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Sample records for karanj pongamia glabra

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

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    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  2. Pyrolysis kinetics of raw and hydrothermally carbonized Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents.

  3. Characterization of liquid and solid product from pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra deoiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new feedstock, Pongamia glabra deoiled cake (PGDC), is reported for pyrolysis. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed-bed pyrolyzer at temperatures ranging from 350 to 600°C with varying heating rates of 10, 20, 40°C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The highest liquid yield of 30.60% was observed at 500°C with heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1). The biochar obtained had a porous structure and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis. The representative bio-oil sample was characterized by CHN analyzer, GC-MS, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The bio-oil has a calorific value of 28.19MJ/kg and contains a higher amount of aliphatic compounds. The present investigation suggests that within the realm of biomass energy conversion technologies the PGDC can be used as a feedstock for pyrolysis conversion, thereby serving the demand of second generation biofuels.

  4. Bioefficacy of Morinda tinctoria and Pongamia glabra plant extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

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    D. Amerasan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labour outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the larvicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal activity of dried leaf chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of Morinda tinctoria and Pongamia glabra against larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found with the leaf methanol extracts of M. tinctoria and P. glabra against the larvae of A. stephensi lethal concentration (LC50=136.24 and 141.05 ppm; LC90=342.67 and 368.89 ppm, respectively. The results of the adulticidal activity assays of chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of M. tinctoria and P. glabra showed significant mortality against larvae of A. stephensi. The methanol extract showed maximum activity compared with the other extracts. The greatest effect on mean percentage hatch in the ovicidal assays was observed 48 h post-treatment. Percent hatch was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract, and directly proportional to the number of eggs. A mortality of 100% was observed with 100-400 ppm methanol extracts and 200-400 ppm aqueous extracts of M. tinctoria, and 200-400 ppm aqueous and methanol extracts of P. glabra. This study provides the first report of the larvicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal activities of M. tinctoria and P. glabra plant extracts against the malaria vector, A. stephensi, representing an ideal eco-friendly approach for its control.

  5. Suppression of nitrification and N2O emission by karanjin--a nitrification inhibitor prepared from karanja (Pongamia glabra Vent.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Deepanjan

    2002-06-01

    A laboratory incubation study was undertaken to study nitirification and N2O emission in an alluvial, sandy loam soil (typic ustochrept), fertilized with urea and urea combined with different levels of two nitrification inhibitors viz. karanjin and dicyandiamide (DCD). Karanjin [a furanoflavonoid, obtained from karanja (Pongamia glabra Vent.) seeds] and DCD were incorporated at the rate of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of applied urea-N (100 mg kg(-1) soil), to the soil (100 g) adjusted to field capacity moisture content. Mean N2O flux was appreciably reduced on addition of the inhibitors with urea. Amounts of nitrified N (i.e. (NO3- + NO2-)-N) in total inorganic N (i.e. (NO3 + NO2- + NH4+)-N) in soil were found to be much lower on the addition of karanjin with urea (2-8%) as compared to urea plus DCD (14-66%) during incubation, indicating that karanjin was much more potent nitrification inhibitor than DCD. Nitrification inhibition was appreciable on the application of different levels of karanjin (62-75%) and DCD (9-42%). Cumulative N2O-N loss was found to be in the range of 0.5-80% of the nitrified N at different stages of incubation. Application of karanjin resulted in higher mitigation of total N2O-N emission (92-96%) when compared with DCD (60-71%).

  6. Management of disease complex caused by root knot nematode and root wilt fungus on pigeonpea through soil organically enriched with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, karanj (Pongamia pinnata) oilseed cake and farmyard manure.

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    Goswami, B K; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Goswami, Jaideep; Tewari, D D

    2007-11-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the percentage response of colonization and development of VA-Mycorrhiza (Glomus fasciculatum) on a number of pulse crops viz. cowpea, chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea and lentil under glasshouse conditions. Among the above-mentioned crops, pigeonpea exhibited the best performance and was selected for further studies. In this host the development and colonization percentage of G. fasciculatum was investigated under two separate substrates i. e. soil amended with FYM and karanj oilseed cake keeping a control treatment of field soil. A third treatment amended with karanj oilseed cake and farm yard manure (FYM) was also kept which responded best in terms of colonization percentage. This treatment showing improved plant health as well as integration with G. fasciculatum was selected as an ideal treatment for the management of disease complex caused by root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and root wilt fungus, Fusarium udum on pigeonpea. Thus the treatment constituting FYM, karanj oilseed cake and VA-Mycorrhiza reduced the disease incidence caused by both maladies to a great extent with the most promising improvement in plant growth parameters as compared to all others. The present investigation, in addition to proposing an ideal eco-friendly treatment for the management of this disease complex also proposed an excellent medium for the proliferation of the obligate bio-protectant, G. fasciculatum.

  7. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

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    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycyrrhiza glabra:

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    Kočevar Glavač, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract inflammation and ulcer disease. In the article, a review of therapeutic uses, pharmacological activities, and toxicological effects are presented. Sladki koren (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) uporabljamo pri zdravljenju vnetja zgornjih dihalnih poti in ulkusne bolezni. V članku predstavljamo pregled njegove terapevtske uporabe, farmakoloških lastnosti in toksikoloških učinkov

  9. Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. from root nodules of Pongamia pinnata.

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    Kesari, Vigya; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Rangan, Latha

    2013-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata has an added advantage of N2-fixing ability and tolerance to stress conditions as compared with other biodiesel crops. It harbours "rhizobia" as an endophytic bacterial community on its root nodules. A gram-negative, nonmotile, fast-growing, rod-shaped, bacterial strain VKLR-01(T) was isolated from root nodules of Pongamia that grew optimal at 28°C, pH 7.0 in presence of 2% NaCl. Isolate VKLR-01 exhibits higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, for example, salt stress, elevated temperatures and alkalinity. Strain VKLR-01(T) has the major cellular fatty acid as C(18:1) ω7c (65.92%). Strain VKLR-01(T) was found to be a nitrogen fixer using the acetylene reduction assay and PCR detection of a nifH gene. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic distinctiveness and molecular data (16S rRNA, recA, and atpD gene sequences, G + C content, DNA-DNA hybridization etc.), strain VKLR-01(T) = (MTCC 10513(T) = MSCL 1015(T)) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. is proposed. Rhizobium pongamiae may possess specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through biotechnological tools and can be directly used as inoculants for reclamation of wasteland; hence, they are very important from both economic and environmental prospects.

  10. ANTIFUNGAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM CAKE, KARANJ CAKE AND VERMICOMPOST AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

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    JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several agro-based waste and byproducts are known and cited to play an important role in the management ofplant diseases in ancient texts. They act directly or indirectly on plant pathogens to inhibit the growth andmultiplication or by inducing resistance in crop plants. In the present experiments, aqueous extracts of neemcake, karanj cake and vermicompost were tested against some important phytopathogenic fungi viz.,Helminthosporium pennisetti, Curvularia lunata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae for theirantifungal activities. H. pennisetti was found to be most sensitive one followed by C. gloeosporioides f. sp.mangiferae and C. lunata against all the tested drugs. Against C. gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae, aqueous extractof karanj cake was most effective where GI50 was found to be 0.41% drug concentration followed by neem cake(0.46% and vermicompost (0.86%. In case of C. lunata and H. pennisetti, neem cake extract was most effectivewith GI50 value of 0.27% and 0.11% respectively. The GI50 values noted for C. lunata with extracts of karanj cake(0.70%, vermicompost (0.88% and for H. pennisetti were (0.20% and (0.22% respectively.

  11. Comparative Physical properties of Karanj Seed Oil by Using Different Organic Solvents: an Environmental Viable Fuel

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    *Savita Sagwan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil yielding crop plants are very important for economic growth of the energy and agricultural sectors. The oil seeds containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are important source of biodiesel. These organic seed oils are better than diesel fuels in terms of physico-chemical properties and biodegradability. One such plant species is Pongamia pinnata belonging to family Fabaceae. It is drought resistant, semi-deciduous, nitrogen fixing leguminous tree. It grows about 15-20 meters in height with a large canopy which spreads equally wide. Detail physical study in different organic solvents (n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether intends to identify all advantages and disadvantages of pongamia pinnata as a sustainable feedstock for the production of Biodiesel equivalent to fossil fuel as per ASTM.

  12. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA IN ACUTE CONJUNCTIVITIS

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    C. Srinivas

    1986-01-01

    Conjunctivitis and its treatment have been widely described in ancient Indian medicine, 50 cases of Conjunctivitis (Acute) were clinically studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra along with comparative approach of Chlorophenicol. 25 cases studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra have shown encouraging results from which the author concludes that, the drug has got a definite role in Conjunctivitis

  13. Glycosides from Bougainvillea glabra.

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    Simon, András; Tóth, Gábor; Duddeck, Helmut; Soliman, Hesham S M; Mahmoud, Ibrahim I; Samir, Hanan

    2006-01-01

    Three glycosides were isolated from Bougainvillea glabra and their structures were determined by extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy ((1)H and (13)C). First compound was identical to momordin IIc (quinoside D) [beta-D-glucopyranosyl 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)] oleanolate], second compound was quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-(rhamnopyranosyl)(1 --> 6)-[alpha-L-rhamnopy-ranosyl(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside and third compound was its derivative quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-(4-caffeoylrhamnopyranosyl)(1 --> 6)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside, a new natural product.

  14. Performance and emission study on DICI and HCCI engine using raw pongamia oil and diesel

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    Mani Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the performance and emission characteristics of pongamia oil and diesel fuelled direct injection compression ignition (DICI and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine. The primary objective of the work is to investigate the feasibility of application of unmodified pongamia oil in Diesel engine and to estimate the maximum fraction of diesel fuel replaced by the neat pongamia oil. This investigation also deals with the HCCI operation using unmodified pongamia oil. In DICI mode the neat pongamia oil is admitted into the engine in the form of pongamia oil and diesel blends. The blend that offers highest diesel replacement is considered as the test blend and it is tested further to find its maximum possible brake thermal efficiency by changing the engine operating parameters. The selected maximum blend is then tested in the new setting of the engine to determine the maximum possible performance and emission characteristics. The conventional emissions of DICI engine such as NO and smoke are disappeared in the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode of operation. The HCCI engine tested in the present work is fuelled by 40% neat pongamia oil and 60% diesel fuel through direct injection and vapour induction, respectively. The ignition or combustion phasing of the HCCI operation is carried out by the exhaust gas recirculation method. The amount of exhaust gas re-circulation governs the timing of combustion. The results of the experiments show that the neat pongamia oil performed well in HCCI mode and offered approximately ten times lower NO and smoke emission. Finally, the results of the DICI mode and HCCI mode are compared with each other to reveal the truths of neat pongamia oil in heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion.

  15. Review - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice).

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    Dastagir, Ghulam; Rizvi, Muhammad Afzal

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints. The plant is used as anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-depressive, anti-ulcer and anti-diabetic. The present review focuses Glycyrrhiza glabra distribution, ethno botany, ethno pharmacology, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, cultivation and trade. Plant requires a lot of attention as it has been reduced in population due to over-use in Baluchistan. The plant conservationists should consider this herb as priority species and should start its cultivation on the commercial scale to fulfill the requirements of the local markets and pharmaceutical industries as well as reduce the pressure on the wild plants.

  16. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative liquid dielectric for distribution transformer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T MARIPRASATH; V KIRUBAKARAN

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the feasibility of non-edible pongamia pinnata oil (PPO) as an alternative liquid dielectric which can be used in distribution transformers is examined. Hence, electrical, physical and chemical properties have been measured for thermally aged (with and without catalytic added) pongamia pinnata oil (PPO) and mineral oil (MO), sampled at 110°C for 180 days (according to IEC and IS standard). The experimentresults show that, electrical properties of pongamia pinnata oil with catalytic (PPOWC) are better than those of mineral oil with catalytic (MOWC). Whereas, the viscosity and density of PPOWC sample is much higher at all sampling intervals, so that care must be taken for cooling tube design of transformer. Furthermore, for all aging period the total acid content in MOWC oil samples is very low compared to PPOWC. However, these are higher molecular weight acid which is beneficial than lower molecular weight acid generated by MOWC oil samples.

  17. Pharmacognostic evaluation of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the pharmacognostic study of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (P. pinnata) stem bark. Method: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The bark consisting of channelled, recurved, slightly quilled, usually 0.2-1 cm thick, lenticellate pieces with outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured having unpleasant odour and bitter taste. The main microscopic characterstics of the bark include phellem (5-20 or more layers of cork), phellogen (2-3 layered) followed by 10-15 layered phelloderm. Among other microscopic components were phloem parenchyma, phloem fibre and stone cells, traversed by wavy medullary rays. Further, physicochemical analysis of the bark power showed total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash as 10.94, 1.96, 1.47 and 15.8 % w/w respectively. The alcohol and water soluble extractives values of the stem bark were 9.6 and 18.4 %w/w respectively. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study helps in botanical identification and standardization of P. pinnata L. in crude form.

  18. Numerical investigation of exhaust gas emissions for a dual fuel engine configuration using diesel and pongamia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, N H; Udayakumar, M

    2016-12-01

    The investigation presented in this paper focuses on determination of gaseous exhaust emissions by computational simulation during combustion in compression ignition engine with pongamia oil substitution. Combustion is modeled using Equilibrium Constants Method (ECM) with MATLAB program to calculate the mole fraction of 10 combustion products when pongamia oil is burnt along with diesel at variable equivalence ratio and blend ratio. It had been observed that pongamia oil substitution causes decrease in the CO emission and increase in the NOx emission as the blend ratio as well as equivalence ratio increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospect of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja in Bangladesh: A Sustainable Source of Liquid Fuel

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    P. K. Halder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the basic requirement for the existence of human being in today’s digital world. Indigenous energy of Bangladesh (especially natural gas and diesel is basically used in power generation and depleting hastily to meet the increasing power demand. Therefore, special emphasis has been given to produce alternative liquid fuel worldwide to overcome the crisis of diesel. Pongamia pinnata (karanja may be an emerging option for providing biooil for biodiesel production. Although karanja biooil has been used as a source of traditional medicines in Bangladesh, it can also be used for rural illumination. This paper outlines the medical and energy aspects of Pongamia pinnata. It has been assessed that Bangladesh can utilize about 128.95 PJ through Pongamia cultivation in unused lands. The paper reviews the potentiality of Pongamia pinnata as a source of biodiesel and its benefits in Bangladesh. The paper also revives that, about 0.52 million tons of biodiesel can be produced only utilizing the unused lands per year in sustainable basis as it reduces CO2, CO, HC, and NOx emission compared to pure diesel.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots.

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    Gupta, Vivek K; Fatima, Atiya; Faridi, Uzma; Negi, Arvind S; Shanker, Karuna; Kumar, J K; Rahuja, Neha; Luqman, Suaib; Sisodia, Brijesh S; Saikia, Dharmendra; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2008-03-05

    The present study was aimed to investigate antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. Antimycobacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found at 500 microg/mL concentration. Bioactivity guided phytochemical analysis identified glabridin as potentially active against both Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Ra and H(37)Rv strains at 29.16 microg/mL concentration. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate potential use of licorice as antitubercular agent through systemic experiments and sophisticated anti-TB assay.

  1. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra.

  2. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae

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    Siu Kuin Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA and ursolic acid (UA were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation.

  3. Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Pongamia pinnata Bark.

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    Bhandirge, S K; Tripathi, A S; Bhandirge, R K; Chinchmalatpure, T P; Desai, H G; Chandewar, A V

    2015-06-01

    Present study evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (PP). Evaluation of wound healing activity, 2 wound models were used I. e., incision and excision wounds were perform in this study on Albino wistar rats (150-200 g). The rats were been treated with 10% and 5% ointment base formulation at dose 15 µl/wound topically. The parameters studied were breaking strength in case of incision wounds, epithelization period and wound area in case of excision wound. The ethanolic extract treated group showed a significant (P healing parameters of incision and excision wound models as compared to control. This study justify the traditional use of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata stem bark shows wound healing property.

  4. Synthesis of biodiesel from pongamia oil using heterogeneous ion-exchange resin catalyst.

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    Jaya, N; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable substitute fuel for petroleum. Biodiesel could be effectively produced by transesterification reaction of triglycerides of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Conventionally, biodiesel manufacturing processes employ strong acids or bases as catalysts. But, separation of the catalyst and the by-product glycerol from the product ester is too expensive to justify the product use as an automobile fuel. Hence heterogeneous catalysts are preferred. In this study, transesterification of pongamia oil with ethanol was performed using a solid ion-exchange resin catalyst. It is a macro porous strongly basic anion exchange resin. The process parameters affecting the ethyl ester yield were investigated. The reaction conditions were optimized for the maximum yield of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) of pongamia oil. The properties of FAEE were compared with accepted standards of biodiesel. Engine performance was also studied with pongamia oil diesel blend and engine emission characteristics were observed.

  5. Ecological adaptations of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. flowers

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    Mychajło Czernećkyj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the blooming ecology and the flower morphology of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. (Gesneriaceae cultivated in laboratories and outdoors have been carried out. The life span of flowers and morphological changes in successive phases of the blooming period have been observed. The H. glabra flowers are protandrous and the stamens translocate during the flowering process. The macro- and microstructure of calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium and nectaries have been analyzed. The size, shape and viability of pollen grains have been designated and their number per stamen head has been calculated. The location of nectaries in H. glabra flowers has suggested that they stem from the 5th stamen during phylogenesis. It has been proved that the nectaries are provided by numerous vascular bundles and that the nectar is secreted by stomata. The stomatal field comprises 2/5 of nectary height and is situated on the abaxial side of the apix part. The average number of stomata is 63.2 per 1 mm2. The average amount of nectar produced by 10 flowers in their fourth day of life reached 223.7 mg. The sugar concentration was 32.7%. Numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes have been noticed on the surface of calyx, corolla and gynoecium, which indicate the xeromorphic adaptation of the flower. It has been observed that the numbers of glandular and non-glandular trichomes per unit of the external surface of corolla are similar. Outdoors the secretion produced by calyx and corolla glands was willingly collected by wasps. It seems that such features of H. glabra flowers as position, shape and colour of corolla, the abundance of the nectar and pollen produced are connected with their adaptation to pollination by humming-birds in the species natural environment.

  6. Glycyrrhiza glabra- A PLANT FOR THE FUTURE

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    VARSHA SHARMA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A review article on Glycyrrhiza glabra, A plant which have lots of medicinal properties. So it may be known as plant for the future. The present article is an effort to highlight the role of a few major constituents of this plant, which have multifaceted pharmacological actions and could be used as a template for designing new herbal medicines. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human cultivation. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements etc.Conclusion :Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn is an old age plant used in traditional medicine across the globe for its ethanopharmacological value to cure varieties of ailments from simple cough to hepatitis to more complexes like SARS and CANCER. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn used as a mild laxative, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-tissive, anti-oxidant, estrogenic, anti-diuretic, hypolipidmic agent. It is reported to contain important phytoconstituents such as glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizinic acid, glabrin A&B, triterpene sterols, saponin, and isoflavons.

  7. Unravelling molecular mechanisms from floral initiation to lipid biosynthesis in a promising biofuel tree species, Pongamia pinnata using transcriptome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeharsha, Rachapudi V.; Mudalkar, Shalini; Singha, Kambam T.; Reddy, Attipalli R.

    2016-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata (L.) (Fabaceae) is a promising biofuel tree species which is underexploited in the areas of both fundamental and applied research, due to the lack of information either on transcriptome or genomic data. To investigate the possible metabolic pathways, we performed whole transcriptome analysis of Pongamia through Illumina NextSeq platform and generated 2.8 GB of paired end sequence reads. The de novo assembly of raw reads generated 40,000 contigs and 35,000 transcripts, representing leaf, flower and seed unigenes. Spatial and temporal expression profiles of photoperiod and floral homeotic genes in Pongamia, identified GIGANTEA (GI) - CONSTANS (CO) - FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) as active signal cascade for floral initiation. Four prominent stages of seed development were selected in a high yielding Pongamia accession (TOIL 1) to follow the temporal expression patterns of key fatty acid biosynthetic genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and accumulation. Our results provide insights into an array of molecular events from flowering to seed maturity in Pongamia which will provide substantial basis for modulation of fatty acid composition and enhancing oil yields which should serve as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. PMID:27677333

  8. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  9. Biogas production from Pongamia biomass wastes and a model to estimate biodegradability from their composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2014-02-01

    In this study, I investigated the chemical characteristics, biochemical methane potential, conversion kinetics and biodegradability of untreated and NaOH-treated Pongamia plant parts, and pod husk and press cake from the biodiesel industry to evaluate their suitability as an alternative feedstock for biogas production. The untreated Pongamia seeds exhibited the maximum CH4 yield of 473 ml g (-1) volatile solid (VS) added. Yellow, withered leaves gave a yield as low as 122 ml CH4 g (-1) VS added. There were significant variations in the CH4 production rate constants, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 d (-1), and biodegradability, which ranged from 0.25 to 0.98. NaOH treatment of leaf and pod husk, which were highly rich in fibers, increased the yields by 15-22% and CH4 production rate constants by 20-75%. Utilization of Pongamia wastes in biogas digesters not only influences the economics of biodiesel production but also yields CH4 fuel and protects the environment. The experimental data from this study were used to develop a multiple regression model, which could estimate biodegradability based on biochemical characteristics. The model predicted the biodegradability of previously published biomass wastes (r(2) = 0.88) from their biochemical composition. The theoretical CH4 yields estimated as 350 ml g(-1) chemical oxygen demand destroyed are much higher than the experimental yields as 100% biodegradability is assumed for each substrate. Upon correcting the theoretical CH4 yields with biodegradability data obtained from chemical analyses of substrates, their ultimate CH4 yields could be predicted rapidly.

  10. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  11. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried leaves of pongamia pinnata (L) pierre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh W Raut; Niranjan S Kolekar; Jaya R Lakkakula; Vijay D Mendhulkar; Sahebrao B Kashid

    2010-01-01

    Extract of oven dried leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles were formed by the treatment of aqueous solution of AgNO3 (1mM) with dried leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre. UV-visible spectroscopy studies were carried out to quantify the formation of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the silver nanoparticles. TEM image divulges that silver nanoparticles are quite polydispersed, the size ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm with an average of 38 nm. Water soluble heterocyclic compounds such as flavones were mainly responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were effective against Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538p), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate). The move towards extracellular synthesis using dried biomass appears to be cost effective, eco-friendly to the conventional methods of nanoparticles synthesis.

  12. Transesterification for the preparation of biodiesel from crude-oil of Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Veeresh A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was prepared from the non-edible oil of Pongamia pinnata L. by transesterification of the crude-oil with methanol in the presence of NAOH as catalyst. Vegetable oils can be transesterified by heating them with a large excess of anhydrous methanol and an acidic or basic reagent as catalyst. Both the acid as well as alkaline esterifications were subsequently performed to get the final product. A catalyst is usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. NaOH was found to be a better catalyst than KOH in terms of yield. In a transesterification reaction, a larger amount of methanol was used to shift the reaction equilibrium to the right side and produce more methyl esters as the proposed product. Several aspects including the type of catalyst (alkaline, acid, or enzyme, alcohol/vegetable oil molar ratio, temperature, purity of the reactants (mainly water content and free fatty acid content have an influence on the course of the transesterification. A maximum conversion of 94% (oil to ester was achieved using a 1:10 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 60 to 65 °C. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of pongamia oil (biodiesel compare well with ASTM standards.

  13. Capturing the biofuel wellhead and powerhouse: the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the leguminous feedstock tree Pongamia pinnata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H Kazakoff

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp. The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.

  14. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi, S.; Murugananthan, G.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Cole...

  15. Batch and fixed-bed column studies for biosorption of Zn(II) ions onto pongamia oil cake (Pongamia pinnata) from biodiesel oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Sivakumar, V

    2015-12-01

    The present work, analyzes the potential of defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) for the biosorption of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the both batch and column mode. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the optimal pH, effect of adsorbent dosage, initial Zn(II) ions concentration and contact time. The biosorption equilibrium and kinetics data for Zn(II) ions onto the DPOC were studied in detail, using several models, among all it was found to be that, Freundlich and the second-order model explained the equilibrium data well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters had shown that the biosorption of Zn(II) ions was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Batch desorption studies showed that the maximum Zn(II) recovery occurred, using 0.1 M EDTA. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and the Thomas model was successfully employed to evaluate the model parameters in the column mode. The results indicated that the DPOC can be applied as an effective and eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ions in polluted wastewater.

  16. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating.

