismaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts are the most attractive sources of newer drugs and have been shown to produce promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Karanjin, a furano-flavonoid has been evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property by employing adult male albino rats. Karanjin (>95% pure was administered to these rats in two different concentrations, that is, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w. Ulcers were induced in the experimental animals by swim and ethanol stress. Serum, stomach and liver-tissue homogenates were assessed for biochemical parameters. Karanjin inhibited 50 and 74% of ulcers induced by swim stress at 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w., respectively. Gastric mucin was protected up to 85% in case of swim stress, whereas only 47% mucin recovery was seen in ethanol stress induced ulcers. H+, K+-ATPase activity, which was increased 2-fold in ulcer conditions, was normalized by Karanjin in both swim/ethanol stress-induced ulcer models. Karanjin could inhibit oxidative stress as evidenced by the normalization of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme (i.e., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels. Karanjin at concentrations of 20 mg kg−1 b.w., when administered orally for 14 days, did not indicate any lethal effects. There were no significant differences in total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase between normal and Karanjin-treated rats indicating no adverse effect on major organs. During treatment schedule, animals remained as healthy as control animals with normal food and water intake and body weight gain.

  19. Biofabrication of broad range antibacterial and antibiofilm silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Shariq; Khan, Asad Ullah

    2016-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized via a green route using ten different plants extracts (GNP1- Caryota urens , GNP2- Pongamia glabra , GNP3- Hamelia patens , GNP4- Thevetia peruviana , GNP5- Calendula officinalis , GNP6- Tectona grandis , GNP7- Ficus petiolaris , GNP8- Ficus busking , GNP9- Juniper communis, GNP10- Bauhinia purpurea ). AgNPs were tested against drug resistant microbes and their biofilms. These nanoparticles (NPs) were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Image J software. Most of the AgNPs were distributed over a range of 1 of 60 nm size. The results indicated that AgNPs were antibacterial in nature without differentiating between resistant or susceptible strains. Moreover, the effect was more prominent on Gram negative bacteria then Gram positive bacteria and fungus. AgNPs inhibited various classes of microbes with different concentration. It was also evident from the results that the origin or nature of extract did not affect the activity of the NPs. Protein and carbohydrate leakage assays confirmed that the cells lysis is one of the main mechanisms for the killing of microbes by green AgNPs. This study suggests that the action of AgNPs on microbial cells resulted into cell lysis and DNA damage. Excellent microbial biofilm inhibition was also seen by these green AgNPs. AgNPs have proved their candidature as a potential antibacterial and antibiofilm agent against MDR microbes.

  20. Flow cytometric estimation on cytotoxic activity of leaf extracts from seashore plants in subtropical Japan: isolation, quantification and cytotoxic action of (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Toshiya; Oyama, Yasuo; Yonemori, Shigetomo; Takeda, Yoshio; Yamazaki, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Shinichi; Nakata, Mami; Tanaka, Tomochika; Chikahisa, Lumi; Inaba, Yuzuru; Okada, Yoshihiko

    2002-06-01

    The cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts of leaves collected from 39 seashore plants in Iriomote Island, subtropical Japan was examined on human leukaemia cells (K562 cells) using a flow cytometer with two fluorescent probes, ethidium bromide and annexin V-FITC. Five extracts (10 microg/mL) from Hernandia nymphaeaefolia, Cerbera manghas, Pongamia pinnata, Morus australis var. glabra and Thespesia populnea greatly inhibited the growth of K562 cells. When the concentration was decreased to 1 microg/mL, only one extract from H. nymphaeaefolia still inhibited the cell growth. A cytotoxic compound was isolated from the leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and was identified as (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT). The fresh leaves of H. nymphaeaefolia contained a remarkably high amount of DPT (0.21 +/- 0.07% of fresh leaf weight), being clarified by a quantitative HPLC analysis. DPT at 70-80 pM started to inhibit the growth of K562 cells in an all-or-none fashion and at 100 pM or more it produced complete inhibition in all cases. Therefore, the slope of the dose-response curve was very steep. DPT at 100 pM or more decreased the cell viability to 50%-60% and increased the number of cells undergoing apoptosis (annexin V-positive cells). The results indicate that DPT contributes to the cytotoxic action of the extract from the leaves of H. nymphaeaefolia on K562 cells. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. In silico and in vivo anti-malarial studies of 18β glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Kalani

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69 µg/ml anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68-100% at doses of 62.5-250 mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress.

  2. Gelatinous fibers and variant secondary growth related to stem undulation and contraction in a monkey ladder vine, Bauhinia glabra (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jack B; Blanco, Mario A

    2014-04-01

    Some of the most striking stem shapes occur in species of Bauhinia (Fabaceae) known as monkey ladder vines. Their mature stems are flattened and develop regular undulations. Although stems have variant (anomalous) secondary growth, the mechanism causing the undulations is unknown. We measured stem segments over time (20 mo), described stem development using light microscopy, and correlated the changes in stem shape with anatomy. Growing stems are initially straight and bear tendrils on short axillary branches. The inner secondary xylem has narrow vessels and lignified fibers. As stems age, they become flattened and increasingly undulated with the production of two lobes of outer secondary xylem (OX) with wide vessels and only gelatinous fibers (G-fibers). Similar G-fibers are present in the secondary phloem and the cortical sclerified layer. In transverse sections, the concave side of each undulation has a greater area and quantity of G-fibers than the opposite convex side. Some older stems are not undulated and have less lobing of OX. Undulation causes a shortening of the stem segments: up to 28% of the original length. Uneven distribution of G-fibers produces tensions that are involved in the protracted development of undulations. While young extending shoots attach by lateral branch tendrils, older stems may maintain their position in the canopy using undulations and persistent branch bases as gripping devices. Flattened and undulated stems with G-fibers produce flexible woody stems.

  3. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puławska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the overlying and underlying tiers.

  4. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; 1M. Arman; M. Ibrahim; 2S. Shafique

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  5. Preventive Effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Extract on Oral Mucositis in Patients under Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolmolok Najafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: About two-thirds of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Oral mucositis represents a major complication of radiotherapy, causing morbidity and mortality and decreasing the quality of life of patients. This study aimed to assess the preventive effect of Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract on oral mucositis in cancer patients under head and neck radiotherapy.Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 37 head and neck cancer patients were divided into intervention (n=19 group receiving Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and control (n=18 group receiving placebo. Patients in the test group used Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract topically twice a day from the first day of starting radiotherapy until the end of the second week. Patients were examined in the first day of radiotherapy for any type of wound before treatment and those with oral ulcers before radiotherapy were excluded from the study. The grade of mucositis was determined using the classification by the World Health Organization. ANCOVA was performed to assess any difference between the two groups with regard to oral mucosal irritation and wound size after the intervention while controlling for the covariates such as sex and age.Results: Significant differences were found in the maximum grade of mucositis and oral mucosal irritation between the intervention and control groups (P<0.001.Conclusions: This study showed that aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza can be effective for decreasing the severity of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load, mineral concentration and sensory characteristics of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Lahham, G.

    2001-10-01

    Ground licorice roots were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy of gamma radiation in a 60 Co source. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial population, viscosity, concentration of some minerals and sensory properties of the extract were evaluated after 0 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that, immediately after irradiation, used doses reduced the microbial count and D 10 was at about 2 kGy. No effect was observed in total dissolved solids in the extract of licorice roots. Glycyrrhizinic acid concentration in extract and viscosity of suspension produced from irradiated roots were lower than in non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences (P + , Ca ++ and K + ) concentration in extract produced from irradiated roots were lower than in non-irradiated ones, and no significant differences (P< 0.05) were found in viscosity between suspension of irradiated and non-irradiated roots. (author)

  7. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Hosseini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.  

  8. Prevalence and intensity of infections in the lymnaeid snail Omphiscola glabra experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna and Paramphistomum daubneyi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dreyfuss, G.; Novobilský, A.; Vignoles, P.; Bellet, V.; Koudela, Břetislav; Rondelaud, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2007), s. 7-12 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : digenean infections of lymnaeid snail * intermediate host * free rediae and cercariae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.155, year: 2007

  9. Guignardones P–S, New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Guignardia mangiferae A348 Derived from the Medicinal Plant Smilax glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Hua Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new meroterpenoids, guignardones P–S (1–4, and three known analogues (5–7 were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Guignardia mangiferae A348. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited weak inhibitions of cell proliferation against MCF-7 cell line.

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation and grounding on the microbial load of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), and quality characteristics of its extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Zeinou, R.

    2002-12-01

    Three type of ground root of licorice (fine particular 8.0 mm diameter) were divided into two groups, the first one was exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. Whereas, the second group was exposed 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kGy of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial population, concentrations of glycyrrhizinic acid and some minerals of the extracts were evaluated after irradiation. The results showed that microbial count on fine particular of ground licorice roots were 10 6 g -1 , whereas, on coarse particular microbial counts was 10 5 g -1 . All size of licorice roots treated with gamma irradiation had significantly (p<0.05) lower counts than the untreated (control). The dose needed to reduce the microbial load to less than 10 bacteria per gram was 15 kGy for the fine particular of ground root, and 10 kGy for the coarse particular of ground root. The extract produced from coarse particular of ground roots had lower total dissolved solids, ash and mineral ions (Na, Ca, and K), ph, and Ec values compared with those produced from coarse particular of ground roots. Gamma irradiation decreased glycyrrhizinic acid concentrations in the extracts produced from ground licorice roots. High doses (25, 50, 75, and 100 kGy) of gamma irradiation decreased significantly the concentration of raw fiber, and glycyrrhizinic acid concentrations on ground licorice roots, and increased the dissolved solids and mineral ions (Na, Ca, and K) in extract of licorice root. Sensory evaluation indicated that there were no significant differences in colour, taste or flavour between extracts produced from irradiated with doses up to 25 kGy and non-irradiated roots. (author)

  11. Protective Effect of Aqueous Plant Extracts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Melissa Officinalis and Mentha x Piperita Against Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Ramadan, L.A.; Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of glycyrrhiza, Mentha and Melissa were tested for the antiulcerogenic activities against indomethacin induced ulcer in irradiated rats. Animals were irradiated at radiation dose levels 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. The extracts were given orally 3 days after irradiation and the antiulcerogenic as well as the antisecretory and cyroprotective effects of the extracts were determined. All plant extracts produced pronounced antiulcerogenic activities and reduced acid output, increased mucin and decreased pepsin secretion in pyloric ligated rats. The antiulcerogenic activity of the plant extracts was also confirmed histologically. The effect of the plant extract could be party due to their flavonoids content and to their free radical scavenging properties. The stomach is a radiosensitive part of the gastriontestinal tract (Friedman, 1992). It does not tolerate radiation doses that are necessary to control cancer. Hoever, some parts of the stomach are often in the primary treatment field in radiotherapy

  12. Biofuel bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2012-01-01

    The native Australian legume ''Pongamia pinnata'' could be the basis for a new industry in Queensland's north, replacing fossil fuels and breaking the poverty cycle in indigenous communities.

  13. Experimental investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of J20, P20, N20 Biodiesel blends and Sound Characteristics of P20 Biodiesel blend Used in Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    rajasekar, R.; karthik, N.; Xavier, Goldwin

    2017-05-01

    Present work provides the effect of biodiesel blends and Sound Characteristics of P20 Biodiesel blend compared with Performance and emission Characteristics of diesel. Methods and analysis biodiesel blends was prepared by the Transesterification Process. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Research is mainly focused on pongamia oil. It was observed that a 20% Pongamia oil blends and its properties were similar to diesel. The results showed that 20% Pongamia oil blends gave better performance, less in noise and emission compared with ester of Jatropha and neem oil blends. Hence Pongamia blends can be used in existing diesel engine without compromising the engine performance.

  14. The first record of the genus Tanaostigma (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) in the Old World, with the description of a new species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Joshi, Sunil

    2016-11-15

    Tanaostigma Howard (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) is recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Old World, with T. indica Gupta sp. n.  described and illustrated from southern India, reared from Millettia (=Pongamia) pinnata (Fabaceae).

  15. Variabilidad del ADN cloroplástico y su contribución al conocimiento del estado de conservación de Ulmus glabra en el Sistema Central

    OpenAIRE

    Martin del Puerto, Maria; Martinez Garcia, Felipe; Martin Clemente, Juan Pedro

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la diversidad existente en el ADN cloroplástico (ADNcp) de 16 poblaciones distribuidas a lo largo del Sistema Central. Para ello, se ha empleado la técnica de PCR-RFLP (amplificación de fragmentos específicos y posterior digestión con enzimas de restricción) sobre 38 regiones del ADNcp (Grivet et al., 2001).

  16. A Contribution to the Problem of Tree Necrosis in Cities: Soil Properties in the Habitat of Ulmus glabra Huds. and Ulmus minor Mill. Greenery Elements of the City of Kielce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świercz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of soils have a significant impact on the growth and development of vegetation. In urban areas, because of increased human activity, changes occur in both grain-size composition as well as physical and chemical properties of soils. These soils are frequently saline and contaminated with heavy metals, which limit the development of vegetation and cause its necrosis. Elm is a commonly growing tree with low habitat requirements, whose population has been considerably reduced because of progressing Dutch elm disease. This study attempts to assess the relationship of dependency between physicochemical parameters of soils and health status of elms from the area of the City of Kielce. Two elms were selected for the study, that is, one alive tree being a natural monument and one necrotic tree. The soil analysis concerned physicochemical parameters such as size composition, reaction, salinity measured by means of proper electrolyte conductivity (PEC, acidity, organic carbon content, carbonates, nitrogen, and selected elements including heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn. The study indicates differentiation amongst the physicochemical parameters of the analysed soils. A characteristic feature of the soils being the habitat of the necrotic elm is that they have considerably higher salinity than those being the habitat of the alive elm. Increased levels of sodium and chlorides could negatively affect water transportation in vegetation what might have resulted, amongst others, in necrosis of the tree.

  17. Changes of Insulin Resistance and Adipokines Following Supplementation with Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract in Combination with a Low-Calorie Diet in Overweight and Obese Subjects: a Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract along with a calorie restricted diet on body composition, insulin resistance and adipokines in overweight and obese subjects. Methods: Sixty-four overweight and obese volunteers (27 men, 37 women were recruited into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the Licorice (n=32 or the placebo group (n=32, and each group received a low-calorie diet with either 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Biochemical parameters, anthropometric indices, body composition and dietary intake were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 58 subjects completed the trial. No side effects were observed following licorice supplementation. At the end of the study, waist circumference, fat mass, serum levels of vaspin, zinc-α2 glycoprotein, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased in the intervention group, but only the reduction in serum vaspin levels in the licorice group was significant when compared to the placebo group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Supplementation with dried licorice extract plus a low-calorie diet can increase vaspin levels in obese subjects. However, the anti-obesity effects of the intervention were not stronger than a low-calorie diet alone in the management of obesity.

  18. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  19. Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Fu Chunhua, Cheng Lei, Lu Gan, Maoteng Li, Ying Yang, Longjiang Yu. Abstract. Glabridin is a major biologically active flavonoid isolated specifically from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has many pharmacological activities.

  20. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Chinese and Bay Starvine (Schisandra spp.): Potential for Development as a New Dietary Supplement Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, James T; Tyler, Paula; Bradbury, E Jane; Nelson, Kate; Brown, Carl F; Pierce, Stefanie T; Quave, Cassandra L

    2017-11-02

    Schisandra chinensis (Chinese starvine) is a popular dietary supplement with a rich history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. Schisandra glabra (bay starvine) is the only North American representative of the genus, and little is known about its history of traditional use, chemistry, and potential biological activity. In this study, we conducted comparative high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis on S. glabra and S. chinensis fruits. Additional characterization of S. glabra was performed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FTMS). Quantitative analysis of four bioactive marker compounds revealed that S. glabra does not have statistically higher levels of schisandrin A or schisandrol B than S. chinensis. S. glabra has lower levels of schisandrol A and γ-schisandrin. Total phenolic contents of the two species' fruits were not statistically different. S. glabra had higher total tannin content than S. chinensis. We discuss the relevance of this analytical analysis to the study of S. glabra as a potential dietary supplement ingredient and give specific consideration to the conservation challenges involved in commercially developing a regionally threatened species, even in semicultivated conditions.

  1. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. SANTHOSH UJJINAPPA. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 43 Issue 4 April 2018 pp 58. Production and quality testing of fuel briquettes made from pongamia and tamarind shell · SANTHOSH UJJINAPPA L K SREEPATHI · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Biomass is receiving greater ...

  2. Experimentation on bio-kerosene stove using organic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshini, M.; Shetty, Divakar

    2017-07-01

    One of the basic worthy item used in most of the villages even now a day's also is the kerosene stove. But in the current scenario, the petroleum products are been replenished. So an alternate fuel should be found in order delve. This work is to check the contingency of blending pongamia oil and kerosene in which is used as an additive. Pongamia is one of the forest based fast growing evergreen tree which is capable of yielding 9 - 90 kg seeds from which 25% of oil can be extracted. Distilled cow urine is to be used so that the fuel can be stored for longer time and is odorless. Blends of 10% to 70% neat pongamia oil - kerosene(KEP) and pongamia oil - kerosene with additive(KEPWA) are prepared. The properties such as flash point, fire point and viscosity are determined. The blends are been compared by doing emission test. The blends with additive showed better properties and reducing in emission characteristics compared to neat blends. It is also observed that emission of CO is decreasing with increasing blends.

  3. Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of povidone iodine and homoeopathic mother tinctures as antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohsin Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms the antibacterial activity and more effectiveness of Thuja occidentalis and Rhus glabra mother tinctures than povidone iodine. The other tested mother tinctures also have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Echinacea.

  4. Environmental Assessment: Apalachicola National Forest Helicopter Landing Zones Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    wilderness area is limited to primitive recreational uses. Permanent improvements or human habitation including grazing, mining, timber cutting ...Ruellia noctiflora/White-Flowered Wild Petunia Both Schisandra glabra/Bay starvine Both Schoenolirion albiflorum!White sunnybells Both Silphium

  5. Vinkia, a new Australian genus of tribe Myriophylleae (Haloragaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der R.

    1975-01-01

    Herba aquatica glabra. Caules submersi, monopodialiter et sympodialiter ramosi, breves. Stipulae subulatae, parvae. Folia alterna, integra, ipso apice saturatius colorata. Inflorescencia distincte a parte vegetativa separata, axibus filiformibus, ramosis, internodiis elongatis, quoque ramo apice

  6. Archboldia, a new Verbenaceous genus from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Archboldia, nov. gen. — Frutices; folia opposita; inflorescentiae terminales, paniculato-corymbosae, e cymis compositae; calyx plus minusve patens, infundibuliformis, 5-lobatus; corolla exserta, ventricoso-cylindrica, utrinque glabra, aetinomorpha, breviter 5-lobata; stamina 4 alternipetalia,

  7. Jeruto et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(6):168 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: There is need to carry out research on root and stem barks to identify the active phytochemicals that ..... Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Polygala senega (Seneca snakeroot) .... Indian J of Fund and Appl Life Sci, 1 (2): 1 - 10. 5.

  8. Phenolic antioxidants attenuate hippocampal neuronal cell damage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    CP had lower Fe3+ reducing activity in comparison to WS and AV. Plant extracts given singly ... modulators of nervous system damage. In epilepsy, ex- ..... D 1978 Antimicrobial agents from higher plants, Glycy- rrhiza glabra L. I. Some ...

  9. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... fruit parts with low level of anti nutrient, high elemental composition, protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid could ... stored in airtight plastic containers inside the refrigerator. B. glabra .... vitamin and mineral availability.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Housing Privatization Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), red oak (Quercus sp...blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), pignut hickory (C. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), winged elm (Ulmus alata

  11. Two new Grasses from Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1922-01-01

    Paspalum plumosum, HENR. nov. spec., — Perenne, dense caespitosum. Culmi stricte erecti, 6—9 dm alti, graciles, simplices, teretes, laeves pauci-nodes, nodis paullulo pilosis. Foliorum vaginae subarctae, apice hiantes, leviter compressae, laeves, glabrae, nitentes, striatae, sordide

  12. Influência das inundações na distribuição de espécies arbóreas ao longo do Rio Massaguaçu (Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brasil), e potencial alelopático de Annona glabra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Sadao Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    A vegetação estuário do rio Massaguaçu está sujeita a alagamentos periódicos. Esse regime de alagamento pode ser um fator importante na distribuição e composição da flora arbórea local. O presente trabalho objetivou a determinação da distribuição de espécies arbóreo-arbustivas do estuário do rio Massaguaçu, relacionado ao seu regime de inundações. A partir da foz sentido a montante, foram determinadas 5 bancos de vegetação inundável (A, B, C, D, e E). Em cada área, foram sorteadas 80 parcelas...

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  14. PHENOLOGY, POLLINATION AND SEED PRODUCTION OF Millettia pinnata IN KUNUNURRA, NORTHERN WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; Guijun Yan; Elizabeth L Barbour; Julie A Plummer

    2015-01-01

    Millettia pinnata L. Panigrahi atau Pongamia pinnata L. Piere adalah tumbuhan legum yang menghasilkan biji dengan kandungan minyak yang cocok untuk biodiesel. Fenologi dan polinasi pada tanaman ini dipantau dan dimanipulasi untuk meningkatkan pembentukan biji dan hasil panen. Musim berbunga di Kununurra berlangsung selama satu bulan dari awal Oktober dan pembungaan terjadi tidak bersamaan baik pada satu tanaman maupun di antara tanaman yang berbeda. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, ...

  15. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial.

  16. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA.

  17. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEESIA * Blume (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEPADMO SOEPADMO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1     Eight species are described:  N. altissima, synandra, glabra, koster-mansiana, malayana, parpurascens, piluliflora and strigosa.2     N. kostermansiana is a species new to science.3     N. glabra and synandra, formerly included in N. altissima are reinstated  as distinct species.4     The area of distribution of the genus covers Lower Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, with Borneo as centre.

  18. Microtensile strength of spruce pine after exposure to acids and bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd G. Manwiller; Paul R. Godfrey

    1972-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood microtensile specimens from 12 trees of Pinus glabra Wal. were subjected to 10-percent solution of 5 acids and 3 bases at 90oC for up to 3 hours. Hydrochloric and sulfuric acids were the most damaging, lowering maximum tensile strength 27 and 17 percent in earlywood and 36 and 39 percent in latewood; they...

  19. Assessment of antibacterial activity of three plants used in Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Justicia adhatoda, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Hyssopus officinalis extracts were studied against selected bacteria by using agar well diffusion assay. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform, diethyl-ether and aqueous extracts were tested in crude form for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtillus, ...

  20. Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Malaria and Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-06

    ethanol plant extracts including; nutmeg (Myristicaceae sp.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis), garlic (Allium...scorodoprasum (elephant garlic), Ailium sativum (garlic), Zingiber officinale ,ginger), Myristicaceae sp. (nutmeg), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal...They were Glycyrrhiza glabra (IC25: 6 ug protein/ml)(Fig.7), Zingiber officinale (IC25: 14 ug protein/ ml), and ethanol extracts of Myristacea sp

  1. Wood variables affecting the friction coefficient of spruce pine on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett J. Lemoine; Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1970-01-01

    Wood of spruce pine, Pinus glabra Walk., was factorially segregated by moisture content (0, 10, and 18 percent), specific gravity (less than 0.45 and more than 0.45), and extractive content (unextracted and extractive-freE), and the kinetic coefficient of friction on steel (having surface roughness of 9 microinches RMS) determined for tangential...

  2. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a

  3. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, W.; Spelt, C.E.; Bliek, M.; de Vries, M.; Wit, N.; Faraco, M.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.

    2016-01-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) fromArabidopsis thalianaand associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein

  4. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  5. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  6. Comparison between in situ dry matter degradation and in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry matter (DM) degradation of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Juniperus communis, and Pistica lentiscus was determined using two different techniques: (i) the in vitro gas production and (ii) the in situ nylon bag degradability technique. Samples were incubated in situ and in vitro for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

  7. A new species of Tristiropsis (Sapindaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    Arbor 8 m alta, trunco 26 cm diam. Ramuli ignoti. Folia certe 1,5 m longa, glabra; petiolus teres, canaliculatus, 36 cm longus, 1,25 cm crassus; rhachis teres, supra graciliter costata; rhaches secundariae alternantes; petioluli 1—4 mm longi, supra fossa lata plana instructi, basi dilatati. Foliola

  8. A new Protium from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J.J.

    1950-01-01

    Protium Pullei Swart n.sp. Arbor circ. 12 m alta. Ramuli robusti 4 mm diam. teretes glabri fusci lenticellis oblongis ferrugineis muniti. Folia trifoliolata 17 (16—21) cm longa glabra, petiolis robustis semiteretibus 4.5 cm longis basi incrassatis demum transverse rimosis, petiolulis semiteretibus

  9. A new species of Medinilla (Melastomataceae) from Sumatra and notes on allied species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayar, M.P.

    1970-01-01

    Frutex. Ramis junioribus subangulatis, puberubs, vetustioribus teretibus glabratis. Folia opposita, elliptico-lanceolata, 6—10 cm longa, 1.5—2.8 cm lata, basi cuneata, apice longe acuminato-attenuata, margine integra, supra glabra, subtus minute puberula, 3-nervia, venulis transversis indistinctis,

  10. Florae Malesianae Precursores II. The Convolvulaceae of Malaysia IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    Erycibe beccariana Hoogl. sp. nov. — Frutex scandens, ramulis junioribus sparsim stellato-hirsutis, adultioribus glabrescentibus cortice rimis longitudinalibus fisso. Folia elliptica ad elliptico-oblonga, 9—13 X 4— 71/2 cm, apice breviter acuminata, basi rotundata vel minute cordata, supra glabra,

  11. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia tortilis, Acacia nilotica, Acacia mellifera and Acacia seyal were the most dominant shrubs with scattered Caddaba rotundifolia, Caddaba furmisa, Seddera bagshawei, Tamarix nilotica, Dobera glabra and abundant Parthenium hysterophorus, Cissus rotundifolia and C. quadrangularis. The grass biomass estimated in ...

  12. Evaluation of effect of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi on four major wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of effect of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi on four major wood species of the elm family in Rasht (North West of Iran) ... the diameter size of vessels and the number of xylary rays in four species: Ulmus carpinifolia, Ulmus glabra, Zelkova carpinifolia and Celtis australis as important factors in host resistance to elm disease.

  13. La Farge Lake, Kickapoo River, Vernon County, Wisconsin, Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-18

    alternifolia (Wingstem), Asimina. triloba (Paw Paw), Aster vimineus, Buchloe dactylodes (Buffalo Grass), Carya glabra (Sweet Pg-ut), illinoensis (Pecan...black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Quercus alba), and hickory ( Carya cordiformes) generally occupy the drier uplands and slopes with south and

  14. Miscellaneous notes on Loranthaceae, 25

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1941-01-01

    Macrosolen urceolatus DANSER, n. sp. — Omnis glabra. Caules (2 suppetunt) graciles, ad 55 cm longi et ultra (supra basin decerpti), internodiis teretibus, inferioribus 2.5—6 cm longis, ad 4 mm diametro, superioribus plerumque paulo brevioribus, gradatim tenuioribus, ad 1.5 mm diametro, nodis

  15. Use and availability of tree and shrub resources on Maasai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four tree and shrub species were utilised for four main purposes: medicinal, fencing, firewood and shelter. These uses were mainly confined to four key species: Acacia mellifera, Acacia xanthophloea , Acacia tortilisand Balanites glabra. Ethno-medicine was the most common use and required smaller quantities of ...

  16. Palyonological studies of the semi-desert plant species from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In case of Calendula arvensis L., Salvia aegyptica, Melia azedarrach tetracolporate pollens were observed, in Carum copticum (L.) Bth, the pollens were bicolpate; in Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk., it was fenestrate while in Bougainvillea glabra Choisy., it was periporate. Thus, the present study was fruitful as it avoids the ...

  17. Palyonological studies of the semi-desert plant species from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... arvensis L., Salvia aegyptica, Melia azedarrach tetracolporate pollens were observed, in Carum copticum. (L.) Bth, the pollens were bicolpate; in Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk., it was fenestrate while in. Bougainvillea glabra Choisy., it was periporate. Thus, the present study was fruitful as it avoids the.

  18. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  19. Haplolobus Celebicus, nov. spec. (Burseraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1938-01-01

    Description of type specimen: Haplolobus celebicus, nov. spec. — Arbor altiuscula; ramuli subgraciles, circiter 0.4—0.7 diam., lenticellati, vetustiores (in sicc.) lenticellis plus minusve rugosi, alabastro terminali minuto pulverulento, ceterea glabri; medulla compacta aresinosa. Folia glabra

  20. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  1. Estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D R; Singh, Shrawan; Salim, K M; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India) namely Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera andamanica L., Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f) Alst., Annona squamosa L., Averrhoa carambola L., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Dillenia indica L., Annona muricata L. and Ficus racemosa L. The antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of M. glabra showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.77%; inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 262.46 μg/ml). Methanol was found to be a better solvent than acetone and aqueous for estimating the antioxidant activity. M. glabra was found to be rich in phytochemicals viz. polyphenol (355.74 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (91.31 mg/100 g), carotenoids (109.16 mg/100 g), tannin (24.39 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (394.23 mg/100 g). Carbohydrate content was estimated to be highest in M. glabra (548 mg/100 g). Phenols, tannins, anthocyanins and carotenoids contents showed positive correlation (r² = 0.846, r² = 0.864, r² = 0.915 and r² = 0.806, respectively) with antioxidant activity. The information generated in present study will be useful for bioprospecting of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands.

  2. Microtensile strength of spruce pine after exposure to acids and bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.G. Manwiller; P.R. Godfrey

    1973-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood microtensile specimens from 12 trees of Pinus glabra Walt. were subjected to 10-percent solution of 5 acids and 3 bases at good for up to 3 hours. Hydrochloric and sulfuric acids were the most damaging, lowering maximum tensile strength 27 and 17 percent in earlywood and 36 and 39 percent in latewood; they reduced work to maximum load 40 percent...

  3. Taxonomic studies of the Penicillium glabrum complex and the description of a new species P. subericola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    A mycological survey of fungi, present in several stages of the manufacturing of cork discs for champagne stoppers in Portugal, was made. Sixty-nine strains belonging to the Glabra series of the genus Penicillium were isolated and subsequently grouped according to their partial β-tubulin gene...

  4. Integration of gamma radiation and plant powders to protect Peanut and Onion from infestation with the Almond Moth Ephestia Cautella (WALKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIZK, S.A.; BOSHRA, S.A.; MIKHAIEL, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of different plant powders of Ambrosia Maritiama, Origanum Vulgare, Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Matricaria Chamomilla and Nigella sativa for protection of peanuts (shelled or unshelled) and onion from infestation by the almond moth, Ephestia Cautella, showed that G. Glabra caused 100% larval mortality in case of shelled peanut at 0.25 g which leads to zero infestation while 100% larval mortality was occurred also when G.Glabra was used at concentration 1.0 gram in unshelled peanut. In onion, 100% mortality was occurred when powders of G.Glabra and M.Chamomilla were used at concentration 0.5 gram and A.Maritiama at concentration 1.0 gram. The use of different plant powders leads to reduction in percent pupation and percent emergence comparing with the control. Also, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in females treated with plant powders compared to the control and the concentration 1 gram prevent egg hatching for all plant powders used in shelled or unshelled peanut and onion. The use of LC 3 0 of plant powders beside the doses 100 or 150 Gy of gamma radiation leads to increase in percent mortality and decrease in percent infestation as the dose increase. The use of G.Glabra beside 100 or 150 Gy caused 100% mortality and prevent peanut inside shells from infestation, but the plant powders of A.Maritiama, N.Sativa and M.Chamomilla leads to the same result but with the dose 150 Gy. The use of LC 3 0 of plant powders beside 150 Gy leads to decrease in number of eggs and prevent egg hatching in peanut and onion except when N.sativa and M.Chamomilla used with onion

  5. Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eevera, T.; Rajendran, K.; Saradha, S. [Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Periyar Nagar, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613 403 (India)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, both edible (coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil, and rice bran oil) and non-edible oils (pongamia, neem and cotton seed oil) were used to optimize the biodiesel production process variables like catalyst concentration, amount of methanol required for reaction, reaction time and reaction temperature. The fuel properties like specific gravity, moisture content, refractive index, acid value, iodine number, saponification value and peroxide value were estimated. Based on the cetane number and iodine value, the methyl esters obtained from palm and coconut oils were not suitable to use as biodiesel in cold weather conditions, but for hot climate condition biodiesel obtained from the remaining oil sources is suitable. (author)

  6. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  7. Role Of Ascorbic Acid In Imparting Tolerance To Plants Against Oxidizing Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant in plants which play important role in activation of many physiological and defense mechanisms. The level of ascorbic acid in plants is determinant of its tolerance against the adverse effect of oxidizing pollutants. The present study tries to relate the variation in ascorbic acid content with the tolerance and sensitivity of two selected plant species viz. Azadirachtaindica and Pongamiapinnata by calculating their Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI during winter season from November to March in the urban city Delhi of North India. Moreover ascorbic acid is also an important part of chloroplast it protects different components of photosynthetic system from oxidative stress. Thus to understand the role of ascorbic acid in imparting tolerance to plants against oxidizing pollutants the changes in chlorophyll content of the selected plant species with variation in ambient ozone concentration was analysed. It was found that as per APTI values Azadirachta sp. came under tolerant range with highest ascorbic acid content whereas Pongamia sp. was under intermediate range with less ascorbic acid content. It was statistically established that ozone has no significant relation with chlorophyll content of Azadirachta sp. which has the highest ascorbic acid content. Whereas ambient ozone concentrations showed significant negative relation with the chlorophyll content of Pongamia sp. p 0.05. Thus it was observed that the plants with high ascorbic acid content are tolerant and have greater ability to remediate pollutants.

  8. Inhibition of aflatoxin B production of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.

  9. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Vegetable-Oil-Based Hyperbranched Polyester-Styrene Copolymer Containing Silver Nanoparticle as Antimicrobial and Corrosion-Resistant Coating Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia oil (PO was converted to Pongamia oil hydroxyl (POH via epoxidation process. The esterification of POH with linolenic acid was carried out to form hyperbranched polyester (HBPE, and further styrenation was performed at the conjugated double bond in the chain of linolenic acid. After styrenation, silver nanoparticle was added in different weight percentages (0.1–0.4 wt%. The structural elucidation of POH, HBPE, and HBPE-St was carried out by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Physicochemical and physicomechanical analyses were performed by standard method. Thermal behavior of the HBPE-St was analyzed by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The coatings of HBPE-St were prepared on mild steel strips. The anticorrosive behavior of HBPE-St resin-based coatings in acid, saline, and tap water was evaluated, and the molecular weight of HBPE-St was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antibacterial activities of the HBPE-St copolymers were tested in vitro against bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The HBPE-St copolymers exhibited good antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial and corrosion-resistant coating materials.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  12. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  13. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    declines in the black bear and Florida panther . The extent to which patch size affects animal populations has been most thoroughly investi- gated with... animal communities. Reservoir construction and agricultural practices have eliminated or severely degraded many of the wetlands and riparian areas...oak (Q. falcata), and black oak (Q. velutina), and a variety of hickories, including mockernut (Carya tomentosa), pignut (C. glabra), and shagbark

  14. Glucose and lipid metabolism in rats supplemented with glycyrrhizic acid exposed to short- or long- term stress and fed on a high-calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yaw, Hui Ping

    2017-01-01

    Stress and consumption of high-calorie diet are well-recognized as the primary contributor to various metabolic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active compound in the root extract of the licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to improve hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in rats fed on a high- calorie diet. However, the effect of GA on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats under stress in combination with high- calorie diet has yet to be expl...

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    species, including orchids ( Orchidaceae ) and several carnivorous plants, such as sundews (Drosera sp.), pitcher plants (Sarracenia sp.) and pipeworts...a dense shrub cover including saw palmetto, sea grape (Coccoloba urifera), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), and tough buckthorn (Bumelia tenax) (George...Cherry Prunus serotina Shrubs Galberries Ilex glabra, I. coriacea Wax Myrtle yrica cerifeFa Vines Bamboo Vine Similax laurifolia Poison Ivy Rhus radicans

  16. [High-performance liquid-liquid chromatography in beverage analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricout, J; Koziet, Y; de Carpentrie, B

    1978-01-01

    Liquid liquid chromatography was performed with columns packed with stationary phases chemically bonded to silica microparticules. These columns show a high efficiency and are used very easily. Flavouring compounds like aromatic aldehydes which have a low volatility were analyzed in brandy using a polar phase alkylnitrile. Sapid substances like amarogentin in Gentiana lutea or glyryrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra were determined by reversed phase chromatography. Finally ionizable substances like synthetic dyes can be analyzed by paired ion chromatography witha non polar stationary phase.

  17. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knipping Karen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. Methods 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV. One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11 infection. Results Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to have the strongest antiviral activity (IC50 46 μM, followed by luteolin and vitexin from Aspalathus linearis (IC50 respectively 116 μM and 129 μM and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Melissa officinalis (IC50 150 μM. A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. Conclusions These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

  18. Temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais Freezing points of various tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor o efeito das baixas temperaturas sobre as frutíferas de clima tropical e possibilitar o desenvolvimento de novas variedades, mais tolerantes, simularam-se geadas em câmaras frigoríficas para a determinação da temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais. Os resultados permitiram classificar as espécies em três grupos: Grupo I - moderada tolerância (-4°C: condessa (Annona reticulata; goiaba (Psidium guajava; acerola (Malpighia glabra e abacate (Persea americana var. Geada; Grupo II - média tolerância (-5°C: conde (A. squamosa; araticum-mirim (Rollinea spp.; anona-do-brejo (A. glabra; falsa-gravioleira (A. montana; araticum-de-folha-miúda (R. ermaginata e maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Grupo III - acentuada tolerância (-6°C: cherimóia (A. cherimola.The effect of low temperature on tropical fruits was studied in order to guide future developments of frost resistant varieties. Simulations of frost were done in a freezing chamber to determine the freezing points of various fruit plants. On the basis of the results the studied species can be classified into three groups according to their tolerance to low temperatures: Group I - little tolerance (-4°C: Annona reticulata; Psidium guajava; Malpighia glabra and Persea americana (var. Geada; Group II - medium tolerance (-5°C: A. squamosa; Rollinea spp.; A. glabra; A. montana; R. ermaginata and Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Group III - high tolerance (-6°C: A. cherimola.

  19. Accumulation of some trace elements in plants of the Kuraminskiy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akzhigitova, N I; Lezhneva, N D

    1975-01-01

    Spectral analysis was made of shrubs, semi-shrubs and perennial herbaceous plants with deeply penetrating root systems; Rosa kokanica, Alhagi sparsifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Inula grandis, Amygdalus spinosissima, Cerasus erythrocarpa, Centaurea squarrosa are the main dominants and components of associations widespread in the Kuraminskiy range in the Uzbek SSR (USSR). The content of trace elements (Cu, Mo, Ag, Pb) in the ash of these species over ore deposits is 2-6 times higher than over nonmetalliferous fields.

  20. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    i.e., swamp bay) ( Persea borbonia) in the overstory or midstory ERDC/EL TR-11-11 20 (Monk 1966, Nelson 1986, Wharton et al. 1977, USACE 1988). In...biflora swamp tupelo Persea borbonia redbay Pinus glabra spruce pine Pinus taeda loblolly pine Quercus laurifolia laurel oak Quercus michauxii swamp... American elm Group 22 Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam 0.66 Celtis laevigata sugarberry Cornus foemina stiff dogwood Diospyros virginiana

  1. POLLINATOR-MEDIATED COMPETITION, REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT, AND THE EVOLUTION OF SELFING IN ARENARIA UNIFLORA (CARYOPHYLLACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Lila; Wyatt, Robert

    1999-12-01

    Ecological factors that reduce the effectiveness of cross-pollination are likely to play a role in the frequent evolution of routine self-fertilization in flowering plants. However, we lack empirical evidence linking the reproductive assurance value of selfing in poor pollination environments to evolutionary shifts in mating system. Here, we investigated the adaptive significance of prior selfing in the polymorphic annual plant Arenaria uniflora (Caryophyllaceae), in which selfer populations occur only in areas of range overlap with congener A. glabra. To examine the hypothesis that secondary contact between the two species contributed to the evolution and maintenance of selfing, we used field competition experiments and controlled hand-pollinations to measure the female fitness consequences of pollinator-mediated interspecific interactions. Uniformly high fruit set by selfers in the naturally pollinated field arrays confirmed the reproductive assurance value of selfing, whereas substantial reductions in outcrosser fruit set (15%) and total seed production (20-35%) in the presence of A. glabra demonstrated that pollinator-mediated interactions can provide strong selection for self-pollination. Heterospecific pollen transfer, rather than competition for pollinator service, appears to be the primary mechanism of pollinator-mediated competition in Arenaria. Premating barriers to hybridization between outcrossers and A. glabra are extremely weak. The production of a few inviable hybrid seeds after heterospecific pollination and intermediate seed set after mixed pollinations indicates that A. glabra pollen can usurp A. uniflora ovules. Thus, any visit to A. uniflora by shared pollinators carries a potential female fitness cost. Moreover, patterns of fruit set and seed set in the competition arrays relative to controls were consistent with the receipt of mixed pollen loads, rather than a lack of pollinator visits. Competition through pollen transfer favors preemptive

  2. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-based SCF(COI1) complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation.

  3. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)–based SCFCOI1 complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. PMID:21551388

  4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Bactericidal and Antimycotic Activities against Oral Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvelia E. Rodríguez-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new discipline with huge applications including medicine and pharmacology industries. Although several methods and reducing agents have been employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles, reactive chemicals promote toxicity and nondesired effects on the human and biological systems. The objective of this work was to synthesize silver nanoparticles from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens extracts and determine their bactericidal and antimycotic activities against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans growth, respectively. 1 and 10 mM silver nitrate were mixed with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens. Green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were characterized by TEM, Vis-NIR, FTIR, fluorescence, DLS, TGA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Bactericidal and antimycotic activities of AgNPs were determined by Kirby and Bauer method and cell viability MTT assays. AgNPs showed a spherical shape and average size of 9 nm if prepared with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and 3 nm if prepared with Amphipterygium adstringens extract. AgNPs inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth as was expected, without a significant cytotoxic effect on human epithelial cells. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that AgNPs could be an interesting option to control oral biofilms.

  5. Strategies of two tropical woody species to tolerate salt stress

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    Bruno Melo Lustosa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the leaf primary metabolism in two woody species, Sterculia foetida and Bombacopsis glabra. Both species have seeds rich in oil and they are largely found in regions with irregularities in water availability. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse from seeds. At 140 days after emergence, 50% of the plants were subjected to salt stress for 23 days, daily receiving 100 mM of NaCl solution. In both species, leaf stomata conductance and water potential decreased quickly under salt stress. The two species showed different strategies in photosynthetic pigment concentration and components of nitrogen metabolism. S. foetida kept the pigment concentration unchanged after 23 days of stress, while B. glabra increased concentration of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. S. foetida showed a high leaf concentration of K+ in stressed plants and a Na+/K+ ratio without differences when compared to control. Thus, S. foetida presented a better ionic balance, while B. glabra invested in photoprotection. Therefore, both species present potential to be planted in Brazilian Northeast, where water deficit and salt stress are challenging for annual crops.

  6. [Determination of the Plant Origin of Licorice Oil Extract, a Natural Food Additive, by Principal Component Analysis Based on Chemical Components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawahara, Nobuo; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Fukai, Toshio; Tamura, Yukiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tahara, Maiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    "Licorice oil extract" (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (a kind of multivariate analysis) using the data of LC/MS or (1)H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using (1)H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products.

  7. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

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    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  8. Regeneration of five commercially-valuable tree species after experimental logging in an Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Albertina Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration variation of five commercially valuable tree species in relation to different intensities of felling in fourteen 4-ha plots in an area under experimental forest management. This experiment was carried out in a typical Amazonian tropical forest sample on "terra-firme," in Manaus (AM. Plots were logged 7 and 8 years (1987 and 1988, or 3 years (1993 before the study. All trees with height greater than 2 m, and diameter at breast height (DBH smaller than 10 cm were measured. Only Aniba hostmanniana, Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, Eschweilera coriacea and Goupia glabra were sufficiently common for individual analyses. These species have high timber values in the local market. Eight years after logging, the species responded differently to logging intensities. The numbers of individuals of Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana were positively related to the intensity of logging, while Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, and Eschweilera coriacea showed no statistically significant response. In the most recently (1993 logged areas, Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana had higher numbers of individuals than the control plots.

  9. Antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of honey and effect of radiation hygienization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra

    2015-01-01

    As mutation is the well known mechanism of neoplastic induction, therefore foods having bioactive compounds with potential to combat mutagenesis are of immense significance. Although honey is a well known natural functional food with associated health supporting quality attributes, there are limited reports with respect to its antimutagenic potential and the effect of floral type on the same. Antimutagenicity or the ability to prevent neoplastic inductions is being considered as an effective strategy to combat mutagen associated diseases. Therefore different regional Indian honeys varying in natural floral types procured were evaluated for their comparative antimutagenicity using a novel E. coli based forward mutation detection assay where mutation(s) in rpoB gene abolishes its interaction with rifampicin and thus confers rifampicin resistant mutator phenotype (RifR) to E. coli cells. Honey displayed wide variation in their ability to prevent induced mutagenesis and among 24 honey samples collected, 'Karanj' honey (Pongammia pinnata) displayed prominent (∼ 80%) antimutagenicity. Besides, honeys were also evaluated for their comparative antibacterial activity against various bacteria such as S. typhimurium, S. aureus, P. syringae etc. Surprisingly, honey of same floral type differed in their antibacterial potentials. Although honey is acidic in nature, the acidity of honey was not found to be the contributing factor of antibacterial activity. Instead, in almost all the cases the antibacterial activity was attributed to the peroxide component of honey. Besides, gamma radiation treatment was also standardized to ensure microbial safety of honey as it may contain burden of pathogenic microbial spores. Radiation (15 kGy) treatment of honey did not affect its antimutagenicity and antibacterial activity. Thus, the current findings provide credible evidence supporting health protective effects of honey and its retention in radiation hygienized honey. (author)

  10. Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; de Castro, Vinicius Carlos; das Graças Figueiredo Vilela, Polyana; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2013-08-15

    With the emergence of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, it is important to carry studies using alternative methods to control these microorganisms causing important infections, such as the use of products of plant origin that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity besides biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Equisetum arvense L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Punica granatum L. and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, and to analyze the cytotoxicity of these extracts in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was evaluated by microdilution method based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), M7-A6 and M27-A2 standards. The cytotoxicity of concentrations that eliminated the microorganisms was evaluated by MTT colorimetric method and by quantification of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) using ELISA. In determining the minimum microbicidal concentration, E. arvense L., P. granatum L., and S. barbatimam Mart. extracts at a concentration of 50 mg/mL and G. glabra L. extract at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, were effective against all microorganisms tested. Regarding cell viability, values were 48% for E. arvense L., 76% for P. granatum L, 86% for S. barbatimam Mart. and 79% for G. glabra L. at the same concentrations. About cytokine production after stimulation with the most effective concentrations of the extracts, there was a significant increase of IL-1β in macrophage cultures treated with S. barbatimam Mart. (3.98 pg/mL) and P. granatum L. (7.72 pg/mL) compared to control (2.20 pg/mL) and a significant decrease of TNF-α was observed in cultures treated with G. glabra L. (4.92 pg/mL), S. barbatimam Mart. (0.85 pg/mL), E. arvense L. (0.83 pg/mL), and P. granatum L. (0.00 pg

  11. Functional characterization of TRICHOMELESS2, a new single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factor in the regulation of trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

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    Gan Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1 for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3, thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2, whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. Results We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2, a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. Conclusions TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex

  12. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ting-Huan; Su, Hsin-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  13. Study of fossil wood from the Middle-Late Miocene sediments of Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam, India and its palaeoecological and palaeophytogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, R. C.; Bera, S. K.; Basumatary, S. K.; Srivastava, G.

    2011-08-01

    In order to reconstruct the palaeoclimate, a number of fossil wood pieces were collected and investigated from two new fossil localities situated in the Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam. They belong to the Tipam Group considered to be of Middle-Late Miocene in age and show affinities with Gluta (Anacardiaceae), Bischofia (Euphorbiaceae), Bauhinia, Cynometra, Copaifera-Detarium-Sindora, Millettia-Pongamia, and Afzelia-Intsia (Fabaceae). The flora also records a new species of Bauhinia named Bauhinia miocenica sp. nov. The assemblage indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of the sediments. The occurrence of some southeast Asian elements in the fossil flora indicates that an exchange of floral elements took place between India and southeast Asia during the Miocene.

  14. Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Biofuel Research Laboratory, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand- 247667 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. However, the possibilities of production of biodiesel from edible oil resources in India is almost impossible, as primary need is to first meet the demand of edible oil that is already imported therefore it is essential to explore non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha curcas and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. The oxidation stability of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil is very poor. Therefore the aim of the present paper is to study the oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blend. Also the effectiveness of various antioxidants is checked with respect to various blends of biodiesel with diesel.

  15. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  16. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  17. Pyridine metabolism and trigonelline synthesis in leaves of the mangrove legume trees Derris indica (Millettia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Sasamoto, Hamako; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the pyridine metabolism in leaves of two mangrove legumes, Derris indica (= Millettia pinnata or Pongamia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide supplied exogenously to young leaf disks was recovered in nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NAD, NADP, nicotinamide mononucleotide and trigonelline. These mangrove species, especially D. indica, have strong ability to convert nicotinamide to trigonelline, but not to nicotinic acid glucoside. The endogenous trigonelline content in leaves of D. indica was more than 830 microg/g dry weight. This value is 5-12 times greater than that in leaves of Glycine max. There was little short-term effect of 250 and 500 mM NaCl (equivalent to ca. 50% and 100% sea water) on nicotinamide metabolism.

  18. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Karanja Biodiesel Production in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Dewi Harreh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of nonedible feedstock for the production of biodiesel has become an area of research interest among clean energy experts in the past few years. This research is aimed at the utilization of Pongamia pinnata (karanja, a nonedible feedstock from the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, to produce biodiesel to be known as crude karanja oil (CKO. A one-step transesterification process utilizing 7 : 1–10 : 1 wt% methanol (CH3OH and 0.5–1.2 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 65°C for 1.5 hrs has been used for the biodiesel production yielding 84% conversion. The physiochemical properties of the CKO produced revealed that it conforms with EN14214 standards for brake power (BP, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and brake thermal efficiency (BTE as they are all noted be optimal at B40.

  20. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  1. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  2. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel

  3. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Parts of the Mathura, Agra, Etah and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh have a special problem of brackish water which is the result of the complete destruction of natural vegetation during a period of several centuries. Twenty species of trees and shrubs (listed) were planted during 1981-1982 in plots of 30 x 30 m at a spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m. A detailed analysis of water from the Forest Research Station, Mathura is presented; pH ranged from 7.00 to 7.85 and electrical conductivity from 4.0 to 6.10. Various salt concentrations were high. At 18 months old the species that were doing well were: Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Terminalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbek, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia auriculata, Adhatoda vasica and Cassia siamea.