  17. IDENTIFIKASI DAN TEKNIK PENGENDALIAN HAMA DAN PENYAKIT BIBIT KRANJI (Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Suharti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu faktor pembatas dalam keberhasilan tanaman untuk tumbuh optimal yaitu adanya serangan hama dan penyakit. Identifikasi hama dan penyakit penting dilakukan karena berkaitan dengan teknik pengendalian. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis hama dan penyakit yang menyerang bibit kranji (Pongamia pinnata dan teknik pengendaliannya. Metode penelitian meliputi identifikasi jenis hama dan penyakit serta teknik pengendalian dengan menggunakan pestisida biologi dan kimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukan, hama yang menyerang bibit kranji antara lain belalang (Valanga nigricornis, ulat grayak (Spodoptera sp., ulat jengkal (Hyposidra talaca dan ulat penggulung (Syllepta sp. sedangkan patogen yang menyebabkan penyakir hawar daun yaitu Phytophthora sp. Teknik pengendalian hama bibit kranji dengan menggunakan larutan ekstrak biji mahoni atau insektisida Bacillus thuringiensis sedangkan teknik pengendalian penyakit menggunakan larutan ekstrak biji mahoni, larutan ekstrak daun cengkeh atau benomil

  18. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. S.; Manjunatha, S.; Thammannigowda V, V., E-mail: mohamed.shamshuddin@gmail.com [HMS Institute of Technology, Chemistry Research Laboratory, NH4, Kyathsandra, Tumkur, 572104 Karnataka (India)

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the use of CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Mg O and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}-Mg O, CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/CeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH{sub 3}-Tpd for surface acidity, CO{sub 2}-Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  19. A Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Copper and Its Alloy in Pongamia pinnata Oil at Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi H. N. Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are promising substitutes for petrodiesel as they can be produced from numerous oil seed crops that can be cultivated anywhere and have high energy contents, exhibiting clean combustion behavior with zero CO2 emission and negligible SO2 generation. The impact of biofuel on the corrosion of various industrial metals is a challenge for using biofuel as automotive fuel. Fuel comes in contact with a wide variety of metallic materials under different temperatures, velocities, and loads thereby causing corrosion during storage and flow of fuel. Hence, the present investigation compares the corrosion rates of copper and brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (O100, 3% NaCl, and oil blend with NaCl (O99 obtained by static immersion test and using rotating cage. The corrosivity and conductivity of the test media are positively correlated. This study suggested that the corrosivity of copper is higher than brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (PO.

  20. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  1. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract protects plants against important phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Konstantinidou-Doltsinis, S; Schmitt, A

    2010-01-01

    In previous investigations an ethanolic plant extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra (2.5% w/v) showed 100% efficacy against late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on detached tomato leaves. Based on these findings, the objective of this work was to investigate the effect of this extract against different important plant pathogenic fungi. Tests were carried out on potted plants. Against P. infestans, efficacies of 75% and 58% were achieved on tomato and potato plants with 5% extract concentration, respectively. Against another Oomycete, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, on cucumber, application of a 2.5% extract led to an efficacy of above 90%. The EC50-value was calculated to be 0.5% In a trial on beans against bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus), G. glabra extract (5% concentration) showed 92% efficacy. In contrast, against powdery mildew on cucumber (Podosphaera xanthii), no disease reduction was found. Overall, the results indicate a high potential for the extract of G. glabra to control a number of important plant pathogens.

  2. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Alkharfy, Khalid M; Anwarul-Hassan Gilani; Ghulam Rasul; Ghulam Shabir; Farooq Anwar; Zahid Iqbal Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtain...

  3. Anti-tubercular agents from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity guided isolation of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae / Fabaceae) roots resulted in the characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid as a major anti-tubercular agent. Further, GA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into its nine derivatives, which were in-vitro evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using BACTEC-460 radiometric susceptibility assay. All the derivatives were active, but the benzylamide (GA-8, MIC 12.5μg/ml) and ethyl oxylate (GA-3, MIC 25.0 μg/ml) derivatives were significantly active against the pathogen. This was further supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for GA-3 (120.3) and GA-8 (112.6) with respect to the standard anti-tubercular drug, rifampicin (92.94) on the DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) target site. Finally, the in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA-3 and GA- 8 possesses drug-like properties. This is the first ever report on the anti-tubercular potential of GA and its derivatives. These results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non toxic natural product.

  4. [Glabrizoflavone--a novel isoflavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuldashev, M P; Batirov, E Kh; Vdovin, A D; Abdullaev, N D

    2000-11-01

    7-O-Methylglabranin, 6-C-prenylpinocembrin, glabranin, pinocembrin, galangin, and a novel isoflavonoid, (E)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-(3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl)isoflavone (glabrisoflavone) were isolated from the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. The structure of the novel isoflavonoid was elucidated on the basis of chemical transformations and spectral data.

  5. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Mol, L.A.M.; The, S.A.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Luijendijk, T.J.C.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions,

  6. Comparison of biological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. uralensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chun-Geon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of Glycyrrhiza (GLs extracts (GL-1, Glycyrrhiza glabra from Eumseong, Korea; GL-2, G. uralensis from Eumseong, Korea; GL-3, G. uralensis from Yeongcheon, Korea; GL-4, G. uralensis from Neimenggu, China: GL-5, G. uralensis purchased from Korea Medicine Herbal Association, Korea were investigated. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and OH radicals than G. glabra (GL-1. In addition, all GLs had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and H. pylori. GL-3 inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, while GL-1 had antibacterial activity against H. pylori. All GL extracts tested inhibited the lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inflammatory activity of RAW 264.7 cells. G. glabra and G. uralensis reduced NO generation. GL-3 also inhibited the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. GLs-3 and -4 showed the inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase. GL-4 had a higher total content of glycyrrhizin (1, glycyrrhetinic acid (2, glabridin (3, and isoliquiritigenin (4. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 is thus more effective than G. glabra (GL-1.

  7. Gindarudine, a novel morphine alkaloid from Stephania glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Kumar Semwal; Usha Rawat

    2009-01-01

    A novel morphine alkaloid, named gindarudine 1 has been isolated from ethanol extract of Stephania glabra tubers, together with four known alkaloids, palmatine, dehydrocorydalmine, stepharanine, and 8-(4'-methoxybenzyl)-xylopinine. Compound 1 was elucidated as 3,6-O,N-detrimethyl-10-hydroxy-1-methoxy-thebaine by means of spectroscopic data including 2D NMR studies.

  8. Study of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Cotoneaster medicus and Glycyrrhiza glabra Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Heravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Cotoneaster medicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, as endemic plants of Iran, along with mixture of them were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH reagent. UV-Vis spectrophotometry method was used to evaluate the ability of Cotoneaster and Glycyrrhiza glabra antioxidant to scavenge DPPH radical. The kinetic parameters such as rate constant and activation energy in experimental conditions were calculated. The rate constants of the H atom abstraction by DPPH (k1, in the presence of C. medicus and G. glabra antioxidant were obtained under pseudo-first-order conditions at different temperatures. The order in DPPH radical-scavenging was: mixture of C. medicus and G. glabra > C. medicus > G.  glabra plants. The numerical values of activation energy were found to be 45.84 kJ.mol-1for G. glabra and 62.02kJ.mol-1 for C. medicus.

  9. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Murugananthan, G; Ghosh, S K

    2010-10-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%).

  10. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Swathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%.

  11. GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SPECIALITY CORN AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN UNDER PONGAMIA PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prathyusha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at the Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad on red sandy loam soils to study the effect of nitrogen management in speciality corn under Pongamia + maize agri-silvi system. All the growth and yield attributes such as plant height, dry matter production, leaf area index, cob length, cob girth, number of cobs plant-1, number of rows cob-1, number of kernals cob-1 and 100 kernel weight were found maximum at 120 kg N ha-1 than at the remaining nitrogen levels. Whereas, cob weight (with husk was found maximum at 120 kg ha-1 but was on par with 90 kg N ha-1. Similarly cob yield (with husk, green fodder/stover yield, harvest index, kernel yield of popcorn and shelling percentage of popcorn were found significantly higher at 120 kg N ha-1 than the other two lower doses of nitrogen. The different types of corn were found significantly different from each other regarding growth parameters such as plant height, days to 50 per cent silking and days to maturity. Regarding the effect on yield attributes and yield, all the three types of corn were found significantly different from each other in cob length, cob girth, cob weight (with husk, green cob yield as well as green fodder/stover yield

  12. Pongamia pinnata inoculated with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense PZHK1 shows potential for phytoremediation of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Li, Yangxin; Li, Yanmei; Xu, Chaohua; Cui, Yongliang; Xiang, Quanju; Gu, Yunfu; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Mine tailings contain high concentrations of metal contaminants and only little nutrients, making the tailings barren for decades after the mining has been terminated. Effective phytoremediation of mine tailings calls for deep-rooted, metal accumulating, and soil fertility increasing plants with tolerance against harsh environmental conditions. We assessed the potential of the biofuel leguminous tree Pongamia pinnata inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobia to remediate iron-vanadium-titanium oxide (V-Ti magnetite) mine tailing soil by pot experiment and in situ remediation test. A metal tolerant rhizobia strain PZHK1 was isolated from the tailing soil and identified as Bradyrhizobium liaoningense by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation with PZHK1 increased the growth of P. pinnata both in V-Ti magnetite mine tailings and in Ni-contaminated soil. Furthermore, inoculation increased the metal accumulation capacity and superoxide dismutase activity of P. pinnata. The concentrations of Ni accumulated by inoculated plants were higher than the hyperaccumulator threshold. Inoculated P. pinnata accumulated high concentration of Fe, far exceeding the upper limit (1000 mg kg(-1)) of Fe in plant tissue. In summary, P. pinnata-B. liaoningense PZHK1 symbiosis showed potential to be applied as an effective phytoremediation technology for mine tailings and to produce biofuel feedstock on the marginal land.

  13. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata extracts against three mosquito vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guna Ranjan Kolli; Balakrishnan; Vijayan; Raja Sundararajan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) extracts against three mosquito vectors.Methods:The larval mortality was found in both methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of P. pinnata against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data was subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 percent of treated larvae of tested species.Results:The methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of bark part of P. pinnata L were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with LC50 values of 84.8, 118.2 and 151.7 ppm; 97.7, 128.3 and 513 ppm. The highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of P. pinnata when comparable to the hydroalcohol extract.Conclusions:These results suggest that both methanol and hyrdoalcohol extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This could lead to isolation of novel natural larvicidal compounds.

  14. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Anand, R B

    2015-11-01

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel.

  15. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata extracts against three mosquito vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Guna Ranjan; Balakrishnan; Vijayan; Sundararajan, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) extracts against three mosquito vectors. Methods The methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of bark part of P. pinnata L were tested against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data was subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 percent of treated larvae of tested species. Results The larval mortality was found in both methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of P. pinnata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with LC50 values of 84.8, 118.2 and 151.7 ppm; 97.7, 128.3 and 513 ppm. The highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of P. pinnata when comparable to the hydroalcohol extract. Conclusions These results suggest that both methanol and hyrdoalcohol extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This could lead to isolation of novel natural larvicidal compounds.

  16. Natural therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases from a traditional herbal medicine Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayuan; Jiang, Zhe; Li, Xuezheng; Hou, Yue; Liu, Fen; Li, Ning; Liu, Xia; Yang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuroinflammation, manifested by over-production of nitric oxide (NO) by microglial cells. Now there still lack effective treatment and prevention for the neurodegenerative diseases. Concerning neuroinflammation mediated by microglia cell, bioactivity-guided phytochemical research of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre was performed in this study. A new chlorinated flavonoid, 2′,6′-dichlore-3′, 5′-dimethoxy-[2′′,3′′:7,8]-furanoflavone (1) was identified together with 29 known compounds, including flavonoids (compounds 2-17), isoflavonoids (compounds 18-23), chalcones (compounds 24-25), flavonones (compounds 26-27), triterpenes (28-29) and alkaloid (30) from the effective dichloride methane extract of dry stem of P. pinnata (L.) Pierre. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical and spectral methods. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities were assayed in BV-2 cells by assessing LPS-induced NO production. Then pongaglabol methyl ether (2), lonchocarpin (24) and glabrachromene II (25) were selected as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases because of their significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities. Furthermore, the characteristics of structure type existing in P. pinnata (L.) Pierre and brief SAR were summarized, respectively.

  17. Virucidal activity presence in Trichilia glabra leaves Presencia de actividad antiviral en hojas de Trichilia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cella

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Different immunomodulatory activities present in Trichilia glabra (TG leaf extracts have already been described. Particularly, chloroform-methanol extracts were responsible for an in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect. The effect of such extracts on the infectivity of enveloped and naked viruses were investigated. Methanolic fraction extracts were active against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, while no activity against poliovirus type 3 was observed. VSV was slightly more affected than HSV-1: 2.8 log10 reduction in VSV titer against 2.4 log10reduction in HSV-1 titer when 0.25 mg/ml F2 fraction was tested and a reduction of 2.7 log10in VSV virus titer and of 1.5 log10in HSV-1 virus titer was observed when 0.25 mg/ml F3 fraction was tested. Results obtained in this work suggest a potential pharmaceutical use of TG extract components.Previamente se han descripto distintas actividades inmunomoduladoras, presentes en extractos de hojas de Trichilia glabra (TG. En particular, se ha demostrado una actividad antiinflamatoria presente en extractos metanólicos. En este trabajo se investigó la actividad virucida de dichos extractos sobre virus envueltos y desnudos. Distintos extractos metanólicos han inactivado en forma moderada los virus herpes simplex tipo 1 (HSV-1 y el virus de la estomatitis vesicular (VSV, mientras no evidenciaron actividad sobre poliovirus tipo 3. VSV resultó algo mas afectado que HSV-1: se observó una reducción en el título viral de 2,8 log10para VSV y de 2,4 log10para HSV-1 cuando se uso una concentración de 0,25 mg/ml de la fracción F2 y una reducción de 2,7 log10para VSV y de 1,5 log 10para HSV-1 cuando se usó una concentración de 0,25 mg/ml de la fracción F3. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo, sugieren un potencial uso farmacéutico de los componentes presentes en los extractos de TG.

  18. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  19. Antiandrogenic activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sarookhani, Mohammad-Reza; Jahani-Hashemi, Hassan; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-08-01

    Abnormal levels of androgens cause many diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia and hormone dependent cancers. Although the reduction in serum testosterone (T) by Glycyrrhiza glabra has been reported, its effects on seminal vesicle (SV) and prostate tissues have never been reported. This study was carried out to investigate different aspects of antiandrogenic properties of this plant. Immature male rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): castrated rats without any treatment received only vehicle; castrated rats plus T replacement; three castrated groups with T replacement plus various doses of G. glabra extract (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg). All of the injections were carried out once daily in subcutaneous manner for 7 days. On the eighth day, blood samples were collected for total T measurement. Ventral prostate (VP), SV and levator ani muscle were dissected and weighed. Slides prepared from prostate were assessed histologically. The variation in the relative and absolute volume of the prostate tissue compartments was determined. Those receiving the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction (p glabra has antiandrogenic properties.

  20. Cardioprotective Activity of Pongamia pinnata in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L. Badole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment for diabetes and metabolic disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of petroleum ether extract of the stem bark of P. pinnata (known as PPSB-PEE on cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague-Dawley rats by using injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i.p.. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Rats were divided into group I: nondiabetic, group II: diabetic control (tween 80, 2%; 10 mL/kg, p.o. as vehicle, and group III: PPSB-PEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.. The blood glucose level, ECG, hemodynamic parameters, cardiotoxic and antioxidant biomarkers, and histology of heart were carried out after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. PPSB-PEE treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters; and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. PPSB-PEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. decreased blood glucose level, improved electrocardiographic parameters (QRS, QT, and QTc intervals and hemodynamic parameters (SBP, DBP, EDP, max dP/dt, contractility index, and heart rate, controlled levels of cardiac biomarkers (CK-MB, LDH, and AST, and improved oxidative stress (SOD, MDA, and GSH in diabetic rats. PPSB-PEE is a promising remedy against cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats.

  1. Variability and divergence in Pongamia pinnata for further use in tree improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. N. Divakara; Rameshwar Das

    2011-01-01

    A total of 24 candidate plus trees (CPTs) of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. were selected to elucidate their variation and diversity based on thirteen quantitative traits (4 pod traits, 6 seed traits of parent trees and 3 progeny traits) at Forest Research Centre, Institute of Forest Productivity - Mandar, Ranchi district during 2005-2007. The results show that, CPT-19 had maximum for seven traits viz, pod length (65.6 mm), 100-pod weight (542.4 g), seed 2D (two dimension) area (351.2 mm2), seed length (27.9 mm), seed breadth (17.4 mm), 100-seed weight (217.9 g) and plant height (164.3 em). The traits, 100-pod weight and 100-seed weight had a high heritability (98.4%, 96.9%) accompanied with high genetic advance (46.0%, 34.9%). There is a positive significant correlation between 100-pod weight and 100-seed weight traits at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with plant height, collar diameter and volume index at 30 MAS (months after sowing). Volume index expressed a moderate heritability (47.4%) accompanied with high genetic advance (48.4%), indicating that the character is governed by additive gene effects. In divergence study, 24 accessions were grouped into 6 clusters on the basis of non-hierarchical euclidian cluster analysis. The genotypes in cluster Ⅳ (CPT-5, CPT-6, CPT-7, CPT-12, CPT-16, CPT-18, CPT-22) and cluster Ⅲ (CPT-4, CPT-8, CPT-9, CPT-20, CPT-21)were most heterogeneous and can be best used within group hybridization. The wide diversity exists between the cluster Ⅴ and Ⅱ, followed by cluster Ⅱ and Ⅰ and crosses between CPTs of these clusters may result in substantial segregates. It is revealed that the existence of substantial variation and diversity can be utilized for genetic resource conservation and further tree improvement programmers of the species.

  2. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed.

  3. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  4. Progeny evaluation of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata with comparison to bioproductivity and biodiesel parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Kumar Patil; Prithviraj Bhandare; Pramod B. Kulkarni; G. R. Naik

    2015-01-01

    Progeny studies of Jatropha curcas and Pong-amia pinnata were carried with respect to bioproductivity, pod and seed characters which is one of the selection meth-ods in tree improvement programmes. Variations in bio-productivity and biodiesel parameters of both the plants were compared every 6 months for 4 years of investigation and analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation coefficient by Pearson’s method using software Graphpad instat 3.06 (for Windows and Mac). P. pinnata has better germination rate (71.4%), 100 pod weight (PW) (311.59 g) and 100 seed weight (SW) (173.46 g) as compared to J. curcas for ger-mination rate (43.2%), 100 PW (111.29 g) and 100 SW (67.46 g). P. pinnata has strong correlation for plant height to canopy growth (CG) (0.948), collar diameter (CD) (0.994), number of branches per plant (NBP) (0.995) and to number of leaves per branch (NLB) (0.862) as compared to J. curcas which showed good correlation among plant height to CG (0.976), CD (0.970), NBP (0.988), NLB (0.920) and to number of pods per branch (0.657). However, J. curcas depicted negative correlation for pod breadth to seed length (SL) (-0.447), seed breadth (-0.248) and to seed thickness (ST) (-0.364) and among the 100 PW to SL (-0.199), ST (-0.220) and to 100 SW (-0.704). About 4 kg of P. pinnata seeds were required for each liter of crude oil which yields 896 ml of biodiesel on transesterification as compared to 5.66 kg of J. curcas seeds for a liter of crude oil, producing about 663 ml of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel meets the major specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel. The crude glyc-erin and seed cake obtained as byproduct during biodiesel production were also measured which can be purified and used in composting, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries.

  5. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona glabra cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-lateff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-assay guided fraction of the methanolic extract of Annona glabra seeds (Annonaceae, cultivated in Egypt, revealed to the isolation of three bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins; squamocin-C (1 , squamocin-D (2 , and annonin I (3 . Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained as stereoisomeric mixture. All isolates were assayed for their cytotoxicity twards brine shrimp and five in vitro cancer cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251, and showed significant activity The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and MS analyses.

  6. Research regarding the reproduction and cultivation of Herniaria glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneous population of Herniaria glabra L. collected in Valea Ierii (Distr. Cluj was introduced in cultivation as a medicinal plant used in uro-genital diseases. The experiment was performed in the field of Agronomy Institute Cluj-Napoca. After an unsuccesfull attempt of cultivation by sowing, the plants established were used for vegetative propagation (remats in different ways. Using these remats an experimental culture was started in 1982. The developement of individual plants and the accumulation of active substances in the cloned material is discussed.

  7. Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRIJESH S.; DASWANI P.G.; TETALI P.; ROJATKAR S.R.; ANTIA N.H.; BIRDI T.J.

    2006-01-01

    While data are available on the effect of medicinal plants on intestinal motility and their antibacterial action, there is a paucity of information on their mode of action on various aspects of diarrheal pathogenicity, namely colonization to intestinal epithelial cells and production/action of enterotoxins. Crude decoction of dried leaves of Pongamia pinnata was evaluated for its antimicrobial (antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral) effect; and its effect on production and action of enterotoxins (cholera toxin, CT; Escherichia coli labile toxin, LT; and E. coli stable toxin, ST); and adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to epithelial cells. The decoction had no antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activity, but reduced production of CT and bacterial invasion to epithelial cells. The observed results indicated that the crude decoction of P. pinnata has selective antidiarrheal action with efficacy against cholera and enteroinvasive bacterial strains causing bloody diarrheal episodes.

  8. Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijesh, S.; Daswani, P.G.; Tetali, P.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Antia, N.H.; Birdi, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    While data are available on the effect of medicinal plants on intestinal motility and their antibacterial action, there is a paucity of information on their mode of action on various aspects of diarrheal pathogenicity, namely colonization to intestinal epithelial cells and production/action of enterotoxins. Crude decoction of dried leaves of Pongamia pinnata was evaluated for its antimicrobial (antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral) effect; and its effect on production and action of enterotoxins (cholera toxin, CT; Escherichia coli labile toxin, LT; and E. coli stable toxin, ST); and adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to epithelial cells. The decoction had no antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activity, but reduced production of CT and bacterial invasion to epithelial cells. The observed results indicated that the crude decoction of P. pinnata has selective antidiarrheal action with efficacy against cholera and enteroinvasive bacterial strains causing bloody diarrheal episodes. PMID:16845722

  9. Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijesh, S; Daswani, P G; Tetali, P; Rojatkar, S R; Antia, N H; Birdi, T J

    2006-08-01

    While data are available on the effect of medicinal plants on intestinal motility and their antibacterial action, there is a paucity of information on their mode of action on various aspects of diarrheal pathogenicity, namely colonization to intestinal epithelial cells and production/action of enterotoxins. Crude decoction of dried leaves of Pongamia pinnata was evaluated for its antimicrobial (antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral) effect; and its effect on production and action of enterotoxins (cholera toxin, CT; Escherichia coli labile toxin, LT; and E. coli stable toxin, ST); and adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to epithelial cells. The decoction had no antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activity, but reduced production of CT and bacterial invasion to epithelial cells. The observed results indicated that the crude decoction of P. pinnata has selective antidiarrheal action with efficacy against cholera and enteroinvasive bacterial strains causing bloody diarrheal episodes.

  10. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrriza Glabra Root on Anxiety in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Akhavan Tavakoli; N Heydarieh; M Khoshsokhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder affecting many people in the society. Glycyrriza glabra is a herbal medicine, which carries a lot of traditional effects, this plant contains antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are plant sterols that are similar to estrogen in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to dinvestigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root on anxiety in gonadectomized male rats. Methods: In this experime...

  11. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent.

  12. Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: a wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zore, Gajanan B; Winston, Umakanth B; Surwase, Babasaheb S; Meshram, Nisha S; Sangle, V D; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2008-04-01

    Chemoprofile of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. a wild relative of commercial licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) is presented. Both T. cuneifolia and G. glabra L were found to be very similar phytochemically. At least eighteen chromatophores were found similar in both the plants including the sweetening principle, glycyrrhizin. The extracts of T. cuneifolia root, exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti germ tube formation (in Candida albicans), protection from mutagen toxicity and cytotoxic activities comparable to that of G. glabra. In general, the results suggest that T. cuneifolia could be used as substitute of G. glabra.

  13. Evaluation of antidermatophytic activity of Ranunculus sceleratus and Pongamia pinnata available in North Eastern Region of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharma KK; Kotoky J; Kalita JC; Barthakur R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of Ranunculus sceleratus (R. sceleratus) and Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata), collected from North East India. Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-ringworm activity against five strains of dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton tonsurans (T. tonsurans), Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and Microsporum fulvum (M. fulvum). Methods: Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the inhibition zone of the different extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts were determined by broth macro dilution method. Results: When compared, the chloroform extracts of both the plants were found to be highly active against all the tested fungi followed by the methanol extract. The water extract showed the least activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was ranging from 1.25-10.00 mg/mL for chloroform and methanol extracts and greater that 10 mg/mL for the water extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the experiments suggest the anti-dermatophytic nature of the plants.