  4. Potential rapd markers for population studies in tree legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.M.; Ramasubramanian, T.; Mohankumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method. (author)

  5. Mechanism of lead removal by waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, S.; Saleemi, A.R.; Ahmed, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal ions are priority pollutants, due to their toxicity and mobility in natural water ecosystems. The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic ecosystems has become a matter of concern in Pakistan over the last few decades. These contaminants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as a result of various industrial operations. The metals of concern include lead, chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and uranium. Lead is one of the most hazardous and toxic metals. It is used as industrial raw material in the manufacture of storage batteries, pigments, leaded glass, fuels, photographic materials, matches and explosives. Conventional methods for treatment of dissolved lead include precipitation, adsorption, coagulation/notation, sedimentation, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. Each process has its merits and limitations in applications. Adsorption by activated carbon and ion exchange using commercial ion exchange resins are very expensive processes, especially for a developing country like Pakistan. The present research was conducted to identify some waste materials, which can be utilized to remove lead from industrial wastewater. Natural wastes in the form of leaves and ash have considerable amounts of CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, SiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ which can be utilized for precipitation and adsorption. Utilization of waste materials to remove lead from industrial wastewater is the basic theme of this research. The waste materials used in this research were maple leaves, pongamia pinata leaves, coal ash and maple ago leave ash. Parameters studied were reaction time, precipitant dose, pH and temperature. It was found that maple leaves ash has maximum lead removal capacity 19.24 mg g/sup -1/ followed by coal ash 13.2 mg g/sup -1/. The optimal pH was 5 for maple leaves and pongamia Pinata leaves; and 4 for coal ash and maple leaves ash. Removal capacity decreased with increase in temperature. The major removal mechanisms were adsorption and

  6. Responses of Chironomidae (Diptera; Insecta to the exclusion of shrimps and Ephemeroptera in a coastal forest stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Souza

    Full Text Available In a benthic community on a continuous flat granite substrate in a third-order coastal forest stream, the dominant chironomid (Cricotopus increased in number when shrimps (Macrobrachium olfersi and Potimirim glabra and baetid ephemeropterans were excluded by electricity. The response appeared to be mediated by an increase in periphyton and sediments, rather than a reduction of direct predation or interference. Chironomids, periphyton and sediments decreased significantly compared to the control when shrimps only were excluded. Baetid ephemeropteran appeared to be the most important determinants of periphyton and sediment mass; the density of chironomids appeared to follow the quantity of periphyton and sediments.

  7. Evaluación morfológica y molecular de accesiones de anonáceas (anón, chirimoya y atemoya) en condiciones in situ, de las regiones Andina y Caribe Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Garzón, Sandra Liliana

    2014-01-01

    A través de la prospección de los recursos fitogenéticos de especies de la familia Annonaceae en Colombia (2009 y 2011), se conformó una población in situ compuesta por 167 accesiones, de cinco especies y un híbrido interespecífico (Annona cherimola, A. glabra, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, Rollinia sp. y A. squamosa x A. cherimola), distribuidas en 13 departamentos y 48 municipios de las regiones Andina y Caribe. Estableciendo y enriqueciendo tres colecciones de trabajo, conform...

  8. Anelídeos poliquetos associados a um briozoário: III. Polynoidae Polychaetous annelids associated to a bryozoan: III. Polynoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa H Morgado

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Polynoidae, found in colonies of the bryozoan Schizoporella unicorns (Johnston, are here described. Among these Scalisetosus gracilis is a new species for science, and Halosdna glabra Hartman and Harmathöe macginitiei Pettibone, cited by the first time for Brazilian coast. Lepisdonotus caeruleus was the most abundant species of the family. Scalisetosus gracilis sp. nov. is characterized by the elytra with long and bifid papillae scattered on the surface as well as on external borders and distinct notosetae and neurosetae.

  9. Protomedetera, a new genus from the Oriental and Australasian realms (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Medeterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chufei; Grootaert, Patrick; Yang, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Protomedetera gen. n. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a new genus of the subfamily Medeterinae, is described from the Oriental and Australasian realms based on four new species. Protomedetera singaporensis Grootaert & Tang, sp. n. is designated as type of the new genus. The genus is peculiar because of the small body size, the small globular first flagellomere (postpedicel), the simple male genitalia with indistinct or small epandrial lobe and half-hidden cercus. The following four new species are described and illustrated: P. biconvexa sp. n. , P. biseta sp. n. , P. glabra sp. n. , and P. singaporensis sp. n. A key to the species of the new genus is provided.

  10. Above ground perennial plant biomass across an altitudinal and land-use gradient in Namaqualand, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anderson, PML

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available palatable and highly palatable species was determined. A paired Wilcoxon sign-rank test was used to test for sig- nificant differences in the grazing scores. Didelta spinosa (L.f.) Aiton Dimorphotheca cuneata (Thunb.) Less. Diospyros glabra (L.) De...-normal and the Kruskal–Wallis test Qwas used to test 239for significant differences. A paired Wilcoxon sign-ranks test 240was used to test for significant differences in total biomass and 241biomass graded according to palatability on either side of the 242fence (Zar...

  11. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  12. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  13. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem R; Lotfiomran, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea), Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea) and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea). The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata) and 50 percent (G. glabra) of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  14. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

  15. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers from the chloroplast genome of Glycyrrhiza species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ick-Hyun; Sung, Jwakyung; Hong, Chi-Eun; Raveendar, Sebastin; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2018-05-01

    Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ) is an important medicinal crop often used as health foods or medicine worldwide. The molecular genetics of licorice is under scarce owing to lack of molecular markers. Here, we have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by comparing the chloroplast genomes of two Glycyrrhiza species ( G. glabra and G. lepidota ). The CAPS and HRM markers were tested for diversity analysis with 24 Glycyrrhiza accessions. The restriction profiles generated with CAPS markers classified the accessions (2-4 genotypes) and melting curves (2-3) were obtained from the HRM markers. The number of alleles and major allele frequency were 2-6 and 0.31-0.92, respectively. The genetic distance and polymorphism information content values were 0.16-0.76 and 0.15-0.72, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships among the 24 accessions were estimated using a dendrogram, which classified them into four clades. Except clade III, the remaining three clades included the same species, confirming interspecies genetic correlation. These 18 CAPS and HRM markers might be helpful for genetic diversity assessment and rapid identification of licorice species.

  16. Analyzing trichomes and spatio-temporal expression of a cysteine protease gene Mucunain in Mucuna pruriens L. (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheel Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2018-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod. The external surface trichomes have protuberance with unknown function. The unicellular trichomes of Mucuna show the flowing fluid or cytoplasm inside the trichome. The unigenes regulating the differentiation and development of the trichome such as GLABRA-1, GLABRA-2, and cpr-5 have been identified in M. pruriens transcriptome of the leaf. The Mucunain shows a higher transcript abundance in the flower and pod cover compared to the seeds. The Mucunain was found in every stage of plant growth, but it was highly expressed during maturity (about 170 days) with a high fragment per kilobase per million value.

  17. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  18. Sorption behavior of congo red on different plant leaves (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Mirza, M.L.; Zafar, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of different plant leaves (Bougainvillaea Glabra and Citrus Sinensis) for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution by optimizing different parameters such as effect of shaking time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration, temperature etc. The experimental data was subjected to different types of isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated and was comparable for both the leaves through Freundlich isotherm by using the optimized parameters of weight and time at room temperature. The sorption mean free energy from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was also determined and compared. Pseudo-first and Pseudo-second order kinetics models were tested for the adsorption of Congo red on plant leaves powder. The experimental data fitted well for Pseudo-second order model. The uptake of Congo red was also studied with the variation of temperature. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The results indicate that the plant leaves of Bougainvilia Glabra and Citrus Sinensis are efficient adsorbents for Congo red dye from aqueous solutions and can be used for wastewater management. (author)

  19. GROWTH OF AMAZON NATIVE SPECIES SUBMITTED TO THE PLANTATION IN THE RORAIMA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An important forest research challenge in the Amazonian is finding forms of reforesting degraded areas with the use of a larger number of native species and identify tropical species commercially attractive adapted to clear-cut areas. This work had as objectives to evaluate the initial growth in diameter and height of six native Amazonian species in a preliminary species trial. The data were obtained from measures of 72 trees 9 years after planting. The selected species for this study were cupiúba (Goupia glabra, cumaru (Dipterix odorata, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, pará-pará (Jacaranda copaia and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis. The cumulative growth curves for diameter and height was obtained by the Chapman – Richards function. In spite of the low age of the stands, it was obtained good fit to the function for the studied species. Pará-pará (Jacaranda copaia, presented best diameter and height growth in all the ages. The diameter mean annual increment analysis showed that, except for the cupiúba (Goupia glabra,  can be expected  increments larger than  2 cm, by appropiate spacings and thinning.

  20. Crescimento de espécies nativas da Amazônia submetidas ao plantio no estado de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An important forest research challenge in the Amazonian is finding forms of reforesting degraded areas with the use of a larger number of native species and identify tropical species commercially attractive adapted to clear-cut areas. This work had as objectives to evaluate the initial growth in diameter and height of six native Amazonian species in a preliminary species trial. The data were obtained from measures of 72 trees 9 years after planting. The selected species for this study were cupiúba (Goupia glabra, cumaru (Dipterix odorata, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, pará-pará (Jacaranda copaia and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis. The cumulative growth curves for diameter and height was obtained by the Chapman – Richards function. In spite of the low age of the stands, it was obtained good fit to the function for the studied species. Pará-pará (Jacaranda copaia, presented best diameter and height growth in all the ages. The diameter mean annual increment analysis showed that, except for the cupiúba (Goupia glabra, can be expected increments larger than 2 cm, by appropiate spacings and thinning.

  1. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (<20%) and limited cercarial production (<50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms, the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and R. balthica. Methods Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20°C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. Results In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations

  2. Monograph: In vitro efficacy of 30 ethnomedicinal plants used by Indian aborigines against 6 multidrug resistant Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Sahu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of 30 common and noncommon plants used by aborigines in Kalahandi district, Odisha, against 6 clinically isolated multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-positive bacteria of 3 genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus. Methods: The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 6 bacterial strains were studied with the diskdiffusion method with 1 7 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. Monitored plants have ethnomedicinal use and several are used as traditional medicines. Antibacterial properties were studied with the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of plants were determined by the microbroth-dilution method. Results: Ethanolic plant-extracts had the better antibacterial potencies in comparison to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Plants with most conspicuous antibacterial properties in controlling MDR strains of Gram-positive bacteria were aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Ixora coccinea, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Polycythaemia rubra, Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini, Carthamus tinctorius, Cucurbita maxima, Murraya koenigii, Leucas aspera, Plumbago indica and Psidium guajava. Ethanolic extracts of most plants had phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. Conclusions: These plants could be used further for the isolation of pure compounds to be used as complementary non-microbial antimicrobial medicines.

  3. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  4. Feasibility study of utilizing jatropha curcas oil as bio-diesel in an oil firing burner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, A. I. M.; Jaafar, M. N. Mohd; Sahar, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Jatropha oil derived from the Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus is one of the high potential plants to be use as bio-diesel. The purpose of this research is to carry out a feasibility study of using jatropha oil as bio-diesel on oil firing burner system. Like other bio-diesels, jatropha oil can also be used in any combustion engine and the performance and emissions such as NOx, SO2, CO and CO2 as well as unburned hydocarbon (UHC) from the engine will vary depending on the bio-diesel blends. The properties of Conventional Diesel Fuel (CDF) obtained will be used as baseline and the jatropha oil properties will be compared as well as other bio-diesels. From several researches, the properties of jatropha oil was found to be quite similar with other bio-diesel such as palm oil, neem, keranja and pongamia bio-diesel and complying with the ASTM standard for bio-diesel. Still, there are factors and issues concerning the use of jatropha oil such as technology, economy, legislation and resource. Plus, there several challenges to the growth of bio-diesel industry development since the world right now do not totally depend on the bio-diesel.

  5. Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakara, B.N.; Upadhyaya, H.D.; Gowda, C.L. Laxmipathi [Global Theme on Crop Improvement, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Wani, S.P. [Global Theme of Agroecosystems, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bio-diesel is a fast-developing alternative fuel in many developed and developing countries of the world. The bio-diesel production from vegetable oils during 2004-2005 was estimated 2.36 million tonnes globally. Of this, EU countries accounted for about 82% and USA about 6%. Global bio-diesel production is set to reach some 24 billion litres by 2017. Shortage of edible oil for human consumption in developing countries does not favour its use for bio-diesel production. Hence non-edible oil from crops like Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) and Pongamia (Pongamiapinnata) is favoured for bio-diesel production and the trend is expected to continue. Especially J. curcas has gained attention in tropical and sub-tropical countries and has spread beyond its centre of origin, because of its hardiness, easy propagation, drought endurance, high oil content, rapid growth, adaptation to wide agro-climatic conditions, and multiple uses of plant as a whole. The full potential of J. curcas has not been realized due to several technological and economic reasons. One of the major reasons is the lack of high yielding varieties with high oil content. In this review, we attempt to discuss the currently available information on Jatropha species identity, taxonomy and description, distribution and ecological requirements of the species, possibilities of exploitation of genetic potentiality, exploitation of existing diversity for yield and oil content by direct selection, hybridization and creation of diversity by mutation, and biotechnological interventions. (author)

  6. Development and Evaluation of Poly Herbal Molluscicidal Extracts for Control of Apple Snail (Pomacea maculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruswamy Prabhakaran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Golden Apple Snail (GAS is the most destructive invasive rice pest in Southeast Asia. The cost of synthetic molluscicides, their toxicity to non-target organisms, and their persistence in the environment have propelled the research of plant-derived molluscicides. Most research efforts have focused on individual plant extracts for their molluscicidal potency against GAS and have not been proven to be entirely effective in rice field conditions. Selective combination of synergistically acting molluscicidal compounds from various plant extracts might be an effective alternative. In this direction, ethanolic extracts from six different plants (Neem, Tobacco, Nerium, Pongamia, Zinger, and Piper were evaluated against Pomacea maculata Perry. Of the various combinations studied, a binary extract (1:1 of nerium and tobacco (LC90 177.71 mg/L, 48 h, and two tri-herbal extract formulations (1:1:1 of (nerium + tobacco + piper and (nerium + tobacco + neem were found to be most effective, with LC90 values of 180.35 mg/L and 191.52 mg/L, respectively, in laboratory conditions. The synergistic effect of combined herbal extracts resulted in significant reduction in LC90 values of the individual extracts. The findings of this study demonstrate that the selective combinations of potent molluscicidal herbal extracts are effective for management of P. maculata under laboratory conditions.

  7. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular.

  8. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology; Navia, Rodrigo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    2010-10-15

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. (orig.)

  9. An integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Naik, M K; Ajithkumar, K

    2013-02-01

    An integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against Aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. Maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). Carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. A complete inhibition (100%) of A. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), nimbicidin and pongamia oil at 5%. An indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens bioagent isolate inhibited (74.9%) the growth of A. flavus over Trichoderma harzianum (70.4%). The superior performing fungicides, plant extracts and bioagents identified under in vitro were used for challenge inoculation on chilli fruits and so also for field evaluation. The captan treated fruits recorded the least infection of A. flavus (1.6%) followed by P. fluorescens (2.0%), NSKE (2.2%) and nimbicidin treated fruits (7.8%) as against control (38.3%). As regards to field evaluation, the least incidence was recorded in NSKE sprayed chilli plot (1.6%) and was on par with captan (2.2%), P. fluorescens (2.4%) and T. harzianum (2.6%) compared to control (7.4%). Hence, a pre-harvest spray of NSKE (5%) or mancozeb (0.3%) or P. fluorescens (1 × 10(8) cfu/ml) 10 days before harvest of chilli is recommended for field level management of aflatoxin.

  10. Computational optimization of biodiesel combustion using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Prabhakara Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on optimization of biodiesel combustion phenomena through parametric approach using response surface methodology. Physical properties of biodiesel play a vital role for accurate simulations of the fuel spray, atomization, combustion, and emission formation processes. Typically methyl based biodiesel consists of five main types of esters: methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenate in its composition. Based on the amount of methyl esters present the properties of pongamia bio-diesel and its blends were estimated. CONVERGETM computational fluid dynamics software was used to simulate the fuel spray, turbulence and combustion phenomena. The simulation responses such as indicated specific fuel consumption, NOx, and soot were analyzed using design of experiments. Regression equations were developed for each of these responses. The optimum parameters were found out to be compression ratio – 16.75, start of injection – 21.9° before top dead center, and exhaust gas re-circulation – 10.94%. Results have been compared with baseline case.

  11. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  12. Evaluation of Some Tree Species to Absorb Air Pollutants in Three Industrial Locations of South Bengaluru, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast growing and excessive increase in industrial projects in Bengaluru, the level of pollution is also increasing. Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. The study examined the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of plant species around three industrial areas of south Bengaluru. The physiological and biochemical parameters, which are relative to leaf's water content (RWC, ascorbic acid content (AA, total leaf chlorophyll (TCh and leaf extract pH were used to compute the APTI values and three heavy metals were selected (cadmium, lead and zinc for analysis. The result shows that the most tolerant tree species with respect to ATPI and heavy metal concentration were Ficus religiosa, Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata (L.. These plants can be considered as tolerant species in the industrial areas. The APTI values for remaining species are reported lower and are considered as sensitive species. Further studies on air pollution tolerance index with respect to three industrial areas of south Bengaluru indicated that the air pollution was maximum in Jigani industrial area and minimum in Electronic city.

  13. Characterization of rhizobial isolates nodulating Millettia pinnata in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Abdul; Amalraj, E Leo Daniel; Praveen Kumar, G; Grover, Minakshi; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-11-01

    Millettia pinnata (Synonym Pongamia pinnata) is a viable source of oil for the mushrooming biofuel industry, source for agroforestry, urban landscaping, and the bio-amelioration of degraded lands. It also helps in maintaining soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, not much work is reported on classification and characterization of the rhizobia associated with this plant. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate rhizobial strains nodulating Millettia from soils collected from southern regions of India. The isolates were characterized using numerical taxonomy, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and cross nodulation ability. The results showed high phenotypic and genetic diversity among the rhizobia symbiotic with Millattia pinnata. The isolates formed five clusters at similarity level of 0.82 based on the results of numerical taxonomy. Results on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most microsymbionts of M. pinnata belonged to Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which are closely related to Rhizobium sp., B. elkanii and B. yuanmingense. Among these isolates, some isolates could grow in a pH range of 4.0-10.0, some could tolerate a high salt concentration (3% NaCl) and could grow at a maximum temperature between 35 and 45 °C. M. pinnata formed nodules with diverse rhizobia in Indian soils. These results offered the first systematic information about the microsymbionts of M. pinnata grown in the soils from southern part of India. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PHENOLOGY, POLLINATION AND SEED PRODUCTION OF Millettia pinnata IN KUNUNURRA, NORTHERN WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata L. Panigrahi atau Pongamia pinnata L. Piere adalah tumbuhan legum yang menghasilkan biji dengan kandungan minyak yang cocok untuk biodiesel. Fenologi dan polinasi pada tanaman ini dipantau dan dimanipulasi untuk meningkatkan pembentukan biji dan hasil panen. Musim berbunga di Kununurra berlangsung selama satu bulan dari awal Oktober dan pembungaan terjadi tidak bersamaan baik pada satu tanaman maupun di antara tanaman yang berbeda. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, Megachile sp., dan Nomia sp., memiliki tingkat kunjungan yang sangat rendah (6-13 kunjungan dengan puncak waktu kunjungan dari jam 9.00 sampai jam 10.00 dan periode aktivitas mencari makan yang pendek (dari jam 6.00 sampai 12.00. Hal ini mungkin terjadi karena sedikitnya volume nektar yang dihasilkan (1.0 ± 0.04 ?l dan tingginya temperatur di Kununurra. Viabilitas polen yang tinggi (85 ± 3% menurun tajam menjadi 10 ± 3% dengan penyimpanan selama satu tahun pada suhu 4oC, tetapi hanya sedikit menurun menjadi 62 ± 3% pada suhu penyimpanan -20oC dan -80oC. Kunjungan lebah madu (Apis mellifera meningkatkan hasil panen biji dari 296 menjadi 4.981 g/pohon, tetapi hasil panen ini masih rendah dan sangat bervariasi.

  15. Vegetation in Bangalore’s Slums: Boosting Livelihoods, Well-Being and Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gopal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban greenery provides ecosystem services that play an important role in the challenging context of urban deprivation and poverty. This study assesses the social importance of vegetation through empirical assessment of 44 urban slums in the rapidly developing southern city of Bangalore, India. Vegetation played a major role in supporting nutrition by its role in food consumption, and in promoting health through the planting of species with medicinal use. Trees in slums also formed nodes for social activities including conversing and playing, domestic activities such as cooking and washing dishes, and livelihood activities such as the manufacture of broomsticks and tyre repair. Innovative methods of gardening were widely adopted, with kitchen gardens found planted in plastic bags, paint cans, old kitchen utensils and buckets, indicating the importance given to planting in environments with limited finances. Short and narrow trunked trees with medium-sized canopies and high economic value, such as Pongamia, were preferred. A greater focus on greening in slums is needed, and can provide an invaluable, inexpensive and sustainable approach to improve lives in these congested, deprived environments.

  16. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network to enhance the release of reducing sugars from non-edible seed cake by autoclave assisted HCl hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Vinayaka B; Palan, Anusha M; Rao, Shama U; Varun, C; Aishwarya, Uday; Raja, Selvaraj; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Vaman Rao, C; Ujwal, P

    2018-02-01

    In the current investigation, statistical approaches were adopted to hydrolyse non-edible seed cake (NESC) of Pongamia and optimize the hydrolysis process by response surface methodology (RSM). Through the RSM approach, the optimized conditions were found to be 1.17%v/v of HCl concentration at 54.12 min for hydrolysis. Under optimized conditions, the release of reducing sugars was found to be 53.03 g/L. The RSM data were used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) and the predictive ability of both models was compared by calculating various statistical parameters. A three-layered ANN model consisting of 2:12:1 topology was developed; the response of the ANN model indicates that it is precise when compared with the RSM model. The fit of the models was expressed with the regression coefficient R 2 , which was found to be 0.975 and 0.888, respectively, for the ANN and RSM models. This further demonstrated that the performance of ANN was better than that of RSM.

  17. Genetic selection and improvement of hard wood tree species for fuelwood production on sodic soil with particular reference to Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Tree Biology

    2001-07-01

    This study is part of a research programme on selection and improvement of fast growing tree species suitable for wood fuel production on sodic wastelands (pH 8.6-10.5). Field trials of nine legumes (Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecellobium dulce) and three other tree species (Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Terminalai arjuna) were selected for this study. Prosopis juliflora was the most promising species in terms of its biomass productivity (68.7 t ha{sup -1}) and fuel value index (148.8) after 8-yr of growth. Acacia nilotica ranked second. Intra-specific variations were screened at provenance and individual tree level in order to improve fuelwood production potential of P. juliflora through selection and breeding. Successful populations (gene pools) and individuals (genotypes) were closed and conserved in clonal gardens to produce quality germplasm for plantations on sodic wastelands. Genetic testing, selection and multiplication of selected material are under progress. This will optimise gains in future afforestation programmes on sodic soils. (Author)

  18. Synthetic lubrication oil influences on performance and emission characteristic of coated diesel engine fuelled by biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Musthafa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthetic lubricant provides the maximum performance benefits. • Synthetic lubricant is capable of retaining satisfactory viscosity. • Synthetic lubricant is to increase the life of the engine. • Improvement in efficiency of the coated engine with synthetic lubrication. • No significant changes in the coated engine emission with synthetic lubricants. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of using synthetic lubricating oil on the performance and exhaust emissions in a low heat rejection diesel engine running on Pongamia methyl ester blends and diesel have been investigated experimentally compared to those obtained from a conventional diesel engine with SAE 40 lubrication oil fuelled by diesel. For this purpose, direct injection diesel engine was converted to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated engine. The results showed 5–9% increase in engine efficiency and 8–17% decrease in specific fuel consumption, as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NO_X) for all tested fuels (pure diesel, B10 and B20) used in coated engine with synthetic lubricants compared to that of the uncoated engine with SAE 40 lubricant running on diesel fuel.

  19. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  20. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-yuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid (GA is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra. GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.

  1. Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongratarpon, Titima; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon; Sutantawong; Manoon

    2006-01-01

    Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30 o C, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the tester s acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the tester s accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

  2. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuder, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-02-15

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  3. Allelopathic assessment of selected invasive species of pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, S. [International Islamic Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology; Bangash, N. [Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture Univ., Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Asghar, R. [Mirpur Univ. of Science and Technology, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    Invader species are a great threat to local flora. Eight invader species of Pakistan were screened for their allelopathic activity through sandwich method. Toxic (inhibitory) and non-toxic (stimulatory) effects were assessed by recording their effect on germination and growth of lettuce. Radicle and plumule growth of lettuce were recorded at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations of each species. Among all species the growth activity was found to be concentration dependent. Except Eutcalyptus glabra all species resulted in inhibitory effects at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations. Xanthium strumarium and Cannabis sativa showed strong inhibitory effects on radicle and plumule growth of lettuce. Maximum inhibition was recorded at highest concentration; even growth of lettuce was stopped with 50 mg leaves concentration of C. sativa. (author)

  4. Allelopathic assessment of selected invasive species of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Invader species are a great threat to local flora. Eight invader species of Pakistan were screened for their allelopathic activity through sandwich method. Toxic (inhibitory) and non-toxic (stimulatory) effects were assessed by recording their effect on germination and growth of lettuce. Radicle and plumule growth of lettuce were recorded at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations of each species. Among all species the growth activity was found to be concentration dependent. Except Eutcalyptus glabra all species resulted in inhibitory effects at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations. Xanthium strumarium and Cannabis sativa showed strong inhibitory effects on radicle and plumule growth of lettuce. Maximum inhibition was recorded at highest concentration; even growth of lettuce was stopped with 50 mg leaves concentration of C. sativa. (author)

  5. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  6. Analysis of vitamin C in selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a very useful constituent of redox mechanism is used in medicine and also added in manufactured food for anti-oxidation. A UV-spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of Vitamin C in 4 different medicinal plants. High amount of Vitamin C 160 mg/100 g was found in Citrulus colcocynthis, followed by Hippophae rhamonides oil 136.1 mg/100g. A relatively low concentration of Vitamin C was recorded in Glycyrhiza glabra 56.2 mg/100g and Withinia somnifera 51.50 mg/100 g. The presence of high concentration of Vitamin C in selected medicinal plants might be responsible for their therapeutic effects and uses in the traditional system of medicine. (author)

  7. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  8. A VALID NAME FOR THE TAXON KNOWN AS TILLANDSIA BRYOIDES AUCT. (BROMELIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Donadío

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia bryoides fue incluida en la sinonimia de T. tricholepis porque todos los elementos del lectotipo (P. Lorentz 128, BM pertenecen a esta última especie. Sin embargo, se observaron en el campo, en distintos herbarios y en diversas publicaciones, materiales que fueron previamente considerados como T. bryoides y que en realidad corresponden a una nueva especie de Tillandsia subgen. Diaphoranthema. Esta nueva especie tiene flores solitarias, sésiles, amarillas y una bráctea floral glabra, y crece en el centro de Perú, en Bolivia, y en el centro y noroeste de Argentina. En este trabajo se establece un nombre válido para esta especie, junto con una ilustración detallada, datos de distribución, y una discusión de sus relaciones con las especies morfológicamente más afines.