  14. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogish, H.; Chandrashekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M.R. [S.J. College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mysore (India)

    2012-11-15

    India is looking at the renewable alternative sources of energy to reduce its dependence on import of crude oil. As India imports 70 % of the crude oil, the country has been greatly affected by increasing cost and uncertainty. Biodiesel fuel derived by the two step acid transesterification of mixed non-edible oils from Jatropha curcas and Pongamia (karanja) can meet the requirements of diesel fuel in the coming years. In the present study, different proportions of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, variation of Reaction time, Sulfuric acid and Reaction Temperature were adopted in order to optimize the experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. The preliminary studies revealed that biodiesel yield varied widely in the range of 75-95 % using the laboratory scale reactor. The average yield of 95 % was obtained. The fuel and chemical properties of biodiesel, namely kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, density, flash point, fire point, calorific value, pH, acid value, iodine value, sulfur content, water content, glycerin content and sulfated ash values were found to be within the limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 15607: 2005). The optimum combination of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Reaction Time and Reaction Temperature are established. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Oxytropis glabra DC. Poisoning on α-Mannosidase(AMA) Expression in Mice Brain Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuai; Jia Qizhen; Zhang Ling; Chen Genyuan; Ma Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Oxytropis glabra DC. on α-mannosidase( AMA) expression in mice brain tissue was explored to reveal the toxicity mechanism of O. glabra. Forty mice were randomly divided into four groups,namely control group,experimental group I,experimental group II and experimental group III. The mice in three experimental groups were fed with O. glabra at the doses of 1,5 and 10 g per kilogram weight,respectively. After challenge for 63 d,mice brains were collected to detect changes in distribution and expression of AMA in different brain regions. The results showed that O. glabra poisoning led to declined AMA mRNA expression in mice brain tissue,but the mice in experimental group I had no significant difference with those in control group( P > 0. 05). The AMA mRNA expression in cerebellum,cerebrum and thalamus of mice in experimental groups II and III were significantly lower than that in control group( P 0. 05). AMA had very weak expression in hippocampus and brainstem,but it had expressions in other regions,and the expression was positively correlated with the number of neurons and granulosa cells. The results showed that different doses of O. glabra reduced AMA mRNA expression in mice brain tissue,while cerebellum,cerebrum and thalamus were the main target function areas.

  16. Possible Pharmacological Basis for Antithrombotic Effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Jain M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously identified that 3-aryl comarin derivative, GU-7 isolated from Liquorice posses Antiplatelet activity. It inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing intraplatelet cyclic AMP concentration. Here we report the in-vivo effects of extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and also the combined effect with Vitamin K and Heparin. Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra increased the bleeding time when given in the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg. Blood loss was evaluated 60 minute later as a function of absorbance at 540 nm due to hemoglobin content in water solution. Altogether data indicates that Glycyrrhiza glabra is an effective anti thrombotic agent in vivo, which may account for its known pharmacological properties.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in vitro study

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    Fereshteh Sedighinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral infections and dental caries are still considered as serious public health problems and inflict a costly burden to health care services around the world and especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra against oral pathogens by diffusion methods and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by both broth and Agar dilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by broth dilution methods. Results: In this study, G. glabra extract showed good antibacterial activity against six bacteria. No strain in this study showed resistance against this extract. Conclusion: G. glabrais suggested as an appropriate candidate to help us in order to control dental caries and endodontic infections.

  18. Comparison of Glycyrrhiza glabra Inorabase With Triamcinolone Acetonide Orabase in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

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    Najafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is most commonly found in middle-aged women. A wide spectrum of topical and systemic therapies have been applied for treatment of this condition. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 1% Glycyrrhiza glabra in orabase with 0.1% Triamcinolone Acetonide paste in treating oral lichen planus (OLP. Patients and Methods In this study, 22 patients were randomly assigned to one of two equal groups. They received either Glycyrrhiza glabra or Triamcinolone Acetonide four times daily for a total of one month and were followed-up for three months. The patients were assessed for painful symptoms, measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS, and lesion size via Thongaprassom. The analysis and comparison of pain scores and the size of the lesions' clinical and symptomatic response rates between the two groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and SPSS 13.0 computer software. Results Ten patients in the Glycyrrhiza glabra group and 12 patients in the triamcinolone acetonid group completed the four-month trial course. Both Glycyrrhiza glabra and Triamcinolone Acetonid reduced burning symptoms. Clinical scores in both groups also significantly improved over the one-month treatment period. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.442. Conclusions This study showed that topical Glycyrrhiza glabra appeared to be a promising alternative in the treatment of OLP. Further studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

  19. Dermatitis herpetiformis misdiagnosed and treated as tinea cutis glabrae

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    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare bullous disorder. Autoimmunological disturbances associated with hypersensitivity to gluten play the main role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Clinical manifestations include polymorphic skin lesions which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Objective. To present a case of dermatitis herpetiformis diagnosed and treated without any clinical improvement as tinea cutis glabrae. Case report . A 20-year-old male patient was admitted for the evaluation of polymorphic skin lesions of 7-month duration distributed symmetrically on the skin of elbows, knees, face and the gluteal and sacral region. The patient was previously treated with systemic and topical antimycotic drugs. Due to a typical distribution of skin lesions as well as symptoms reported by the patient, we started to suspect Duhring’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence of skin biopsy and serological tests. Systemic treatment with dapsone and a gluten-free diet led to clinical improvement. Conclusions . The morphology and localization of skin lesions in Duhring’s disease may be similar to the clinical presentation of fungal infection of the skin, which in equivocal cases should be excluded by a mycological test.

  20. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Adenostyles alliariae and A. glabra from the Austrian Alps.

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    Chizzola, Remigius

    2015-07-01

    The alkaloid content of Adenostyles alliariae and A. glabra (Asteraceae) has been evaluated. Both species contain toxic macrocyclic unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids with seneciphylline as the main compound accounting for more than 90% of the alkaloid fraction in all above ground plant parts. Further alkaloids were spartioidine, acetyl-senciphylline and senecionine. Inflorescences showed the highest alkaloid contents with 21.1 and 13.4 mg/g in A. alliariae and A. glabra, respectively. Stems and leaves had 2-3 times lower contents. Therefore, these Adenostyles species must be considered as highly toxic plants.

  1. [Overview of studies on detoxification effect of smilacis glabrae rhizoma on mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Chen, Hongfeng; Ye, Meina

    2012-03-01

    Mercury-containing preparations are widely used in surgery department of traditional Chinese medicine and have made remarkable achievements. But they are toxic to human kidney, nerve, immune, etc. Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma is sweet, tasteless and neutral in nature and able to enter liver and stomach channels and detoxify mercury poisoning. This article summarizes the mercury poisoning and the detoxification effect of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in ancient records, pharmaceutical studies and clinical application, in order to provide ideas and methods for the safe use of mercury-containing preparations in surgery department of traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-03-30

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  3. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

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    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  4. In vitro Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Pongamia Pinnata Stem Bark in Experimental Animal Models

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    Manoj Kumar Sagar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptivepotential of the ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata stem bark (PSBE in different experimental animal models.The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ofpongamia pinnataand compared with ascorbic acid (Standard and theanalgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on Carrageenan induced paw edema.PSBE (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute (carrageenan induced hind paw edema and chronic (cotton pellet granuloma models of inflammationPSBE did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality up to a dose level of 10.125 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Both acute as well as chronic administration PSBE (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. did not produce any gastric lesion in rats.The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice and tail flick method in albino rats.Its ethanolic extract shows the most effective anti-inflammatory activityat doses of 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly throughout the observation period.In the tail flick model, the PSBE in the above doses increased the pain threshold significantly after 30 min., 1, 2, and 4 hr. of administration. pongamia pinnatashowed dose-dependent action in all experimental animal models.

  5. Glycyrrhiza glabra protects from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir S

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra against ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-R) induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) in rats. Ligation of LADCA for 45 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion has induced significant (pglabra significantly (pglabra also prevented GSH depletion and inhibited lipid peroxidation in heart. In addition to improving biochemical indices of myocardial function, G. glabra also significantly (pglabra. Taken together, results of the present study clearly suggest the cardioprotective potential of G. glabra against myocardial infarction by amelioration of oxidative stress and favorable modulation of cardiac function.

  6. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Mol, Loes A M; The, Susan A M; Bovee, Toine F H; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-07-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions, which were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for activity in yeast estrogen bioassays. One third of the fractions displayed estrogenic activity towards either one or both estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ). Glabrene-rich fractions displayed an estrogenic response, predominantly to the ERα. Surprisingly, glabridin did not exert agonistic activity to both ER subtypes. Several fractions displayed higher responses than the maximum response obtained with the reference compound, the natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E(2)). The estrogenic activities of all fractions, including this so-called superinduction, were clearly ER-mediated, as the estrogenic response was inhibited by 20-60% by known ER antagonists, and no activity was found in yeast cells that did not express the ERα or ERβ subtype. Prolonged exposure of the yeast to the estrogenic fractions that showed superinduction did, contrary to E(2), not result in a decrease of the fluorescent response. Therefore, the superinduction was most likely the result of stabilization of the ER, yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein, or a combination of both. Most fractions displaying superinduction were rich in flavonoids with single prenylation. Glabridin displayed ERα-selective antagonism, similar to the ERα-selective antagonist RU 58668. Whereas glabridin was able to reduce the estrogenic response of E(2) by approximately 80% at 6 × 10(-6) M, glabrene-rich fractions only exhibited agonistic responses, preferentially on ERα.

  7. Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, H B; Thiyagarajan, P; Kathiresan, S; Sangli, Gopal Krishna; Deepak, M; Agarwal, Amit

    2011-02-15

    Glycyrrhiza glabra and its phytoconstituents have been known to possess widespread pharmacological properties as an anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antitumour and hepatoprotective drug. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potential of extract of G. glabra (GutGard™) root and its phytoconstituents (glabridin, glycyrrhizin, and isoliquiritigenin) on both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) products in order to understand the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action. Inhibitory effect of GutGard™ and its phytoconstituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), calcimycin (A23187) induced thromboxane (TXB(2)), and leukotriene (LTB(4)) release was studied using murine macrophages (J774A.1) and human neutrophil (HL-60) cells. Results revealed that, G. glabra and glabridin significantly inhibited PGE(2), TXB(2) (COX) and LTB(4) (LOX), while, isoliquiritigenin exerted inhibitory effect only against COX products but failed to suppress LOX product. However, glycyrrhizin at the tested concentrations failed to exhibit inhibitory effect on both COX and LOX products. Here, we report for the first time that G. glabra (almost devoid of glycyrrhizin) exhibits anti-inflammatory property likely through the inhibition of PGE(2), TXB(2) and LTB(4) in mammalian cell assay system, which could be influenced in part by glabridin and isoliquiritigenin.

  8. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.

  9. Annona glabra Flavonoids Act As Antimicrobials by Binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Stanley de S. L.; Monteiro, Andrea de S.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q.; Dias-Souza, Marcus Vinícius; Ferreira, Gabriella F.; Denadai, Angelo Márcio L.; Santos, Áquila R. C.; Lúcia dos Santos, Vera; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen in opportunistic infections in humans. The increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates has highlighted the need for novel and more potent therapies against this microorganism. Annona glabra is known for presenting different compounds with diverse biological activities, such as anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. Although other species of the family display antimicrobial actions, this has not yet been reported for A. glabra. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) obtained from the leaf hydroalcoholic extract of A. glabra. EAF was bactericidal against different strains of P. aeruginosa. EAF also presented with a time- and concentration-dependent effect on P. aeruginosa viability. Testing of different EAF sub-fractions showed that the sub-fraction 32-33 (SF32-33) was the most effective against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the chemical constituents of SF32-33 demonstrated a high content of flavonoids. Incubation of this active sub-fraction with P. aeruginosa ATCC 27983 triggered an endothermic reaction, which was accompanied by an increased electric charge, suggesting a high binding of SF32-33 compounds to bacterial cell walls. Collectively, our results suggest that A. glabra-derived compounds, especially flavonoids, may be useful for treating infections caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:28066374

  10. A Novel Phenylpropanoid-substituted Catechin Glycoside and a New Dihydrochalcone from Sarcandra glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan LI; Dong Ming ZHANG; Shi Shan YU; Jian Bei LI; Yong Ming LUO

    2006-01-01

    A novel phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin glycoside glabraoside A 1 and a new dihydrochalcone 3'-(7″-allylphenyl)-2′,4′,4″-trihydroxy-6′-methoxydihydrochalcone 2 were isolated from the herbs of Sarcandra glabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chiroptical methods.

  11. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrriza Glabra Root on Anxiety in Gonadectomized Male Rats

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    F Akhavan Tavakoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder affecting many people in the society. Glycyrriza glabra is a herbal medicine, which carries a lot of traditional effects, this plant contains antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are plant sterols that are similar to estrogen in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to dinvestigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root on anxiety in gonadectomized male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male rats with an average weight of 230-250g were used in the study. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. These groups included: healthy treatment group with saline , gonadectomized  group with no treatment, gonadectomized group with treatment of saline or solvent extract (0.5 cc and gonadectomized group with treatment doses of 2, 5 & 15 mg/kg Glycyrriza glabra root extract intraperitoneally (n=8. In a surgery, the testicles were removed. 30 minutes after injection. The Data were analyzed by one way variance analysis and Tukey’s test using SPSS (p<0.05. Results: Anxiety was significantly increased in gonadectomy rats (P<0.001 when compared with the normal ones. At doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/bw of hydro-alcholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root, the time spent in open arms of maze were significantly increased and the time spent in maze close arms were decreased in compared to controls (P<0.05. None of the doses showed any significant effect on locomotor activites. Conclusion: Hydro-alcholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root in rats not gonadectomized and Gonadectomy serve to reduce anxiety.

  12. A Study on in vitro antiviral activities of lyophilized extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B Virus

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    Sangeetha Vani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the effect of lyophilized extracts of different solvents of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B. The lyophilized plant extracts were collected and studied for its cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and in vitro antiviral activity of these extracts was investigated by HBs Ag binding Inhibition Assay, Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase Inhibition Assay using fluorescent probes. The results from Glycyrrhiza glabra were promising in acting as a potent antiviral agent.

  13. Study on chromatographic fingerprint of sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to HPLC/DAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction(MAE)was used for extraction of effective components of sarcandra glabra(Thunb.),and then chromatographic fingerprint of sarcandra glabra(Thunb.)was studied by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector(HPLC/DAD).The conditions of MAE were optimized by an orthogonal experiment,and then the authentication and validation of the chromatographic fingerprint were conducted.Nine peaks were identified as common peaks in the fingerprint chromatograms,and isofraxidin was...

  14. Field Survey of Glycyrrhiza Plants in Central Asia (4). Characterization of G. glabra and G. bucharica Collected in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Tamura, Shinya; Chiba, Ren; Fujii, Isao; Yoshikawa, Nobuji; Fattokhov, Inoyat; Saidov, Madibron

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of 2 Glycyrrhiza plants, G. glabra and G. bucharica (=Meristotropis bucharica), were investigated in Tajikistan. The glycyrrhizin content in the underground parts of G. glabra varied from 2.56 to 9.29% of the dry weight, and the content of glabridin, a species-specific flavonoid of G. glabra, varied from 0.09 to 0.92% of the dry weight. Seeds of G. glabra plants from Tajikistan were cultivated for 3 years in Japan, and the glycyrrhizin content of the harvested roots ranged from 0.75 to 1.82% of the dry weight. In addition, HPLC analysis of leaf extracts indicated that the G. glabra plants collected in Tajikistan could be divided into various types, according to the flavonoid contents of the leaves. The endemic G. bucharica was also collected. A phylogenetic tree of rbcL nucleotide sequences from various Glycyrrhiza plants indicated that G. bucharica was closely related to the three glycyrrhizin-producing Glycyrrhiza spp. (G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. glabra), even though G. bucharica does not produce glycyrrhizin.

  15. Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Shiba, Mao; Nakamura, Rie; Morota, Takashi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-07-01

    Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata are revealed by comparing 117 of licorice identified using four genetic markers; internal tracscribed spacer (ITS) on nuclear ribosomal DNA, rbcL gene, matK gene, and trnH-trnK1 intergenic region on chloroplast DNA. Regarding six main constituents of licorice; glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, and liquiritigenin, the constituent property of G. glabra resembles to that of G. inflata. On the other hand, the constituent property of G. uralensis is not similar to that of G. glabra or G. inflata and is characterized by a wide content variation of the six constituents compared to those of G. glabra and/or G. inflata. The mean contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, or liquilitigenin in G. uralensis are significantly higher than those of G. glabra or G. inflata. Therefore, the licorice species should be selected depending on these constituent properties for the traditional Chinese medicines or the Japanese Kampo medicines. Additionally, glycycoumarin, glabridin, and licochalcone A were reconfirmed as the species-specific typical constituents of G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata respectively. Therefore, it is resulted that the determination of the three species-specific constituents may be useful for the species identification of licorice. However, since 6% of licorice examined and hybrids were exceptions to the rule, their genetic information is necessary for the accurate species identification of licorice.

  16. Anti-Staphylococcal and wound healing activities of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra formulation in mice

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    Abdulghani - Ameri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Topical antimicrobial therapy is one of the most important methods of wound care. In this investigation, we evaluated topical gel preparations of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extracts alone and in combination for antimicrobial and wound healing activities in MRSA - infected excision and incision wound models in mice. Gel formulations containing 0.3% G. praelongum, 2.5% G. glabra and combination of the two were prepared and tested for their influence on wound infection, wound contraction and epithelization phases of wound healing. Mupirocin ointment was applied as a standard treatment antibiotic. Results indicated that all three gel formulations promoted wound healing in both models by influencing wound contraction and epithelization phases. Examination of wounds at the end of our study period revealed that wounds treated with G. praelongum and G. glabra gel  formulations (combination gel showed considerable contraction and epithelization as compared to the gel base – treated group (negative control. Assumption could be made that this wound promotion is due to the anti – Staphylococcal activity of Ganoderma and wound healing activity of G. glabra.   Industrial relevance: Medicine using fungal metabolites is now recognized. A mushroom that has gained worldwide attention is Ganoderma lucidum and has been used to treat a wide spectrum of ailments including fungal and bacterial infections for long periods of time throughout history of ancient traditional medicine. Previous reports indicate that ganoderma lucidum mycelia are usually prescribed in the form of soup, syrup, tea, tablets, capsules, tincture or bolus or injected as a solution of powdered spores. In this study, the combination gel containing aqueous extracts of G. praelongum and G. glabra effectively inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and promoted wound healing in mice. Further phytochemical studies are needed to

  17. Microwave enhanced alcoholysis of non-edible (algal, jatropha and pongamia) oils using chemically activated egg shell derived CaO as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Girdhar; Rawat, Devendra S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Pandey, Jitendra K

    2016-11-01

    Microwave enhanced fast and efficient alcoholysis (methanolysis and ethanolysis) of non-edible oils (algal, jatropha and pongamia) is achieved using chemically activated waste egg shell derived CaO (i.e. CaO(cesp)) as heterogeneous catalyst. CaO(cesp) was extracted from waste chicken egg shell and further activated chemically by supporting transition metal oxide. The maximum conversion was achieved using 3wt% catalysts under 700W microwave irradiation and 10:1 alcohol/oil ratio in 6min. Alcoholysis using ZnO activated CaO(cesp) catalyst has shown higher reaction yields in comparison to other modified catalysts. Methanolysis has shown better biodiesel conversion in comparison to ethanolysis. The catalyst has shown longer lifetime and sustained activity after being used for four cycles. Due to more saturated fatty acid content; algal biodiesel has shown improved fuel properties in comparison to other biodiesels.

  18. Antifungal activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts and its active constituent glabridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Atiya; Gupta, Vivek K; Luqman, Suaib; Negi, Arvind S; Kumar, J K; Shanker, Karuna; Saikia, Dharmendra; Srivastava, Suchita; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2009-08-01

    Glabridin, an active constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, was found to be active against both yeast and filamentous fungi. Glabridin also showed resistance modifying activity against drug resistant mutants of Candida albicans at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 31.25-250 microg/mL. Although the compound was reported earlier to be active against Candida albicans, but this is the first report of its activity against drug resistant mutants.

  19. Benzyl 2-β-Glucopyranosyloxybenzoate, a New Phenolic Acid Glycoside from Sarcandra glabra

    OpenAIRE

    Xudong Xu; Haifeng Wu; Xiaoru Hu; Shilin Chen; Junshan Yang; Xiaopo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    From the whole plant of Sarcandra glabra, a new phenolic acid glycoside, benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (1), together with seven known compounds including eleutheroside B1 (2), 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (3), (–)-(7S, 8R)-dihydrodehydro-diconiferyl alcohol (

  20. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. © D. Rondelaud et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  1. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliprandi, N C; Nogueira, E M; Toledo, J J; Fearnside, P M; Nascimento, H E M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs - stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch - crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.

  2. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondelaud Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra. Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%, Haplometra cylindracea (5.3% and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10. The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

  3. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliprandi, N C; Nogueira, E M; Toledo, J J; Fearnside, P M; Nascimento, H E M

    2016-01-22

    The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs - stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch - crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.

  4. In vitro studies on protective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts against cadmium-induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Ebubekir; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a modern environmental contaminant that is toxic and carcinogenic. Glycyrrhiza glabra is a traditional medicinal herb which grows in the various parts of the World. Recent studies demonstrated that G. glabra has antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and powerful antiinflammatory features. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic safety of extracts from G. glabra and its effects on cadmium (as CdCl2) induced genotoxicity. Therefore we evaluated the capability of G. glabra extract to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by CdCl2. Moreover, to assess the effects of G. glabra on cell viability and oxidative status, we performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. Our results showed that there were significant increases (P glabra extract (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and CdCl2 resulted in decreases of MN and SCE rates as compared to the group treated with CdCl2 alone. Again, the results of MTT and TAC assays clearly indicated dose dependent ameliorative effects of G. glabra extracts against CdCl2 toxicity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that G. glabra extracts provided increased resistance of DNA against CdCl2 induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes. So, the risk on target tissues of CdCl2 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.

  5. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury via reducing inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Yin; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-12-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Chinese name, Zhongjiefeng) is an important herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Lycopene has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI). Metabolomics approach combined with pathological inspection, serum biochemistry examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting were used to explore the protective effects of Sarcandra glabra and lycopene on LPS-induced ALI, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Sarcandra glabra and lycopene could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced histopathological injuries, improve the anti-oxidative activities of rats, decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, suppress the activations of MAPK and transcription factor NF-κB and reverse the disturbed metabolism towards the normal status. Taken together, this integrated study revealed that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene had great potential in protecting rats from LPS-induced ALI, which would be helpful to guide the clinical medication.

  7. Effect of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Gut-Friendly Microorganisms, Commercial Probiotic Preparations, and Digestive Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Mannanthendil Kumaran; Debraj, Debnath; Dethe, Shekhar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Muruganantham, Nithyanantham; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu

    2017-05-04

    Flavonoid-rich extract prepared from Glycyrrhiza glabra has been found to be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia and was reported to possess some gut health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. In the present study, the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its compatibility with probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus), commercial probiotic drinks, and digestive enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, phytase, xylanase, and pancreatic lipase). Results of this study indicated that the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra is compatible with the tested probiotic strains, probiotic drinks and digestive enzymes.

  8. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  9. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  10. Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides on immune and antioxidant activities in high-fat mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Kai; Wu, Hua-Tao; Ma, Tao; Liu, Wei-Juan; He, Xue-Jun

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune and antioxidant activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides (GGP) in rats fed high-fat diet. The experiment was performed on four groups of growing Kunming mice. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant decrease in serum antioxidant enzyme activities in high-fat group. Administration of GGP dose-dependently significantly enhanced immune and antioxidant enzyme activities in the GGP-treated mice compared to the high-fat model mice. It is concluded that GGP treatment can enhance immune activities, and reduce oxidative stress in high-fat mice.

  11. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  12. Ambiente de cultivo na micropropagação de Annona glabra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cleilton Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    A Annona glabra L. tem despertado grande interesse nos últimos anos no Brasil, por se tratar de uma espécie com capacidade adaptativa a diversos ambientes e pertencente ao rol das frutas com propriedades medicinais de substâncias isoladas de suas folhas, frutos e sementes. As iniciativas para explorar o potencial dessa espécie ainda são incipientes, sobretudo, pela dificuldade para induzir multibrotações nos explantes e pela escassez de informações sobre os sistemas de cultivo. Dentre os fato...

  13. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity cycloart-23-ene-3β,25-diol(B2) isolated fromPongamia pinnata(L. Pierre)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin L Badole; Anand A Zanwar; Abhijeet N Khopade; Subhash L Bodhankar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of cycloart-23-ene-3β,25-diol (called asB2) isolated from stem bark ofPongamia pinnata.Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity ofB2 was determined by methods for determination ofDPPHradical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating and nitric oxide radical scavenging at the doses of20, 40, 60, 80 and100 μg/mL, respectively. β-tocopherol with same concentration was used as a standard antioxidant.In vitro antimicrobial activity of B2was determined by cup plate method in different concentration range of10-100 μg/mL.Results: The results indicated that dose dependent % reduction againstDPPH radical, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging byB2 and β-tocopherol.Conclusions:It is concluded that cycloart23-ene-3β, 25 diol (B2) showed dose dependent antioxidant activity.B2 showed more DPPHradical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than β-tocopherol and in case of antimicrobial activityB2 exhibited broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and strong activity against yeast type of fungi.

  14. Development of flow cytometric protocol for nuclear DNA content estimation and determination of chromosome number in Pongamia pinnata L., a valuable biodiesel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Basak, Supriyo; Choudhury, Rimjhim Roy; Rangan, Latha

    2014-01-01

    The potentiality of Pongamia pinnata L. as a sustainable source of feedstock for the biodiesel industry is dependent on an extensive knowledge of the genome structure of the plant. Flow cytometry, with propidium iodide (PI) as the DNA stain, was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content of P. pinnata, with respect to Zea mays 'CE-777' as standard. The internal and pseudo-internal standardization was followed on account of the inhibitory effect of secondary compounds on PI intercalation. The antioxidants (PVP-40 and β-mercaptoethanol) were added to the nuclear isolation buffer for the reduction of inhibitory effect of P. pinnata cytosol. Nuclear DNA content estimation was done for P. pinnata leaves from different altitudes (37-117 m height from sea level) of Assam. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the nuclear DNA content of P. pinnata is 2.66 pg with predicted 1C value of 1,300 Mb using Z. mays as standard. Coefficient of variation in flow cytometric analysis was within the limit of 5 % indicating that the results were reliable. Somatic chromosome numbers were counted from root-tip cells and was found to be 2n = 22 corresponding to the diploid level (x = 11). A decreasing trend in the nuclear DNA content was observed for the species of different altitudes.

  15. Antifungal efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major against oral Candida albicans: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: G. glabra, F. religiosa, and P. major showed acceptable potency against C. albicans (ATCC 66027 comparable to that of synthetic antifungal agents. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentrations and clinical utility.

  16. Evaluation of anti-tumor activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi M. K.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The antitumor activity studies measuring the viability of cancer cells when exposed to the ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a potent cell-killing effect, indicating the presence of anti-cancer principles in the preparation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2153-2158

  17. Ex Situ and In Vitro Conservation of Glicyrrhiza glabra L. – Crop Wild Relative from Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Uzundzhalieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice, belongs to the Fabaceae family. The species is included in the Crop Wild relatives list for Bulgaria and is close to beans and peas. Its origin is Southeast Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia, where Bulgaria falls. The roots of the plant contain glycyrrhizin, 30 to 50 times sweetener than the sucrose. As a CWR, as well as due to the high level of glycyrrhizin in the roots, the conservation and maintenance of the species is of interest, although it is not included in the list of threatened plant species yet. In the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources - Sadovo Glycyrrhiza glabra is maintained in situ in the Botanical garden. Besides the in situ conservation of the species, in vitro techniques are a reliable means of reproduction and long-term storage. After introduction of the raw cuttings from plant species in culture in vitro, the process of micropropagation is accomplished by single bud microcuttings in nutrient medium fitted with growth regulators, enabling the development of single-rooted stems with options of repeatedly subcultivating. Along with that the possibility for long term in vitro propagation by reduction of the composition of the nutrient medium was tested, where the period for conservation of the cultivated explants reaches 8 months.

  18. Quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra extract by validated HPTLC densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Arunava; Pandit, Subrata; Nema, Neelesh K; Mukjerjee, Pulok K

    2010-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn (Family-Fabaceae) is active as an anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress, antidepressive, antiulcer, liver protective, estrogenic, emmenagogue, and antidiabetic substance, and is widely used in the Indian system of medicine. The major bioactive constituent is glycyrrhizin. A simple HPTLC method has been developed to control the quality of raw as well as finished glycyrrhiza using glycyrrhizin as the bioactive marker. The solvent system was optimized to chloroform-methanol-water (65 + 36 + 7.5, v/v/v). Extract and standard were dissolved in 70% methanol and applied on a precoated TLC plate. After development, the plate was scanned at 254 nm to create a chromatogram, then the quantity of glycyrrhizin was determined in the extract. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, LOD, and LOQ. Linearity range was found to be 0.96-4.80 microg per spot. The linearity relationship was described by the equation: Y = 612.706 + 1.091X (with r = 0.99904 and SD = 2.52%), where Y is the area under curve and X is the amount of glycyrrhizin (ng). The amount of glycyrrhizin found in the extract was 9.1%. Thus, the method provides a rapid and cost-effective quality measure for Glycyrrhiza glabra hydroalcoholic extract.

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of standardized extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Sundarajan, K; Gupta, Anumita; Srikanth, H S; Edwin, Jothie; Agarwal, Amit

    2011-12-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (licorice) is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region and certain areas of Asia. Historically, the dried rhizome and root of the plant were used by the Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Indian, and Roman civilizations as expectorant and carminative. In the modern medicinal system, licorice is used to treat liver ailments, dyspepsia, bronchitis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. Despite the extensive pharmacological applications, the genotoxic potential of G. glabra extract (GutGard™) has not been evaluated. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the genotoxic potential of GutGard™ using battery of in vitro test systems: bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames II™), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. GutGard™ did not show significant increase in number of revertant colonies in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98 and TAMix) with/without S9 fraction. In CA and MN studies, GutGard™ did not show clastogenic effect at 4 and 18 h treatments with and without S9 fraction. Results indicated that GutGard™ is not mutagenic in a battery of genotoxicity tests.

  20. Analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulu; Wu, Debin; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Li; Guo, Yue

    2012-09-01

    Shaoyao-gancao-tang, a Chinese medicinal formula consisting of peony and licorice has been used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea for thousands of years. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (a type of licorice). In vitro, isoliquiritigenin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contraction of isolated rat uterus and the contraction induced by various types of stimulants, such as acetylcholine (Ach, 10 mM), KCl (40 mM) and oxytocin (1 mU/mL). The uterine contractile response to cumulative concentrations of CaCl₂ was blocked by 0.1 and 1 mM of isoliquiritigenin. The isoliquiritigenin-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nv-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 100 mM) and the COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mM). In vivo, isoliquiritigenin could cause a significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot-plate test at the high dose. These results indicate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, not only has a spasmolytic effect on uterine contraction, which is in relation to Ca²⁺ channels, NOS and COX, but also an effective activity in reducing pain.

  1. Antistress property of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Athimadhura on stress induced Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as a condition that disturbs the normal function of the biological system or a condition that decreases fitness. The present study was to evaluate the antistress property of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Athimadura. Here the Antistress property was experimented on Drosophila melanogaster. Stress was induced by adding methotrixate (MTX to the media. The 4 groups of Drosophila melanogaster were cultured in the laboratory. In the first group only control flies. In the second group MTX induced flies, in the third group MTX along with plant powder induced flies. In the fourth group only plant powder induced flies were cultured. Stress related enzymes like Catalase (CAT and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD are most widely used paradigm for the evaluation of enzyme activity . SOD and CAT Activity in Stress induced flies was increased compared to that of normal flies. After incorporation of the plant powder to the media fed for Drosophila melanogaster, both SOD and CAT Activity was decreased indicating the reduction in Stress by the plant powder. Thus Glycyrrhiza glabra may have Antistress property, as it has reduced stress in Drosophila melanogaster induced by MTX at different concentration.

  2. Sarcandra glabra Extract Reduces the Susceptibility and Severity of Influenza in Restraint-Stressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcandra glabra, as a type of “antipyretic-detoxicate drugs”, has always been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. The Sarcandra glabra extract (SGE is applied frequently as anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious drug in folk medicine. However, relative experiment data supporting this effective clinical consequence was limited. In order to mimic the physiological conditions of the susceptible population, we employed restraint stress mouse model to investigate the effect of SGE against influenza. Mice were infected with influenza virus three days after restraint, while SGE was orally administrated for 10 consecutive days. Body weight, morbidity, and mortality were recorded daily. Histopathologic changes, susceptibility genes expressions and inflammatory markers in lungs were determined. Our results showed that restraint stress significantly increased susceptibility and severity of influenza virus. However, oral administration of SGE could reduce morbidity, mortality and significantly prolonged survival time. The results further showed that SGE had a crucial effect on improving susceptibility markers levels to recover the balance of host defense system and inhibiting inflammatory cytokines levels through down-regulation of NF-κB protein expression to ameliorate the lung injury. These data showed that SGE reduced the susceptibility and severity of influenza.

  3. Rhizobium tubonense sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Oxytropis glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong Juan; Hou, Bao Chao; Wang, En Tao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-03-01

    Four rhizobial strains, designated CCBAU 85046(T), CCBAU 85051, CCBAU 85048 and CCBAU 85049, isolated from root nodules of Oxytropis glabra grown in Tibet, China, were previously defined, using amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis, as a novel group within the genus Rhizobium. To clarify their taxonomic position, these strains were further analysed and compared with reference strains of related bacteria using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the four isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage in the genus Rhizobium. The isolates showed highest sequence similarity (97.8  %) to Rhizobium indigoferae CCBAU 71042(T). Phenotypic and physiological tests, DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII and fatty acid profiles also indicated that these four strains constitute a novel group distinct from recognized species of the genus Rhizobium. Based on this evidence, strains CCBAU 85046(T), CCBAU 85051, CCBAU 85048 and CCBAU 85049 represent a novel species in the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium tubonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCBAU 85046(T) (=LMG 25225(T) =HAMBI 3066(T)) and its DNA G+C content is 59.52 % (T(m)). Strain CCBAU 85046(T) could form effective nodules on plant species Vigna unguiculata and Medicago sativa but not on its host of origin Oxytropis glabra.

  4. A rapid and stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenrui; Li, Ying; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Zhixing; Cui, Min-Long

    2015-03-01

    Transformation approach is a useful tool for the study of gene function, the mechanism of molecular regulation, and increase usefulness of components by reverse genetic approach in plants. In this study, we developed a stable and rapid method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L. using leaf explants. Stable transformants were obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains GV2260 and GV3101 that harbored the binary vector pBI121 and contained the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) as a selectable marker and a reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS). Putative transformants were identified by kanamycin selection and a histochemical assay. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of the GUS gene into transformed genomes as well as detected stable expression of the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) by RT-PCR. Resulting transformed plants had morphologically normal phenotypes. This method requires two changes of medium and few leaf explants as well as the transformation efficiency of 2-8 % after 2-3 months of inoculation. This method can provide a quick and economical transformation method for reverse genetic approach to change the secondary metabolic pathway to increase useful components in C. glabra.

  5. Antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

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    Hunny Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:G. glabra and F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentration and clinical utility.

  6. Effects of cytokinins on in vitro mineral accumulation and bud development in Annona glabra L. Efeito de citocininas sobre o acúmulo de minerais e desenvolvimento de brotações de Annona glabra L. in vitro

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    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Annona glabra is a tropical species that has significant agronomic potential in terms of furnishing fruits for in natura consumption and for the production of phyto-pharmaceuticals. In vitro cultivation has been considered the most promising form of propagation for this species, although large scale utilization of this technique is currently limited by high rates of leaf abscission, reduced rates of explant multiplication and slow bud growth. The present work evaluated the effects of different cytokinins on mineral accumulation in shoots of A. glabra cultivated in vitro, and their effects on growth and survival of these plants. Buds of A. glabra were cultivated in Wood Plant Medium (WPM in the presence of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ, kinetin (KIN, and zeatin (ZEA. KIN and BAP use resulted in the greatest growth, largest accumulation of dry mass and leaf area development, as well as the greatest survival rate during in vitro cultivation of this species. All cytokinins tested stimulated large accumulations of nitrogen and boron in shoots, but diminished levels of calcium as compared to controls.Annona glabra é uma espécie frutífera tropical que apresenta elevado potencial agronômico pelo fornecimento de frutos para o consumo in natura e pela produção de fitofármacos. O cultivo in vitro tem sido preconizado como a forma mais adequada de propagação para essa espécie, embora sua utilização em larga escala ainda seja limitada pela elevada taxa de abscisão foliar, reduzida taxa de multiplicação dos explantes e crescimento lento das brotações. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de citocininas sobre o acúmulo de minerais nas brotações de A. glabra cultivadas in vitro e seus reflexos sobre o crescimento e sobrevivência das plantas nesse tipo de ambiente. Brotações de A. glabra foram cultivadas em meio Wood Plant Medium (WPM, na presença de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ, cinetina (KIN e

  7. Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina M; Ammar, Nagwa M; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; El-anssary, Amira A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to formulate Glycyrrhiza glabra root and rhizome aqueous ethanolic extract in microemulsion carrier systems intended for transdermal delivery of incorporated antioxidant actives, flavonoids and polyphenols. The results obtained reveal that the microemulsion system ME3 possesses optimum properties regarding drug content (flavonoids and polyphenols), viscosity, pH, particle size and polydispersity index, zeta potential, stability, permeation of actives and hence possesses high in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant efficacy. These results indicate also that this microemulsion shows approximately 13-fold higher ex vivo antioxidant capacity compared with the liquorice extract solution. In addition, the proposed microemulsion is simple to dispense, cost effective and provides high patient compliance and convenience because of simple topical application and avoidance of non-comfortable oral or parenteral administration.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant and urease inhibition activities of roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Mehreen; Iqbal, Lubna; Fatima, Nudrat; Siddiqui, Kauser; Afza, Nighat; Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. The parent extract is methanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Urease inhibition activities of these extracts were also evaluated. Chloroform fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.7% activity but the activity is less than the crude methanolic extract i.e. 90%. Chloroform fraction showed the same trend in reducing power as that in radical scavenging activity. However n- butanol extract was devoid of any activity when compared to standard BHA. Crude methanolic fraction and its sub-fractions were also screened for enzyme inhibition activities using jackbean urease as substrate. Significant anti urease activity i.e. 72 % was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction with respect to standard inhibitor thiourea.

  9. Phenolics from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots and their PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Honda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hozumi; Yokota, Shinichi; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2010-01-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra roots), using a GAL-4-PPAR-gamma chimera assay method, resulted in the isolation of 39 phenolics, including 10 new compounds (1-10). The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 5'-formylglabridin (5), (2R,3R)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-prenylflavane (7), echinatin, (3R)-2',3',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan, kanzonol X, kanzonol W, shinpterocarpin, licoflavanone A, glabrol, shinflavanone, gancaonin L, and glabrone all exhibited significant PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity. The activity of these compounds at a sample concentration of 10microg/mL was three times more potent than that of 0.5microM troglitazone.

  10. Structural features and in vivo antitussive activity of the water extracted polymer from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudipta; Nosál'ová, Gabriella; Ghosh, Debjani; Flešková, Dana; Capek, Peter; Ray, Bimalendu

    2011-05-01

    Antitussive drugs are amongst the most widely used medications worldwide; however no new class of drugs has been introduced into the market for many years. Herein, we have analyzed the water-extracted polymeric fraction (WE) of Glycyrrhiza glabra. This arabinogalactan protein enriched fraction, ≥ 85% of which gets precipitated with Yariv reagent, consisted mainly of 3- and 3,6-linked galactopyranosyl, and 5- and 3,5-linked arabinofuranosyl residues. Peroral administration of this polymer in a dose of 50mg/kg body weight decreases the number of citric acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs more effectively than codeine. It does not induce significant change in the values of specific airway resistance or provoked any observable adverse effects.

  11. Benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate, a new phenolic acid glycoside from Sarcandra glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haifeng; Hu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Xiaopo; Chen, Shilin; Yang, Junshan; Xu, Xudong

    2012-05-04

    From the whole plant of Sarcandra glabra, a new phenolic acid glycoside, benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (1), together with seven known compounds including eleutheroside B₁ (2), 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (3), (-)-(7S, 8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (4), (-)-(7S, 8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-, 9′- and 4-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (5-7), and (-)-(7S, 8R)-5-methoxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) was isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 2 was found to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against BGC-823 and A2780 cancer cell lines using MTT method with IC₅₀ value of 2.53 and 1.85 μM, respectively.

  12. New mannose-binding lectin isolated from the rhizome of Sarsaparilla Smilax glabra Roxb. (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Linda S M; Sun, Samuel S M; Wang, Hua; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-10-06

    A new mannose-binding lectin, designated SGM2, was isolated from the rhizome of a Chinese medicinal herb Smilax glabra (also known as sarsaparilla in general) by saline extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and fractionation, and affinity chromatography on fetuin- and mannose-agarose. SGM2 is shown to have a molecular mass of 37 kDa on gel filtration and 12.5 kDa on SDS-PAGE, indicating that it is a trimeric protein composed of three identical subunits. When the first 30 amino acid residues at the N-terminal were compared, SGM2 had approximately 40% homology with those of some other monocots. SGM2 had the property of hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes, which could be reversed by mannose and mannose polymers. SGM2 exhibited antiviral activities against both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with the same EC(50) of 8.1 microM.

  13. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle

    2004-05-01

    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature.

  14. Modulation of genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens by glycyrrhizic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

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    Prabhjit Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chemopreventive effects of certain phytoconstituents can be exploited for their use as functional foods, dietary supplements and even as drugs. The natural compounds, acting as anti-genotoxic and free radical scavenging compounds, may serve as potent chemopreventive agents. These can inhibit DNA modulatory activities of mutagens and help preventing pathological processes. Objectives: Present study on Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a promising medicinal plant, widely used in traditional medicine, focused on the bioassay-guided fractionation of its extracts for the isolation of certain phytochemicals with anti-genotoxic potential against oxidative mutagens. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizomes was subjected to column chromatography, and isolated fraction was evaluated for its anti-genotoxic and antioxidant potential using SOS chromotest, Comet assay, and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: GLG fraction, which was characterized as Glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited the genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens viz., H 2 O 2 and 4NQOquite efficiently. In SOS chromotest, using E.coli PQ37 tester strain, it inhibited induction factor induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 75.54% and 71.69% at the concentration of 121.46 μM,respectively. In Comet assay, it reduced the tail moment induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 70.21% and 69.04%, respectively, at the same concentration in human blood lymphocytes. The isolated fraction also exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and was able to scavenge 85.95% radicals at a concentration of 120 μM. Conclusion: Glycyrrhizic acid is a potential modulator of genotoxins as well as efficient scavenger of free radicals.

  15. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Extract Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation in RAW Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Eom, Taekil; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used in medicine for thousands of years. Our previous study revealed that the methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (EGGR) exhibits significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages among 100 other extracts. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR. The anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was measured by MTT assay, NO content analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level analysis, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA assay. Low doses of EGGR were non-toxic to macrophages and imparted protective effect against LPS induced cell death. Incubation of LPS-treated macrophages with 100 μg/mL EGGR led to an increase in cell viability from 66.6 to 99%. Moreover, EGGR led to down regulation of NO (NO2+NO3) and ROS productions in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, 100 μg/mL EGGR led to a reduction in NO2+NO3 level from 336.2 to 24.1 pM/mL, and ROS level from 483.5 to 128.4%. Consistent with the result related to NO production, EGGR suppressed the ability of LPS to induce mRNA and protein expressions of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 productions which were analyzed by an ELISA assay. These results provide a comprehensive approach into the anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR on LPS-stimulated macrophages; however, efforts are underway on gaining detailed insight into anti-inflammatory signaling pathways.

  16. Molecular bases for phyllomorph development in a one-leaf plant, Monophyllaea glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakazono, Mikio; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2017-02-01

    The aboveground part of one-leaf plants (Gesneriaceae) consists of a unique shoot-like unit called a phyllomorph, which is composed of a growing lamina and one petiolode (a stem- and petiole-like organ). The phyllomorph has three meristems: a basal meristem (BM; involved in lamina growth), a petiolode meristem (PM; required for midrib and petiolode growth), and a groove meristem (GM; contributes to inflorescence and new phyllomorph development). Although the GM has a tunica-corpus structure like a conventional shoot apical meristem (SAM), the vegetative GM of a one-leaf plant does not form any organ primordia and has been considered a defective or suppressed SAM. In this study, we evaluated the nature of the three meristems to reconsider their roles in phyllomorph development in the one-leaf species Monophyllaea glabra. Mitotic activities of meristem cells were monitored by incorporation of a thymidine analog (EdU) into DNA. Orthologs of SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and PHANTASTICA, ROUGH SHEATH2, ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (PHAN/RS2/AS1) were isolated from M. glabra, and their expression patterns were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in combination with a laser microdissection technique. Mitotic activities were detected in all three phyllomorph meristems. Strong expression of the STM and PHAN/RS2/AS1 orthologs was detected in the vegetative GM and BM, respectively. The vegetative GM is an active meristem that expresses the STM ortholog. We postulate that the GM is required for growth of a phyllomorph by providing undifferentiated cells and/or growth regulators to the BM and/or PM. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Aspectos reprodutivos de Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Valverde Lima; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878) were studied from September 1997 to February 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sieves, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the end of telson with precision callipers. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was me...

  18. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

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    Majid Kalantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  19. Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica: characteristics of natural and experimental co-infections of these digeneans in the snail Lymnaea glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P; Titi, A; Mekroud, A; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study on different Lymnaea glabra samples collected from central France between 1993 and 2010 was carried out to determine the prevalence of natural co-infections with Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, and to specify the composition of redial burdens. Experimental infections of L. glabra performed during the same period of time were also analysed to study metacercarial production of each digenean in co-infected snails. Controls were naturally or experimentally co-infected Galba truncatula. In natural co-infections, prevalence was 0.7% in L. glabra (186/25,128) and 0.4% in G. truncatula (137/31,345). Low redial burdens were found in these snails, with F. hepatica rediae significantly more numerous in L. glabra than in G. truncatula (7.5 per snail instead of 5.2). In contrast, the total numbers of C. daubneyi rediae in both lymnaeids were close to each other (4.3 and 3.0 rediae, respectively). In experimentally co-infected groups, prevalence was greater in G. truncatula than in the other lymnaeid (6.3% instead of 3.0%). Significantly shorter patent periods and lower metacercarial production for each digenean were noted in L. glabra than in G. truncatula. However, in both lymnaeids, the two types of cercariae were released during the same shedding waves and several peaks during the patent period were synchronous. In spite of a greater shell height for L. glabra, metacercarial production of both digeneans in co-infected snails was lower than that in G. truncatula, thus indicating a still incomplete adaptation between these French L. glabra and both parasites.

  20. Feeding Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-07-01

    The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents.

  1. Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Ota, Sarda; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used very widely in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it is a popular flavor ingredient of drinks, sweets and candies. Its medicinal uses include treating bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, liver disorders and diabetes. Glycyrrhizin is normally considered to be its biologically active marker, so a rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizin in the extract. The effect of the standardized extract and its marker on drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated through CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition assays to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. The inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes was analysed by the fluorescent product formation method. In the CYP450-CO assay, the interaction potential of the standardized extract and pooled microsomes (percentage inhibition 23.23 ± 1.84%), was found to be less than the standard inhibitor. In the fluorimetric assay, G. glabra extracts showed higher IC(50) values than their positive inhibitors, ketoconazole and quinidine for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction potential of the plant extract was greater than the pure compound. The results demonstrate that G. glabra and its principle bioactive compound, glycyrrhizin, when co-administered with conventional medicines showed only a weak interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes.