  9. Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

  10. Causes of the dying of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the Okhta training-cum-experimental forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podzorov, N V

    1961-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the health of these stands on the outskirts of Leningrad, where there has been considerable and increasing mortality since 1880. The chief causes are air pollution (especially from the Okhta chemical industry), climatic upsets, and periodic excesses of soil moisture. Counter measures recommended include: creating a protective belt 300-350 m wide of the most smoke resistant trees (Larix sibirica, Betula pubescens, Populus X canadensis, Tilia cordata, Acer negundo, Ulmus glabra and U. laevis) in the areas closest to the city, with the rows at 90/sup 0/ to the direction of the prevailing wind. Site improvement measures should be undertaken on level ground, heavy soils, and areas with excess soil moisture, and mixtures of conifers and broadleaved species should be planted. 7 references.

  11. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference, the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia glabra, that alsopresented the largest percentages of mortality of termites. The Schizolobium parahyba, Toona ciliata and the Tachigalia myrmecophyllawere the species with the highest level of damage.

  12. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.

    2009-02-01

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  13. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  14. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  15. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

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    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  16. Efficacy of Indigenous Herbal Preparation on Altered Milk pH, Somatic Cell Count and Electrolyte Profile in Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

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    A.Y. Kolte

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of three different locally prepared indigenous herbal paste were evaluated in subclinical 24 mastitic cows with reference to restoring altered milk pH, somatic cell count and milk electrolyte profile. The study revealed that all the treatment were found effective in restoring the altered milk constituents in subclinical mastitis with increased in the milk production. T3 (oots of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, Asparagus reacemosus (Shatavari, Curcuma-amada (Ambe Haldi and fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi in equal quantities was found more effective than T5 ( T3 and T4 in combination in equal quantities and T4 (fresh roots of Glycerrhiza glabra (Jeshathamadh, Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi, leaves of Riccinus communis (Yerand, bark of Ficus racemosa (Umber and rhizome of Curcuma longa (Haldi in equal quantities [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 239-240

  17. Ameliorative Effects of Herbal Combinations in Hyperlipidemia

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    Nishant P. Visavadiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, and Chlorophytum borivilianum and seeds of Sesamum indicum are ayurvedic medicinal plants used in India to treat several ailments. Our previous studies indicated that these plants possess hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential. The present study was aimed at investigating the composite effects of these plants on hypercholesterolemic rats. Three different combinations (5 gm%, given for four weeks used in this study effectively reduced plasma and hepatic lipid profiles and increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, neutral sterol, and bile acid along with increasing the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity and bile acid content in hypercholesterolemic rats. Further, all three combinations also improved the hepatic antioxidant status (catalase, SOD, and ascorbic acid levels and plasma total antioxidant capacity with reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Overall, combination I had the maximum effect on hypercholesterolemic rats followed by combinations II and III due to varying concentrations of the different classes of phytocomponents.

  18. Caracteres morfológicos de Bolbitis serratifolia (Dryopteridaceae de Argentina

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    María del Carmen Lavalle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió Bolbitis serratifoliasobre la base de rasgos morfológicos del esporófito, con el fin de aportar nuevos datos al conocimiento del género; se lo comparó con otro género de la misma familia y se pusieron a prueba distintos caracteres diagnósticos. Se trabajó sobre arquitectura foliar, venación, indumento, modelo epidérmico de las pinnas, estomas y esporas. El dimorfismo foliar, las frondes imparipinnadas, la venación reticulada con venilla excurrente, los ejes escamosos, las láminas glabras y las esporas triletes; son caracteres morfológicos que permiten identificar esta especie.

  19. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Licorice Species in Comparison with Hops Used in Botanicals for Menopausal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Yuan, Yang; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M.; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec.) to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE)-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of botanical

  20. A revision of the haploporinae nicoll, 1914 (digenea: haploporidae) from mullets (mugilidae): Dicrogaster Looss, 1902 and Forticulcita overstreet, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-03-01

    The status of the nominal species of Dicrogaster is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study based on newly collected material from the western Mediterranean and a critical evaluation of the published data. D. perpusilla Looss, 1902 (type-species) and D. contracta Looss, 1902 are redescribed on the basis of new material from Liza spp. D. fragilis Fernández Bargiela, 1987 is considered a junior synonym of D. fastigata Thatcher & Sparks, 1958 and D. maryutensis Al-Bassel, 1990 is considered to be nomen nudum. A key to the recognised species of Dicrogaster is presented. A new species of Forticulcita Overstreet, 1982 is described from Mugil cephalus L. in the Spanish Mediterranean and differentiated from the type-species, F. glabra Overstreet, 1982, and the recently described F. mugilis Hassanine, 2007 by its significantly smaller body size and most of its metrical data. The new species, F. gibsoni n. sp., is characterised by a narrow 'neck' region anterior to the genital pore and a long striated 'tail' region in the hindbody which is devoid of organs, such that the bulk of the uterus is restricted to the anterior half of the hindbody and the testis is located more anteriorly. F. gibsoni differs from F. glabra in having a longer forebody, smaller sucker width ratio and larger eggs, and from F. mugilis in having a smaller sucker width ratio, a hermaphroditic sac much longer than the ventral sucker and smaller eggs. The three Mediterranean forms, D. perpusilla, D. contracta and F. gibsoni are further distinguished by multivariate analyses. Keys to the species of both genera are presented.

  1. The genus Parasola in Pakistan with the description of two new species

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    Shah Hussain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasola is a genus of small, veil-less coprinoid mushrooms in the family Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales. The genus is not well documented in Asia, specifically in Pakistan. In this study we describe two new species Parasola glabra and P. pseudolactea from Pakistan, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogeny based on three DNA regions: nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS, nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S and translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF1α show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade formed by the members of section Parasola of genus Parasola. Parasola glabra with grayish pileus, slightly depressed pileal disc, lamellae separated from the stipe by pseudocollarium, basidiospores 14.5–16.5 × 9.5–11.5 × 8.0–10.5 µm, in front view broadly ovoid to oblong, some with rhomboidal outline, in side view ellipsoid, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diameter. Parasola pseudolactea with yellowish brown to dull brown pileus, disc indistinctly umbonate, lamellae free, pseudocollarium absent, basidiospores 13.5–14.5 × 10.5–12.0 × 9.5–10.5 µm, in face view rounded triangular to heart shaped, rarely ovoid to subglobose, in side view ellipsoid to oblong, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diam. In addition to these new species, P. auricoma and P. lilatincta were also studied. Morphological descriptions for the new species and comparison with known Parasola species are provided. Our observations highlight the diversity of Parasola in northern Pakistan and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region’s fungi.

  2. The genus Parasola in Pakistan with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shah; Ahmad, Habib; Ullah, Sadiq; Afshan, Najam-Ul-Sehar; Pfister, Donald H; Sher, Hassan; Ali, Haidar; Khalid, Abdul N

    2018-01-01

    Parasola is a genus of small, veil-less coprinoid mushrooms in the family Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The genus is not well documented in Asia, specifically in Pakistan. In this study we describe two new species Parasola glabra and P. pseudolactea from Pakistan, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogeny based on three DNA regions: nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) and translation elongation factor 1 α gene ( TEF1α ) show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade formed by the members of section Parasola of genus Parasola . Parasola glabra with grayish pileus, slightly depressed pileal disc, lamellae separated from the stipe by pseudocollarium, basidiospores 14.5-16.5 × 9.5-11.5 × 8.0-10.5 µm, in front view broadly ovoid to oblong, some with rhomboidal outline, in side view ellipsoid, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diameter. Parasola pseudolactea with yellowish brown to dull brown pileus, disc indistinctly umbonate, lamellae free, pseudocollarium absent, basidiospores 13.5-14.5 × 10.5-12.0 × 9.5-10.5 µm, in face view rounded triangular to heart shaped, rarely ovoid to subglobose, in side view ellipsoid to oblong, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diam. In addition to these new species, P. auricoma and P. lilatincta were also studied. Morphological descriptions for the new species and comparison with known Parasola species are provided. Our observations highlight the diversity of Parasola in northern Pakistan and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region's fungi.

  3. Inhibitory activity of Iranian plant extracts on growth and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Mansouri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a drug resistance opportunistic bacterium. Biofilm formation is key factor for survivalof P. aeruginosa in various environments. Polysaccharides may be involved in biofilm formation. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of seven plant extracts with known alpha-glucosidaseinhibitory activities on different strains of P. aeruginosa.Methodology and results: Plants were extracted with methanol by the maceration method. Antimicrobial activities weredetermined by agar dilution and by growth yield as measured by OD560nm of the Luria Bertani broth (LB culture with orwithout extracts. In agar dilution method, extracts of Quercus infectoria inhibited the growth of all, while Myrtuscommunis extract inhibited the growth of 3 out of 8 bacterial strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1000μg/mL. All extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced growth rate of the bacteria in comparison with the control withoutextracts in LB broth at sub-MIC concentrations (500 μg/mL. All plant extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced biofilmformation compared to the controls. Glycyrrhiza glabra and Q. infectoria had the highest anti-biofilm activities. Nocorrelation between the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with growth or the intensity of biofilm formation was found.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Extracts of Q. infectoria and M. communis had the most antimicrobial,while Q. infectoria and G. glabra had the highest anti-biofilm activities. All plant extracts had anti-biofilm activities withmarginal effect on growth, suggesting that the mechanisms of these activities are unrelated to static or cidal effects.Further work to understand the relation between antimicrobial and biofilm formation is needed for development of newmeans to fight the infectious caused by this bacterium in future.

  4. Papillae formation on trichome cell walls requires the function of the mediator complex subunit Med25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornero, Christy; Suo, Bangxia; Zahde, Mais; Juveland, Katelyn; Kirik, Viktor

    2017-11-01

    Glassy Hair 1 (GLH1) gene that promotes papillae formation on trichome cell walls was identified as a subunit of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25. The MED25 gene is shown to be expressed in trichomes. The expression of the trichome development marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) is not affected in the glh1 mutant. Presented data suggest that Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of genes promoting papillae deposition in trichomes. The plant cell wall plays an important role in communication, defense, organization and support. The importance of each of these functions varies by cell type. Specialized cells, such as Arabidopsis trichomes, exhibit distinct cell wall characteristics including papillae. To better understand the molecular processes important for papillae deposition on the cell wall surface, we identified the GLASSY HAIR 1 (GLH1) gene, which is necessary for papillae formation. We found that a splice-site mutation in the component of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25 gene is responsible for the near papillae-less phenotype of the glh1 mutant. The MED25 gene is expressed in trichomes. Reporters for trichome developmental marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) were not affected in the glh1 mutant. Collectively, the presented results show that MED25 is necessary for papillae formation on the cell wall surface of leaf trichomes and suggest that the Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of a subset of genes that promote papillae deposition in trichomes.

  5. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization library construction and identification of epidermal bladder cell related genes in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

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    Siranet Roeurn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic species, displays modified trichomes, epidermal bladder cells (EBC, on the surfaces of its aerial organs. EBCs serve to sequester excessive salt from underlying metabolically active tissues. To elucidate the molecular determinants governing EBC development in the common ice plant, we constructed a cDNA-based suppression subtractive hybridization library and identified genes differentially expressed between the wild-type and the EBC-less mutant. After hybridization, 38 clones were obtained. Among them, 24 clones had homology with plant genes of known functions, whose roles might not be directly related to EBC-morphology, while 14 clones were homologous to genes of unknown functions. After confirmation by northern blot analysis, 12 out of 14 clones of unknown functions were chosen for semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and the results revealed that three clones designated as MW3, MW21, and MW31 preferentially expressed in the EBC-less mutant, whereas the other two designated as WM10 and WM28 preferentially expressed in the wild type. Among these genes, the expression of a putative jasmonate-induced gene, designated as WM28 was completely suppressed in the EBC-mutant. In addition, the deletion of C-box cis-acting element was found in the promoter region of WM28 in the EBC-less mutant. Overexpression of WM28 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased trichome number due to the upregulation of key trichome-related genes GLABRA1 (GL1, and GLABRA3 (GL3. These results demonstrate that WM28 can be an important factor responsible for EBC formation, and also suggest the similarity of developmental mechanism between trichome in Arabidopsis and EBC in common ice plant.

  7. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  8. Traditional uses of medicinal plants used by Indigenous communities for veterinary practices at Bajaur Agency, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Habib

    2018-01-29

    The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes.

  9. Effect of water quality on the feeding ecology of axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum

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    Diego de Jesus Chaparro-Herrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambystoma mexicanum, a highly endangered species, is endemic to lake Xochimilco (Mexico City, Mexico which currently is being negatively affected by the introduction of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia and water pollution. During the first weeks of development, when mortality is the highest, Ambystoma mexicanumdepends on a diet of zooplankton. The aim of this study was to check whether contamination levels in lake Xochimilco influence zooplankton consumption by similar size classes of A. mexicanum and Oreochromis niloticus. In this study, we analysed changes in the functional responses and prey preference of A. mexicanum and larval Tilapia in two media, one with filtered lake Xochimilco water and another one with reconstituted water. As prey we used cladocerans (Moina macrocopa, Alona glabra, Macrothrix triserialis and Simocephalus vetulus and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens. Zooplankton was offered in 5 different densities, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ind./mL. Prey consumption by A. mexicanum varied in relation to the species offered and age of the larvae. From the first week to the eighth week prey consumption by A. mexicanum increased by 57%. Our functional response tests showed that regardless of the prey type, prey consumption by A. mexicanum was lower in the contaminated water from lake Xochimilco. Among the zooplankton offered in the contaminated environment predators preferred smaller and slower moving microcrustaceans such as Alona glabra and Heterocypris incongruens. Furthermore, O. niloticus preferred prey such as Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis in the contaminated medium and was more voracious than the axolotl. Our results indicate that both water quality of the lake and the presence of the more resistant exotic fish adversely impact the survival of this endangered amphibian.

  10. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Hajirahimkhan

    Full Text Available The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec. to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of

  11. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B. C.; Malterud, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  12. Biodiesel scenario in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taj, S. [Bangalore Univ., Al-Ameen College, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Prasad, H. [Bangalore Univ., Central College, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Ramesh, N. [Reva College, Bangladore (India); Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    This article presented an overview of biodiesel production in India. Biodiesel has gained widespread acceptance in the United States and the European Union as a substitute for diesel. In early 2003, the Indian National Planning Commission launched a program to also foster development of vegetable oil based biofuels in order to address the energy challenges facing India. Approximately 57 per cent of rural Indian households are still not connected to the power grid, and India imports 75 per cent of its total petroleum. The National Planning Commission advocated widespread planting of an inedible, but high-yielding tree-born oilseed known as jatropha curcas that would serve as the primary feedstock for the production of vegetable oil based biofuels. Jatropha and pongamia are widely recognized as the most economically viable and environmentally neutral feedstock options. Both of these tree-borne oilseeds are adaptable to reasonably harsh climatic and growing conditions, enabling them to be cultivated on wastelands that are not currently used in agricultural production. The Commission recommended that 11.2 million hectares of jatropha be cultivated on marginal waste lands which would, over time, replace 20 per cent of total national diesel consumption with biodiesel. Both public and private sector players have begun to act on the Commission's plan. More than a hundred thousand hectares of jatropha have been planted and private firms have begun to build biodiesel processing plants. State-owned petroleum product marketing firms have committed to distributing biodiesel through some existing distribution channels. 8 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S., E-mail: s.murugan@nitrkl.ac.in

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation.

  14. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  15. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation

  16. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kofi Ackom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing Jatropha curcas for energy applications in has been established through several initiatives in Senegal. The government of Senegal launched the National Jatropha Programme (NJP in 2006 with the goal of planting 321,000 ha of Jatropha curcas, with an average of 1000 hectares (ha in each rural locality. This paper reviews existing policies with relevance to Jatropha curcas L production in Senegal. It assesses the NJP implementation, identifies potential gaps and provides recommendations with regards to planning, institutional management, regulation, and implementation. The potential of Jatropha and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having the largest suitability of land areas equating to almost thirty times (30 the original estimations in the NJP followed by Pongamia and sunflower with 6,796,000 ha and 5,298,900 ha respectively. Recommendations are provided suggesting, scientifically sound analysis from agro-environmental mapping to inform on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal.

  17. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-22

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  18. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Malterud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  19. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  20. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Upadhyay

    Full Text Available A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(020/ to 22(011/ N, 82(039/ to 87(001/ E of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09 HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  1. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549 Cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts on the human lung carcinoma cell line A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effect of 10 Cuban medicinal plant extracts on the human lung tumor cell line A549. METHODS: the effect of the plant extracts on tumor cells was determined by a colorimetric assay using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT at concentrations ranging from 3,9-250 µg/mL for 72 hours and the mean cytotoxic concentration was calculated for each of them. RESULTS: the ethanolic extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima showed mean cytotoxic concentrations under 100 µg/mL. Except for P. hysterophorus, the others are used in traditional medicine to fight

  2. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  3. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais Total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity of tropical fruit pulp wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração dos compostos fenólicos dos resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais acerola (Malpighia glabra L., goiaba (Psidium Guayaba L., abacaxi (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacuri (Platonia insignis e graviola (Annona muricata L., bem como avaliar a sua capacidade antioxidante in vitro, pelos métodos de captura de radicais DPPH• e ABTS+. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram elevados teores de fenólicos totais para o resíduo da polpa de acerola, com 247,62 ± 2,08 mg.100 g-1 de fenólicos totais para o extrato aquoso e 279,99 ± 3,5 mg.100 g-1 para o extrato hidroalcoólico (p The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compound contents and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the following extracts from tropical fruit pulp wastes: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., guava (Psidium Guayaba L., pineapple (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacury (Platonia insignis, and cherimoya (Annona muricata L. using the DPPH and ABTS+ radical capture methodologies. The results showed high levels of phenolic compounds in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the acerola pulp wastes, of 247.62 ± 2.08 mg.100 g-1 and 279.99 ± 3.5 mg.100 g-1, respectively (p < 0.05. The antioxidant activity, when measured by the DPPH method, showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the guava wastes presented the highest values with an EC50 of 142.89 μg.mL-1, followed by the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of the acerola wastes, with EC50 values of 308.07 and 386.46 μg.mL-1, respectively. When the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS method, the acerola pulp wastes showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with TEAC values of 0.518 ± 0.103 and 0.743 ± 0.127 mM.g-1 of residue for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively (p < 0.05. Thus, the fruit pulp wastes studied in this work, especially acerola and guava, represented

  4. Caracterización palinológica de la familia Celastraceae para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogotá A. R. Giovanni

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización palinológica de especies de los siete géneros de Celastraceae con área de distribución en Colombia permitió establecer de manera general el comportamiento estenopalinológico de la misma; los granos de polen son mónadas, isopolares, radiosimétricas; oblados esferoidales o suboblados; tricolporados con exina semitectada microreticulada o reticulada (58%. Las endoaberturas son lalongadas en el 92 % de los casos, la disminución en el espesor de la exina cerca a los colpos es común para casi todos los taxones examinados. Excepciones a este patrón se encuentran en Maytenus longipes pro lado esferoidal; Celastrus colombianus endoaberturas lolongadas; Gymnosp oria gentryi; Zinowiewia australis y Crossopetalum panamense que presentan costilla. Maytenus novogranatensis y Goupia glabra tienen exina tectada perforada, en las especies de Perrottetia la exina es tectada foveolada o fosulada. Perrotttetia y Goupia son los géneros mas disímiles al interior de la familia, condición que igualmente se presenta en la morfología macroscópica. Las características polínicas de Goupia refuerzan la opción de separarla de Celastraceae para estructurar la familia Goupiaceae.The palinological characterization of species of the seven genus of Celastraceae with distribution in Colombia allowed us to establish, in a general way, its stenopalynological behavior; the pollen grains are monads, isopolares radially symmetric; oblate spheroidal or suboblate; tricolporate, with semitectate exine, reticulate or microreticulate in 58%. The endoapertures are lalongate in 92% ofthe cases, the decrease in the exine thickness near the colpus is common to all the taxa. Some exceptions are found in Maytenus longipes prolate spheroidal; Celastrus colombianus lolongate endoapertures; Gymnosporia gentryi, Zinowiewia australis and Crossopetalum panamense costa. Maytenus novogranatensis and Goupia glabra have tectate exine, foveolate o fosulate. Perrottetia

  5. Chloroplast behaviour and interactions with other organelles in Arabidopsis thaliana pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kiah A; Wozny, Michael R; Mathur, Neeta; Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Mathur, Jaideep

    2018-01-29

    Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that, with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis thaliana have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here, using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules, we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCCs) and their subcellular environment. Observations on the PCCs suggest a source-sink relationship between the epidermal and the mesophyll layers, and experiments with the Arabidopsis mutants glabra2 ( gl2 ) and immutans ( im ), which show altered epidermal plastid development, underscored their developmental plasticity. Our findings lay down the foundation for further investigations aimed at understanding the precise role and contributions of PCCs in plant interactions with the environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  7. EVALUATION OF VEGETABLE EXTRACTS FROM THE SEMI-ARID AS NATURAL pH INDICATOR

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    Sebastiana Estefana Torres Brilhante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the various difficulties to expose the contents of the subject of chemistry is a constant search for alternative materials to facilitate learning. This may partly be due to chemical science to be a significant practical character. However, due to professional educational institutions and material limitations ends up being passed on to the student of predominantly theoretical way, requiring a high degree of abstraction and consequently in their disinterest the same. In this context , we investigated the use of ethanol extracts of various plants, such as: Jitirana (Ipomoea glabra , Íxora (Ixora coccínea, Centro (Centrosema brasilianum and Candlebush (Senna alata flowers, Beet (Beta vulgaris L. fruit and Urucum (Bixa orellana seeds as an acids and bases natural indicator, from laboratory tests capable of identifying properties demonstrate the pH. Initially we evaluated the variation in the coloration of extracts using for this buffer solutions at pH 3, 7 and 12. Among the cited vegetable flowers Jitirana, ixora and Centro presented activities relevant indicator as staining variants between pH 2:13. The extracts of plants were further added in glass tubes containing buffer solutions with a pH ranging from 2 to 13. The change in color of the extracts showed good activity has the same pH indicator.

  8. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549

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    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.

  9. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

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    Devesh Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees, Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission, phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  10. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostra, Swantje; Majdi, Hooshang; Olsson, Mats

    2006-01-01

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  11. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antidiabetic evaluation of eight Bauhinia L. species from Egypt using UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Sakna, Sarah T; El-Fiky, Nabaweya M; Shabana, Marawan M; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-11-01

    Bauhinia L. (Fabaceae) comprises ca. 300-350 plant species, many of which are traditionally used in folk medicine for their antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Bauhinia s.l. recently has been subdivided into 9 genera based on phylogenetic data: Bauhinia s.str., Barklya, Brenierea, Gigasiphon, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma, Schnella (American Phanera) and Tylosema. The aerial parts of 8 species corresponding to 5 genera were analyzed: Bauhinia forficata, Bauhinia variegata, B. variegata var. candida, Bauhinia galpinii, Schnella glabra, Piliostigma racemosa, Phanera vahlii and Lysiphyllum hookeri. Leaves and shoots were subjected to metabolite profiling via UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS coupled to multivariate data analyzes to identify compound compositional differences. A total of 90 metabolites were identified including polyphenols and fatty acids; flavonoid conjugates accounted for most of the metabolite variation observed. This study provides a comprehensive map of polyphenol composition in Bauhinia and phytochemical species aggregations are consistent with recent Bauhinia genus taxonomic relationship derived from phylogenetic studies. DPPH radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays were also performed to assess selected aspects of the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential for the examined species with respect to metabolite profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laūq: A Sustained-Release Dosage Form for Respiratory Disorders in Traditional Persian Medicine.

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    Karegar-Borzi, Hossein; Salehi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Laūq is a pharmaceutical dosage form that had been mainly used for the treatment of various respiratory disorders in traditional Persian medicine. It is important from 2 aspects: a dosage form with efficient and optimum delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract and biological effects of its ingredients. Natural medicine in laūq has been demonstrated to act in respiratory disorders by their antitussive, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, and antibacterial activities. Some of these natural remedies act by most of the mentioned mechanisms such as Cydonia oblonga, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Hyssopus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and honey. However, the evidence is limited including Cassia fistula, Papaver somniferum, and Drimia maritima. According to positive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of laūqs, they may be considered as efficient dosage forms for delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract. For better compatibility of patients, it could be substituted laūqs with newer drug delivery systems like lozenges. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on 1H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements. PMID:26244884

  15. Effect of GutGard in the Management of Helicobacter pylori: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study

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    Sreenivasulu Puram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard (root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori gastric load. Participants diagnosed with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to two groups to orally receive 150 mg of GutGard (n=55 or placebo (n=52 once daily for 60 days. H. pylori infection was assessed using 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT at days 0, 30, and 60. Stool Antigen test (HpSA was also performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square, and Fisher's exact probability tests were used to compare the treatment outcomes. A significant interaction effect between group and time (P=0.00 and significant difference in mean Delta Over Baseline (DOB values between GutGard (n=50 and placebo (n=50 treated groups after intervention period were observed. On day 60, the results of HpSA test were negative in 28 subjects (56% in GutGard treated group whereas in placebo treated group only 2 subjects (4% showed negative response; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. On day 60, the results of 13C-UBT were negative in 24 (48% in GutGard treated group and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The findings suggest GutGard is effective in the management of H. pylori.

  16. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

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    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  17. MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMARES DA ÁREA URBANA NO NORTE DE MINAS GERAIS

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    CLARICE DINIZ ALVARENGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was know the species of fruit fly and host plants in orchards in the urban area in the north of Minas Gerais. Were selected 10 orchards with wide variety of fruit species, which were distributed in equidistant way in the urban area of Janaúba, MG. Weekly, were collected systematically fruit flies through trap type McPhail and ripe fruit and in ripening one, on those orchards. Were collected 7.016 tephritid obtained from trap (5.226 and fruit (1.790, from which 1.044 belonged to genus Anastrepha and 5.972 were Ceratitis capitata. The specimens number of C. capitata (85.1% was around six times superior to Anastrepha spp. (14.9%, demonstrating the preference of this species for urban orchards. Eight species of Anastrepha occur in urban orchards of Janaúba, MG. Ceratitis capitata was found infesting 10 species of host fruits, being the main S. purpurea and guava. In fruits were collected three species of Anastrepha (A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae which were associated with five species of fruit (Malpighia glabra L, Psidium guayava L, S. dulcis, S. purpurea and S. tuberosa. The predominant species of Anastrepha was A. obliqua, and S. tuberosa and S. purpurea being the main hosts of this species in the urban area of Janaúba, MG.