  2. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  3. The separation of flavonoids from Pongamia pinnata using combination columns in high-speed counter-current chromatography with a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan; Yin, Hang; Tian, Xinpeng; Luo, Xiongming; Nan, Haihan; He, Sha

    2013-11-01

    The mangrove plant Pongamia pinnata (Leguminosae) is well known as a plant pesticide. Previous studies have indicated that the flavonoids are responsible of the biological activities of the plant. A new high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for the separation of three flavonoids, karanjin (1), pinnatin (2), and pongaflavone (3), from P. pinnata was developed in the present study. The lower and intermediate phase (LP and IP) of a new three-phase solvent system, n-hexane-acetonitrile-dichloromethane-water, at a volume ratio of 5:5:1:5, were used as the stationary phases, while the upper phase (UP) was used as the mobile phase, and the volume ratio between the stationary phases in the CCC column could be tuned by varying the initial pumped volume ratio of the stationary phases. The CCC columns containing all three phases of the solvent system were considered combination columns. According to the theories of combination column, it is possible to optimize the retention time of the target compounds by varying the volume ratio of the stationary phases in the HSCCC combination columns, as well as the suitable volume ratios of the stationary phases for the separation of the target compounds were predicted from the partition coefficients of the compounds in the three-phase solvent system. Then, three HSCCC separations using the combination columns with initial pumped LP:IP volume ratios of 1:0, 0.9:0.1, and 0.7:0.3 were performed separately based on the prediction. Three target compounds were prepared with high purity when the initial pumped volume ratio of the stationary phases was 0.9:0.1. The baseline separation of compounds 2 and 3 was achieved on the combination column with an initial pumped volume ratio of 0.7:0.3. Furthermore, the three experiments clearly demonstrated that the retentions and resolutions of the target compounds increased with an increasing volume ratio of IP, which is consistent with the prediction for the retention times for the

  4. Biological therapeutics of Pongamia pinnata coated zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinically important pathogenic bacteria, fungi and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Pandiselvi, Karuppiah; Kalanjiam, Mohamed Ali Rajamohamed; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of antimicrobics and drugs has led to the development of resistance in a number of pathogens and parasites, which leads to great concerns for human health and the environment. Furthermore, breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. MCF-7 is a widely used epithelial cancer cell line, derived from breast adenocarcinoma for in vitro breast cancer studies, since the cell line has retained several ideal characteristics particular to the mammary epithelium. In this scenario, the development of novel and eco-friendly drugs are of timely importance. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is cost effective, environmental friendly and does not involve the use of toxic chemicals or elevate energy inputs. This research focused on the anticancer activity of Pongamia pinnata seed extract-fabricated zinc oxide nanoparticles (Pp-ZnO NPs) on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells, antibiofilm activity against bacteria and fungi was also investigated. Nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Pp-ZnO NPs effectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive Bacillus licheniformis (zone of inhibition: 17.3 mm) at 25 μg ml(-1) followed by Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2 mm) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (12.2 mm). Pp-ZnO NPs also effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of C. albicans at 50 μg ml(-1). Cytotoxicity studies revealed that a single treatment with Pp-ZnO NPs significantly reduced the cell viability of breast cancer MCF-7 cells at doses higher than 50 μg ml(-1). Morphological changes in the Pp-ZnO NPs treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells were observed using phase contrast microscopy. This study concludes that the green synthesized Pp-ZnO NPs may be used as an effective antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  6. Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria closely associated with liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza inflate BAT. in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhao, Chong; Liao, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Maoke; Ao, Xiaoling; Gu, Yunfu; Liao, Decong; Xu, Kaiwei; Yu, Xiumei; Xiang, Quanju; Huang, Chengyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri

    2016-07-01

    A total of 218 actinobacteria strains were isolated from wild perennial liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza. inflate BAT. Based on morphological characteristics, 45 and 32 strains from G. inflate and G. glabra, respectively, were selected for further analyses. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, most of the strains belonged to genus Streptomyces and a few strains represented the rare actinobacteria Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Tsukamurella. A total of 39 strains from G. inflate and 27 strains from G. glabra showed antimicrobial activity against at least one indicator organism. The range of the antimicrobial activity of the strains isolated from G. glabra and G. inflate was similar. A total of 34 strains from G. inflate and 29 strains from G. glabra carried at least one of the genes encoding polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and FADH2-dependent halogenase. In the type II polyketide synthase KSα gene phylogenetic analysis, the strains were divided into two major clades: one included known spore pigment production-linked KSα sequences and other sequences were linked to the production of different types of aromatic polyketide antibiotics. Based on the antimicrobial range, the isolates that carried different KSα types were not separated from each other or from the isolates that did not carry KSα. The incongruent phylogenies of 16S rRNA and KSα genes indicated that the KSα genes were possibly horizontally transferred. In all, the liquorice plants were a rich source of biocontrol agents that may produce novel bioactive compounds.

  7. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. residues by screening the library of non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingxiao; Ji, Wenhua; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Gao, Qianshan; Geng, Yanling; Huang, Luqi

    2014-08-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity and affinity to glabridin were designed based on the screening results of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library contained 48 polymers that were polymerized with the combinations of different functional monomers, cross-linkers, and porogenic solvents. The distribution coefficient (k) values were used to estimate the affinity of NIPs to glabridin. The corresponding MIPs of the best three NIPs were prepared. After evaluating the imprinting effects and selectivity of the three MIPs, the performance of the best MIP as solid phase extraction sorbent was investigated. Glabridin with percent recovery of 83 was obtained from the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (G. glabra L.) residues by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Thus, this material can be successfully used for the extraction and purification of glabridin from G. glabra L. residues.

  8. Evaluation of antigenotoxic activity of isoliquiritin apioside from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kumar, Subodh

    2009-06-01

    Prevention of manifestation of events characteristic of carcinogenesis is being emphasized a rational strategy to combat cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in tumor initiation through oxidative damage of DNA. In search for lead molecules in cancer chemoprevention from natural products, a fraction 'Rlicca' isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra was studied for modulatory effect against hydrogen peroxide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide induced genotoxicity in Escherichiacoli PQ37 using SOS chromotest and in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the Comet assay. The fraction 'Rlicca' at a concentration of 191 microM decreased the SOS inducing potency (SOSIP) of hydrogen peroxide (1.0mM) and NQO (20 microg/ml) by 83.72% and 68.77%, respectively. In the human blood lymphocytes, 'Rlicca' reduced the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (25 microM) and NQO (5 microg/ml) by 88.04% and 76.64%, respectively, using the Comet assay. The spectroscopic data of 'Rlicca' fraction revealed it to be isoliquiritin apioside, a chalcone oligoglycoside. This is the first report of isoliquiritin apioside with marked potential to combat oxidative stress-induced genotoxicity.

  9. Planting depth and rhizome size effects on below ground growth of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza vali allah poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of planting depth and rhizome sizes on below ground growth of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. at research glasshouse of Mashhad Unversity in 2001. Factorial experiment containing 2 factors of planting depth (10, 20 and 40‌cm and rhizome sizes (1,2 and 3 buds or 4,7 and 10 gr with two replications in completely randomized block design was employed. Development of different variables during growing season including root and mother rhizome dry weight were measured.The highest and the lowest root dry weight (RDWhave been seen in depth of 20 and 40 cm‌, respectively. About 100 days after planting (DAP, RDW increaseed very slowly but thenafter increased faster‌. Rhizome of any sizes in‌ 20 cm, gave the highest RDW‌. Three-bud rhizomes produced the highest RDW and 1-bud rhizome produced the lowest. Mother rhizome dry weight (MRDW reduced untill 60 days after planting. After 75th day, MRDW has increased and all plants started to fill their mother rhizome and finally rhizome of depth 20 cm produced the highest dry weight. In 160 days after planting, mother rhizomes started to lose their weight‌. 1and 3 -bud mother rhizome produce the lowest and highest MRDW, respectively.

  10. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima, E-mail: khattakkf@yahoo.co [Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); James Simpson, Thomas [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  13. Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza glabra and their inhibitory mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Lallo, Subehan; Nisa, Khoirun; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-15

    FtsZ is an essential protein for bacterial cell division, and an attractive and underexploited novel antibacterial target protein. Screening of Indonesian plants revealed the inhibitory activity of the methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on the Bacillus subtilis FtsZ (BsFtsZ) GTPase, and further bioassay-guided fractionation of the active methanol extract led to the isolation of seven known polyketides (1-7). Among them, gancaonin I (1), glycyrin (3), and isolicoflavanol (5) exhibited anti-BsFtsZ GTPase activities, at levels comparable to that of the synthetic FtsZ inhibitor, Zantrin Z3. Enzymatic assays using a BsFtsZ Val307R mutant protein and in silico simulations suggested that 1, 3, and 5 bind to the cleft on BsFtsZ, as in the case of the previously reported uncompetitive FtsZ inhibitor, PC190723, and thereby display their significant anti-BsFtsZ inhibitory activities. Furthermore, 1 also showed significant inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, with a MIC value of 5μM. The present study provides new insights into the naturally occurring B. subtilis growth inhibitors.

  14. Protective effect of polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Morana, Alessandra; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

    2009-12-01

    In the present article, we have investigated the antioxidant properties of methanolic liquorice polyphenol extracts (LPE(s)). Polyphenol extraction was performed with 60% and 100% methanol. Analysis of LPE(s) by thin-layer chromatography revealed that a higher amount of polyphenols was recovered by extraction with 60% methanol. Antioxidant activity measurement of the reducing power, scavenging effect on 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capability have been taken as the parameters for assessment of antioxidant potential of LPE(s). Results have been compared with both natural and synthetic antioxidants. All experimental data have indicated that LPE(s) possess strong antioxidant power proportional to their o-diphenolic and total polyphenolic content, independently from the assay used. Therefore, the LPE(s) antioxidant property was examined against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species in human colon carcinoma cells. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with liquorice polyphenolic extracts provided a remarkable protection against oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2). The highest oxidative stress protection (72% of cell vitality) was measured in cells pretreated with 0.54 mM polyphenols. This effect seems to be associated to the antioxidant activity of liquorice polyphenolic compounds. Our data suggest that polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra could exert a beneficial action in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to production of reactive oxygen species.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Soni, Badrish; Dalwadi, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant property of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts using in vitro models. The dose-dependent aqueous and ethanolic extracts demonstrated the scavenging activity against nitric oxide (concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals [IC(50)]=72 and 62.1 microg/ml, respectively), superoxide (IC(50)=64.2 and 38.4 microg/ml, respectively), hydroxyl (IC(50)=81.9 and 63 microg/ml, respectively), DPPH (IC(50)=43.6 and 28.3 microg/ml, respectively) and ABTS(*+) (IC(50)=77.3 and 57.2 microg/ml, respectively) radicals. Further, both extracts showed strong reducing power and iron-chelating capacities. In the Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, both extracts were found to inhibit mitochondrial fraction lipid peroxidation. In copper-catalyzed human serum and low-density lipoprotein oxidation models, both extracts significantly (Pglabra possess considerable antioxidant activity and protective effect against the human lipoprotein oxidative system.

  17. Arabidopsis CAPRICE (MYB) and GLABRA3 (bHLH) control tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuji; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) are central regulators of root-hair differentiation and trichome initiation. By transforming the orthologous tomato genes SlTRY (CPC) and SlGL3 (GL3) into Arabidopsis, we demonstrated that these genes influence epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. After transformation into tomato, 35S::CPC inhibited anthocyanin accumulation, whereas GL3::GL3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including Phe-ammonia lyase (PAL), the flavonoid pathway genes chalcone synthase (CHS), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were repressed in 35S::CPC tomato. In contrast, the expression levels of PAL, CHS, DFR, and ANS were significantly higher in GL3::GL3 tomato compared with control plants. These results suggest that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin pigment synthesis in tomato.

  18. Antioxidant activity-guided separation of coumarins and lignan from Melicope glabra (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Nur Kartinee; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ismail, Amin; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Nasir, Nadiah Md; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-08-15

    The ethyl acetate and methanol bark extracts of Melicope glabra were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching/linoleic acid system. Both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against the DPPH radical (IC50 values of 24.81 and 13.01 μg ml(-1), respectively) and strong antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay. Both samples were found to have high phenolic content with values of 39 and 44 mg GAE/g as indicated by Follin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant TLC assay-guided isolation on the methanol extract led to the isolation of a new pyranocoumarin, glabranin (1), umbelliferone (2), scopoletin (3) and sesamin (4), and their structures were determined by spectroscopy. Compounds (1-3) showed significant activities on DPPH free radical with the IC50 of 240.20, 810.02 and 413.19 μg ml(-1), respectively. However, in β-carotene bleaching assay, sesamin (4) showed higher inhibitory activity (1 mg ml(-1), 95%) than glabranin (1) (1 mg ml(-1), 74%), whilst umbelliferone (2) and scopoletin (3) were slightly pro-oxidant.

  19. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) extract in relation to the geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Roberta Da Silva; Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; Sarmento, Merielen Da Silva; Richter, Marc François; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andres; Martinez, Marcela María; Ferraz, Alexandre De Barros Falcão; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-10-01

    Malpighia glabra L, popularly known as acerola, is considered a functional fruit and therefore is taken to prevent disease or as adjuvant to treatment strategies, since the fruit is an undeniable source of vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids. Acerola is a natural source of vitamin C, flavonoids, and carotenoids. Its chemical composition is affected by genetic uniformity of the orchards and environmental factors. Considering the extensive growth of the culture of acerola in Brazil as well as its widespread use, this study evaluates the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of acerola in relation to geographical origin using the comet assay in mice blood cells in vitro. No acerola samples showed potential to induce DNA damage, independently of origin. Also, for antigenotoxicity activity, only the acerola sample from São Paulo reduced DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (by about 56%). The sample from Ceará showed good antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, in agreement with its higher rutin, quercetin, and vitamin C levels. Additional studies with other treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the impact of the complex mixture of acerola on genomic stability.

  20. Repeated Range Expansion and Glacial Endurance of Potentilla glabra (Rosaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Yang Wang; Hiro-shi Ikeda; Teng-Liang Liu; Yu-Jin Wang; Jian-Quan Liu

    2009-01-01

    To date, little is still known about how alpine species occurring in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) responded to past climatic oscillations. Here, by using variations of the chloroplast trnJ-L, we examined the genetic distribution pattern of 101 individuals of Potentilla glabra, comprising both the interior QTP and the plateau edge. Phylogenetic and network analyses of 31 recovered haplotypes identified three tentative clades (A, B and C). Analysis of molecular variance (amova) revealed that most of the genetic variability was found within populations (0.693), while differentiations between populations were obviously distinct (Fst = 0.307). Two independent range expansions within clades A and B occurring at approximately 316 and 201 thousand years ago (kya) were recovered from the hierarchical mismatch analysis, and these two expansions were also confirmed by Fu's Fs values and 'g' tests. However, distant distributions of clade C and private haplotypes from clades A and B suggest that they had survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and previous glaciers in situ since their origins. Our findings based on available limited samples support that multiple refugia of a few cold-enduring species had been maintained in the QTP platform during LGM and/or previous glacial stages.

  1. Chemical Constituents from the Rhizomes of Smilax glabra and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Qing Cai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Six new phenolic compounds, named smiglabrone A (1, smiglabrone B (2, smilachromanone (3, smiglastilbene (4, smiglactone (5, smiglabrol (6, together with fifty-seven known ones 7–63 were isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax glabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with literature data. Twenty-seven of these compounds were obtained from and identified in the genus Smilax for the first time. The absolute configuration of (2S-1,2-O-di-trans-p-coumaroylglycerol (43 was determined for the first time using the exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD method. Thirty isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and one fungus, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were also discussed. Eighteen compounds were found to be antimicrobial against the microorganisms tested and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were in the range of 0.0794–3.09 mM. Among them, compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against Canidia albicans with MIC value of 0.146 mM, which was stronger than cinchonain Ia with an MIC of 0.332 mM. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.303 and 0.205 mM, respectively. The results indicated that these antimicrobial constituents of this crude drug might be responsible for its clinical antimicrobial effect.

  2. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  3. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  4. Reproducción sexual e influencia de sustratos en el desarrollo de Malpighia glabra L. (Malpighiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Apolinar García-Hoyos; Jesús Sánchez-Robles; Luis Arturo García-Hernández; Fernando De León-González

    2011-01-01

    Malpighia glabra, también conocida como acerola o semeruco dentro de su amplia distribución produce frutos que cuando alcanzan el estado de madurez son muy ricos en vitamina C. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo el reproducir esta especie mediante la siembra de semillas en charolas germinadoras bajo condiciones de vivero y utilizando tres tipos de sustratos comerciales peat moss , andosol y vertisol. Se registró el porcentaje de germinación, se cuantificó el número de semillas germinadas...

  5. Monosaccharide composition of Herniaria glabra L. and Herniaria polygama J.Gay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachok Solomiia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The plants from Herniaria genus (Caryophyllaceae family are mainly applied as diuretic agents for the treatment of kidney and gall-stones, gouts, urinary tract infections, hypertension and diabetes. The most widely spread species in Europe is Herniaria glabra L. (HG. Herniaria polygama J.Gay (HP is found growing from Eastern Europe to Asia. Surprisingly, no work has been reported on the analysis of primary metabolites of HP yet and there is only a limited data on HG. The aim of our study was to establish the monosaccharide composition after a complete hydrolysis and in a free state in the entire herbs of HG and HP harvested in the western and central parts of Ukraine. The carbohydrates were separated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after conversion into volatile derivatives as aldononitrile acetate. As a result, the monosaccharide composition after a total hydrolysis was established with the contribution of the following components: D-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-fucose, D-xylose, D-manose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol, D-dulcitol. In a free state it was detected: D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol and D-saccharose. The following monosaccharides were found in the most abundant quantities in HG and HP respectively: glucose was determined as the major component – 33.40 and 22.80 mg/g, the second dominant sugar was pinitol – 16.80 and 18.07 mg/g, followed by galactose – 13.88 mg/g in HG and arabinose – 8.13 mg/g in HP. Sugars were determined in these plant species for the first time and this finding shed new light on their pharmacological application.

  6. Lipase-mediated conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel using ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, M.K.; Reddy, J.R.C.; Rao, B.V.S.K.; Prasad, R.B.N. [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India). Division of Lipid Science and Technology

    2007-04-15

    Ethyl acetate was explored as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from the crude oils of Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Pongamia pinnata (karanj) and Helianthus annus (sunflower). The optimum reaction conditions for interesterification of the oils with ethyl acetate were 10% of Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 11:1 and the reaction period of 12 h at 50 {sup o}C. The maximum yield of ethyl esters was 91.3%, 90% and 92.7% with crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively under the above optimum conditions. Reusability of the lipase over repeated cycles interesterification and ethanolysis was also investigated under standard reaction conditions. The relative activity of lipase could be well maintained over twelve repeated cycles with ethyl acetate while it reached to zero by 6th cycle when ethanol was used as an acyl acceptor. (author)

  7. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 induced oxidative-stress mediated hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Results: The results suggest that, the crude extract of root of G. glabra at the doses of 300 and 600mg/kg body wt. expressed significant hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced oxidative stress mediated hepatotoxicity in student ‘t’ test (p [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 314-320

  8. Assessment of median lethal dose and anti-mutagenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against chemically induced micronucleus formation in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, it may be concluded that Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract possess anti-mutagenic behavior and this hydro-methanolic crude extract may be safe as per the LD50 was observed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 292-297

  9. Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Nourazarian, Alireza; Majidinia, Maryam; Roshaniasl, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

  10. Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis and Bougainvillea glabra on the development of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldas, Rania M; El Shafey, Azza S; Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Plants are promising sources of agents useful for the control of vectors of human diseases including leishmaniasis. The effect of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), on transmission of leishmaniasis was investigated using them as diets for Phlebotomus papatasi to monitor their effect on life-history traits. P. papatasi were allowed to feed separately on both plants then offered a blood-meal. Fed-females were observed daily for egg-laying and subsequent developmental stages. P. papatasi was able to feed on B. glabra (29.41% females and 46.30% males) and R. communis (5.80% females and 10.43% males). 34.28% of females died within 24-48 hours post-feeding on R. communis, whereas, it was 16.5% in females fed on B. glabra. Overall fecundity of surviving females was reduced compared to controls, reared on standard laboratory diet; however there was no effect on the sex ratio of progeny. Female P. papatasi in the control group had significantly longer life span compared to plant-fed group. Feeding on these plants not only decreased sand fly survival rates but incurred negative effects on fecundity. Findings indicate that planting high densities of R. communis and B. glabra in sand flies-endemic areas will reduce population sizes and reduce the risk of Leishmania major infections.

  11. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needles-twigs (NT) and wood barks (WB) of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC...

  12. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  13. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  14. Qualitative identification of dibenzoylmethane in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Marisela D; Reid, Michelle E; DuBose, Evan S; Campbell, James A; Jackson, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), an herbal Chinese medicine, has shown medicinal uses in therapeutics and cancer prevention. Dibenzoylmethane (DBM; 1, 3-diphenyl-1, 3-propadinedione), a small beta-diketone, has been reported to be a minor constituent of licorice and a known deregulator of the human prostate cancer cell cycle. Characterization of the phytochemical profiles of licorice root forms including commercially available DBM will advance our search in identifying novel reagents for prostate cancer therapeutics. Gas chromatography- triple quadrupole-mass spectrometric analysis was used for detecting DBM in licorice root extracts. DBM and all licorice forms exhibited a component with a retention time of 14.5 minutes. The major fragment ions detected were at m/z 77, 105, 147, 223 and 224 at the identified retention time by selected reaction monitoring/SRM. These data confirm the presence of DBM from its natural source (G. glabra), and the GC-MS/SRM method helps in the identification of this minor component in a complex biological matrix.

  15. Facile synthesis of mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabra leaf extract: characterisation and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against mosquito natural enemies has been scarcely studied. Here, we synthesised silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Mussaenda glabra leaf extract as reducing and stabilising agent. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterised by UV-vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesised Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against mosquito vectors Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 of 17-19 μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 1446 to 8628 μg/mL. Overall, M. glabra-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target aquatic organisms.

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF GLYCYRRHIZIN BIOMARKER IN GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA RHIZOME AND BABY HERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED RP-HPTLC METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Zaatout, Hala H.; T, Kamal Y; Abdel-Kader, Maged S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations by validated Reverse Phase HPTLC method. Materials and Methods: RP-HPTLC Method was carried out using glass coated with RP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC plates using methanol-water (7: 3 v/v) as mobile phase. Results: The developed plate was scanned and quantified densitometrically at 256 nm. Glycyrrhizin peaks from Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations were identified by comparing their single spot at Rf = 0.63 ± 0.01. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship between peak area and amount of glycyrrhizin in the range of 2000-7000 ng/band. Conclusion: The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines for precision, accuracy, and robustness. The proposed method will be useful to enumerate the therapeutic dose of glycyrrhizin in herbal formulations as well as in bulk drug. PMID:28573236

  17. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  18. 不同种植环境对草珊瑚生长的影响%Effects of Different Plantin g Environment on the Growth of Sarcandra glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林碧瑜; 文欣; 柯佳宝; 张丽华; 刘希华

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study effects of different planting environment on the growth of Sarcandra glabra.[Method] Taking Sar-candra glabra planted indoor and outdoor (forest under-story) as material, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of Sarcandra glabra under different planting environment were studied.[Result] The results showed that the content of chlorophyll, proline of Sarcandra glabra planted outdoor was higher than indoor, but the content of MDA was lower, and the variation was stable.There were great differences in root vig-or, which the indoor planting was higher than outdoor’s.[Conclusion] Outdoor planting is more beneficial to Sarcandra glabra Thun’s growth than indoor.%[目的]研究不同种植环境对草珊瑚的生长影响。[方法]以种植在室内及室外(林下套种)的草珊瑚植株为材料,研究不同种植环境对草珊瑚生理生化指标的变化。[结果]室外的草珊瑚叶绿素含量、脯氨酸含量均高于室内种植的草珊瑚。 MDA含量较低,且变化较稳定,而根系活力相差很大,室内种植的草珊瑚这2个指标高于室外种植的。[结论]室外种植方式比室内种植的更利于草珊瑚生长。

  19. Study on Ecological Adaptability of Bougainvillea glabra in Xianning City%三角梅在咸宁市生态适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼军; 王珊崇; 杨园园

    2012-01-01

    试验以紫色三角梅为材料,研究了三角梅在咸宁市的耐热性、干旱胁迫表现、无风条件的耐寒越冬及有风条件的耐寒越冬表现等生态适应性,结果发现紫色三角梅在冬季无风条件下可以忍耐咸宁市的最低气温,低温和冷风成为咸宁市引种三角梅的最大障碍;同时发现紫色三角梅具有一定的耐旱性,在生长期重度干旱的环境下,老叶先萎蔫下垂并卷曲、幼嫩叶后萎蔫下垂,但此时补充水分可使其恢复正常.%The ecological adaptability of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy in Xianning city including its reaction to heat, drought, cold with or without wind was studied using purple B. Glabra as material. The results showed that purple B. Glabra could endure the lowest temperature in Xianning without wind. Continuous low temperature with wind was the biggest obstacle for introducing purple B. Glabra in Xianning city. Purple B. Glabra also had certain drought tolerance. Its old leaves wilted, hang down and curled firstly before the same symptoms occurred in tender leaves under badly drought; however, these symptoms could be released by watering.

  20. Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and total carbohydrate, but no significant differences for nitrogen-free extract. Treated sheep had significantly higher positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances compared with infested untreated sheep. Oil of J. curcas plus ascorbic acid (OJC-AA) treated group was better over all other treated groups with respect to nutrient digestibility. The BSP test revealed significant (P < 0.05) increase in BSP retention time in sheep with sarcoptic mange. Post -treatment, the BSP retention time decreased in all treated groups and the decrease was maximum in OJC-AA treated group. The carcasses of sheep treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.01) higher water holding capacity, rib eye area and back fat thickness than the untreated infected control group. The muscle pH and tenderness values were significantly lower in OJC-AA treated group post-slaughter than infested untreated control group. Muscle colour of OJC-AA treated group was maximum bright red. The lambs treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.05) greater clean fleece weight and fleece yield than the untreated infected group. It is concluded that OJC was the better therapy for sarcoptic mange of sheep and ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy is advisable. OJC-AA therapy may be better from the point of view of improving two most important production parameters in sheep, that is, wool yield and meat production.

  1. Effect of aquo-alchoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice Lung Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Srivastava, Pranay; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-03-26

    The prevalence of lung infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that are classified as multi-drug resistant has increased considerably and is mainly attributed to relative insufficiency of potent chemotherapeutic modalities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-alcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against the P. aeruginosa causing lung infection in Swiss albino mice. The study involves evaluation of lethal dose of P. aeruginosa in Swiss albino mice and analysis of disease manifestation that includes bacteremia, hypothermia, reduction in body weight and other parameters for 48h of infection. Physical manifestations of infected mice showed a significant decline in body temperature that is 29±0.57°C (at 48th h) from 38.81±0.33°C (0h) and 30% weight loss was observed at the end of the study. Further the efficacy of G. glabra extract against lung infection induced with the calculated lethal dose was evaluated by employing bacteremia, histopathology and radiological analysis. Bacterial burden showed that 2.30±0.02 Log10CFU/mL at day 7, a significant decline in the bacterial load as compared to day 1 when the bacterial burden was found to be 3.32±0.1 Log10CFU/mL. Histopathological results showed more diffuse and patchy accumulation of inflammatory cells within the alveolar space also the infiltrates were noted in all the lung section of infected mice. In treated animal group improved lung histology was seen with the exudates were less seen in D1 dose (20mg/kg) and disappeared in D2 dose (80mg/kg). The study clearly declares that the G. glabra extract is effective against lung infection caused by P. aeruginosa at dose of 80mg/kg. The LCMS results revealed that the extract contains Glycyrrhizin, Stigmasterol and Ergosterol, Licochalcone and Glabridin. The current study expected to further exploit the biomedical properties of this extract in the preparation of a potent regimen against such threatening pathogen.

  2. Comparative studies on fly ash coated low heat rejection diesel engine on performance and emission characteristics fueled by rice bran and pongamia methyl ester and their blend with diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Musthafa, M.; Sivapirakasam, S.P.; Udayakumar, M. [National Institute of Technology, Tiruchchirappalli (India)

    2011-05-15

    In this study, for the first time, fly ash was used as a thermal barrier coating material in a diesel engine. The study consists of three phases. In first phase, biodiesel was prepared in a laboratory scale setup by single step base catalyzed transesterification method. In the second phase, engine combustion chamber elements such as cylinder head, cylinder liner, valves and piston crown face were coated with fly ash, which is a thermal power plant waste, to a thickness of 200{mu}m by using plasma spray coating method. In third phase, experiments were carried out on fly ash coated single cylinder diesel engine fueled by methyl ester of rice bran, pongamia oil and its blend (20% by volume) with diesel. The test run was repeated on uncoated engine under the same running conditions and the results were compared. An increase in engine power and decrease in specific fuel consumption, as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NOx) were observed for all test fuels used in the fly ash coated engine compared with that of the uncoated engine.

  3. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous ;Green; carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of ;Green; carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  4. The Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Effect on the Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Vero Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabouri Ghanad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The side effects of drug consumption and also HSV resistance to drugs have been the factors attracting the researchers to herbal drugs. The major aim of the present research was in vitro assessment of possible anti-herpetic activity of glycyrrhiza gla-bra (liquorices root methanolic extract in more details by performing Tissue Culture Infec-tive Dose fifty percent (TCID50 method. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study Vero cells were incubated with different con-centrations of methanolic extracts of glycyrrhiza glabra .Neutral red assay was performed in order to consider the appropriate concentration of the extract. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with glycyrrhiza glabra extract before viral infection, incubation of HSV-1 with glycyrrhiza glabra extract and treatment of vero cells with extract 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after viral in-fection, were exerted. TCID50 was performed in order to assess the antiviral activity of the extract. The results were analyzed after performing the experiments at least three times. Results: Pre-treatment of Vero cells with methanolic extract for two hours and incubation of virus with extract for one and two hours prior to viral infection resulted in remarkable drop in TCID50 amount by significant difference (P <0.001. Treatment of Vero cells with extract 1, 8 and 12 hours post-infection demonstrated significant changes in TCID50. We observed significant fluctuations and different efficacy of the extract between different incubation time at 1h & 4h, 1h & 24h, 4h & 8h, 4h & 12h, 8h & 24h, 12h & 24h. Conclusion: The current study resulted in more novel findings of anti herpetic activity of gly-cyrrhiza glabra extract. Time course of extract treatment with virus- infected cells was an ef-ficient factor. In addition, the pretreatment of virus and also Vero cells with glycyrrhiza gla-bra extract in our experiment had important effects on the anti-viral activity of the extract. (Sci J

  5. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  6. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra root as a novel adsorbent in the removal of toluene vapors: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani Hajian, Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  7. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  8. Study on B. glabra Chosiy Tissue Culture%叶子花组织培养技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海滨; 代汉萍; 雷家军

    2006-01-01

    通过对叶子花(Bougainvillea glabra Choisy)茎尖组织培养技术的研究,筛选出适宜的增殖培养基为MS+6-BA0.5mg/L+NAA0.2mg/L,增殖系数达到4.0;最适合的生根培养基为MS+IBA1.0 mg/L,每株平均生根7.2条,根长4.2 cm,侧根数4.5条.以河沙为基质进行试管苗移栽有利于叶子花的成活,25d后成活率可达78.6%.

  9. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. A. Rashid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. The metal ions concentration either essential or non essential, critically affect the biological system of the human body. Here are many factors including the different types of pollution-fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides and other forms of air and water pollution etc.- that effect directly on metal ion concentration in Bougainvillea and indirectly in biological system if used traditionally as medicine.

  10. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani (Hajian), Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants. PMID:23554821

  11. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins (Monimiaceae in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil

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    Fernanda da S. Novaes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalarifor perforation plates, ood parenchya scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees ay be due to the greater diaeters of their branches. ur results suggest that . glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.Este trabalho objetiva caracterizar a estrutura anatômica do lenho de Mollinedia glabra, ocorrente em duas formações vegetais contíguas na restinga da Praia Virgem, município de Rio das Ostras, RJ. Essas formações Arbustiva Aberta de Pal-mae (AAP e Arbustiva Fechada do Cordão Arenoso (AFCA estão sobre cordão arenoso e recebem precipitações anuais de 1.100-1.300 mm. Foram obtidas amostras do lenho das duas forações. São características anatôicas gerais da espécie: elementos de vasos solitários, em arranjos radiais ou cachos, de seção de circular a angular; placa de perfuração es

  12. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus

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    Muhammad Ovais Omer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F. Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 μg/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perwez Alam; Mohamed Fahd Alajmi; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Adnan J Al-Rehaily; Omar Ahmed Basudan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods:Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf=0.280±0.001). The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band), limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band), recovery (99.4%-99.8%) and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%;intraday and interday) were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20-200 ng (r2=0.996). The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions:This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  14. Screening and bioconversion of glycyrrhizin of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid by different microbial strains

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    Makhmur Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study is to perform screening of different microorganisms (7 bacteria and 14 fungi for conversion of glycyrrhizin (GL to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. Penicillium chrysogenum produced the highest concentration of β-glucuronidase enzyme (61 U/mL and produced GA of 52 μg/mL while E. coli produced the highest β-glucuronidase of 376 U/mL with GA concentration of 2.1 μg/mL. Materials and Methods: Submerged and solid state biotransformation of GL was carried out. To 9.0 mL of bacterial supernatant, 1.0 mL 0.2% w/v of aqueous Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract was added and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. β-glucuronidase activity was measured and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out. Results and Discussion: Induced-Escherichia coli produces 2.1 μg/mL of GA with an enzyme activity of 376 U/mL which shows that the enzyme has a potential biotransformation capability. Rhizopus oryzae and P. chrysogenum have the potential ability to biotransform GL to GA with 2.6 μg/mL and 61 μg/mL of GA with enzyme activity of 569 U/mL and 61 U/mL, respectively. Conclusions: G. glabra roots containing GL can be hydrolyzed by microbial β-glucuronidase enzyme under sub-merged fermentation (SmF. β-glucuronidase, an enzyme of E. coli, was found to be the best microbial source of enzyme which biocatalyzed the reaction than fungal strain under SmF.

  15. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

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    Perwez Alam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC- densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods: Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/ v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf =0.280±0.001. The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band, limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band, recovery (99.4%-99.8% and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%; intraday and interday were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20- 200 ng (r 2 =0.996. The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions: This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  16. Anatomical Structure of the Stem of Bougainvillea glabra%三角梅茎的解剖结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2015-01-01

    采用石蜡切片法,对三角梅茎解剖结构进行了研究。结果表明:三角梅茎的结构由表皮、皮层、维管柱组成,近皮层的维管束排列成一圈,其它的维管束不规则的排列在基本组织中。没有髓射线,髓也不明显,无束间形成层,茎的增粗生长不明显。维管束为外韧维管束,数量较多;具有较强的运输能力和一定的抗旱能力;耐寒能力不强。%The anatomy Structure of the stem of Bougainvillea glabra was studied through the use of paraffin section method.The results revealed that the structure of the stem is composed of epidermis,cortex and vascular cylinder.The vascu-lar bundles in the cortex are arranged in a circle.The other vascular bundles are arranged irregularly in the basic tissues.With-in the structure,there are no pith rays,and the pith not obvious.The vascular bundle cambium is not observed and the growth of stem is not obvious,either.The vascular bundles are external phloem vascular bundles in large quantities.Such a structure renders it a strong transportation ability and resistant capability against drought to a certain extent.However,the cold-toler-ance of Bougainvillea glabra is rather weak.

  17. Discovery of anti-microbial and anti-tubercular molecules from Fusarium solani: an endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Rather, M A; Hassan, Q P; Aga, M A; Mushtaq, S; Shah, A M; Hussain, A; Baba, S A; Ahmad, Z

    2017-05-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is a high-value medicinal plant thriving in biodiversity rich Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was designed to explore the fungal endophytes from G. glabra as a source of bioactive molecules. The extracts prepared from the isolated endophytes were evaluated for anti-microbial activities using broth micro-dilution assay. The endophytic strain coded as A2 exhibiting promising anti-bacterial as well as anti-tuberculosis activity was identified as Fusarium solani by ITS-5.8S ribosomal gene sequencing technique. This strain was subjected to large-scale fermentation followed by isolation of its bioactive compounds using column chromatography. From the results of spectral data analysis and comparison with literature, the molecules were identified as 3,6,9-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[g]isochromene-5,10-dione (1), fusarubin (2), 3-O-methylfusarubin (3) and javanicin (4). Compound 1 is reported for the first time from this strain. All the four compounds inhibited the growth of various tested bacterial strains with MIC values in the range of solani evaluated against the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis. This study sets background towards their synthetic intervention for activity enhancement experiments in anti-microbial drug discovery programme. Due to the chemoprofile variation of same endophyte with respect to source plant and ecoregions, further studies are required to explore endophytes of medicinal plants of all unusual biodiversity rich ecoregions for important and or novel bioactive molecules. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Estrutura populacional dos camarões simpátricos Potimirim glabra e Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no rio Sahy, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Populational structure of the sympatric freshwater shrimps Potimirim glabra and Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae in the Sahy River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter conhecimento sobre a estrutura populacional de dois camarões de água doce simpátricos, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 e Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 no rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de setembro de 1997 a fevereiro de 1999 utilizando-se peneiras, que foram passadas sob a vegetação marginal, superfície de rochas e pequenas poças d'água, num esforço de 15 minutos por coletor. Os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo e mensurados em relação ao comprimento total e do cefalotórax. Um total de 4.889 indivíduos foram coletados no rio Sahy: 3.281 P. glabra e 1.608 P. potimirim. A razão sexual observada foi de 1:1 para P. glabra e 1:2,3 para P. potimirim. Em ambas populações, cinco estágios de maturidade sexual foram determinados, sendo as populações constituídas principalmente por camarões adultos. O recrutamento de juvenis apresentou diferenças em ambas as espécies. O recrutamento de P. glabra ocorreu durante todo o período de estudo, exceto na primavera, enquanto que P. potimirim foi registrado somente no outono. A distribuição sazonal de fêmeas ovígeras de P. glabra é similar ao de P. potimirim, com reprodução na primavera e no verão.The aim of this work was to get some knowledge about the populational structure of the two sympatric freshwater shrimp species, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 in the Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimens were sampled monthly from September 1997 to February 1999 by sieving the marginal vegetation, on rocky surface and among litter on river bottom, with 15-minute effort per sampling period. The animals were sorted sexed and their total and cephalothoracic length were measured. A total of 4,889 individuals were collected in Sahy river: 3,281 P. glabra and 1,608 P. potimirim. The sex ratio for all

  19. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

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    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  20. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of cetrimide and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm grown on dentin discs in comparison with NaOCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldas, Hilmi Egemen; Kececi, Ayse Diljin; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Ozturk, Tuba; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl, cetrimide, and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on dentine discs. Broth microdilution method was used to determine minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the agents. A biofilm susceptibility assay was performed using E. faecalis biofilms grown on dentine discs. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of NaOCl (0.5%), cetrimide (0.015%), and G. glabra L. extract (0.25%) were applied for 1, 3, and 5 min, and the mean viable cell counts were recorded and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference between cetrimide and NaOCl at 1 min (p>0.05). NaOCl was the most effective agent at 3 and 5 min (pglabra L. extract was the least (pglabra that eliminated the planktonic E. faecalis did not eradicate the biofilms grown on dentin discs.

  1. Bioactive profiles, antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging capacities and protective effects on H2O2-injured PC12 cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Zhao, Mouming; Zhao, Tiantian; Feng, Mengying; Chen, Huiping; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu

    2014-06-30

    This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  2. Genetic Structure and Diversity Analysis Revealed by AFLP Markers on Different Glycyrrhiza glabra L. an Endangered Medicinal Species from South of Iran and Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Atieh; Zolfaghari, Maryam; Sorkheh, Karim

    2016-09-28

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an endangered and national-protected medicinal plant species distributed in semi-arid and arid areas of South of Iran. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship between populations in different habitats by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The plant materials consisted of 90 individuals from nine different populating areas of Dezful, Ramhormoz, Ahvaz, Abadan, Khorramshahr, Behbahan, Haft-tapeh, Andimeshk, and Shushtar. Twenty-three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 1019 bands with 94.80 % polymorphism. Unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis was performed on Jaccard's similarity coefficient matrix. According to results, the genetic resources and diversity in wild populations of G. glabra were rich. The number of polymorphic fragments per primer combination detected ranged from 18 to 65 bands with an average of 41.95 bands. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.81 in overall primer combinations. M-GTC+P-AGC primer combination showed the highest PIC (0.94) which can be a good candidate primer combination to verify genetic diversity in G. glabra. The UPGMA and principal coordinate analysis showed a clear distinction among the genotypes and the genotypes divided into three clusters in the dendrogram results. A model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of three groups. The study showed that genetic variation and population structure are determined among the accessions of G. glabra collected from different locations. High level of genetic variation in both intra- and inter-species was detected. Conservational efforts have to be strengthened for all populations of the plant species in different habitats.

  3. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Rodriguez; Susana Vargas; Fracisco Quintanilla; Angel Ramon Hernandez-Martinez; Miriam Estevez

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized....

  4. STUDY OF ANTITUSSIVE POTENTIAL OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA AND ADHATODA VASICA USING A COUGH MODEL INDUCED BY SULPHUR DIOXIDE GAS IN MICE

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    Yasmeen Jahan* and H.H. Siddiqui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation. Therefore, there is a need to have effective antitussive agent which do not have respiratory depressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate antitussive activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica using a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. The effect of the ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica on SO2 gas induced cough in experimental animals have very significant effects at the level of p<0.01 in inhibiting the cough reflex at a dose of 800 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body wt. p.o., in comparison with the control group. Mice showed an inhibition of 35.62%, in cough on treatment with Glycyrrhiza glabra and 43.02% inhibition on treatment with Adhatoda vasica within 60 min of the experiment. The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine sulphate (10, 15, 20 mg/kg body wt., a standard anti-tussive agent. Codeine sulphate, as a standard drug for suppression of cough, produced 24.80%, 32.98%, and 45.73% inhibition in cough at a dose of 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively, whereas, codeine sulphate (20 mg/kg showed maximum 45.73% (p<0.001 inhibition at 60 min of the experiment.

  5. Current decline in the number and size of Galba truncatula and Omphiscola glabra populations, intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, on the acidic soils of Central France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Gilles; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Field investigations on the habitats colonized by Galba truncatula or Omphiscola glabra were carried out on 162 farms of the Limousin region, Central France, to determine whether there is currently a decline in the number and size of snail populations. Seven types of snail habitats were considered here. Compared to the numbers of snail populations recorded from 1976 to 1992, the values noted from 2013 to 2016 were significantly lower, with a decline rate of 34% for G. truncatula and 23% for O. glabra. Variations in this decline rate with the type of snail habitat were also noted. The greatest decreases in the numbers of snail populations were noted for spring heads located in meadows and for road ditches, while the lowest were noted for open drainage furrows present in meadows. The distribution of these habitats according to their area did not show any significant change over time. In contrast, overwintering snails were significantly less numerous in 2013–2016 in five types of habitats for G. truncatula and in three types only for O. glabra. Several causes underlie this population decline. Among them, the current development of mechanical cleaning in open drainage systems and road ditches, that of subsurface drainage in meadows, and regular gyro-crushing of vegetation around temporary spring heads were the most important. PMID:27774956

  6. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

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    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  7. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns sob condição de sombreamento Initial growth of Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns seedlings under shading conditions

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento de mudas de Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns (castanha-do-maranhão sob diferentes intensidades luminosas. A capacidade de emergência das plântulas foi determinada pela porcentagem e pelo índice de velocidade de emergência, utilizando quatro repetições de 100 sementes (1 semente/saco. Após 40 dias, 75 mudas foram transferidas para condições de 30 e 50% de sombreamento e para pleno sol. O desenvolvimento das mudas foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições de cinco mudas, nas quais foram avaliados a altura do caule e o diâmetro do colo aos 61, 82, 103 e 124 dias após a emergência das plântulas; o teor de clorofila a, b, total e a razão a/b; a massa seca da planta (MS; a área foliar (AF; a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR; a razão de área foliar (RAF; a taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL; e a sobrevivência aos 103 e 124 dias após a emergência, quando o experimento foi encerrado. As sementes apresentaram 95% de emergência e alto de índice de velocidade de emergência (1,7. As mudas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência em todos os tratamentos. Os níveis de luz estudados não afetaram a sobrevivência das mudas, o diâmetro do caule, a área foliar, a clorofila a e b, a TCR, a TAL e a RAF, nos intervalos de tempo estudados. As mudas crescidas sob 50% de sombra apresentaram maior altura, maior clorofila total e menor relação a/b. A castanha-do-maranhão é uma espécie de fácil propagação, apresentando bom desenvolvimento das mudas sob pleno sol e tolerando o sombreamento de 30 e 50%.This experiment was carried out to study the growth of Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq. A. Robyns seedlings under different light intensities. The germination capacity of the seeds was determined by the index and percentage of germination speed of a hundred seeds (1 seed/sac. After 40 days, seventy-five saplings were transferred to 50% and 30

  8. Uso de reguladores vegetais na conservação refrigerada de acerolas (Malpighia glabra L. Effect of plant growth regulators in the refrigerated conservation of acerola fruits (Malpighia glabra L.

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    Andréa Maria Antunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o uso do ácido giberélico (GA3 e da benzilaminopurina (BAP na conservação de acerolas (Malpighia glabra L. colhidas no estádio verde e armazenadas sob refrigeração, acerolas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos, sob imersão por 30 minutos: controle (água, 50 mg L-1 e 100 mg L-1 de GA3, 50 mg L-1 e 100 mg L-1 de BAP. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram deixados para secar ao ar em local fresco e, então, embalados em bandejas de isopor cobertas com filme de polietileno e armazenados em câmara B.O.D a 8±1ºC, por 14 dias. As avaliações foram realizadas em intervalos de 4 dias. Os frutos amostrados foram submetidos a avaliações de coloração, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e teor de ácido ascórbico. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a aplicação dos reguladores não teve efeito no aumento da conservação refrigerada de acerolas e que somente a refrigeração foi suficiente para conservá-las durante 14 dias.With the objective of preserving the physicochemical characteristics from green stage harvested of acerola fruits (Malpighia glabra L., these were submitted to the following 30-minute immersion treatments: control (water, 50mg L-1 GA3, 100mg L-1 GA3, 50mg L-1 BAP (benzylaminopurine, and 100mg L-1 BAP. After treatment, the fruits were air-dried in a cool place and then packaged in styrofoam trays wrapped with polyethylene film, and stored in a BOD incubator at 8°C for 14 days. Evaluations were performed at 4 days intervals. The fruits were evaluated for coloration, soluble solids content, trituratable acidity, and ascorbic acid content. The analysis of the results showed that the application of plant growth regulators did not have effect in the increase of the refrigerated conservation of acerola fruits and that only the cooling was enough to conserve its for 14 days.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

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    Chuan-li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1, lasiodiplodin (2, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3, syringic acid (4, 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol (5, lyoniresinol (6, trans-resveratrol (7, trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8, and dihydrokaempferol (9. Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra.

  10. 小花棘豆中毒对家兔脏器指标的影响%Effects of Oxytropis glabra DC Poisoning on Organ Index of Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琦珍; 陈根元; 廖秋萍; 王帅

    2014-01-01

    为探讨小花棘豆(Oxytropis glabra DC)对家兔脏器指标的影响,试验挑选健康22只,分为两组,其中,试验组12只[按照10 g/(d·kg体重)的剂量饲喂小花棘豆干粉];对照组10只(饲喂青干草和少量精料),试验期为70 d,试验结束后取其脏器,计算脏器指数。结果显示,与正常对照相比,试验组家兔脑指数、肝脏指数、肾脏指数、肾上腺指数、睾丸指数、卵巢指数和肺脏指数增大,心脏指数、脾脏指数和胰脏指数下降,部分指标差异达到显著或极显著(P <0.05或P <0.01),与小花棘豆中毒相关性最强的指标为脑指数;但小花棘豆中毒对家兔胃肠道指标无明显影响。结果表明,小花棘豆中毒导致家兔肝、肾、脑等实质性器官损伤。%To investigate the effects of oxygen parameters of Oxytropis glabra DC poisoning on rabbits, 22 rabbits were divid-ed into control group (10 rabbits) and test group (12 rabbits). The dried plant of the O. glabra DC was comminnuted, and the test group was fed with O. glabra DC at 10 g/kg everyday respectively during the test period, and the control group was fed with hay and concentrate. After 70 day toxicity test, their organs were drawn and the quots of organ were calculated. The results showed that the index of brain, liver, kidney, adrenal, testicle, ovary and lung in the poisoned rabbits were higher than those of normal control group, while the index of heart, spleen and pancreas in the poisoned rabbits were lower than those of normal control group. Partial index showed significant or extremely significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The brain index presented strong relationship with O. glabra DC poisoning. But O. glabra DC showed no significant effects on gastrointestinal tract parameters in rabbits. It indicated that O. glabra DC poisoning could cause parenchymatous organ injury of rabbits such as liver, kidney and brain.

  11. Aspectos reprodutivos de Potimirim glabra (Kingsley (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana Valverde Lima

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 were studied from September 1997 to February 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sieves, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the end of telson with precision callipers. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was measured with calibrated stereomicroscope. A total of 3281 shrimps were collected, among which, 47% male, 46% female (13.4% ovigerous females and 7% young shrimps. The Sex ratio was 1:1. Ovigerous females were present during all seasons, but the reproductive peak occurred in spring. The ovigerous female showed total lenght from 9.5 to 26.0 mm and carapace lenght from 1.6 to 7.3 mm. The mean fecundity was 545 eggs per female, with a minimun of 223 eggs and a maximum of 860 eggs. The first sexual maturation probably occur at 9.5 mm total lenght. The mean diameter of the eggs size was 0.32 mm (minor and 0.53 mm (major.