  18. Identification of PTP1B and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Serrulatanes from Eremophila spp. by Combined use of Dual High-Resolution PTP1B and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Profiling and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Tahtah, Yousof; Heskes, Allison M; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Pateraki, Irini; Hamberger, Björn; Møller, Birger L; Staerk, Dan

    2016-04-22

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached epidemic proportions, affecting more than 382 million people worldwide. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase is a recognized therapeutic approach for management of T2D and its associated complications. The lack of clinical drugs targeting PTP1B and side effects of the existing α-glucosidase drugs, emphasize the need for new drug leads for these T2D targets. In the present work, dual high-resolution PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibition profiles of Eremophila gibbosa, E. glabra, and E. aff. drummondii "Kalgoorlie" were used for pinpointing α-glucosidase and/or PTP1B inhibitory constituents directly from the crude extracts. A subsequent targeted high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR) analysis and preparative-scale HPLC isolation led to identification of 21 metabolites from the three species, of which 16 were serrulatane-type diterpenoids (12 new) associated with either α-glucosidase and/or PTP1B inhibition. This is the first report of serrulatane-type diterpenoids as potential α-glucosidase and/or PTP1B inhibitors.

  19. Research result information for agriculture and environment. No.12; Nogyo kankyo kenkyu seika joho. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-26

    Essential purposes of productivity improvement, which human being have desires in agriculture for a long time, can not be discussed without considering relations with the environment, nowadays. In these situations, significant investigations have been created among the researches in the agriculture and environment field in response to the requirements of the time. In this report, results of 41 main researches submitted to the agriculture and environment research promotion conference in FY 1995 are compiled. This field covers the environment and resource characterization, the agrioecology, and the environment assessment and control. The environment and resource characterization field includes studies on the micro-meteorological mechanism of desert expansion due to excess pasturage, the salt removal function of clays, and the protection of ground water quality by grassland. The agrioecology field includes studies on the antimicrobial substance contained in Glycyrrhiza glabra against the soil decease of potatoes caused by Streptomyces scabies and the new plant growth obstruction substance contained in Sphenoclea zeylanica. The environment assessment and control field includes studies on the producing district change prediction of main grains accompanied with global environmental change and the carbon balance in the ecosystem of farm lands and rice fields. This report includes a lot of noticeable papers. 103 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp.

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    Takeshi Hara

    Full Text Available Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1, a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.

  1. Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR) and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1), a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.

  2. Effect of Formononetin on Mechanical Properties and Chemical Composition of Bones in Rats with Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis

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    Ilona Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formononetin is a naturally occurring isoflavone, which can be found in low concentrations in many dietary products, but the greatest sources of this substance are Astragalus membranaceus, Trifolium pratense, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Pueraria lobata, which all belong to Fabaceae family. Due to its structural similarity to 17β-estradiol, it can mimic estradiol’s effect and therefore is considered as a “phytoestrogen.” The aim of this study was to examine the effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. 12-week-old female rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized, ovariectomized treated with estradiol (0.2 mg/kg and ovariectomized treated with formononetin (10 mg/kg. Analyzed substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. Ovariectomy caused osteoporotic changes, which can be observed in bone biomechanical features (decrease of maximum load and fracture load and increase of displacements for maximum and fracture loads and bone chemical composition (increase of water and organic fraction content, while a decrease of minerals takes place. Supplementation with formononetin resulted in slightly enhanced bone mechanical properties and bone chemistry improvement (significantly lower water content and insignificantly higher mineral fraction content. To summarize, administration of formononetin to ovariectomized rats shows beneficial effect on bone biomechanical features and chemistry; thus, it can prevent osteoporosis development.

  3. Structural revision of some recently published iridoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Søren R; Caliş, Ihsan; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Søtofte, Inger

    2007-01-01

    The structures of six different iridoid glucosides have been revised. Three compounds isolated from Eremostachys glabra and designated 6,9-epi-8-O-acetylshanziside (1), 5,9-epi-penstemoside (2), and 5,9-epi-7,8-didehydropenstemoside (3) have been shown to be identical to the known iridoids barlerin (4, 8-O-acetylshanziside), penstemoside (5), and 7,8-didehydropenstemoside (6), respectively. Another compound named harpagoside-B, isolated from Scrophularia deserti and proposed to be 9-epi-6-O-methylharpagoside (11), was demonstrated from the spectroscopic data given to be the known harpagoside (10b). Finally, two alleged iridoid galactosides from Buddleja crispa named buddlejosides A and B (12a and 12b) have been shown to be the corresponding glucosides; the former is identical to agnuside (13a), while the latter is 3,4-dihydroxybenzoylaucubin (13b), an iridoid glucoside not previously published. This clearly showed that care should be taken with the interpretation of NOEs involving bridgehead protons in iridoid structures because they can be capricious and lead to erroneous structural assignments.

  4. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

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    Roberta Nunes Horta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron.

  5. Spectroscopic and E-tongue evaluation of medicinal plants: A taste of how rasa can be studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath

    The use of medicinal plants in Ayurveda is based on rasa, generally taken to represent taste as a sensory perception. This chemosensory parameter plays an important role in Ayurvedic pharmacology. The aim is to explore the use of structuro-functional information deduced from analytical techniques for the rasa-based classification of medicinal plants in Ayurveda. Methods of differential sensing and spectroscopic metabolomics have been used in select medicinal plants from three different taste categories (sweet, pungent and multiple taste): Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra from sweet category; Piper longum, Cuminum cyminum and Capsicum annum from pungent group; Emblica officinalis with five tastes. While Electronic tongue was used for evaluation of the sensorial property of taste, the chemical properties were studied with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). In terms of taste and phytochemical profiles, all samples were unique but with similarities within each group. While the sensor response in E-tongue showed similarities within the sweet and pungent categories, NMR spectra in the aromatic region showed close similarities between the plants in the sweet category. The sensory, phytochemical and phytoelemental profiles of E. officinalis (with five rasa) in particular, were unique. A combination of sensorial and chemical descriptors is a promising approach for a comprehensive evaluation and fingerprinting of the Ayurvedic pharmacological parameter rasa. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

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    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  7. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade quilombola Carreiros, Mercês – Minas Gerais

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    Flávia M. C. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as espécies medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade quilombola Carreiros, bem como traçar o perfil social das famílias desta comunidade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas da comunidade, sendo um representante de cada família. Para fins de registro foram coletados dois exemplares de cada espécie medicinal identificada, os quais foram conservados na forma de exsicatas e mantidos no Laboratório de Ecologia do IF Sudeste MG – Campus Rio Pomba. As mulheres aparentemente desempenham importante papel social e estão bastante envolvidas no conhecimento das plantas medicinais. Nota-se, que o conhecimento existente foi adquirido de forma empírica e éevidente entre as famílias a preocupação em repassar os conhecimentos tradicionais sobre o uso das plantas medicinais aos jovens. Dentre as principais espécies utilizadas pela comunidade estão: Citrus Sinensis L., Psidium guajava L., Leonurus sibiricus L., Citrus Limonia (Osbeck, Carica sp., Vernonia condensataBacker, Sechuium edule (Jacq. Sw, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Malpighia glabra L., e Saccharum zofficinarum L..

  8. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

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    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures. 

  9. A review of effective herbal medicines in controlling menopausal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozar, Rahele; Azizi, Hoda; Salari, Roshanak

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute menopausal syndrome especially hot flashes, is one of the most common gynecological problems during menopause. Due to the side effects of hormone therapy, herbal and complementary medicines are always of immense interest to people in the treatment and management of the symptoms and complications of menopause. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and effects of medicinal plants employed in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Methods This review article was carried out by examining clinical trial studies between the period of 1994 and 2016. The keywords, which include menopause, climacteric, hot flushes, flashes, herb and phytoestrogens were used to search for herbal medicines used in clinical trials for the treatment of menopausal symptoms using databases such as PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Google scholar, SID and Magiran. Results The results of the study showed that the medicinal plants, which include Sage herb (Salvia officinalis), Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), Valerina officinalis, Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Vitex (Vitex agnus-castus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), Ginkgo biloba, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Hypericum perforatum, Panax ginseng, Pimpinella anisum, Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Passiflora incarnata, Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Glycine soja were effective in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome with different mechanisms. Conclusion Medicinal plants can play an imperative role in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome; however, further studies are required to buttress their efficacy in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome. PMID:29403626

  10. The Immunomodulatory Potential of Selected Bioactive Plant-Based Compounds in Breast Cancer: A Review.

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    Baraya, Yushau Shuaibu; Wong, Kah Keng; Yaacob, Nik Soriani

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has continued to cause high cancer death rates among women worldwide. The use of plants' natural products in breast cancer treatment has received more attention in recent years due to their potentially wider safety margin and the potential to complement conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Plantbased products have demonstrated anticancer potential through different biological pathways including modulation of the immune system. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal plants have been shown to mitigate breast cancer cell growth. Different immune cell types participate in this process especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, and cytokines including chemokines and tumor necrosis factor-α. Medicinal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra, Uncaria tomentosa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng, Prunus armenaica (apricot), Allium sativum, Arctium lappa and Curcuma longa were reported to hold strong potential in breast cancer treatment in various parts of the world. Interestingly, research findings have shown that these plants possess bioactive immunomodulators as their main constituents producing the anticancer effects. These immunomodulatory compounds include ajoene, arctigenin, β-carotene, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ginsan, glabridin and quinic acid. In this review, we discussed the ability of these eight immunomodulators in regulating the immune system potentially applicable in breast cancer treatment via anti-inflammatory (curcumin, arctigenin, glabridin and ajoene) and lymphocytes activation (β-carotene, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, quinic acid and ginsan) properties, as well as future research direction in their use for breast cancer treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. ELABORATION OF APPROACHES TO THE STANDARTIZ OFATION HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (1. MOENCH IN PLANT MIXTURES

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    A. B. Goudzenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marker for qualitative and quantitative standardization of Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. flowers in the plant mixtures was determine. As a marker of Helichrysum arenarium Moench. flowers can be used flavonoid apigenin. HPLC method of determination flavonoid apigenin in raw materials and plant mixtures of flowers Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench was developed. Contents of apigenin in the raw plant flowers were in the range from 0,1453 ± 0,0068% to 0,1657 ± 0,0085%, in terms of the dried materials. It is shown, that the presence and content of apigenin flowers Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench can be standardized in the mixtures with the following plant:flowers, leaves and fruits of genus Crataegus L., roots of Althaea officinalis L., roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., roots of Cichorium intybus L., roots of Taraxacum officinale Web., cones of Humulus lupulus L., herb of Leonurus cardiaca L., herb of Hypericum perforatum L. and seeds of Linum usitatissimum L.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal plants against Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Pirbalouti Ghasemi Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. Ten Iranian medicinal plants were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus iniae isolates obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae; Walbaum, 1972 collected from fish farms in Iran. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum, Quercus branti, Glycyrrhiza glabra and essential oils of Heracleum lasiopetalum, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis, Myrtus communis, Echinophora platyloba, Kelussia odoratissima and Stachys lavandulifolia against Steptococcus iniae was evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts and essential oils showed a relatively high antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Thymus daenensis and the ethanol extract of Quercus branti. Some of the extracts were active against Streptococcus iniae. Two essential oils showed lower MIC values; Heracleum lasiopetalum (78 μg/ml and Satureja bachtiarica (39 μg/ml. The essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica could be an important source of antibacterial compounds against the Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout.

  13. Evolutionary and biotechnology implications of plastid genome variation in the inverted-repeat-lacking clade of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal; Schwarz, Erika; Ellison, Nicholas; Zhang, Jin; Baeshen, Nabih A; Mutwakil, Muhammed; Jansen, Robert; Ruhlman, Tracey

    2014-08-01

    Land plant plastid genomes (plastomes) provide a tractable model for evolutionary study in that they are relatively compact and gene dense. Among the groups that display an appropriate level of variation for structural features, the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) of papilionoid legumes presents the potential to advance general understanding of the mechanisms of genomic evolution. Here, are presented six complete plastome sequences from economically important species of the IRLC, a lineage previously represented by only five completed plastomes. A number of characters are compared across the IRLC including gene retention and divergence, synteny, repeat structure and functional gene transfer to the nucleus. The loss of clpP intron 2 was identified in one newly sequenced member of IRLC, Glycyrrhiza glabra. Using deeply sequenced nuclear transcriptomes from two species helped clarify the nature of the functional transfer of accD to the nucleus in Trifolium, which likely occurred in the lineage leading to subgenus Trifolium. Legumes are second only to cereal crops in agricultural importance based on area harvested and total production. Genetic improvement via plastid transformation of IRLC crop species is an appealing proposition. Comparative analyses of intergenic spacer regions emphasize the need for complete genome sequences for developing transformation vectors for plastid genetic engineering of legume crops. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of ion beam irradiation on size of mutant sector and genetic damage in Arabidopsis

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    Hase, Yoshihiro, E-mail: hase.yoshihiro@qst.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nozawa, Shigeki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Narumi, Issay [Faculty of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura, Gunma 374-0193 (Japan); Oono, Yutaka [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Size of mutant sector and genetic damage were evaluated in Arabidopsis to further our understanding of effective ion beam use in plant mutation breeding. Arabidopsis seeds, heterozygous for the GLABRA1 (GL1) gene (GL1/gl1-1), were irradiated with 15.8 MeV/u neon ions (mean linear energy transfer (LET): 352 keV/μm), 17.3 MeV/u carbon ions (113 keV/μm), or {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The frequency and size of glabrous sectors generated because of inactivation of the GL1 allele were examined. The frequency and overall size of large deletions were evaluated based on the loss of heterozygosity of DNA markers using DNA isolated from glabrous tissue. Irrespective of the radiation properties, plants with mutant sectors were obtained at similar frequencies at the same effective dosage necessary for survival reduction. Ion beams tended to induce larger mutant sectors than gamma rays. The frequency of large deletions (>several kbp) increased as the LET value increased, with chromosome regions larger than 100 kbp lost in most large deletions. The distorted segregation ratio of glabrous plants in the progenies of irradiated GL1/gl1-1 plants suggested frequent occurrence of chromosome rearrangement, especially those subjected to neon ions. Exposure to ion beams with moderate LET values (30–110 keV/μm) is thought effective for inducing mutant sectors without causing extensive genetic damage.

  15. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A.; Abbott, Jason; Fahey, Paul; Cheema, Birinder S.; Bensoussan, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex reproductive endocrinopathy characterized by menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Lifestyle modification is a first‐line intervention; however, there are barriers to success for this form of self‐care, and women often seek adjunct therapies including herbal medicines. This pragmatic, randomized controlled trial, delivered in communities of Australia in overweight women with PCOS, compared the effectiveness and safety of a lifestyle intervention plus herbal medicine against lifestyle alone. All participants were helped to construct a personalized lifestyle plan. The herbal intervention consisted of two tablets. Tablet 1 contained Cinnamomum verum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum and Paeonia lactiflora. Tablet 2 contained Tribulus terrestris. The primary outcome was oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea. Secondary outcomes were hormones; anthropometry; quality of life; depression, anxiety and stress; pregnancy; birth outcomes; and safety. One hundred and twenty‐two women gave their consent. At 3 months, women in the combination group recorded a reduction in oligomenorrhoea of 32.9% (95% confidence interval 23.3–42.6, p herbal medicines in women with PCOS. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:28685911

  16. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2014-03-01

    Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane). Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae), Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae), Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae) and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  17. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  18. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

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    Seyhan Turk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells.

  19. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

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    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  20. COMPARISON BETWEEN TEST METHODS TO DETERMINE WOOD EMBEDMENT STRENGTH PARALLEL TO THE GRAIN

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    Diego Henrique de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study compares the test methods according to the ABNT NBR 7190:1997, EN 383:2007, ASTM D5764:2007, EUROCODE 5:2004, NDS:2001 standards in order to provide support to establish a new test method for determining the embedment strength of wood parallel to the grain. Parallel-to-grain tests were carried out for six wood species (Schizolobium amazonicum; Pinus elliottii; Pinus oocarpa; Hymenaea spp.; Lyptus(r: hybrid Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla, and Goupia glabra using four diameters (8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm and 16 mm for the metal pin fasteners (bolts. The experimental results obtained according to the EN 383:2007 standard were closer to the specific values for the metal-dowel connections design used by ABNT NBR 7190:1997, which are considered equal compression parallel to the grain. The use of maximum embedment force or the force causing displacement of 5 mm between the bolt and the test-piece as criteria for determining embedment strength for EN 383:2007 appears to be more appropriate than the criteria used by the Brazilian and American Standards.

  1. S-nitrosoglutathione promotes cell wall remodelling, alters the transcriptional profile and induces root hair formation in the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Camila Fernandes; Gaspar, Marilia; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Salgado, Ione; Braga, Marcia Regina

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts pleiotropic effects on plant development; however, its involvement in cell wall modification during root hair formation (RHF) has not yet been addressed. Here, mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered root hair phenotypes were used to assess the involvement of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the primary NO source, in cell wall dynamics and gene expression in roots induced to form hairs. GSNO and auxin restored the root hair phenotype of the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant. A positive correlation was observed between increased NO production and RHF induced by auxin in rhd6 and transparent testa glabra (ttg) mutants. Deposition of an epitope within rhamnogalacturonan-I recognized by the CCRC-M2 antibody was delayed in root hair cells (trichoblasts) compared with nonhair cells (atrichoblasts). GSNO, but not auxin, restored the wild-type root glycome and transcriptome profiles in rhd6, modulating the expression of a large number of genes related to cell wall composition and metabolism, as well as those encoding ribosomal proteins, DNA and histone-modifying enzymes and proteins involved in post-translational modification. Our results demonstrate that NO plays a key role in cell wall remodelling in trichoblasts and suggest that it also participates in chromatin modification in root cells of A. thaliana. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  4. Glycyrrhizic acid alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

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    Lili eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal form of interstitial lung disease that lacks effective therapies at present. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a natural compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Glycyrrhiza glabra, was recently reported to benefit lung injury and liver fibrosis in animal models, yet whether GA has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of GA on pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The results indicated that GA treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of tansforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the lungs. Further, we demonstrated that GA treatment inhibited proliferation of 3T6 fibroblast cells, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro, implying that GA-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of GA in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Formulation of Hypopigmentation Cream and Evaluation of its Effect on Skin Pigment. Part I: Formulation of the Product

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    Amina Hamed Alobaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis of facial skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. Although it affects any one is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who taking oral or patch contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. This research aimed to formulate stable water in oil (w/o cream containing plant extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra as active material obtained by concentrating the alcoholic extract of the plant roots, was entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of w/o cream. Base containing no active material and a formulation containing ethanolic extract of the plant which was prepared in Samarra Drugs Industry laboratories. Samples of base and formulation were stored at different accelerated conditions (8°C, 25°C, 30°C, 40°C, 40°C +75% RH for four weeks to predict the stability of the creams. It was concluded that the formulation was stable chemically and physically over the studied storage conditions and without induction of allergic or contact dermatitis.

  6. Study on carbon-fixing,oxygen-releasing,temperature-reducing and humidity-increasing effects of evergreen plants in south highway

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    LIU Minmin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system,was used to test the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of evergreen plants in Southern Highway,and to calculate their ability of absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen and to calculate the transpiring water volume and absorbing heat quantity of plants.Results showed that Euonymus fortunei Hand-Mazz,Hedera helix.Aucuba eriobotryaefolia had better carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei,Radix Ophiopogonis had worse carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects.Radix Ophiopogonis,Photinia glabra,Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz had higher cooling and humidification ability,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei did not act as well as them.Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz and Hedera helix had higher leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,values are 12.91、10.34、9.93 mg·g-1.Radix Ophiopogonis、Cinnamomum camphora(Linn. Presl and Trachycarpus fortunei had lower leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,value is 3.55、2.67、2.06 mg·g-1.Releasing oxygen,fixing carbon,net assimilation and chlorophyll content has good correlation(P<0.05.

  7. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

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    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  9. Effects of herbivory on the reproductive effort of 4 prairie perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Kate L

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbivory can affect every aspect of a plant's life. Damaged individuals may show decreased survivorship and reproductive output. Additionally, specific plant species (legumes and tissues (flowers are often selectively targeted by herbivores, like deer. These types of herbivory influence a plant's growth and abundance. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of leaf and meristem removal (simulated herbivory within an exclosure on fruit and flower production in four species (Rhus glabra, Rosa arkansana, Lathyrus venosus, and Phlox pilosa which are known targets of deer herbivory. Results Lathyrus never flowered or went to seed, so we were unable to detect any treatment effects. Leaf removal did not affect flower number in the other three species. However, Phlox, Rosa, and Rhus all showed significant negative correlations between seed mass and leaf removal. Meristem removal had a more negative effect than leaf removal on flower number in Phlox and on both flower number and seed mass in Rosa. Conclusions Meristem removal caused a greater response than defoliation alone in both Phlox and Rosa, which suggests that meristem loss has a greater effect on reproduction. The combination of leaf and meristem removal as well as recruitment limitation by deer, which selectively browse for these species, is likely to be one factor contributing to their low abundance in prairies.

  10. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

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    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  11. Optimization of the process of aromatic and medicinal plant maceration in grape marc distillates to obtain herbal liqueurs and spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Salgado, José Manuel; Domínguez, José Manuel; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    Herbal liqueurs are alcoholic beverages produced by the maceration or distillation of aromatic and medicinal plants in alcohol, and are also highly valued for their medicinal properties. The process conditions, as well as the number and quantity of the plants employed, will have a great influence on the quality of the liqueur obtained. The aim of this research was to optimize these important variables. A Box-Benhken experimental design was used to evaluate the independent variables: alcohol content, amount of plant and time during the experimental maceration of plants in grape marc distillate. Four plants were assessed, with the main compound of each plant representing the dependent variable evaluated with respect to following the evolution of the maceration process. Bisabolol oxide A in Matricaria recutita L., linalool in Coriander sativum L. and eucalyptol in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. were quantified using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra L was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Other dependent variables were also evaluated: total phenolic content, color parameters and consumer preference (i.e. appearance). The experimental designs allowed the selection of the optimal maceration conditions for each parameter, including the preference score of consumers: 70% (v/v) of ethanol, 40 g L -1 plant concentration and a maceration process of 3 weeks. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Oxidative Inactivation of Liver Mitochondria in High Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats: Effect of Glycyrrhizin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Rajarshi; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in the present world. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate the primary complications and hepatocellular damage in rats with the syndrome. In this study, we have explored metabolic syndrome-induced changes in liver mitochondrial function and effect of glycyrrhizin against the changes. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks. The rats were then treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) by single intra-peritoneal injection. After 2 weeks of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed to collect liver tissue. Elevated mitochondrial ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl, and decreased reduced glutathione content indicated oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Loss of mitochondrial inner membrane cardiolipin was observed. Mitochondrial complex I activity did not change but complex IV activity decreased significantly. Mitochondrial MTT reduction ability, membrane potential, phosphate utilisation and oxygen consumption decreased in metabolic syndrome. Reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased aconitase carbonyl content suggested oxidative damage of the enzyme. Elevated Fe(2+) ion level in mitochondria might be associated with increased ROS generation in metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizin effectively attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress and aconitase degradation, and improved electron transport chain activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Germinación de semillas y clave para la identificación de plántulas de seis especies arbóreas nativas de humedales del sureste de México

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    Luis Felipe Zamora-Cornelio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Especies arbóreas de humedales son de importancia económica y para fines de restauración. Nosotros describimos el proceso de germinación y morfología de plántulas de seis especies arbóreas nativas típicas del sureste de México: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis y Crataeva tapia. Un total de 300 semillas por especie fueron sembradas en una mezcla de arena, cascarilla de cacao y tierra negra (1: 1: 1, y mantenidas en invernadero a 30% de sombra artificial, de febrero a noviembre de 2007. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica, y elaboró una clave de plántulas con base en: 1 tipo de germinación 2 eje de la plántula y 3 elementos foliares. P. aquatica presenta germinación criptocotilar hipogea, las otras tienen germinación fanerocotilar epigea. Las tasas de germinación fueron altas (>86%, a excepción de C. barbadensis (69%.

  14. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Neggache, H.; Larbi, R.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 and 1.4 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 , respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  15. Spatial variability in oviposition damage by periodical cicadas in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William M; Holt, Robert D; Yao, Jin

    2001-03-01

    Effects of the periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) on forest dynamics are poorly documented. A 1998 emergence of M. cassini in eastern Kansas led to colonization of a fragmented experimental landscape undergoing secondary succession. We hypothesized that per-tree rates of oviposition damage by cicadas would reflect: (1) distance from the source of the emergence, (2) patch size, and (3) local tree density. Ovipositing females displayed clear preferences for host species and damage incidence showed predictable spatial patterns. Two species (smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana) were rarely attacked, whereas others (rough-leaved dogwood, Cornus drummondii; slippery elm, Ulmus rubra; box elder, Acer negundo, and honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos) were strongly attacked. The dominant early successional tree, dogwood, received on average the most attacks. As predicted, attacks per stem declined strongly with distance from the emergence source, and with local stem density (a "dilution" effect). Contrary to expectations, there were more attacks per stem on larger patches. Because ovipositing cicadas cut damaging slits in host tree branches, potentially affecting tree growth rate, competitive ability, and capacity to reproduce, cicada damage could potentially influence spatial variation in secondary succession.