  12. Efeito de citocininas na senescência e abscisão foliar durante o cultivo in vitro de Annona glabra L. Effect of cytokinins on senescence and foliar abscision during in vitro Annona glabra L. cultivation

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    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de anonáceas tem sido limitada pela abscisão foliar precoce nas brotações, o que dificulta a manutenção e o desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro. Esse fato se deve, principalmente, ao acúmulo de etileno nos tubos fechados e à relação etileno/citocinina nas folhas. Assim sendo, avaliaram-se o efeito de fontes de citocinina sobre o retardo da senescência foliar em brotações de Annona glabra L. e suas implicações sobre o seu desenvolvimento. Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em tubo de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio WPM, suplementado com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 500mg L-1 de benomyl e 1g L-1 de carvão ativado. A esse meio adicionaram-se 6-benzilaminopurina, thidiazuron, cinetina e zeatina, todos na concentração de 1mg L-1. Decorridos 45 dias após a inoculação, plantas foram submetidas à senescência em ambiente escuro, por um período de 9 dias, coletando-se folhas a cada três dias para quantificação de clorofila "a", clorofila "b", carotenóides, proteínas e açúcares solúveis totais. No final das fases de multiplicação e enraizamento, quantificaram-se a matéria seca, a área foliar e o número de folhas que sofreram abscisão nas plantas que não foram submetidas à senescência. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, sendo que cada período de senescência constituiu um bloco, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que cinetina e zeatina, seguidas de thidiazuron e 6-benzilaminopurina, preservam maior teor de clorofilas "a", "b" e de carotenóides durante todo o período de senescência induzida. 6-benzilaminopurina e cinetina promoveram maior retenção da área foliar durante as fases de multiplicação e enraizamento de Annona glabra L.The micropropagation of Annonaceae has been limited by early foliar abscission in shoots, which makes the maintenance and development of plants in vitro environment difficult. This is mainly due to ethylene accumulation in closed

  13. Estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro de Annona glabra L., I. desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e da parte aérea Stimulus of the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting of Annona glabra L., I. development of root system and shoot

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    José Raniere Ferreira de Santana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de induzir a estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro em brotações de Annona glabra L. Brotações oriundas de cultivo em tubos fechados com tampa e película de PVC (cultivo sem aeração, com tampa sem a película de PVC e tampão de algodão (cultivo com aeração foram inoculadas em meio WPM suplementado com 4,9 µ M de AIB e 164,4mM de carvão ativado na presença (58,42mM ou ausência de sacarose. Durante o enraizamento, foram mantidas as mesmas condições de vedação dos tubos de ensaio em que as brotações foram induzidas. Após a inoculação, os tubos contendo os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento sob radiação fotossintética ativa de 45-56 µ mol.m-2.s-1 a 25±3ºC. Os resultados mostraram que o enraizamento das brotações de A. glabra não dependeu do suprimento de sacarose no meio de cultura, em tubos fechados com o tampão de algodão ou tampa plástica sem PVC. A aeração dos tubos de ensaio trouxe incrementos de significativos (até 250% na matéria seca radicular. A indução de raízes secundárias (laterais em A. glabra só ocorreu em culturas com aeração, independentemente da presença ou ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura. Com os resultado desse experimento, conclui-se que o estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico em A.glabra pode ser obtido com sucesso durante a fase de enraizamento in vitro.The objective of the present work was to evaluate whether Annona glabra L. shoots are able to acquire the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting. In vitro A. glabra shoots originated from cultures in vessels sealed with cap and PVC film (culture without aeration, cap without PVC film or cotton tampon (cultures with aeration, were inoculated in WPM medium supplemented with 4.9 µ M IBA and 164,4mM activated charcoal in the presence (58.42mM or absence of sucrose. During rooting, the same conditions in which shoots

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots enhances plant biomass, phosphorus uptake and concentration of root secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongLing LIU; Yong TAN; Monika NELL; Karin ZITTER-EGLSEER; Chris WAWSCRAH; Brigitte KOPP; ShaoMing WANG; Johannes NOVAK

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi penetrate the cortical cells of the roots of vascular plants, and are widely distributed in soil. The formation of these symbiotic bodies accelerates the absorption and utilization of min-eral elements, enhances plant resistance to stress, boosts the growth of plants, and increases the survival rate of transplanted seedlings. We studied the effects of various arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on the growth and devel-opment of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Several species of AM, such as Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and a mixture of fungi (G. mosseae, G. intraradices, G. cladoideum, G. microagregatum, G. caledonium and G. etunica-tum) were used in our study. Licorice growth rates were determined by measuring the colonization rate of the plants by the fungi, plant dry biomass, phosphorus concentration and concentration of secondary metabolites. We estab-lished two cloned strains of licorice, clone 3 (C3) and clone 6 (C6) to exclude the effect of genotypic variations. Our results showed that the AM fungi could in fact increase the leaf and root biomass, as well as the phosphorus con-centration in each clone. Furthermore, AM fungi significantly increased the yield of certain secondary metabolites in clone 3. Our study clearly demonstrated that AM fungi play an important role in the enhancement of growth and development of licorice plants. There was also a significant improvement in the secondary metabolite content and yield of medicinal compounds from the roots.

  15. Glabridin as a major active isoflavan from Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) reverses learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in diabetes mellitus. Glabridin as a major active flavonoids in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) improves learning and memory in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with glabridin (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) on cognitive function in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Animals were divided into untreated control, glabridin-treated control (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg), untreated diabetic and glabridin treated diabetic (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) groups. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory was assessed 30 days later. Diabetes caused cognition deficits in the PAL and memory paradigm. While oral glabridin administration (25 and 50 mg/kg) improved learning and memory in non-diabetic rats, it reversed learning and memory deficits of diabetic rats. Low dose glabridin (5 mg/kg) did not alter cognitive function in non-diabetic and diabetic groups. Glabridin treatment partially improved the reduced body weight and hyperglycemia of diabetic rats although the differences were not significant. The combination of antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticholinesterase properties of glabridin may all be responsible for the observed effects. These results show that glabridin prevented the deleterious effects of diabetes on learning and memory in rats. Further studies are warranted for clinical use of glabridin in the management of demented diabetic patients.

  16. Enrichment of the Glycyrrhizic Acid from Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by Isoelectric Focused Adsorptive Bubble Chromatography

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    Eyyüp Karaoğul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to enrich glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt known as one of the main compounds of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique with different foaming agents. In the experiments, four bubble separation parameters were used with β-lactoglobulin, albumin bovine, and starch (soluble preferred as foaming agents and without additives. The enrichment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam was influenced by different additive substances. The results showed that highest enrichment values were obtained from β-lactoglobulin as much as 368.3 times. The lowest enrichment values (5.9 times were determined for the application without additive. After enrichment, each experiment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt confirmed that these substances could be quantitatively enriched into the collection vessel with isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique. The transfer of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam from standard solution in the presence of additive was more efficient than aqueous licorice extract.

  17. Strain Mesorhizobium sp. CCNWGX035: A Stress-Tolerant Isolate from Glycyrrhiza glabra Displaying a Wide Host Range of Nodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-nine rhizobial isolates were isolated from the root nodules of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabrca,growing in the arid and semiarid regions of northwestern China,to test their taxonomic position and stress tolerance and to select one promising putative inocnlant strain for further studies.On the basis of 113 physiological and biochemical characteristics,the isolates were clustered into three groups.One isolate CCNWGX035 was found to have high tolerance to NaCl,pH,and temperature.By sequencing the 16S rDNA,isolate CCNWGX035 was placed in genus Mesorhizobiurm.Nodulation tests demonstrated that the isolate not only formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on its original host plant Gly-cyrrhiza glabra,but also on Sophora viciifolia,Lotus cornieulatus,Trifolium reperts,Melilotus suaveolens,and Sophora alopecuroides.On the basis of sequence analysis of the nodA gene,isolate CCNWGX035 was closely related to strains of the genus Mesorhizobiurm,exhibiting some novel characteristics of root nodule bacteria.

  18. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 三角梅扦插矮化初步研究%Studies on Cutting and Dwarfing of Bougainvillea glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪维; 曾昭佳

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of ABT on Bougainvillea glabra cuttings rooting,as well as different kinds and concentrations of plant growth inhibitors on dwarfing were studied.The results were as fol-lows:the highest rooting rate was up to 87% and lateral roots was stout,when concentration of ABT was 0.85 g/L. The best dwarfing reagent was ppp333,and the suitable concentration was 10 g/L,dwarfing rate was 87%.%以不同浓度 ABT 生根粉溶液对三角梅(Bougainvillea glabra)扦插生根的影响,以及不同浓度的生长抑制剂多效唑和矮壮素对三角梅植株的矮化效应进行试验研究。结果表明:浓度为0.85 g/L ABT 处理的三角梅生根率最高,达87%,且接穗侧根多、粗壮;矮化效果最好的为多效唑(ppp333)溶液,浓度为10 g/L处理的三角梅矮化率为87%。

  20. [Physico-chemical characterization of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) produced in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentainer, J V; Vieira, O A; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    The acerola Malpighia glabra L., originally from the Antillas and North of South America, known by the people as cereja-das-antilhas or cereja-do-pará distinguish itself by its high content of vitamin C. The ripe and fresh acerola fruits utilized in experiments, were obtained from farmers of Maringá region, Paraná State, Brazil. The fruits were hulled in steel sieve with 25 mesh and the bagasse (seeds and hull) discarded. These physico-chemical analysis were realized in the pulp: vitamin C, moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, lipids and fatty acids composition. We also determined the content of ash and cadmium, calcium, lead, copper, chrome, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc minerals. The average content of vitamin C was 1.79 g/100 g of pulp, it was higher than the one for other fruits, like pineapple, araçá, cashew, guava, kiwi, orange, lemon, and strawberry and lower than the camu-camu sylvestral fruit of Amazônia. The contents of moisture, carbohydrate, fiber, lipids and minerals in the acerola were not significantly different when compared to other fruits.

  1. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-09

    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  2. Benzyl 2-β-Glucopyranosyloxybenzoate, a New Phenolic Acid Glycoside from Sarcandra glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From the whole plant of Sarcandra glabra, a new phenolic acid glycoside, benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (1, together with seven known compounds including eleutheroside B1 (2, 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (3, (–-(7S, 8R-dihydrodehydro-diconiferyl alcohol (4, (–-(7S, 8R-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-, 9′- and 4-O-â-D-glucopyranoside (57, and (–-(7S, 8R-5-methoxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 was isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 2 was found to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against BGC-823 and A2780 cancer cell lines using MTT method with IC50 value of 2.53 and 1.85 µM, respectively.

  3. Macrophage biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao-Guang; Duan, Ting-Ting; He, Bao; Tang, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhu, Jia-Xiao; Xu, You-Hua; Zhu, Quan; Feng, Liang

    2013-04-15

    A cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell insert Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays, has been developed as a tool for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR). In this research, components in the water extract of SGR (ESGR) might conjugate with the receptors or other targets on macrophages which invaded Transwell inserts, and then the eluate which contained components biospecific binding to macrophages was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Six compounds, which could interact with macrophages, were detected and identified. Among these compounds, taxifolin (2) and astilbin (4) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of standards, while the four others including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1), neoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (5) and isoastilbin (6), were elucidated by their structure clearage characterizations of tandem mass spectrometry. Then compound 1 was isolated and purified from SGR, along with 2 and 4, was applied to the macrophage migration and adhesion assay in HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) -macrophages co-incultured Transwell system for immunological activity assessment. The results showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 with concentration of 5μM (H), 500nM (M) and 50nM (L) could remarkably inhibit the macrophage migration and adhesion (Vs AGEs (Advanced Glycation End Produces) group, 1-L, 2-H and 4-L groups: pactive components from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  4. Developmental morphology of the Asian one-leaf plant, Monophyllaea glabra (Gesneriaceae) with emphasis on inflorescence morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Imaichi, Ryoko; Kato, Masahiro

    2005-04-01

    We examined the developmental morphology of the tropical Asian one-leaf plant Monophyllaea glabra, which is believed to have diverged first in the phylogenetic tree of the genus. The embryo within the seed consists of two cotyledons and a hypocotyl with no shoot or root apical meristems. The endogenous root meristem is formed nearer the hypocotyl end than in other examined Monophyllaea species. One of the cotyledons grows to form the macrocotyledon by means of the basal meristem. The groove meristem arises between the anisocotyledons, shifts toward the macrocotyledon, and is transformed to the inflorescence apex, which produces inflorescence axes in the axils of all ventral bracts of two rows, and secondary inflorescences in the axils of the lower dorsal bracts of the other two rows. The macrocotyledon may act as a ventral bract for the first inflorescence axis at the reproductive stage. This organization suggests that a common ancestor of Monophyllaea and Whytockia with decussate inflorescences diverged in one direction to become Monophyllaea and in another to become Whytockia.

  5. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome extract inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cells by suppressing TGF-β1 pathway.

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    Tiantian She

    Full Text Available Sarsaparilla, also known as Smilax Glabra Rhizome (SGR, was shown to modulate immunity, protect against liver injury, lower blood glucose and suppress cancer. However, its effects on cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion were unclear. In the present study, we found that the supernatant of water-soluble extract from SGR (SW could promote adhesion, inhibit migration and invasion of HepG2, MDA-MB-231 and T24 cells in vitro, as well as suppress metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo. Results of F-actin and vinculin dual staining showed the enhanced focal adhesion in SW-treated cells. Microarray analysis indicated a repression of TGF-β1 signaling by SW treatment, which was verified by real-time RT-PCR of TGF-β1-related genes and immunoblotting of TGFBR1 protein. SW was also shown to antagonize TGF-β1-promoted cell migration. Collectively, our study revealed a new antitumor function of Sarsaparilla in counteracting invasiveness of a subset of cancer cells by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling.

  6. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome) extract inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cells by suppressing TGF-β1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Tiantian; Zhao, Chuanke; Feng, Junnan; Wang, Lixin; Qu, Like; Fang, Ke; Cai, Shaoqing; Shou, Chengchao

    2015-01-01

    Sarsaparilla, also known as Smilax Glabra Rhizome (SGR), was shown to modulate immunity, protect against liver injury, lower blood glucose and suppress cancer. However, its effects on cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion were unclear. In the present study, we found that the supernatant of water-soluble extract from SGR (SW) could promote adhesion, inhibit migration and invasion of HepG2, MDA-MB-231 and T24 cells in vitro, as well as suppress metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo. Results of F-actin and vinculin dual staining showed the enhanced focal adhesion in SW-treated cells. Microarray analysis indicated a repression of TGF-β1 signaling by SW treatment, which was verified by real-time RT-PCR of TGF-β1-related genes and immunoblotting of TGFBR1 protein. SW was also shown to antagonize TGF-β1-promoted cell migration. Collectively, our study revealed a new antitumor function of Sarsaparilla in counteracting invasiveness of a subset of cancer cells by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling.

  7. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Saint Savage

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  8. A WD40-repeat gene from Malus x domestica is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Julian; Weisshaar, Bernd; Sagasser, Martin

    2010-03-01

    The WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) is involved in a multitude of developmental and biochemical reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana such as the production of seed coat colour and mucilage, pigmentation by anthocyanins as well as the formation of trichomes and root hairs. In this study, a putative TTG1 homologue was isolated from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) showing 80.2% identity to A. thaliana TTG1 on nucleotide and 90.7% similarity on amino acid level. The MdTTG1 candidate was able to activate the AtBAN promoter in cooperation with the A. thaliana transcription factors TT2 and TT8 in A. thaliana protoplasts. This indicates that the encoded protein can be integrated into the complex that activates BAN in A. thaliana, and that a similar complex might also be present in apple. When transformed into ttg1 mutants of A. thaliana, the apple sequence was able to restore trichome growth, anthocyanin production in young seedlings as well as proanthocyanidin production in seeds. Additionally, roots of complemented mutant plants showed root hair formation resembling wild type. These results show that the studied apple WD40 gene is a functional homologue of AtTTG1 and we refer to this gene as MdTTG1.

  9. UJI AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK AIR LIDAH BUAYA ( Aloe vera L. DAN AKAR MANIS (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. SEBAGAI PENYUBUR RAMBUT

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    Sulistiorini Indriaty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Aloe vera L. contains amino acids, vitamins, folic acid, and liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L containing glisirizin, and flavonoids, which have properties as fertilizer hair. This study aims to obtain a combination of extracts with activity most optimal fertilizer hair, made 3 combination with a combination of 1 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 2.5% and 7.5% aloe vera, a combination of 2 (the water extract of liquorice concentrations of 2, 5% and 2.5% aloe vera, and combinations of 3 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 5% and 7.5% aloe vera. Testing the activity of hair growth is done by measuring the rate of hair growth, hair growth acceleration and weight of rabbit hair for 28 days. Rabbit hair growth results showed the combination 1 has an average length of the largest hair with hair growth rate value of 2.97 cm, accelerated hair growth amounted to 0.15 cm / day on day 7 and weighing 0.13 gram hair.

  10. Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suphla; Sharma, Rajni; Pandotra, Pankaj; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2012-08-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction and chromolithic LC method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GL) from the root extract of Glycyrrhizza glabra using RPLC-PDA. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9989) with high precision and achieved good accuracies between 97.5 to 101.3% of quantitative results. The method is more sensitive and faster (resolved within ten minutes) than the earlier developed methods using normal LC columns.

  11. 小花棘豆总生物碱抑菌作用的研究%Study on Bacteriostasis Efficiency of Total Alkaloids in Oxytropis glabra DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 李怀志; 马明; 张玲; 马春晖

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究小花棘豆总生物碱的抑菌作用.[方法]通过体外抑菌试验研究小花棘豆总生物碱的抑菌活性、最小抑菌浓度(MIC)、最小杀菌浓度(MBC)和影响小花棘豆总生物碱抑菌效果的因素.[结果]小花棘豆总生物碱对金黄色葡萄球菌、乳房链球菌、化脓链球菌和枯草芽孢杆菌有抑菌作用;其对乳房链球菌和化脓链球菌的MIC为6.3 mg/mL,对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC为1.6 mg/mL,对枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC为0.8 mg/mL.生物碱在不同pH值下的抑菌活性发生变化;高温使其抑菌活性消失;紫外照射对其稳定性没有影响.[结论]小花棘豆总生物碱对部分革兰氏阳性菌有较好的抑菌作用.%[ Objective ] The purpose of this project aim to study the antimicrobial activities of total alkaloids for Oxytropis glabra DC. [Method] Through bacteriostasis experiments in vitro, antimicrobial activities of total alkaloids for Oxytropis glabra DC on bacteriostasis efficiency, minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration, and environmental effect were studied . [Result]The result showed that alkaloid of Oxytropis glabra DC had fairly bacteriostasis for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus pyogene, Bacillus subtilis; the MIC for Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus pyogene was 6. 3 mg/Ml, the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus was 1. 6 mg/Ml, the MIC for Bacillus subtilis was 0. 8 mg/ Ml. The diversity of bacteriostasis efficiency of alkaloid happened in different power of hydrogen; the bacteriostasis material has bad heat stability; ultraviolet ray treatment does not affect its stability. [Conclusion] Total alkaloids of Oxytropis glabra DC had obvious bacteriostasis effect for Gram - positive bacteria.

  12. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...... to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue...

  13. 小花棘豆(Oxytropis glabra)内生真菌固体培养条件优化研究%Optimization of Solid Culture Conditions of Fungal Endophytes Isolated from Oxytropis glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何珊; 卢萍; 包睿媛

    2012-01-01

    从采自内蒙古鄂尔多斯市的小花棘豆中分离得到内生真菌,研究菌株OW 5.3的优化固体培养条件.在不同碳源、初始pH条件下,检测内生真菌的生长速度,并利用气相色谱技术测定内生真菌菌丝体中苦马豆素的含量.结果显示:菌株OW 5.3最适起始pH为7.0;以葡萄糖为碳源时生长速度较快;以燕麦片为碳源时,菌丝体的苦马豆素含量最高.%Fungal endophytes isolated from Oxytropis glabra of Ordos,Inner Mongolia were cultured and optimizing culture conditions of the strain OW5. 3 in solid medium were studied. Detecting the growth speeds and determining the swainsonine producing levels of the fungal endophytes by gas chromatography at different culture conditions,such as different carbon sources and different initial pH values showed the following results:when the initial pH value was at 7. 0,the growth speed was the fastest and the content of swainsonine in hyphae was the highest;The growth speed was faster when the carbon source was glucose;The level of swainsonine in hyphae was highest when the medium was oatmeal.

  14. Protective effects of melatonin and Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on ochratoxin A--induced damages on testes in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Razi, Mazdak; Cheraghi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Arash; Dardmeh, Fereshteh

    2011-02-01

    The effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (GgE) as a natural antioxidant and melatonin (MEL) on ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced histopathological damages on the testes and oxidative stress was evaluated in male rats. The animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8) including control and test groups. The rats in control group received saline and the animals in the test groups received (200 µg/kg) of OTA, (15 mg/kg) of MEL + (200 µg/kg) OTA and (100 mg/kg) of GgE + (200 µg/kg) OTA, respectively, during 28 consecutive days. The serum total antioxidant power (TAOP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) production were assessed. Moreover, histopathological and histochemical studies were also performed. The results showed that the TAOP and TTM were decreased in OTA-exposed rats, while the animals that received MEL + OTA or GgE + OTA showed an enhancement in the serum TAOP and TTM levels. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that in OTA-exposed rats, the testicular degeneration, seminiferous tubule atrophy, dissociation of germinative epithelium, vasodilatation with vascular thrombosis, perivascular immune cell infiltration, hypertrophied leydic cells, giant cell formation, and negative tubular differentiation index (TDI) were observed. Surprisingly, both the biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that MEL and GgE, albeit with some differences, exerted a protective effect on OTA-induced damages. In conclusion, this data suggest that OTA contamination in animal feeds and human foods could cause reproductive abnormalities. Our data also indicate that OTA, at least partly by interfering in oxidative stress system, exerts its toxic effects on testes whereas MEL and GgE with antioxidant properties could fairly protect rats against OTA toxic effects.

  15. Hypnotic effects and GABAergic mechanism of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) ethanol extract and its major flavonoid constituent glabrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suengmok; Park, Ji-Hae; Pae, Ae Nim; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Dongsoo; Cho, Nam-Chul; No, Kyoung Tai; Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Lee, Changho; Shimizu, Makoto; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, GG) is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines worldwide, and its various biological activities have been widely studied. GG is reported to have neurological properties such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, its hypnotic effects and the mechanism of GG and its active compounds have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, GG ethanol extract (GGE) dose-dependently potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleep and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice without decreasing delta activity. The hypnotic effect of GGE was completely inhibited by flumazenil, which is a well-known γ-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine (GABA(A)-BZD) receptor antagonist, similar to other GABA(A)-BZD receptor agonists (e.g., diazepam and zolpidem). The major flavonoid glabrol was isolated from the flavonoid-rich fraction of GGE; it inhibited [(3)H] flumazenil binding to the GABA(A)-BZD receptors in rat cerebral cortex membrane with a binding affinity (K(i)) of 1.63 μM. The molecular structure and pharmacophore model of glabrol and liquiritigenin indicate that the isoprenyl groups of glabrol may play a key role in binding to GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Glabrol increased sleep duration and decreased sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10, 25, and 50mg/kg); its hypnotic effect was also blocked by flumazenil. The results imply that GGE and its flavonoid glabrol induce sleep via a positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-BZD receptors.

  16. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Agarwal, S K; Chandola, H M

    2011-04-01

    One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no

  17. New Cyclotetrapeptides and a New Diketopiperzine Derivative from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Neosartorya glabra KUFA 0702

    Science.gov (United States)

    May Zin, War War; Buttachon, Suradet; Dethoup, Tida; Fernandes, Carla; Cravo, Sara; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Gales, Luís; Pereira, José A.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Kijjoa, Anake

    2016-01-01

    Two new cyclotetrapeptides, sartoryglabramides A (5) and B (6), and a new analog of fellutanine A (8) were isolated, together with six known compounds including ergosta-4, 6, 8 (14), 22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol 5, 8-endoperoxide, helvolic acid, aszonalenin (1), (3R)-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-3,4-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-dione (2), takakiamide (3), (11aR)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11(10H,11aH)-dione (4), and fellutanine A (7), from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the marine sponge-associated fungus Neosartorya glabra KUFA 0702. The structures of the new compounds were established based on extensive 1D and 2D spectral analysis. X-ray analysis was also used to confirm the relative configuration of the amino acid constituents of sartoryglabramide A (5), and the absolute stereochemistry of the amino acid constituents of sartoryglabramide A (5) and sartoryglabramides B (6) was determined by chiral HPLC analysis of their hydrolysates by co-injection with the d- and l- amino acids standards. Compounds 1–8 were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and Gram-negative (Staphyllococus aureus ATCC 25923) bacteria, as well as for their antifungal activity against filamentous (Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 46645), dermatophyte (Trichophyton rubrum ATCC FF5) and yeast (Candida albicans ATCC 10231). None of the tested compounds exhibited either antibacterial (MIC > 256 μg/mL) or antifungal activities (MIC > 512 μg/mL). PMID:27447650

  18. Characterization of an activation-tagged mutant uncovers a role of GLABRA2 in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xianling; Hu, Qingnan; Dai, Xuemei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Mao, Tonglin; Chen, Jin-Gui; Wang, Shucai

    2015-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled by a MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcriptional activator complex. The MBW complex activates the transcription of late biosynthesis genes in the flavonoid pathway, leading to the production of anthocyanins. A similar MBW complex regulates epidermal cell fate by activating the transcription of GLABRA2 (GL2), a homeodomain transcription factor required for trichome formation in shoots and non-hair cell formation in roots. Here we provide experimental evidence to show that GL2 also plays a role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. From an activation-tagged mutagenized population of Arabidopsis plants, we isolated a dominant, gain-of-function mutant with reduced anthocyanins. Molecular cloning revealed that this phenotype is caused by an elevated expression of GL2, thus the mutant was named gl2-1D. Consistent with the view that GL2 acts as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, gl2-1D seedlings accumulated less whereas gl2-3 seedlings accumulated more anthocyanins in response to sucrose. Gene expression analysis indicated that expression of late, but not early, biosynthesis genes in the flavonoid pathway was dramatically reduced in gl2-1D but elevated in gl2-3 mutants. Further analysis showed that expression of some MBW component genes involved in the regulation of late biosynthesis genes was reduced in gl2-1D but elevated in gl2-3 mutants, and chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicated that some MBW component genes are targets of GL2. We also showed that GL2 functions as a transcriptional repressor. Taken together, these results indicate that GL2 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by directly repressing the expression of some MBW component genes.