  16. Species delimitation in the reef coral genera Echinophyllia and Oxypora (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) with a description of two new species

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2016-09-09

    Scleractinian corals are affected by environment-induced phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific morphological variation caused by genotype. In an effort to identify new strategies for resolving this taxonomic issue, we applied a molecular approach for species evaluation to two closely related genera, Echinophyllia and Oxypora, for which few molecular data are available. A robust multi-locus phylogeny using DNA sequence data across four loci of both mitochondrial (COI, ATP6-NAD4) and nuclear (histone H3, ITS region) origin from 109 coral colonies was coupled with three independent putative species delimitation methods based on barcoding threshold (ABGD) and coalescence theory (PTP, GMYC). Observed overall congruence across multiple genetic analyses distinguished two traditional species (E. echinoporoides and O. convoluta), a species complex composed of E. aspera, E. orpheensis, E. tarae, and O. glabra, whereas O. lacera and E. echinata were indistinguishable with the sequenced loci. The combination of molecular species delimitation approaches and skeletal character observations allowed the description of two new reef coral species, E. bulbosa sp. n. from the Red Sea and E. gallii sp. n. from the Maldives and Mayotte. This work demonstrated the efficiency of multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and recently developed molecular species delimitation approaches as valuable tools to disentangle taxonomic issues caused by morphological ambiguities and to re-assess the diversity of scleractinian corals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro evaluation of medicinal, antioxidant activities and phytochemical screening of iphiona grantioides and pluchea arguta subsp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, S.; Ibrar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The crude ethanolic extracts (EE) derived from different parts of Iphiona grantioides (flower, leaf, stem and root) and Pluchea arguta subsp glabra Qaiser (leaf, stem and root) were screened In vitro for possible antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal activities and phytochemical profile. Results for phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various important primary and secondary metabolites including carbohydrates, protein, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, phytosterol, tri-terphenoids and volatile oil in the ethanolic extracts (EE) of different parts of I. grantioides and P. arguta. Significant antibacterial activity was observed for flower and leaf (EE) of I. grantioides against Klebsiela pneumonia and Escherichia coli, while moderate antibacterial activity was showed by extracts from other parts of this plant. Similarly P. arguta leaf (EE) showed significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Micrococcus luteus than its stem and roots extract. The crude ethanolic extract of all parts of I. grantioides and P. arguta proved a rich source of fungicidal potential. Both the plants proved to have antioxidant potential by exhibiting DPPH radical scavenging activity. So it may be concluded from the present investigations that I. grantioides and P. arguta, both have a wide range of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties and can be utilized for the development of antimicrobial drugs for human beings, animals and as safe pesticides in agricultural practices as well as could be an important source of natural radical scavengers. (author)

  18. Effect of Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment on the chemical properties of liquorice root

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    zahra takzare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra that was extracted in the factory in Kerman province, pre-hydrolyzed and then chemical compositions (Extractives, Lignin content, Holocellulose percent, the hydrolysis process yield and weight loss of the waste was measured. Pre-hydrolysis process was done on the above mentioned waste by hot water, hot water followed by 0.5 percent sulfuric acid and also alone sulfuric acid with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent The samples were pre-hydrolyzed in hot water at 150 °C and 30, 60 and 90 minutes as well as in the mixture of hot water and 0.5 % sulfuric acid at 150 °C and 60 minutes and also in pure sulfuric acid, at 130 °C and at 60 minutes. The results showed that the pre-hydrolyzed treatment with hot water in 60 minutes had been favorable performance in the respect of weight loss, lignin content and holocellulose percent. Also, in the case of pre-treatment including sulfuric acid, 2% dose can be good selected option in term of maximum holocellulose percent and minimum lignin content so that it can be suggested to produce higher value-added products such as bioethanol from licorice root bid.

  19. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants against multidrug resistant urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.A.; Adnan, M.; Rahman, H.; Allah, A.; Hashem, A.

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens have become a serious global health concern. Main etiological agents for UTI are Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, medicinal plants have found great popularity in medical treatment for different kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. The study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and crude extracts of medicinal plants i.e. Syzygium aromaticum, Glycerrhiza glabra,Laurus nobilis and Brassica rapa against MDR urinary tract pathogens through agar well diffusion method. To investigate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs), dilution method was used. Quantitative evaluations of phytochemicals indicated the presence of alkaloids in higher concentrations. Results obtained for the antibacterial activities, the crude extracts of the four plants showed significantly higher inhibition zones as compared to other phytochemicals. The MIC values obtained for different extracts varying from 7.5-15 mg/ml. Comparig the activities of the extracts of the the four medicinal plants it was found that Syzygium aromaticum was the most potent plant against the tested bacterial pathogens indicating its strong candidateship for the drug development. (author)

  20. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  1. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Imtenan, S.; Shahir, S.A.; Mobarak, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  2. Análise da estrutura de comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta amazônica de Terra Firme aplicada ao manejo florestal Analysis of the structure of tree communities of a amazonian forest applied to management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Zenaide Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar e descrever a estrutura das comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta de terra firme sob regime de manejo na Amazônia Oriental, localizada no município de Almeirim, Pará, Brasil. O levantamento florístico foi realizado em 1.400,30 ha de uma Unidade de Produção Anual (UPA, do Plano de Manejo Florestal da empresa ORSA Florestal. Todos os indivíduos com DAP > 30 cm foram inventariados, registrando-se 77.834 árvores distribuídas em 57 famílias, 229 gêneros e 556 espécies. Oito comunidades foram identificadas por meio de uma analise de agrupamento, apresentando alta diversidade e equibilidade florística (H" médio = 4,25 e J" médio = 0,75. As comunidades apresentaram 138 espécies comuns, 119 espécies de ocorrência exclusiva e 377 espécies raras, representadas por apenas um indivíduo. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram: Dinizia excelsa, Vouacapoua americana, Goupia glabra, Mouriri brachyanthera, Parinari excelsa, Manilkara bidentada, Tachigalia mymecophyla e Licania micrantha. Algumas espécies de valor comercial apresentaram variações importantes na densidade, sugerindo risco de extinção em comunidades onde as espécies apresentam densidade muito baixa. Sugerimos que os planos de manejo considerem as várias comunidades ecológicas encontradas nas UPAs evitando assim variações significativas, causadas pela exploração e seus impactos, na composição florística e estrutura das comunidades existentes.To demonstrate the importance of the ecological concept for forest management, the object of this work was to identify and describe the structure of tree communities of a tropical forest under management in the Eastern Amazonia, located in Almeirim municipality, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The floristic survey was undertaken in a terra-firme tropical forest of 1,400.30 hectares. All individuals with DBH > 30 cm were inventoried, registering 77,834 trees distributed in 57

  3. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas, Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (frutos, Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos, Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas, Piper nigrum L. (folhas, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (folhas, Sapindus saponaria L. (folhas, S. saponaria (frutos, Solanum cernuum Vell. (folhas, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (casca, Symphytum officinale L. (folhas, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (folhas, T. catigua (ramos, Trichilia pallida Sw. (folhas e T. pallida (ramos, em relação à preferência para oviposição de Plutella xylostella. Discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cultivar Georgia foram imersos em cada extrato à concentração de 10% (massa/volume por um minuto. Em seguida, foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e duas partes foram colocadas alternadamente com outras duas partes tratadas com água destilada, em uma gaiola. A contagem dos ovos foi feita após 24 horas. Os extratos apresentaram efeito deterrente na oviposição da praga, com exceção do extrato de S. adstringens, que não diferiu da testemunha, tratada apenas com água destilada. Os extratos de E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (frutos e T. pallida (folhas foram os mais eficientes, apresentando 100% de deterrência.The effect of aqueous extracts from Achillea millefolium L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves, Bidens pilosa L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (leaves, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (leaves, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (fruits, Mentha crispa L. (leaves e branches, Nicotiana tabacum L. (leaves, Piper nigrum

  4. Potencial agroclimático para a cultura da acerola no Estado de Minas Gerais Agroclimatic potential for the West Indian Cherry cropping in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. H. de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar o zoneamento agroclimático do Estado de Minas Gerais, visando dar subsídios à seleção de locais para a implantação da cultura da acerola (Malpighia glabra L.. Utilizaram-se dados de temperatura média e precipitação de 110 estações meteorológicas de Minas Gerais e de Estados circunvizinhos; com base nesses dados calculou-se o índice de umidade de Thornthwaite & Mather para uma capacidade de armazenamento de água no solo de 125 mm. Elaboraram-se mapas de aptidão térmica e hídrica, a partir da temperatura média e do índice de umidade, para essa cultura, com a sobreposição dos mapas, obteve-se o mapa de aptidão agroclimática do Estado para a cultura da acerola. Cerca de 12,6% do território de Minas Gerais, região sul, e uma pequena parte da região central, são inaptos para o cultivo da aceroleira, devido à ocorrência de baixas temperaturas. Em 55,8% do Estado observam-se condições favoráveis para o cultivo da aceroleira enquanto em 4,5% as condições são regulares. Áreas com aptidão restrita compreendem 27% do Estado, sendo que em 18% o cultivo é recomendado somente com o emprego de irrigação, devido à restrição hídrica, enquanto nos outros 9% o cultivo é limitado pelo excedente hídrico.This study aimed to accomplish the agroclimatic zoning of Minas Gerais State, in order to provide subsidies for selection of areas for implantation of the West Indian Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. crop. The average temperature and precipitation data relative to 110 meteorological stations located in Minas Gerais and surrounding states were used. Based on these data, the moisture index by Thornthwaite & Mather for a soil water storage capacity of 125 mm was calculated. The thermal and hydric aptitude maps were drawn for the crop from the average temperature and moisture index. The State agroclimatic aptitude map was obtained by superposing these maps. It was found that only 12.6% of the state territory

  5. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  6. Palinologia de espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Nyctaginaceae Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Albuquerque de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas oito espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss., com o objetivo de caracterizá-las palinologicamente e, assim, contribuir para a elaboração de um catálogo polínico da flora das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As espécies examinadas foram Boerhavia diffusa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, B. spectabilis Willd., Guapira obtusata (Jacq. Little, G. opposita (Vell. Reitz, G. pernambucencis (Casar. Lund., Leucaster caniflorus (Mart. Choisy e Mirabilis jalapa L. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, mensurados, descritos e fotomicrografados. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada em grãos de pólen não acetolisados, para confirmar as descrições feitas sob microscopia de luz e, em alguns casos para confirmar as descrições de abertura e ornamentação. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen da espécie B. diffusa L. são grandes, apolares, esferoidais, 12-18-porados, com sexina espiculada; as espécies de Bougainvillea possuem grãos de pólen médios, isopolares, suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, área polar grande, 3-colpados, sexina reticulada contendo espinhos diminutos sobre o muro e báculos livres no interior dos lumens; em Guapira os grãos de pólen são médios, isopolares, prolato-esferoidais, âmbito subtriangular, área polar grande, 3-colpados, colpos apresentando opérculo, sexina espinhosa em G. obtusata e G. pernambucensis, e microrreticulada em G. opposita; L. caniflorus apresenta grãos de pólen pequenos, isopolares, prolato-esferoidais, âmbito subtriangular, área polar pequena, 3-colpados, sexina reticulada; M. jalapa apresenta grãos de pólen muito grandes, apolares, esferoidais, pantoporados (ca. 32 poros, sexina espinhosa. Pela análise dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que as espécies analisadas apresentam certa heterogeneidade polínica quanto à forma, aos atributos das aberturas e à ornamentação da sexina, podendo-se usar estes caracteres na taxonomia da fam

  7. Genetic evidence suggests that GIS functions downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yang, Li; Luo, Sha; Wang, Xutong; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Yuxin; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Cai, Ling; Wang, Shucai

    2018-04-13

    Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by a MBW complex formed by MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcriptional factors, which can activate GLABRA2 (GL2) and the R3 MYB transcription factor genes. GL2 promotes trichome formation, whereas R3 MYBs are able to block the formation of the MBW complex. It has been reported that the C2H2 transcription factor GIS (GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS) functions upstream of the MBW activator complex to regulate trichome formation, and that the expression of TCL1 is not regulated by the MBW complex. However, gis and the R3 MYB gene mutant tcl1 (trichomeless 1) have opposite inflorescence trichome phenotypes, but their relationship in regulating trichome formation remained unknown. By generating and characterization of the gis tcl1 double mutant, we found that trichome formation in the gis tcl1double and the tcl1 single mutants were largely indistinguishable, but the trichome formation in the 35S:TCL1/gis transgenic plant was similar to that in the gis mutant. By using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we showed that expression level of GIS was increased in the triple mutant tcl1 try cpc, but the expression level of TCL1 was not affected in the gis mutant. On the other hand, trichome morphology in both gis tcl1 and 35S:TCL1/gis plants was similar to that in the gis mutant. In summary, our results indicate that GIS may work downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation, and GIS has a dominant role in controlling trichome morphology.

  8. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  9. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  10. Plantas hipoglicemiantes utilizadas por comunidades tradicionais na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e Vale do Guaporé, Mato Grosso - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macedo

    Full Text Available No Brasil, com inúmeras espécies tropicais, evidencia-se o conhecimento e uso da vegetação medicinal pelas comunidades quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais, tradicionais e indígenas, que são praticadas até os dias atuais. O Estado de Mato Grosso pela sua localização no Planalto Central brasileiro possui uma variedade destas comunidades, que utilizam estas plantas medicinais, levando em consideração o conhecimento popular passado de geração em geração. Esta pesquisa visa identificar a forma de coleta e os usos desse grupo vegetal indicados pelos usuários. O estudo foi realizado em 15 comunidades tradicionais (não indígenas na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e 2 (duas no Vale do Guaporé. A coleta de dados deu-se através de líderes comunitários, benzedeiras, parteiras e usuários utilizando o método qualitativo, mediante abordagem qualitativa, com auxílio de entrevistas estruturadas, semi-estruturadas e abertas. Dentre as espécies identificadas 17 estacam-se para o tratamento do Diabetes, dentre elas citam-se: Anacadium humile; Bauhinia glabra; Cecropia pachystachya; Hancornia speciosa; Heteropteris aphrodisiaca; Leonotis nepetifolia; Momordica charantia; Solanum lycocarpum. Registra-se ainda que as partes mais utilizadas desses vegetais são: folhas, casca do caule, raiz, planta toda, brotos, óleos dos frutos e polvilho dos frutos. De acordo com os usuários a maioria das plantas não podem ser colhidas após o nascer do sol e o preparo deve ser feito com folhas secas ou que tenham sido submetidas ao processo de secagem sobre o fogão de lenha ou em local abafado.

  11. Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barupal, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays

  12. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

    2002-12-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential cor- ridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn = -2.9), transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011) in semi-deciduous (δn = -0.87) and tropical dry (δn = -0.89) forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs), of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85) followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71), Dalbergia glabra (18.05), and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02). The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas) to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6 ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines' habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conserva- tion and management have to be taken urgently.

  15. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn=-2.9, transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011 in semi-deciduous (δn=-0.87 and tropical dry (δn=-0.89 forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs, of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85 followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71, Dalbergia glabra (18.05, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02. The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines’ habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conservation and management have to be taken urgently. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1481-1494. Epub 2014 December 01.

  16. Anti-ulcer effect and potential mechanism of licoflavone by regulating inflammation mediators and amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuai; Bao, Yong-Rui; Li, Tian-Jiao; Yang, Guan-Lin; Chang, Xin; Meng, Xian-Sheng

    2017-03-06

    Glycyrrhiza is the dry root and rhizome of the leguminous plant, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., which was firstly cited in Shennong's Herbal Classic in Han dynasty and was officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been widely used in China during the past millennia. Licoflavone is the major component of Glycyrrhiza with anti-ulcer activity. The present study is based on clarifying the anti-ulcer effect of licoflavone, aiming at elucidating the possible molecule mechanisms of its action for treating gastric ulcer rats induced by acetic acid. Rats were divided into 7 groups, and drugs were administered from on the day after the onset of gastric ulcer (day 3) until day 11 of the experiment once daily continuously. The plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS), significant different metabolites were investigated to explain its therapeutic mechanism. Furthermore, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression of RNA in stomach tissue for verifying the above results. Licoflavone can effectively cure the gastric ulcer, particularly the middle dose group. According to the statistical analysis of the plasma different metabolites from each groups and the expression of genes in tissues, sixteen significant different metabolites, including histamine, tryptophan, arachidonic acid, phingosine-1-phosphate etc., contributing to the treatment of gastric ulcer were discovered and identified. In RT-PCR analysis, the results of the expression of RNA were corresponded with what we discovered. Our study indicated licoflavone plays the role of treating gastric ulcer by regulating inflammation mediators and amino acid metabolism. We demonstrated that metabolomics technology combined with gene technology is a useful tool to search different metabolites and to dissect the potential

  17. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  18. Improving microbiological qualities of certain medicinal plants by using gamma irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Karem, H.; Ali, D.A.; Attia, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey on the microbiological quality of three medicinal plants namely, karkade (hibiscus sabdariffa), (Tamarindus indica) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)in the local markers, has been carried out. These plants were selected on the basis of their widely uses as common drinks in (Eg)), as flavoring agent, their uses in popular medicine and due to the possibility of contamination during harvesting. handling and storage. Plant samples were collected from eight localities in cairo markets. Total bacterial counts ranged from 5.5 x 10 to 4.7 x 10 2 cfu/g and 8.4 x 10 to 5.7 x 10 2 cfu/g for karkade and tamarind respectively. Licorice samples relatively high densities of total bacterial counts varied from 6.4 x 10 to 6.3 x 10 3 cfu/g. On the other hand, total fungal counts ranged from 3.1 - 7.7 x 10 cfu/g for karkade. Whereas tamarind were 8.4 x 10 to 5.7 x 10 2 cfu/g. However licorice samples recorded the highest counts ranged from 10 4 -10 5 cfu/g. The most bacterial isolates were found to be gram positive spore former bacilli and fungal isolates were identified as aspergillus sp, fusarium sp, penicillium sp and rhizopus sp. All tested plant samples were fiee from aflatoxins. only one fungal isolate could produce aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 , this isolate was identified as A. flavus. The lethal dose required to eliminating total bacterial and fungal counts from plant samples during storage at ambient temperature for one year ranged from 5 to 7 KGy and from 3 to 5 KGy, respectively. The D 1 0 values were 1.75, 1.97 and 0.52 for bacillus circulans, micrococcus varians and A.flavus, respectively

  19. Management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis with medicinal herbs and their related phytochemicals in clinic: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common painful mucosal diseases seen in the oral cavity of patients. Pathogenesis and etiology of this disorder is still unclear. RAS is categorized into minor, major, and herpetiform ulcers. Ulcers classified as minor, consist more than 85% cases of RAS. The goal of this study was to review the efficacy of medicinal plants and their bioactive phytochemicals used in clinical trials in the management of the recurrent aphthous lesions.Methods: Different electronic resources including Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were used as the searching engines. The key words were ‘plant’, ‘phytochemical’, or ‘herb’ and ‘aphthosis’, ‘aphthous’, ‘aphthae’, ‘aphthous ulcer’, ‘recurrent aphthous stomatitis’, or ‘aphthous stomatitis’. Finally, all the relevant clinical trials were regained.  Results: The results showed that plants such as Satureja khuzistanica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Alchemilla vulgaris, Matricaria chamomilla, Punica granatum var. pleniflora, Myrtus communis, Melissa officinalis, Rosa damascena, Aloe vera, Nicotiana tabacum, and bioactive ingredients like acemannan and berberine possessed potential beneficial effects in oral diseases and could be effective in decreasing ulcer size, pain intensity, duration of  complete lesion healing, average time of pain elimination, aphthae number, diameter of inflammatory halo and necrotic zone of the ulcer and provided satisfaction in patients who suffered from RAS.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that herbal medicines could be considered as future pharmaceutical drugs or adjuvant treatments to improve their efficacy and alleviate the side effects in the management of RAS.

  20. Species-specific Mechanisms Contributing to the Mesophication of Upland Oak Stands in the Absence of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, E. K.; Alexander, H. D.; Siegert, C. M.; Willis, J. L.; Berry, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Upland oak forests of the eastern United States are shifting dominance towards shade-tolerant, fire-intolerant species. This shift is hypothesized to be driven by anthropogenic fire suppression and lead to mesophication, a positive feedback loop where shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species (i.e. mesophytes) create a cool, moist understory, reducing forest flammability and promoting their own proliferation at the expense of pyrophytic, shade-intolerant species such as oaks. There have been few empirical studies identifying mechanisms of mesophication, and these studies have yet to extensively explore potential mesophytes other than red maple (Acer rubrum). To address this issue, we sampled four hypothesized mesophytes (A. rubrum, A. saccharum, Carya glabra, and Fagus grandifolia) and two upland oak species (Quercus alba and Q. montana) across a gradient of sizes (20-60 cm DBH) in western Kentucky. We quantified canopy, bark, and leaf litter traits among upland oaks and mesophytes that may lead to differences in forest flammability. Preliminary results show that mesophytes had thinner and smoother bark than upland oaks and an increased canopy volume (normalized to stem volume), traits known to influence water movement through the canopy and understory microclimate. Maple leaf litter also decomposed faster, which could decrease fuel loads; after 6 months, red and sugar maple leaf litter lost 37% of original mass compared to 32%, 22%, and 14% mass loss in hickory, oak, and American beech litter, respectively. Furthermore, volumetric soil moisture of the soil organic layer beneath the canopies of mesophytes was 62% moister two days following a rainfall event compared to oaks. These differences in soil organic layer water retention after rainfall could lead to fuel discontinuity. These findings suggest that mesophytes may alter future forest flammability through their bark, canopy, and leaf litter traits which may modify fuel moisture, loads, and continuity and that a

  1. Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Terminalia laxiflora

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    Ebtihal Abdalla M. Mohieldin

    Full Text Available Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark, T. laxiflora (wood, A. seyal (bark, Persicaria glabra (leaves and Tamarix nilotica (stem showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values <50 µg/ml. Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml; therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects.

  2. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

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    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. A molecular docking study of phytochemical estrogen mimics from dietary herbal supplements.

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    Powers, Chelsea N; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a molecular docking approach to identify potential estrogen mimics or anti-estrogens in phytochemicals found in popular dietary herbal supplements. In this study, 568 phytochemicals found in 17 of the most popular herbal supplements sold in the United States were built and docked with two isoforms of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ (a total of 27 different protein crystal structures). The docking results revealed six strongly docking compounds in Echinacea, three from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), three from Gingko biloba, one from Sambucus nigra, none from maca (Lepidium meyenii), five from chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), two from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and two from Rhodiola rosea. Notably, of the most popular herbal supplements for women, there were numerous compounds that docked strongly with the estrogen receptor: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) had a total of 26 compounds strongly docking to the estrogen receptor, 15 with wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), 11 from black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), eight from muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum), eight from red clover (Trifolium pratense), three from damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca or T. diffusa), and three from dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Of possible concern were the compounds from men's herbal supplements that exhibited strong docking to the estrogen receptor: Gingko biloba had three compounds, gotu kola (Centella asiatica) had two, muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum) had eight, and Tribulus terrestris had six compounds. This molecular docking study has revealed that almost all popular herbal supplements contain phytochemical components that may bind to the human estrogen receptor and exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulation. As such, these herbal supplements may cause unwanted side effects related to estrogenic activity.

  4. Controlled release of 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid by nanodelivery systems increases cytotoxicity on oral carcinoma cell line

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    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Amalfitano, Adriana; Cantiani, Monica; Cordaro, Massimo; Lajolo, Carlo; Callà, Cinzia; Boninsegna, Alma; Lucchetti, Donatella; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Sgambato, Alessandro; Nocca, Giuseppina; Arcovito, Alessandro

    2018-07-01

    The topical treatment for oral mucosal diseases is often based on products optimized for dermatologic applications; consequently, a lower therapeutic effect may be present. 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid (GA) is extracted from Glycirrhiza glabra. The first aim of this study was to test the cytotoxicity of GA on PE/CA-PJ15 cells. The second aim was to propose and test two different delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles and fibers, to guarantee a controlled release of GA in vitro. We used chitosan and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid based nanoparticles and polylactic acid fibers. We tested both delivery systems in vitro on PE/CA-PJ15 cells and on normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). The morphology of GA-loaded nanoparticles (GA-NPs) and fibers (GA-FBs) was investigated by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering; GA release kinetics was studied spectrophotometrically. MTT test was used to assess GA cytotoxicity on both cancer and normal cells. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of GA (20–500 μmol l‑1) administered as free GA (GA-f), and to GA-NPs or GA-FBs. ROS production was evaluated using dichlorodihydrofluorescein as a fluorescent probe. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of GA on PE/CA-PJ15 cells, the lowest TC50 value was 200 μmol l‑1 when GA was added as GA-NPs. No cytotoxic effects were observed when GA was administered to HGFs. N-acetyl Cysteine reduced mortality induced by GA-f in PE/CA-PJ15 cells. The specific effect of GA on PE/CA-PJ15 cells is mainly due to the different sensitivity of cancer cells to ROS over-production; GA-NPs and GA-FBs formulations increase, in vitro, this toxic effect on oral cancer cells.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

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    Majid Masoumian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, it is necessary to discover new and efficient antifungal or antimicrobial drugs because of increasing drug resistance organisms. Using medicinal plants for natural treatment of diseases caused by bacterial origin has mainly been considered. Objectives: In this study, the impacts of antimicrobial medicinal plants extract were compared based on four bacteria in vitro. Methods: In this experimental study, disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method were used to investigate the antibacterial effects of selected plant extract elicited by two different solvent on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteric. Data were analyzed with a statistical software program (SPSS 16. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle and water extract of Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon were the most active extracts screened for antimicrobial activities against different four bacteria as tested organisms. The diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 23 to 28 mm. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of plant extracts and commercial drug revealed that the size of inhibition zone of penicillin against Staphylococcus aureus bacterium was larger than the plant extracts. However, myrtle extract at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 30 mg/mL showed more powerful antibacterial activity compared to the other extracts and even penicillin. Petroselinum crispum (parsley, Nerium oleander (Oleander and Glycyrihiza glabra (licorice were found to have the least effect on the tested bacteria. Conclusions: In the present study, plant extracts with different compounds showed antibacterial activity (especially myrtle and cinnamon. Hence, they can be used as new source for antibacterial substances.

  6. Effects of herbivory by Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae on four woody ornamental plant species.

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    Martin, Cliff G; Mannion, Catharine; Schaffer, Bruce

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that herbivory by Diaprepes root weevil larvae reduces leaf gas exchange and biomass was tested on buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.), and pond apple (Annona glabra L). For Surinam cherry, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration (collectively referred to as leaf gas exchange values), were 7-32% higher in noninfested than infested plants. For buttonwood, all four gas exchange values were 10-54% higher for noninfested than infested plants 3 h after infestation with large, seventh-instar larvae. However, by 4 wk after this infestation, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration, were 11-37% higher for infested than for noninfested plants. For mahogany and pond apple, there were few or no significant differences in leaf gas exchange values between infested and noninfested plants. For all species, mean shoot and root fresh and dry weights were higher for noninfested than infested plants, with the differences most significant for buttonwood (37-85% higher), followed by Surinam cherry (37-143% higher), mahogany (49-84% higher), and pond apple (24-46% higher), which had no significant differences. There were significant differences among plant species in mean head capsule widths, thus larval instars, of larvae recovered from soil with the largest larvae from Surinam cherry (2.59 +/- 0.19 mm) and the smallest from mahogany (2.29 +/- 0.06 mm). Based on differences in leaf gas exchange and plant biomass between infested and noninfested plants of the four species tested, buttonwood and Surinam cherry are the most vulnerable to feeding by Diaprepes larvae followed by mahogany then pond apple.

  7. Glycyrrhizic acid attenuates growth of Leishmania donovani by depleting ergosterol levels.

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    Dinesh, Neeradi; Neelagiri, Soumya; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Sushma

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) the main component of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its efficacy as antileishmanial agent and its mode of action explored. GA inhibits promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in a dose dependent manner at an IC 50 value of 34 ± 3.0 μM and 20 ± 4.2 μM respectively. GA was non-toxic against THP-1 macrophage host cell line. GA was found to inhibit recombinant Leishmania donovani HMG-CoA reductase (LdHMGR) enzyme at the half-maximum inhibitory concentration of 24 ± 4.3 μM indicating the sensitivity and specificity of GA towards the enzyme. However, GA could cause only 30% reduction in HMGR activity when measured in Leishmania promastigotes treated with 34 μM of GA. Interestingly western blot analysis revealed fivefold reduced HMGR expression in GLA treated promastigotes. To further study the mode of action of GA, we used transgenic parasites overexpressing LdHMGR. Results indicated that ∼2 fold resistance was exhibited by LdHMGR overexpressing promastigotes to GA with an IC 50 value of 74 μM compared to the wild type parasite. This explained the specific binding of GA to LdHMGR enzyme. There was ∼2 fold depletion in ergosterol levels in wild type promastigotes compared to the HMGR overexpressors. This data was further validated by exogenous supplementation of GA treated cells with ergosterol and 40% reversal of growth inhibition was observed. The results obtained suggested that GA kills the parasite by affecting sterol biosynthetic pathway, especially by inhibiting the L. donovani HMGR and altering ergosterol levels. The finding from the current study shows that GA is a potential antileishmanial chemotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Riqueza de galhas de insetos em áreas de Caatinga com diferentes graus de antropização do estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Gilda P. Brito

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O conhecimento sobre galhas de insetos da Caatinga ainda é fragmentado, com grande parte do esforço científico concentrado em alguns poucos pontos nos estados de Pernambuco e Bahia. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de galhas entomógenas e realizar sua caracterização morfológica em áreas de Caatinga de Ibiassucê, Estado da Bahia, com diferentes intensidades de ação antrópica. Foram selecionadas três áreas com base nos seus diferentes graus de antropização. Em cada área amostrada foram estabelecidas quatro parcelas aleatórias de 10 m2 cada, com 10 m de distância entre si, perfazendo um total de 12 parcelas nos ambientes. Foram registrados 20 morfotipos de galhas distribuídos em nove espécies vegetais pertencentes a oito famílias. A maior riqueza de galhas foi encontrada nas áreas intermediárias (n=8, seguida das áreas antropizadas (n=7 e preservadas (n=5. Galhas globoides, marrons, com apenas uma câmara, glabras e disseminadas separadamente foram as mais frequentes. Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera (Cecidomyiidae foram as ordens galhadoras. Os resultados aqui apresentados demonstram a importância desse tipo estudo e evidenciam a necessidade da realização de inventários de galhas em áreas pouco ou não amostradas da Caatinga.

  9. Riqueza de galhas entomógenas em áreas antropizadas e preservadas de caatinga

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    Sheila Patricia Carvalho-Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Insetos indutores de galhas, também denominados cecidógenos, são considerados mais especializados por possuírem interação direta com tecidos internos da planta, modificando-os em seu benefício e tornando-se mais dependentes da espécie hospedeira. Este estudo investigou a fauna de insetos galhadores em espécies hospedeiras da Caatinga, em ambientes com diferentes intensidades de ação antrópica. As áreas foram selecionadas de acordo com uma escala de sucessão ecológica (preservadas, intermediárias e antropizadas, sendo três réplicas de cada, totalizando nove áreas. Em cada área foram amostradas oito parcelas de 10 m² cada, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram encontrados 25 morfotipos de galhas distribuídos em 18 espécies hospedeiras pertencentes a oito famílias vegetais. Fabaceae foi a família com maior riqueza de galhas, com seis morfotipos, sendo Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. a espécie com maior número de galhas, com quatro morfotipos. Em relação aos órgãos atacados, 68% das galhas ocorreram em folhas, 28% em ramos e 4% em botões florais. A maioria das galhas encontradas ocorreu isoladamente (84%, glabra (56% e de formas esféricas (32%, amorfas (28%, discoides (12% e globoides (12%. No estrato arbóreo foi encontrada a maior riqueza de galhas, com 16 morfotipos, seguido do estrato arbustivo e herbáceo, respectivamente com sete e dois morfotipos. A riqueza de galhas sofreu influência do grau de conservação das áreas, e houve diferenças entre os ambientes preservados e antropizados.

  10. Acyl-CoA-Binding Protein ACBP1 Modulates Sterol Synthesis during Embryogenesis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, An-Shan; Xue, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are primary metabolites that exert interrelated functions as structural and signaling lipids. Despite their common syntheses from acetyl-coenzyme A, homeostatic cross talk remains enigmatic. Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) acyl-coenzyme A-binding proteins (ACBPs) are involved in FA metabolism. ACBP1 interacts with PHOSPHOLIPASE Dα1 and regulates phospholipid composition. Here, its specific role in the negative modulation of sterol synthesis during embryogenesis is reported. ACBP1, likely in a liganded state, interacts with STEROL C4-METHYL OXIDASE1-1 (SMO1-1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the sterol pathway. Proembryo abortion in the double mutant indicated that the ACBP1-SMO1-1 interaction is synthetic lethal, corroborating with their strong promoter activities in developing ovules. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed quantitative and compositional changes in FAs and sterols upon overexpression or mutation of ACBP1 and/or SMO1-1. Aberrant levels of these metabolites may account for the downstream defect in lipid signaling. GLABRA2 (GL2), encoding a phospholipid/sterol-binding homeodomain transcription factor, was up-regulated in developing seeds of acbp1, smo1-1, and ACBP1+/−smo1-1 in comparison with the wild type. Consistent with the corresponding transcriptional alteration of GL2 targets, high-oil, low-mucilage phenotypes of gl2 were phenocopied in ACBP1+/−smo1-1. Thus, ACBP1 appears to modulate the metabolism of two important lipid classes (FAs and sterols) influencing cellular signaling. PMID:28500265

  11. Acyl-CoA-Binding Protein ACBP1 Modulates Sterol Synthesis during Embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Liao, Pan; Yeung, Edward C; Hsiao, An-Shan; Xue, Yan; Chye, Mee-Len

    2017-07-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are primary metabolites that exert interrelated functions as structural and signaling lipids. Despite their common syntheses from acetyl-coenzyme A, homeostatic cross talk remains enigmatic. Six Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) acyl-coenzyme A-binding proteins (ACBPs) are involved in FA metabolism. ACBP1 interacts with PHOSPHOLIPASE Dα1 and regulates phospholipid composition. Here, its specific role in the negative modulation of sterol synthesis during embryogenesis is reported. ACBP1, likely in a liganded state, interacts with STEROL C4-METHYL OXIDASE1-1 (SMO1-1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the sterol pathway. Proembryo abortion in the double mutant indicated that the ACBP1-SMO1-1 interaction is synthetic lethal, corroborating with their strong promoter activities in developing ovules. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed quantitative and compositional changes in FAs and sterols upon overexpression or mutation of ACBP1 and/or SMO1-1 Aberrant levels of these metabolites may account for the downstream defect in lipid signaling. GLABRA2 ( GL2 ), encoding a phospholipid/sterol-binding homeodomain transcription factor, was up-regulated in developing seeds of acbp1 , smo1-1 , and ACBP1 +/- smo1-1 in comparison with the wild type. Consistent with the corresponding transcriptional alteration of GL2 targets, high-oil, low-mucilage phenotypes of gl2 were phenocopied in ACBP1 +/- smo1-1 Thus, ACBP1 appears to modulate the metabolism of two important lipid classes (FAs and sterols) influencing cellular signaling. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Nectar chemistry mediates the behavior of parasitized bees: consequences for plant fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leif L; Bowers, M Deane; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2016-02-01

    Plants produce an array of secondary metabolites that play important ecological roles as anti-herbivore and anti-pathogen defenses. Many herbivores experience physiological costs when they consume secondary metabolites, yet some also benefit, for example when these chemicals confer resistance to parasites and predators. Secondary metabolites are often present in nectar and pollen, which is paradoxical given that floral rewards are important in the attraction of mutualists rather than deterrence of antagonists. Motivated by studies of interactions among plants, herbivores, and parasites, as well as research showing that secondary metabolites can reduce bee disease, we characterized the occurrence of two iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol, in floral rewards and other tissues of the bee pollinated plant, Chelone glabra. We then experimentally investigated effects of nectar iridoid glycoside concentrations on the foraging behavior of bumble bee pollinators naturally afflicted by a parasitoid fly and a protozoan intestinal parasite, and subsequent effects on an estimate of plant reproduction. We found that floral nectar had lower iridoid glycoside concentrations than leaves, pollen, and corollas, and that, compared to those plant parts, the relative ratio of the two primary iridoid glycosides, aucubin and catalpol, was reversed in nectar. Whether bees carried parasitoid fly larvae did not affect their response to nectar chemistry; however, there was a significant interaction between protozoan parasite infection and nectar treatment, with infected bees foraging longer at flowers with high compared to low nectar iridoid glycoside concentrations. Parasitized bees were also more likely to return to inflorescences with high iridoid glycoside nectar. Consequently, flowers in the high iridoid glycoside nectar treatment donated significantly more pollen to conspecific stigmas than did flowers in the low iridoid glycoside treatment, suggesting an increase in male plant

  13. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as “Medang payung” by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its

  14. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF THE ARBOREAL AND NATURAL REGENERATION STRATA IN A BLACK-WATTLE (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. PLANTATION IN THE REGION OF SEMIDECIDUIS SEASONAL FORESTS OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Silas Mochiutti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the structure and floristic composition of the regeneration of native forest species under black-wattle plantation, established 16 years ago in a riparian area, and it verifies the possibility of the black-wattle be considered an invasive species of this environment. The tree stratum (circumference at breast height (CBH ≥15 cm was evaluated in 12 plots of 100 m2, established in four blocks. The natural regeneration stratum (0.3 m height to <15 cm CBH was evaluated in two subplots of 9 m2, established in opposite vertexes of each plot. The tree stratum was composed by 26 species of 14 families and the natural regeneration stratum by 49 species of 23 families. The Shannon diversity index for species, considering all plots, was 2.60 and 3.06 to the tree and natural regeneration strata, respectively. The native species, Casearia sylvestris, Myrsine lorentziana and Zanthoxylum petiolare presented the larger importance value in the tree stratum and Faramea marginata, Myrsine lorentziana and Myrcia glabra the biggest density in the natural regeneration stratum. The ecological characteristics of the species found in several height strata indicated that the forest succession process is in evolution. The black-wattle did not regenerate in this area and the planted trees of this species are in the senescence phase. Only 100 tree/ha of black-wattle were found, which represents 4.5% of the original population. Thus, black-wattle is not an invasive species for this environment.

  15. Fitossociologia dos estratos arbóreo e de regeneração natural em um povoamento de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii, De Wild. na região da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Silas Mochiutti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the structure and floristic composition of the regeneration of native forest species under black-wattle plantation, established 16 years ago in a riparian area, and it verifies the possibility of the black-wattle be considered an invasive species of this environment. The tree stratum (circumference at breast height (CBH ≥15 cm was evaluated in 12 plots of 100 m², established in four blocks. The natural regeneration stratum (0.3 m height to <15 cm CBH was evaluated in two subplots of 9 m², established in opposite vertexes of each plot. The tree stratum was composed by 26 species of 14 families and the natural regeneration stratum by 49 species of 23 families. The Shannon diversity index for species, considering all plots, was 2.60 and 3.06 to the tree and natural regeneration strata, respectively. The native species, Casearia sylvestris, Myrsine lorentziana and Zanthoxylum petiolare presented the larger importance value in the tree stratum and Faramea marginata, Myrsine lorentziana and Myrcia glabra the biggest density in the natural regeneration stratum. The ecological characteristics of the species found in several height strata indicated that the forest succession process is in evolution. The black-wattle did not regenerate in this area and the planted trees of this species are in the senescence phase. Only 100 tree/ha of black-wattle were found, which represents 4.5% of the original population. Thus, black-wattle is not an invasive species for this environment.

  16. Colecta y establecimiento de anonáceas en El Salvador

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    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El Centro Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria y Forestal (CENTA, a través de la Unidad de Recursos Fitogenéticos, inició en 1998 un diagnóstico geográfico de especies de anonáceas, con el objetivo de explorar, recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de campo en las Estaciones Experimentales. Las características evaluadas para frutos fueron: peso, largo y diámetro, número de semillas, textura de cáscara y pulpa; forma de fruto y cárpelos, daño por plagas y enfermedades y un análisis bromatológico. Como resultado de este trabajo se estableció la colección de anonáceas con las siguientes especies: squamosa, cherimola, reticulata, muricata, purpurea, diversifolia, holosericea y glabra. En la caracterización morfológica preliminar Annona muricata obtuvo un promedio de 175 semillas/fruto y 1,319 g en peso del fruto. A. cherimola con pulpa muy arenosa y carpelos no prominentes. A. squamosa con pulpa dulce, blanca y cárpelos muy prominentes. De la caracterización bromatológica se determinó que Annona muricata dio contenidos de humedad superiores a 82,8%; fibra cruda de 1,84% y fósforo con 367 ppm. En Annona diversifolia con menor grasa 0,01%. La mayor incidencia por plagas en frutos y semillas fue causado por el perforador Bephrateloides sp. La antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. en frutos y follaje fue la enfermedad más observada

  17. Etiologia e epidemiologia das dermatofitoses em Goiânia, GO, Brasil

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    Costa Théo Rodrigues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As dermatofitoses são infecções superficiais capazes de produzir lesões em tecidos queratinizados, como pele, pêlo e unhas. Foram examinados 6068 indivíduos procedentes de Goiânia, com suspeita clínica de infecções fúngicas, durante 5 anos (1993-1997, verificando-se a incidência e a etiologia das dermatofitoses nos referidos pacientes. Material coletado de várias regiões corpóreas permitiu caracterizar 1595 dermatófitos em 1345 indivíduos. A identificação dos dermatófitos realizada através de cultivo em ágar Sabouraud e microcultivo em lâmina, permitiu verificar uma maior freqüência de Trichophyton rubrum (37,4%, T. mentagrophytes (36,4% e Microsporum canis (16%. Os dermatófitos foram mais freqüentemente encontrados produzindo lesões nos pés (30,5%, região inguino crural (17,8% e região glabra do corpo (15,5%. Foi analisada a distribuição corporal das lesões de dermatofitoses com os respectivos agentes etiológicos encontrados. Melhores condições higiênicas e diagnóstico precoce da doença são necessários para controlar e diminuir a incidência de dermatofitoses na nossa região.

  18. A pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development.

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    Ben-Simhon, Zohar; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Trainin, Taly; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Holland, Doron

    2011-11-01

    Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), encoding a WD40-repeat protein. The TTG1 protein is a regulator of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and acts by the formation of a transcriptional regulatory complex with two other regulatory proteins: bHLH and MYB. Our results reveal that the pomegranate gene, designated PgWD40, recovered the anthocyanin, PAs, trichome and seed coat mucilage phenotype in Arabidopsis ttg1 mutant. PgWD40 expression and anthocyanin composition in the skin were analyzed during pomegranate fruit development, in two accessions that differ in skin color intensity and timing of appearance. The results indicate high positive correlation between the total cyanidin derivatives quantity (red pigments) and the expression level of PgWD40. Furthermore, strong correlation was found between the steady state levels of PgWD40 transcripts and the transcripts of pomegranate homologues of the structural genes PgDFR and PgLDOX. PgWD40, PgDFR and PgLDOX expression also correlated with the expression of pomegranate homologues of the regulatory genes PgAn1 (bHLH) and PgAn2 (MYB). On the basis of our results we propose that PgWD40 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development and that expression of PgWD40, PgAn1 and PgAn2 in the pomegranate fruit skin is required to regulate the expression of downstream structural genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  19. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  20. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

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    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

  1. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis.

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    Verweij, Walter; Spelt, Cornelis E; Bliek, Mattijs; de Vries, Michel; Wit, Niek; Faraco, Marianna; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca M

    2016-03-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein AN1 activate, together with the MYB protein AN2, anthocyanin biosynthesis and, together with the MYB protein PH4, distinct genes, such as PH1 and PH5, that acidify the vacuole. To understand how AN1 and AN11 activate anthocyanin biosynthetic and PH genes independently, we isolated PH3. We found that PH3 is a target gene of the AN11-AN1-PH4 complex and encodes a WRKY protein that can bind to AN11 and is required, in a feed-forward loop, together with AN11-AN1-PH4 for transcription of PH5. PH3 is highly similar to TTG2, which regulates hair development, tannin accumulation, and mucilage production in Arabidopsis. Like PH3, TTG2 can bind to petunia AN11 and the Arabidopsis homolog TTG1, complement ph3 in petunia, and reactivate the PH3 target gene PH5. Our findings show that the specificity of WD40-bHLH-MYB complexes is in part determined by interacting proteins, such as PH3 and TTG2, and reveal an unanticipated similarity in the regulatory circuitry that controls petunia vacuolar acidification and Arabidopsis hair development. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

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    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as "Medang payung" by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent

  3. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  4. Fase sexual de los helechos Odontosoria schlechtendalii y Odontosoria scandens (Dennstaedtiaceae

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    Beatriz Granados

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de los estudios sobre morfogénesis de la fase sexual de Odontosoria schlechtendalii y O. scandens son presentados en este trabajo. En O. schechlechtendalii y O. scandens las esporas son triletes, no clorofílicas, carecen de perina, la exina es lisa, ligeramente granulada a retuculata y la germinación es tipo Vittaria. El patrón de desarrollo protálico es tipo Adiantum. Los gametófitos adultos son cordiforme espatulados, con la probable presencia de anteridiógenos en O. schlechtendalii, ambas especies son glabras. Los organos sexuales son del tipo común de los helechos leptosporangiados. Las primeras hojas aparecen a los 56-92 días de cultivo, cuyo pecíolo y lámina es angostamente dividida, con tricomas bifurcados y estomas anomocíticosThe results of morphogenesis studies of the sexual phase of Odontosoria schlechtendalii and O. scandens are presented in this paper. In O. schlechtendalii and O. scandens the spores are triletes, non-chlorophyllous, and germinación is of the Vittaria-type, devoid of perine, the exine is smoth and sometimes coarsely ridged to reticulate. The development pattern is of the Adiantum-type. The adult gametophyte is cordate-spathulate, with probable presence of anteridiogen in O. schlechtendalii, both species are glabrous. Sex organs are of the common type of the leptosporangiate ferns. The first leaves appeared after 56-92 days of culture, with petiole and plate divide narrow, trichomes bifurcate and stomate anomocytic

  5. ASSESMENT OF MAINTENANCE OF TREE STAND IN NATURE RESERVE "SKARPA WIŚLICKA" IN SILESIAN FOOTHILLS

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    Damian Chmura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The forest “Skarpa Wiślicka” is nature reserve that protects remnants of former primevail forest in the territory of Wiślica. It also is included in NATURA 2000 area (Cieszyńskie Źródła Tufowe code PLH240001. The aim of the present study was to valorization of treestand of this protected object. Amongst 19 observed tree species, 11 were studied in detail (232 randomly selected individuals. Dendrometry measurements, health tree were assessed. The attention was paid to presence of coarse woody debris as well. For the purpose of the latter decomposition stage was characterized. The studies demonstrated that as many as 69 individuals scored size for nature monuments (circumference and diameter at breast height. The elm Ulmus glabra prevailed (25 individuals have higher value than 220 cm of circumference and the least abundant is ash Fraxinus excelsior (2 higher than 250 cm. More than 50% of trees were characterized by damages i.e. losses of bark, dried or broken branches. Amount of coarse woody debris is not enough. Amongst logs I degree of decomposition dominated (27 logs, whereas weighted mean is 2.93 in 8-degree scale. To sum up it can be concluded that the number of trees that deserve the protection of the rank of a natural monument is very high. It reflects favorable conditions of development of forest communities in the territory of “Skarpa Wiślicka”. While relatively small amount of dead wood and low mean degree of decomposition indicates the impact of forest management i.e. frequent removal of dead wood.

  6. Characteristics of Color Development in Seeds of Brown- and Yellow-Seeded Heading Chinese Cabbage and Molecular Analysis of Brsc, the Candidate Gene Controlling Seed Coat Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; He, Qiong; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-01-01

    The proanthocyanidin (PA) is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147) and yellow-seeded (B80) heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis ). It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) staining and toluidine blue O (TBO) staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped. The results of whole genome re-sequencing showed that there are large fragment deletions variation in the mapping region between the brown-seeded parent '92S105' and the yellow-seeded parent '91-125.' Based on the B. rapa genome annotation information, the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ( TTG1 ), is likely to be the candidate gene controlling seed coat color. A 94-base deletion was found in the 96th base downstream of the initiation codon in the TTG1 of yellow seed, thus, the termination codon TGA was occurred in the 297th base which makes the full length of TTG1 of yellow seed is 300 bp. Based on the differential sequences of TTG1 of brown and yellow seed, a functional marker, Brsc-yettg1, was developed to detect the variation of TTG1 . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of BrTTG1 in different tissues showed that expression levels of BrTTG1 was not tissue-specific. During the whole seed development period, the expression of BrTTG1 in B147 was higher than that of B80. The expression levels of four structural genes, BrDFR, BrANS, BrANR1 , and BrANR2 in B147 were also higher than those in B80. The co-segregation molecular markers obtained in this report and TTG1 related information provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed coat color in heading Chinese cabbage.

  7. Efficacy of an Iranian herbal preparation (Lax-Asab in treating functional constipation: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Mohammad Hossein Somi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint of patients with unsatisfactory treatment outcome. We designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of a traditional herbal preparation (Lax-Asab in treating chronic constipation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, participants with chronic constipation (n = 48 were randomly selected to receive either the Lax-Asab powder (n = 24 or placebo (n = 24 on alternative days for 4 weeks. The Lax-Asab powder contains equal amounts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (狹葉番瀉葉 xiá yè fān xiè yè, Mentha piperita L. (胡椒薄荷 hú jiāo bò hé, Zingiber officinale Rosc. (生薑 shēng jiāng, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (甘草 gān cǎo. A total of 40 patients completed the study. We determined the severity of constipation based on defecation frequency (per week and defecation difficulties. Of the total of 48 patients who participated, 40 completed the trial [24 men (60%, mean age, 21.0 ± 4.2 years; 16 women (40%, mean age, 20.1 ± 4.3 years]. The mean of weekly defecation frequency increased in both groups; from 1.8 ± 0.41 to 4.8 ± 1.12 times in patients who received Lax-Asab and from 1.7 ± 0.44 to 2.2 ± 0.61 times in patients who received placebo. A time–treatment interaction showed that this increase was significantly higher in the intervention group. Defecation difficulties improved significantly more in patients who received Lax-Asab than patients who received placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to the side effects observed. This study confirms the efficacy and tolerability of an Iranian herbal preparation, Lax-Asab, in treating patients with chronic functional constipation.

  8. Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review

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    Carlos Lopez Encina

    2014-01-01

    , for the genes introduction to control the postharvest processes and the genes introduction to provide resistance to pathogen and insects and d Micropropagation and regeneration of other wild Annona or related Annonaceae species such as: Annona senegalensis, A. scleroderma, A. montana, A. reticulata, A. glabra, A. diversifolia and Rollinia sp.

  9. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae, three new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana y Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae, tres nuevas especies de Jalisco, México

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    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2013-03-01

    , peciolo y eje floral. Salvia ramirezii J. G. González se ubica bien dentro de la sección Sigmoideae Epling debido a la forma sigmoide de la rama inferior del estilo. Es morfológicamente similar a Salvia crucis Epling y S. quercetorum Epling, de las que se distingue principalmente por las hojas triangulares, ligeramente suculentas, más cortas, glabras y lustrosas.

  10. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M., E-mail: Austin_Guo@nymc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr{sup 458}), phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}) and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE{sub 2}, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin induces anoikis and suppresses

  11. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

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    Leopoldo C. Baratto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson é um arbusto nativo do Brasil, latescente, popularmente conhecido como agoniada e utilizado principalmente para distúrbios menstruais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. A folha é simples, glabra e obovado-lanceolada. A epiderme é uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula estriada e possui estômatos anisocíticos na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais. Laticíferos, amiloplastos e idioblastos fenólicos estão presentes no parênquima fundamental da nervura central e do pecíolo. O sistema vascular do caule é tipicamente bicolateral. Laticíferos e idioblastos fenólicos ocorrem no córtex, no floema e na medula. Esses caracteres morfoanatômicos, em conjunto, podem ser utilizados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade dessa espécie.Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson is a Brazilian native shrub, laticiferous, popularly known as "agoniada" and it is mainly used for uterine disorders. The present work aimed to study the leaf, stem and stem bark morpho-anatomy of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to its quality control and identification. The plant material was fixed and submitted to standard microtechniques. The leaf is simple, glabrous and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermis is uniseriate, coated with striated cuticle and it has anysocitic stomata on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is circular, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles. Laticiferous ducts, amyloplasts and phenolic idioblasts are found in ground parenchyma of the midrib and petiole. The

  12. Prospects of using licorice as an immunomodulator in pediatrics

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    О. А. Rukhmakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the current choice of medicines supplied by pharmaceutical industry, phytotherapy today is a quite popular method of treatment, including pediatric patients. Among its advantages we should note, first of all, plant safety and the possibility of long-term use, the biological affinity between the active substances of plant and physiologically active substances of the body, the multivalency of phytopreparations’ action, simplicity and ease of preparation and use at home, etc. The nomenclature of medicinal plants approved for pediatric patients use is wide enough, while the increasing attention has attracted licorice and medicines based on it more recently. The aim of this work is to study the prospects of licorice as an immunomodulator agent in pediatrics. Results and discussion. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. – is a perennial herb of the legume family. In Ukraine Licorice is sporadically found along the coastal slopes and plains of Azov, at Crimea,Donetsk,Odessa, Kherson etc. As a medicinal plant all underground parts of plants (roots and rhizomes are harvested during March - November. Among a variety of biologically active compounds, the direct application in medical practice is following: among triterpene compounds - glycyrrhizin acid and its derivatives, from phenolic compounds – flavonoids, from hydrocarbons - polysaccharides. A wide range of specific activity of licorice medicines ensures by the availability of glycyrrhizin acid in its composition. Medicines obtained from licorice root, are used as analgesic, choleretic, hepatoprotective, laxative, diuretic and antispasmodic agents. Cough medicines for the treatment of bronchitis, inflammation of the nose and throat, conjunctivitis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc are proposed. The root of licorice is used in extemporaneous compounding for preparation the decoction, which is used as an anti-inflammatory and bronchiolitis agent. In industrial conditions from thick

  13. Morfologia e distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

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    Claudia Scareli-Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galhas são estruturas que exibem associações específicas entre o indutor e a planta hospedeira, onde são evidenciadas modificações morfológicas, anatômicas e químicas dos tecidos vegetais. Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae. Foram coletadas 294 folhas, da porção apical dos ramos, de indivíduos localizados na Universidade Federal do Tocantins - Campus Araguaína, TO. Foram realizadas análises morfológicas utilizando microscópio estereoscópico, paquímetro e bibliografia específica. Determinou-se o número de galhas no limbo foliar seguida da análise de regressão linear entre o número de galhas por limbo e o seu comprimento. Foram observadas galhas do tipo cônico atravessando a lâmina foliar, glabras, de coloração verde quando jovens e vermelho alaranjadas quando maduras, com distribuição isolada/agrupada e aderência total; internamente apresentou um lóculo e uma larva do indutor (Cecidomyiidae. A distribuição das galhas no limbo apresentou diferenças significativas (p<0,001, em ordem decrescente foi observado maior número de galhas entre as nervuras (57,1%, sobre a nervura secundária (35,7%, na margem (6,3% e na nervura central (1,2%; a análise de regressão linear apresentou fracamente positiva (r2= 0,03; coeficiente de Pearson= 0,2025, o que sugere que a oviposição está associada, em parte, com o tamanho do limbo e que outras variáveis podem ser determinantes. Estes são os primeiros registros de galhas em A. occidentale no estado do Tocantins.

  14. Estudo anátomo-morfológico de dicotiledôneas das dunas de Salvador - Bahia: Borreria cymosa Cham. et Schl. e Chiococca brachiata R. et P. (Rubiaceae Morpho-anatomic studies of dicotiledons from Salvador - Bahia dunes: Borreria cymosa Chamo et Schl. and Chiococca brachiata R. et P. (Rubiaceae

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    Elzeni Diladelfo de Gusmão

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosseguindo as pesquisas sobre a vegetação das Dunas do Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, apresentam-se as Rubiaceae: Borreria cymosa e Chiococca brachiata. Cortes histológicos à mão livre, com lâminas de barbear, seguindo-se as técnicas de rotina. Estudaram-se as epidermes, mesofilo, nervura central, bordo e pecíolo. Contaram-se os estômatos por área foliar. Folhas dorsiventrais e hipoestomáticas, glabras, cutícula adaxial espessa e brilhante. Numerosas gotas lipídicas, esclereídeos no córtex do pecíolo e nervura central. Borreria: tem epiderme abaxial com paredes fortemente sinuosas e estrias epicuticulares; células incolores, subjacentes à epiderme adaxial; mesofilo com drusas e ráfides de oxolato de cálcio, bainhas de células volumosas envolvendo todos os feixes. Chiococca: epiderme de paredes curvas, cutícula formando "flanges" ao nível da nervura mediana, bordo e pecíolo. Pequenas células cheias de cloroplastos envolvem feixes menores. Clorênquima denso. Conclui-se que as plantas apresentam caracteres de adaptação ao meio xérico. As características anatômicas tanto quanto ao morfológicas individualizam os taxons.Following studies of the vegetation from the dunes of Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, the Rubiaceae Borreria cymosa and Chiococca brachiata are described. Free hand histological were made with razor blades, following routine procedures. The epidermis, mesophyll, central nerve, margin and petiole were studied. Stomata per area of leaf were counted. Dorsiventral and hypoestomatic leaves, glabrous, adaxial cuticle heavy anda brillant. Numerous lipid droplets, sclereids in cortex of petiole and central nerve. Borreria: has abaxial epidermis with strongly sinuos walls and striated; cells colorless, subjacent to adaxial epidermis; mesophyll with druses and raphides of calcium oxalate, sheaths of volumous cells wrapping all the bundles. Chiococca: epiderm with curved walls, cuticle forming "flanges" at the level of the

  15. Effect of anti-inflamentation extracts from Korean traditional medicinal herb

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    Zhang Xiaowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Mix Plant Extracts according to different extraction solvents were assessed for its cell viability and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The single plant extract was extracted with 70% ethanol(EtOH and the mix plants(C.kousa, R.multiflora, T.nucifera, M.basjoo and S.glabra were extracted with EtOH 30%, 70%; Butylene Glycol(BG 30%, 70%; Propylene Glycol(PG 30%, 70%; Distilled Water(D.W. Cell viability was measured using the Micro culture tetrazolium (MTT assay method and Human fibroblast cells, CCD 1102 KERTr were used. The plant extracts with the maximum concentration that none toxic to the cells were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using lipoxygenase inhibition assay method. A dose response curve was plotted to determine the IC50 values. Results showed that, at the 5 kinds of single plant extracts by 70% EtOH extraction solvent, it showed the IC50 was 280ug/ml of S1, 370ug/ml of S2, 380ug/ml of S3, 170ug/ml of S4 and 190ug/ml of S5. At the mix plant extracts by 7 kinds of extraction solvents (70%, 30% EtOH; 70%, 30% BG; 70%, 30% PG; D.W, it showed the IC50 was 140ug/ml of M E70, 140ug/ml of M E30, 120ug/ml of M BG70, 110ug/ml of M BG30, 120ug/ml of M PG70, 136ug/ml of M PG30 and 120ug/ml of M D.W. From the results, it is concluded that when these five plants mixed before extraction, it will extract more active ingredients with anti-inflammatory effects. Further study we will analyzing plants effective single compound using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiling and progressing the experiments in vivo.

  16. The effects of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper on transcription factors in HUVEC and the erythrocyte protein profile

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    Erkan Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS is an herbal extract that has historically been used as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. ABS is comprised of a standardized herbal mixture of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, V. vinifera, A. officinarum, and U. dioica. ABS’s basic mechanism of action is the formation of an encapsulated protein web, which represents the focal point for vital erythrocyte masses. The hemostatic effects of ABS have been observed in vitro and in vivo. ABS was registered as a hemostatic agent for external hemorrhages and dental bleeding following phase I randomized, double-blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical research, and safety and efficacy reports. In terms of the potential use of ABS, transcription factors may be novel factors that play a role in the hemostatic and other pleiotropic effects of ABS. Materials and Methods: Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium, and possible transcription factor changes in HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the erythrocyte membrane profile. ABS (5 μL and 50 μL was administered to HUVEC (in 75 cm2; ~75% fullness for 5 min and 15 min. Results: ABS caused significant increases in the level of activation of the following transcription factors; AP2, AR, CRE/ATF1, CREB, E2F1-5, E2F6, EGR, GATA, HNF-1, ISRE, Myc-Max, NF-1, NFkB, p53, PPAR, SMAD 2/3, SP1, TRE/AP1, and YY1. Following erythrocyte membrane isolation, protein complexes were undissolved, but denatured. The protein complex formed was resistant to heat and detergent. Trypsin and sonication were used in order to break this complex; the complex dissolved and erythrocyte membrane proteins were released in SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: ABS established a very fast and solid protein web, and increased the level of transcription factor activation. Therefore the cellular effects of ABS could be related to different intracellular biological pathways.

  17. Functional proteomic analysis of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper

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    Duygu Özel Demiralp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. The basic mechanism of action for ABS is the formation of an encapsulated protein network that provides focal points for vital erythrocyte aggregation. ABS–induced protein network formation with blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, covers the primary and secondary hemostatic system without disturbing individual coagulation factors. Materials and Methods: To understand the effect mechanisms of ABS on hemostasis, a proteomic analysis using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometer was performed. Results: Proteins of plant origin in Ankaferd® were NADP-dependent-malic enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate-carboxylase-large chain, maturase K, ATP synthase subunit-beta, ATP synthase subunit-alpha, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-1, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-2, and actin-depolymerizing factor. Furthermore, functional proteomic studies revealed that proteins resembling human peptides have been detected within Ankaferd®, including ATP synthase, mucin-16 (CD164 sialomucin-like 2 protein, coiled-coil domain containing 141 hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 1, hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 2, dynactin 5, complex I intermediate-associated protein 30, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex, TP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial actin binding 1 isoform, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform a, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform b, spectrin alpha non erythrocytic 1, prolactin releasing hormone receptor, utrophin, tet oncogene family member 2 isoform b, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, NIMA (never in mitosis gene a-related kinase, ATP-binding cassette protein C12, Homo sapiens malic enzyme 1, mitochondrial NADP(+-dependent malic enzyme 3, ME2 protein, nuclear factor 1 B-type, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12B, E

  18. Dual Diverse Dynamic Reversible Actions of Ankaferd on EPCR and PAI-1 Inside Vascular Endothelial Cells With and Without LPS

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    Afife Karabıyık

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum ve Urtica dioica. ABS has been used as a topical haemostatic agent because of its antihaemorrhagic effect. Its haemostatic mechanism of action remains to be investigated. ABS does not affect individual levels of the coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XIII. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium and immune response. So, we investigated the possible changes in EPCR and PAI-1 without and with LPS-challenge inside HUVECs. METHODS: 10 μL and 100 μL ABS is given to HUVECs in 5 min., 25 min., and 50 min.,6 hour and 24 hour time periods. 10 μg/ mL LPS has been added for one hour to observe the effects of LPS challenge on HUVECs and then the cells have been treated with ABS for the time period of 5 min., 25 min., 50 min. and 6 hours to observe ABS-effects on HUVECs. Total RNAs were isolated from HUVECs and then EPCR ve PAI-1 mRNA expression levels were investigated. RESULTS: It was microscopically observed that cells arised from the surface and adhered to each other after the ABS application to the HUVECs. Also, after 24 hours cells returned the normal growth and physiology. It suggests that the adhesive cellular functions of ABS may be reversible. 10 µl ABS have negative effect on EPCR and PAI-1 expressions. Moreover the effects increases with 100 µl ABS. EPCR and PAI-1 expression increased by time with LPS and 10 µl ABS. Expressions were very low during the first hour when LPS and 100 µl ABS were given but at the end of 6 hour, EPCR and PAI-1 expression increased similar to LPS and 10 µl ABS experiment. CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that Ankaferd has dual diverse dynamic reversible actions depend on dose and concentration on EPCR and PAI-1 inside vascular endothelial cells in the model of HUVEC. ABS might have a role on numerous cellular

  19. THE ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITES POPULATION (‘OSNOVNOY’ QUARRY, DONETSK REGION

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    Shtirts А. D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the successional recovery processes of quarry-spoiled systems soil-living oribatide mites, who are one of the pioneer groups inhabiting anthropogenically transformed areas, play a significant role. The aim of our study was to research composition and characteristics of oribatide mites ecological community structure of the ‘Osnovnoy’ quarry (PJSC ‘HeidelbergCement Ukraine’ in Amvrosievsky district of Donetsk region. The material was collected in 2012. In total, 37 standard soil samples of 250 cm3 were collected, from which 1086 adult specimen, who belong to 61 species, were extracted in April. The collection of soil samples and forcing of oribatides in thermoelectors was conducted by the conventional method of E. M. Bulanovа-Zahvatkinа. To analyze the communities domination structure the gradations of dominance by the means of G. Engelmann scale was used. The analysis of the oribatides morpho-ecological types distribution was held in accordance to the work of D. A. Krivolutsky. To assess the ecological diversity of oribatides communities the indices of Shannon, Pielou, Simpson and Margalef were used. On the territory of the «Osnovnoy» quarry, a specific complex with a unique oribatid species composition was detected (two new species were found for the fauna of Ukraine noted earlier for the steppes of Mongolia: Ghilarovus khentiicus Bayartogtokh, Smelyansky, 2007 and Hemileius humeralis Perez-Inigo, 1990. During the analysis of the oribatide communities ecological structure low rates of average population density (7280-11410 ind./m2 were observed with high species wealth (61 species found. The maximum figure made up in spring, the minimum – in summer. The ecological diversity indexes are quite high, thus the maximum for Shannon index in spring is 2.89, which is comparable to that of the conserved areas. The quarry dominant species are Multioppia glabra, Protoribates capucinus, Tectocepheus velatus, Scheloribates laevigatus, and

  20. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

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    Benedito Baptista dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 e Ulmaceae (4 as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical.In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 and Ulmaceae (4 having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

  1. Chinese vegetative materia medica in a venereological treatise by Jean Astruc from 1740.

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    Drobnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    officinalis, Saposhnikovia divaricata, Sassafras tzumu, Smilax china, S. glabra, Stephania tetrandra, Styphnolobium japonicum, Trichosanthes japonica, T. kirilowii; China wax is also mentioned. Out of them, only Lonicera japonica is being used in China in late syphilis, Achyranthes bidentata in gonorrhoea, and Dictamnus dasycarpus in gynaecological problems. In the Astruc's study, 3 medicinal plant species and 5 further plant genera are correctly determined; other plant parts were misidentified. Antisyphilitic actions ascribed to the Chinese medical formulas and their constituents studied by Astruc, seem to have come from Hg or As compounds rather than from vegetative materia medica. The formulas contained only one species still known in TCM as a remedy for syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

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    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are

  3. Bone health nutraceuticals alter microarray mRNA gene expression: A randomized, parallel, open-label clinical study.

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    Lin, Yumei; Kazlova, Valentina; Ramakrishnan, Shyam; Murray, Mary A; Fast, David; Chandra, Amitabh; Gellenbeck, Kevin W

    2016-01-15

    Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to have a role in promoting bone health. More specifically, the polyphenols they contain have been linked to physiological effects related to bone mineral density and bone metabolism. In this research, we use standard microarray analyses of peripheral whole blood from post-menopausal women treated with two fixed combinations of plant extracts standardized to polyphenol content to identify differentially expressed genes relevant to bone health. In this 28-day open-label study, healthy post-menopausal women were randomized into three groups, each receiving one of three investigational fixed combinations of plant extracts: an anti-resorptive (AR) combination of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) and grape seed (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts; a bone formation (BF) combination of quercetin (Dimorphandra mollis Benth) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extracts; and a fixed combination of all four plant extracts (AR plus BF). Standard microarray analysis was performed on peripheral whole blood samples taken before and after each treatment. Annotated genes were analyzed for their association to bone health by comparison to a gene library. The AR combination down-regulated a number of genes involved in reduction of bone resorption including cathepsin G (CTSG) and tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1). The AR combination also up-regulated genes associated with formation of extracellular matrix including heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1). In contrast, treatment with the BF combination resulted in up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and COL1A1 (collagen type I α1) genes which are linked to bone and collagen formation while down-regulating genes linked to osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with a combination of all four plant extracts had a distinctly different effect on gene expression than the results of the AR and BF combinations individually. These results could

  4. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

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    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  5. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

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    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  6. Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review.

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    Ayrle, Hannah; Mevissen, Meike; Kaske, Martin; Nathues, Heiko; Gruetzner, Niels; Melzig, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-06-06

    .) MOENCH, Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Origanum vulgare L. were identified as best candidates for modulation of the immune system and inflammation. Several medicinal plants bear a potential for novel treatment strategies for young livestock. There is a need for further research focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets, and the findings of this review provide a basis on plant selection for future studies.

  7. Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children.

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    Sarokte, Atul Shankar; Rao, Mangalagowri V

    2013-10-01

    Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The

  8. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

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    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  9. Leaf anatomy of medicinal shrubs and trees from Misiones forest of the Paranaense Province (Argentina: Part 2 Anatomía foliar de arbustos y árboles medicinales de la Selva Misionera de la provincia Paranaense (Argentina: Parte 2

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    Ana M. Arambarri

    2008-07-01

    ña con ilustraciones y se brinda una conclusión de los caracteres diagnósticos, tales como la presencia de epidermis cristalífera (e.g. Trixis divaricata subsp. divaricata; los tipos de estomas (e.g. ciclocíticos en Pilocarpus pennatifolius; y de tricomas (e.g. escamosos peltados en Tabebuia heptaphylla; el contorno de la vena media (e.g. convexa y aquillada en la cara adaxial en Schinus weinmanniifolia; la presencia y tipo de cristales (e.g. arena cristalina en Cordia ecalyculata, rafidios en Psychotria carthagenensis. También se provee una interpretación ecológica de las especies estudiadas cuyas hojas presentaron predominantemente una combinación de caracteres mesomórficos (e.g. hojas hipostomáticas, mesofilo dorsiventral y xeromórficos (e.g. cutícula gruesa, esclerénquima abundante, epidermis pluriseriada, mesofilo indiferenciado en empalizada, hipodermis pluriseriada, esclereidas idioblásticas. Solamente dos especies, Ilex paraguariensis y Manihot grahamii, presentaron combinados caracteres mesomórficos (entre otros, hojas hipostomáticas y mesofilo dorsiventral e higromórficos (epidermis glabra. Finalmente, se provee una clave para la diferenciación de 107 especies de arbustos y árboles medicinales, de la provincia biogeográfica Paranaense (Parte 1: Selvas en Galería y Parte 2: Selva Misionera que permite identificar las especies utilizando caracteres anatómicos de la hoja.

  10. Organização estrutural da folha de Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum, Myrtaceae Leaf structural organization of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum, Myrtaceae

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    Vanessa de Farias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com grande distribuição no Brasil e ocorrência principalmente no cerrado, caatinga e floresta atlântica, Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum, que está inclusa em um dos menores gêneros de Myrtaceae, é popularmente conhecida como craveiro-do-mato, louro-cravo ou chá-de-bugre. Trata-se de uma espécie nativa e suas folhas são usadas na culinária substituindo o cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum devido ao aroma semelhante. O estudo tem o objetivo de caracterizar anatomicamente a folha dessa espécie. Para a confecção do laminário, amostras da região mediana da folha e do pecíolo foram seccionadas em micrótomo de rotação e coradas com azul de toluidina a 1%. Em vista frontal, a epiderme é glabra na face adaxial e pilosa na face abaxial, com tricomas unicelulares. A folha é hipoestomática e os complexos estomáticos são anomocíticos. Em secção transversal, a epiderme é uniestratificada revestida por cutícula espessa e camada subepidérmica formada por 1-2 estratos celulares. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e bainha esclerenquimática envolve o feixe vascular bicolateral. Na folha e no pecíolo observam-se colênquima lacunar, flanges cuticulares, canais secretores e idioblastos contendo drusas e monocristais. Concluise que a espécie possui características freqüentes para Myrtaceae, com exceção da camada subepidérmica e flanges cuticulares, e que os resultados obtidos contribuem com novas informações que podem subsidiar estudos futuros no que se refere à identificação e delimitação do táxon.Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum is a native species from Brazil and occurs mainly in cerrado, caatinga and Atlantic rainforest vegetation. It is commonly known as "craveiro-do-mato", "louro-cravo" or "chá-de-bugre". It is a tree species whose leaves are used for cooking; they smell and taste like cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. This study describes the leaf anatomy of the species. The leaves were sliced

  11. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

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    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  12. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

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    Antonio Domingos Brescovit

    1996-12-01

    Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia

  13. Características da epiderme foliar de eucalipto e seu envolvimento com a tolerância ao glyphosate Characteristics of eucalypt leaf epidermis and its role in glyphosate tolerance

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Em áreas de reflorestamento, a deriva do glyphosate causa injúrias nas plantas de eucalipto. Trabalhos preliminares de pesquisa e observações de campo apontam para uma tolerância diferencial ao glyphosate entre os genótipos cultivados. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar as estruturas anatômicas da epiderme foliar de cinco espécies de eucalipto, correlacionando com a tolerância ao glyphosate em deriva simulada. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial, sendo cinco espécies (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera e E. saligna e cinco subdoses (0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8 e 345,6 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, simulando uma deriva. Imediatamente antes da aplicação do herbicida, coletaram-se folhas, totalmente expandidas, para análise anatômica da superfície epidérmica segundo metodologia de dissociação. Entre as espécies estudadas, E. resinifera mostrou-se mais tolerante à deriva de glyphosate, apresentando os menores valores de porcentagem de intoxicação aos 45 dias após aplicação, não sendo encontrada diferença entre as demais espécies. As cinco espécies apresentam folhas glabras, anfiestomáticas, com estômatos do tipo anomocítico e cutícula proeminente. Apesar de presentes em ambas as faces, os estômatos são raros na face adaxial, apresentando baixo índice e densidade estomática. Os maiores valores para índice estomático foram observados em E. resinifera, enquanto E. saligna apresentou a maior densidade estomática. Cavidades subepidérmicas evidenciadas na superfície pelas células de cobertura estão presentes nas cinco espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita. Houve alta correlação entre a porcentagem de intoxicação por glyphosate e o número de células epidérmicas da superfície adaxial, indicando envolvimento desta característica com a tolerância diferencial ao herbicida. Estudos sobre absorção, translocação e metabolismo do glyphosate em eucalipto devem ser realizados para elucidar

  14. Colgajo de nuca para reconstrucción de lesiones en cuero cabelludo Retalho de nuca para reconstrução de lesões de couro cabeludo Nape flap for scalp lessions reconstruction

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    L.F. Dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    écnica proposta apresentou com vantagens a correção em um só tempo cirúrgico e o fechamento direto da lesão com bom aspecto cosmético. Como desvantagens, identificaram-se aumento da área glabra e, algumas vezes, presença de cicatriz hipertrófica, a qual, na opinião dos pacientes, não comprometeu sua qualidade de vida.Sixteen male patients aging from 20 to 35 years had been submitted to Reconstructive Surgery with pediculate remnant of nape, from 2000 to 2003, at the Plastic Surgery Department of Agamenon Magalhães Hospital, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil, for treatment of chronic inflammatory injuries of mycotic origin and 1 case of secondary injury due to electric burning with scalp necrosis and bone exposition, all located in occipital region. The internment time varied between 3 and 4 days. Three cases of necrosis of remnant tip had been identified, in retro-auricular region, measuring between 0.5 cm and 1 cm that had healed by second intention. Any case of pedicular necrosis or infection has been registered. The proposal technique presented advantages as the correction in only one surgical procedure and the direct closing of the injury with a good cosmetic aspect. As disadvantages, there were increase of glabrous area and, sometimes, the presence of hypertrophic scar, which, in patients´ opinion, did not compromise their quality of life.

  15. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

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    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    Blaisdell, 1909]; Eleodes parvicollis var. squalida Blaisdell, 1918 [= Eleodes parvicollis Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes reflexicollis Mannerheim, 1843 and Eleodes parvicollis forma farallonica Blaisdell, 1909 [= Eleodes planata Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes indentata Blaisdell, 1935 [= Eleodes rotundipennis LeConte, 1857]; Eleodes intricata Mannerheim, 1843 [= Eleodes scabrosa Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes horni fenyesi Blaisdell, 1925 [= Eleodes tenebrosa Horn, 1870]; Eleodes cordata var. horrida Blaisdell, 1918 [= Eleodes tuberculata Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes oblonga Blaisdell, 1933 [= Eleodes versatilis Blaisdell, 1921]; Eleodes dentipes marinae Blaisdell, 1921 [= Eleodes dentipes Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes carbonaria forma glabra Blaisdell, 1909 [= Eleodes carbonaria carbonaria (Say, 1824]; Eleodes granosa forma fortis Blaisdell, 1909 [= Eleodes granosa LeConte, 1866]; Eleodes pilosa forma ordinata Blaisdell, 1909 [= Eleodes pilosa Horn, 1870]; Trogloderus costatus pappi Kulzer, 1960 [= Trogloderus tuberculatus Blaisdell, 1909]; Trogloderus costatus mayhewi Papp, 1961 [= Trogloderus vandykei La Rivers, 1946]; Bolitophagus cristatus Gosse, 1840 [= Bolitotherus cornutus (Fabricius, 1801]; Eleates explanatus Casey, 1890 [= Eleates depressus (Randall, 1838]; Blapstinus sonorae Casey, 1890 [= Blapstinus brevicollis LeConte, 1851]; Blapstinus falli Blaisdell, 1929 [= Blapstinus castaneus Casey, 1890]; Blapstinus brunneus Casey, 1890 and Blapstinus coronadensis Blaisdell, 1892 [=Blapstinus histricus Casey, 1890]; Blapstinus hesperius Casey, 1890 [=Blapstinus intermixtus Casey, 1890]; Blapstinus cinerascens Fall, 1929 [= Blapstinus lecontei Mulsant and Rey, 1859]; Blapstinus niger Casey, 1890 and Blapstinus cribricollis Casey, 1890 [= Blapstinus pimalis Casey, 1885]; Blapstinus arenarius Casey, 1890 [= Blapstinus pratensis LeConte, 1859]; Blapstinus gregalis Casey, 1890 [= Blapstinus substriatus Champion, 1885]; Blapstinus hydropicus Casey, 1890 [= Blapstinus sulcatus Le