  19. ORGANOGÉNESIS FLORAL EN ACNISTUS ARBORESCENS, DUNALIA SOLANACEA, DEPREA BITTERIANA, LARNAX GLABRA Y LARNAX HAWKESII - TRIBU PHYSALEAE (SOLANACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARZÓN-VENEGAS JAVIER

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la organogénesis floral en las especies Acnistus arborescens, Dunaliasolanacea, Deprea bitteriana, Larnax glabra y Larnax hawkesii de la tribuPhysaleae (Solanaceae, empleando microscopía electrónica de barrido en modoambiental. Para fines de comparación de la organogénesis de las cinco especies, setuvieron en cuenta tres estados de desarrollo. Las especies estudiadas comparten lasecuencia acrópeta en la que surgen sépalos, pétalos, estambres y carpelos, así comoel arreglo simultáneo de corola y androceo. Comparten también la simpetalia tardía,siendo aún más tardía en las especies de Larnax. El tiempo de fusión de los pétalospuede considerarse un carácter importante para la diferenciación entre Deprea yLarnax. Se encontraron diferencias intergenéricas en cuanto al arreglo del cáliz, quees simultáneo en Dunalia solanacea, mientras que en Deprea bitteriana y en lasdos especies de Larnax es espiralado, en A. arborescens el patrón de desarrollo delos sépalos es intermedio. Los carpelos se desarrollan fusionados basalmente en unestadio temprano, todas las especies son bicarpelares, sin embargo, el gineceo de A.arborescens da la apariencia de ser tricarpelar por la formación de un “falso septo”.

  20. Activation of rapid signaling pathways and the subsequent transcriptional regulation for the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells by the treatment with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sijun; Inoue, Akio; Zhu, Yun; Tanji, Masao; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2007-12-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra root is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines and used as flavoring and sweetening agents for tobaccos, chewing gums, candies, toothpaste and beverages. While glycyrrhizin is one of the main components in the extract of G. glabra root and has been characterized, the other components have not been well characterized. The mechanism of growth activation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, including the activation of Erk1/2 and Akt, and the transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes, was examined by means of sulforhodamine B, luciferase reporter gene, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays after the induction of the cells with the extract of G. glabra root. The extract has similar activity to that induced by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), although glycyrrhizin did not show such an activity. Moreover, the estrogen receptor alpha-dependent neurite outgrowth induced by the extract was similar to that by E(2), whereas glycyrrhizin had no effect. Furthermore, the expression profile examined by cDNA microarray assay using a set of 120 estrogen-responsive genes, which were related to proliferation, transcription, transport, enzymes and signaling, showed a statistically significant correlation (R=0.47, Pglabra root. Furthermore, the extract had estrogenic activity and a distinguishable profile of gene expression, suggesting the presence of potentially useful components other than glycyrrhizin in G. glabra root for hormone and anti-cancer therapies.

  1. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ OrbitrapXL Hybrid Mass Spectrometry

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    Shao-Dan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM as well as a functional food, has been commonly used for detoxification treatments, relieving dampness and as a diuretic. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of Smilacis glabrae, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of its bioactive constituents. A total of 56 compounds, including six new compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced on the basis of their retention behaviors, mass spectra, or by comparison with reference substances and literature data. The identified compounds belonged to flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoid glycosides. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS method was established for quantitative determination of six marker compounds from five batches. The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity (LOQ, precision, repeatability and spike recoveries, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. The results suggested that the established method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM.

  3. Anti-diabetic Properties of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Bougainvillea glabra (Glory of the Garden on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Grace I. Adebayo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects of Bougainvillea glabra was investigated in this study using 25 male wistar rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups comprising of five animals each. These groups include a normal control (administered saline, an extract control (administered 100 mg/kg of extract and a diabetic control (untreated group. The remaining two groups were administered 100mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively. The study lasted for three weeks although blood samples were obtained from the rat tails after every week. The results show that the extract significantly (p< 0.05 reduced the hyperglycaemia from 12±0.40 mmol/L (Diabetic Control to 4.04±0.03 mmol/L (400 mg/kg group. Likewise, the extract significantly reduced the Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-Cholesterol, while increasing the High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C. In conclusion, the observations from this study show that Bougainvillea glabra has antidiabetic effect and beneficial effects on blood lipid profile, thus justifying the use of the plant by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

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    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  5. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae) compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, B C; Fagundes, R; Silva, L F; Tofoli, J F V; Santos, A M; Imai, B Y P; Gomes, G G; Hermidorff, M M; Ribeiro, S P

    2015-01-01

    Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), are important components of ecological communities' evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  6. Study on Cuttage-Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Bougainvillea glabra%三角梅扦插苗生理特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼军; 王珊崇; 杨园园

    2013-01-01

    三角梅扦插繁殖插穗生根有愈伤组织生根和皮部生根两个部位,先由愈伤组织生根,然后皮部生根.硬枝扦插一般是先生根后发芽,嫩枝扦插往往是先发芽后生根.插穗发出的枝具有偏向性,为培养适合盆花生长的主干,上剪口的位置选择非常重要.扦插苗具有一定的耐旱性,通过人工干旱催花处理是成宁市控制三角梅花期的较好选择.%Cuttage propagation of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy could root from callus and bark.Rooting from callus firstly and then from bark.Hardwood cuttage generally sprout after root; while shoots cottage normally root after sprout.The branch of cuttage has bias,so that choice of top cutting location is important for cultivating potted backbone.Cuttages have certain drought tolerance,controlling the flowering phase of B.glabra through artificial drought treatment was a good choice.

  7. Phytocomplexes from liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) leaves--chemical characterization and evaluation of their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Cristani, Mariateresa; Cimino, Francesco; D'Arrigo, Manuela; Trombetta, Domenico; Rao, Felice; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Three extracts of different polarities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaves were characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity. In total, thirty components have been identified and quantified through the use of liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet-visible diode-array-detector (UV-vis-DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). The main components belong to the polyphenols family, being flavonoid and dihydrostilbene derivatives. The extracts have been investigated for their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities, which are fundamental requirements of efficacious chemo-preventive agents. The ethyl acetate extract proved to be the most valuable, evidently for the conspicuous presence of several polyphenols, namely flavonoids and dihydrostilbenes.

  8. New dye-sensitized solar cells obtained from extracted bracts of Bougainvillea glabra and spectabilis betalain pigments by different purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Angel Ramon; Estevez, Miriam; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Fracisco; Rodriguez, Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis' bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO(2) thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density J(SC) of 2.29 mA/cm(2) using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm(2) at 25 °C.

  9. Estudo fitoquímico e atividades leishmanicida, anticolinestarásica e antioxidante de extratos de Annona glabra L. (araticum panã

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    Antonio Adailson de Sousa Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as principais classes de compostos químicos presentes em Annona grabra L. (Araticum panã, e avaliar o seu potencial biológico analisando suas atividades antioxidante, antiacetilcolinesterase e leishmanicida. Para tanto, a entrecasca e sementes foram submetidas à extração em aparelho de soxhlet com os solventes orgânicos hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e metanol, obtendo-se os respectivos extratos. Com os extratos foram realizados testes de prospecção fitoquímica, determinação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição do radical livre DPPH e inibição da acetilcolinesterase em ensaio de cromatografia em camada delgada. Os testes de atividade leishmanicida in vitro em formas promastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi foram realizados em placa de 96 poços em aparelho ELISA. Os extratos foram testados a 100 μg/ mL. Os testes fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de esteroides, triterpenos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e saponinas. Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição da acetilcolinesterase e os extratos hexânicos de ambas partes mostraram maior percentual de inibição de L. infantum chagasi. Nestes extratos, compostos apolares como esteroides e triterpenos podem contribuir para a atividade leishmanicida. Os extratos de melhor atividade antioxidante foram o acetato de etila e metanólico da entrecasca e metanólico das sementes que correspondem aos que contem compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que A. glabra constitui uma fonte potencial de agentes leishmanicida com possível mecanismo de ação pela inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase das membranas da L. infantum chagasi, causador da leishmaniose visceral.Phytochemical study and leishmanicidal, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Annona glabra L. (araticum panã extracts ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the main types of chemical constituents present in Annona grabra L. (araticum pan

  10. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodriguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO2 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density JSC of 2.29 mA/cm2 using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C.

  11. Simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and anti-oxidative based screening of components in Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae using liquid chromatography coupled with Charged Aerosol and Coulometric array Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2017-04-01

    An analytical approach including fingerprint, quantitative analysis and rapid screening of anti-oxidative components was established and successfully applied for the comprehensive quality control of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG), a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine with the homology of medicine and food. Thirteen components were tentatively identified based on their retention behavior, UV absorption and MS fragmentation patterns. Chemometric analysis based on coulmetric array data was performed to evaluate the similarity and variation between fifteen batches. Eight discriminating components were quantified using single-compound calibration. The unit responses of those components in coulmetric array detection were calculated and compared with those of several compounds reported to possess antioxidant activity, and four of them were tentatively identified as main contributors to the total anti-oxidative activity. The main advantage of the proposed approach was that it realized simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and screening of anti-oxidative components, providing comprehensive information for quality assessment of RSG.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

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    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  13. Efeitos de citocininas sobre a anatomia foliar e o crescimento de Annona glabra L. durante o cultivo in vitro e ex vitro Effects of cytokinins on the leaf anatomy and growth of Annona glabra L. during in vitro and ex vitro culture

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    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes fontes de citocininas durante o cultivo in vitro de A. glabra sobre características anatômicas de folhas e crescimento das plantas foi avaliado neste trabalho. BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e KIN (cinetina induziram aumento na espessura do mesofilo, enquanto que ZEA (zeatina promoveu aumento na densidade e no índice estomático e no desenvolvimento do sistema vascular de folhas. A utilização de KIN e BAP proporcionou maior desenvolvimento e taxa de sobrevivência das plantas durante as fases de enraizamento e aclimatização.The effect of different sources of cytokinins during the in vitro cultivation of A. glabra on anatomical characteristics of leaves and plant growth was evaluated in this work. BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and KIN (kinetin induced an increase in leaf mesophyll thickness, while the ZEA (zeatin promoted an increase in density and stomatic index and development of leaves vascular system. The utilization of KIN and BAP improved higher plant development and survival rate during the acclimatization and rooting phases.

  14. Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Russo, Mariateresa; Postorino, Santo; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-02-20

    Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria).

  15. Biological Characteristics and Oleoresin Production of Sindora glabra in Hainan Island%海南油楠的重要生物学特性及产油特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠锋; 杨锦昌; 成铁龙; 尹光天; 许涵; 刘志龙

    2014-01-01

    Sindora glabra belongs to genus Sindora of family Caesalpiniaceae and is one of Second Class Key Protected Wild Plants in China with multiple uses. In order to further understand its biological characteristics and promote the conservation and utilization of its resources,we investigated the germplasm resources,distribution habitat,community characteristics,seed characteristics,and growing habitat of seedlings and adult plants. The oleoresin production biology was studied by drilling trunk and regularly collecting the oleoresin. The results showed that S. glabra plants distributed mainly in an attitude range of 200 -700 m downhill of the tropical lowland rain forest and the tropical ravine rain forest of Lingshui,Sanya,Wuzhishan,Ledong,Dongfang,Changjiang and Baisha. Most of them grew in yellow soil and laterite formed from granite without slope aspect preference. In the Jianfengling nature reserve S. glabra was scattered in the forest communities with the relative density of 0 . 43% and relative frequency of 0 . 87%. There was significant phenomenon of alternate bearing with mean fruiting period of 3. 5 years. The average seed length,width,thickness and grain weight of S. glabra were 1. 93 cm,1. 56 cm,1. 00 cm,2. 048 2 kg,respectively. Both seed size and grain weight were significantly different between populations and among individuals while the variation between populations was greater than that between individuals. Growth rate of one-year-old seedlings was less than 50 cm in height and about 0. 50 cm in ground diameter, indicating the S. glabra seedlings grew slowly compared with other tropical tree species. Growth speed of adult plants varied in different introducing areas of S. glabra with annual increment range of 0. 56 -1. 17 cm in DBH and 0. 22 -0. 61 m in height,respectively. S. glabra in natural forests grew slightly slower with the DBH and height increment of 0. 48 cm and 0. 17 m per year compared with in introducing areas,however it had the moderate

  16. 不同栽培龄期光果甘草不同部位总黄酮含量的分析%Analysis of total flavonoids content in different parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra with different cultivated ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陆嘉惠; 田润炜; 秦忠立; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    The total flavonoids content in different parts (leaf, stem, root and rhizome) of two-year-old and eight-year-old cultivated Glycyrrhha glabra L. collected in April, June, August and October were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry method. The result shows that the average content of total flavonoids of two-year-old and eight-year-old plants reaches the highest in June with the average content of 35. 55 and 39. 97 mg穏-1, respectively. According to the average content of total flavonids in different parts of two ages plants, the order from the highest to the lowest is basically same, all appear that upper leaf is the highest, middle leaf is the second, different under-ground parts are middle, and lower stem is the lowest. The comprehensive analysis results indicate that there are no obvious differences in change regularity of total flavonoids content in G. glabra with different cultivated ages. Two-year-old cultivated G. glabra could be harvested, the optimal harvesting time is October, and the harvesting parts are leaf and under-ground part.

  17. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.

  18. Study on Hard Seed Treatment Method of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides%光果甘草和苦豆子硬实种子处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提; 卡德尔·阿布都热西提

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, different treatment conditions on Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides seed and treatment effect were studied.The results showed that: the seeds soaked in water 5 days imbibition rate was very low,the hard rate was very high.With sulfuric acid to soak 1 to 1.5 hours could reduce the rate of hard seed,and the germination rate was the highest,the seed germination rate was 98% and 100% of Glycyrrhiza glabra ,Sophora alopecuroides respectively,followed by GA treatment, and the wear treatment was the third.%在不同处理条件下,对光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.和苦豆子(Sophora alopecuroides L.)硬实种子处理效果进行了研究.结果表明:用水浸泡5 d的种子吸胀率很低,硬实率很高,用硫酸处理1~1.5 h减少硬实率、提高发芽率的效果最好,光果甘草和苦豆子种子发芽率分别可以提高到98%和100%,其次是赤霉素处理,磨损种皮处理效果为第三.

  19. 三角梅外植体消毒和愈伤组织诱导研究%Study on the Disinfection and Callus Induction of the Explants of Bougainvillea glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利娜; 龙定建; 王华新; 唐道冥

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the best disinfection time and the best callus induction medium of Bougainvillea glabra. [Method] 7 ex-plants of Bougainvillea glabra were disinfected for different time, and the callus was induced with different hormone and concentration combinations. [ Results] The optimal explant of Bougainvillea glabra was semi-woody stem; the best disinfection condition was 75% alcohol sterilized for 30s, aseptic water flushed 5 times, then 0.1% liters of mercury disinfected for 9 minutes, finally aseptic water flushed 7-8 times; the best induction culture medium was MS +2.0 mg/L 6-BA + 1.0 mg/L NAA. [ Conclusions] The best disinfection time and the best inducing culture medium of the explants of Bougainvillea glabra were obtained, which laid the foundation for the establishment of tissue culture system of Bougainvillea glabra in the future.%[目的]探索三角梅的最佳消毒时间和最佳愈伤组织诱导培养基.[方法]采用不同消毒时间对三角梅的7种外植体进行灭菌,并用不同激素与浓度组合的培养基诱导愈伤.[结果]三角梅的最佳外植体为半木质化茎段;最佳消毒方法为先用浓度75%酒精溶液灭菌30s,无菌水冲洗5次,再用浓度0.1%升汞溶液消毒9 min,最后用无菌水冲洗7~8次;最佳诱导培养基为MS +2.0 mg/L 6-BA+1.0 mg/L NAA.[结论]获得了三角梅外植体的最佳消毒方式和最佳愈伤组织诱导培养基,为三角梅组织培养体系的建立奠定了基础.

  20. Effects of Planting Sarcandra glabra in Forest on Understory Plant Species Diversity%林下种植草珊瑚对林下植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏亨荣

    2014-01-01

    Based on the datasets from sampling plots ,and by using species richness index ,evenness index ,and diversity index ,this paper studied the effects of planting Sarcandra glabra on the understory plant species diversity in Masson Pine and fir mixed Planta-tion of state-owned forest Meilin in Datian County ,Fujian Province ,and analyzed the differences in the test indices among different planting practice sites.The results showed that:①The planting of Sarcandra glabra decreased the species diversity of shrub layer sig-nificantly.②Planting Sarcandra glabra decreased the species richness and Shannon-Wiener indices , but increased the Pielou and Simpson indices of herb layer significantly.③All the test indices of herb layer had no significant differences between the different Planting years of Sarcandra glabra except the richness index.④To take into account the economic and ecological benefits when con-ducting planting Sarcandra glabra.%以样方调查数据为基础,采用物种丰富度指数、均匀度指数、多样性指数对福建省大田县梅林国有林场马尾松杉木混交人工林林下种植草珊瑚对林下植物多样性的影响进行研究,并分析林下种植草珊瑚样地和未种植草珊瑚(对照)样地以及草珊瑚不同种植年限样地之间各种指数的差异程度。结果表明:①林下种植草珊瑚(栽植1 a、2 a)对灌木层产生了显著的影响,降低了物种多样性;②林下种植草珊瑚使草本层的丰富度指数和Shannon-Wiener 指数显著下降,Pielou指数和Simpson指数显著上升;③草珊瑚种植1 a与种植2 a后林地物种多样性指数除了丰富度指数有显著差异外,其他指数差异均不显著;④开展林下种植草珊瑚,要兼顾经济效益和生态效益。

  1. A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra

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    Iddamaldeniya SS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root bark and Smilax glabra rhizome is being recommended for cancer patients by a family of traditional medical practitioners of Sri Lanka. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a short term (10 weeks treatment with the decoction can significantly inhibit diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediated expression of Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P in rat liver. The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether long term (16 months treatment with the decoction would be successful in inhibiting in rat livers, not only DEN- mediated expression of GST-P, but also the carcinogen mediated development of overt tumours (OT or histopathological changes leading to tumour development (HT. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 each. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p with DEN (200 mg/kg while group 3 was injected normal saline (NS. Twenty-four hours later, decoction (DC; 6 g/kg body weight/day was orally administered to group 1 rats, while groups 2 and 3 (DEN-control and normal control were given distilled water (DW. Treatment with DC or DW continued for 16 months. At the end of the 9th month and 16th months (study 1 and study 2 respectively, six rats from each group were sacrificed, and livers observed for OT or HT, both visually and by subjecting liver sections to staining with Haemotoxylin and Eosin (H & E, Sweet's Silver stain (for reticulin fibers, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS staining (for glycogen, and immunohistochemical staining (for GST-P. Results At the end of 9 months (study 1 a hepatocellular adenoma (HA developed in one of the rats in the DEN + DW treated group (group 2. At the end of 16 months (study 2, livers of all rats of group 2 developed OT and HT. Large areas of GST-P positive foci were also observed. No OT, HT or GST-P positive foci were detected in any of the other groups. Conclusion

  2. Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study

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    Iddamaldeniya Samantha S

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root and Smilax glabra rhizome is used to treat cancer patients in Sri Lanka. However, the anti-carcinogenic properties of this decoction have not been experimentally confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the above decoction could protect against chemically induce hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods The effects of this decoction on diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis were examined in male Wistar rats using the medium term bioassay system of Ito, based on a 2-step model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 each. Groups 1 to 4 were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg to initiate carcinogenesis. Twenty-four hours later groups 1 and 2 were administered the decoction at 4 g/kg body weight/day (dose 1 and 6 g/kg body weight/day (dose 2, respectively. Group 3 and group 4 were given distilled water instead of the decoction and a suspension of garlic powder (20 g/kg body weight/day in distilled water (positive control, respectively. Group 5 and 6 were injected with normal saline and twenty-four hours later group 5 was given distilled water (normal control while group 6 was given decoction dose 2 (decoction control. Oral feeding continued for two weeks after which all rats were subjected to 2/3 partial hepatectomy to promote carcinogenesis. Oral feeding continued for eight more weeks. At the end of the 10th week, rats were sacrificed and samples of livers taken for immunohistochemical studies. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the number, area and staining intensity of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P positive foci and the number of cells/cm2 of the positive foci in the livers of the six groups of rats. Results The number and area of DEN-mediated GST-P positive foci, number of cells/cm2 of foci and staining intensity of the foci were significantly (P > 0.001 reduced by the

  3. Licocalchone-C extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits lipopolysaccharide-interferon-γ inflammation by improving antioxidant conditions and regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

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    Franceschelli, Sara; Pesce, Mirko; Vinciguerra, Isabella; Ferrone, Alessio; Riccioni, Graziano; Patruno, Antonia; Grilli, Alfredo; Felaco, Mario; Speranza, Lorenza

    2011-07-06

    The genus Glycyrrhiza consists of about 30 species, amoung these, G. glabra is the source of several phenolic compounds, known as flavonoids, such as licoagrodin, licoagrochalcones, licoagroaurone and licochalcone C, kanzonol Y, glyinflanin B and glycyrdione A, which have shown various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, anti-ulcer and antioxidative effects. Among these compounds, licochalcone C was isolated but its biology has not been fully examined. In our study we reproduced an inflammatory state by treating THP-1 (human myelomonocytic leukaemia) cells with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-γ and we investigated the possible antioxidant activity of licochalcone C at a concentration of 50 μM. Our results show that treatment with licochalcone C attenuates the LPS-IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response by significantly decreasing the expression and activity of iNOS via NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-B), by influencing extracellular O₂⁻ production, and by modulating the antioxidant network activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity. Based on these results we hypothesize that Licochalcone C has antioxidant properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently reduces the activity of iNOS.

  4. 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone from Glycyrrhiza glabra as a new specific BACE1 inhibitor efficiently ameliorates memory impairment in mice.

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    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Li, Chenjing; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chen, Jing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2010-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterizes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, while AD patients are afflicted with irreversible loss of neurons and further the intellectual abilities including memory and reasoning. One of the typical hallmarks of AD is the deposition of senile plaque that is contributed mainly by amyloid-beta (Abeta), whose production is initiated by beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Inhibition of BACE1 is thereby regarded as an attractive strategy for anti-AD drug discovery. Here, we reported that the natural product 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone (TDC) from Glycyrrhiza glabra functioned as a specific non-competitive inhibitor against BACE1 enzyme, and potently repressed beta-cleavage of APP and production of Abeta in human embryo kidney cells-APPswe cells. Moreover, the amelioration ability of this compound against the in vivo memory impairment was further evaluated by APP-PS1 double transgenic mice model. It is discovered that treatment of 9 mg/kg/day of TDC could obviously decrease Abeta production and Abeta plaque formation, while efficiently improve the memory impairment based on Morris water maze test. Our findings thus demonstrated that the natural product TDC as a new BACE1 inhibitor could ameliorate memory impairment in mice, and is expected to be potentially used as a lead compound for further anti-AD reagent development.

  5. Effects of ethanol extracts in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Akram Eidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae is a well-known herb that it used in traditional medicine due to pharmacological activities. Licorice in herbal medicine is used as a tonic, expectorant and demulcent factor. This plant has antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-allergenic and anti-ulcer activities. The aim of present study was to, comparisons of effect of ethanol extracts licorice root with glibenclamide on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral administration of licorice extract (50, 200 and 400 mg/kg per body wt. and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg were performed as the standard antidiabetic medicine, during 30 days. Then, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in normal and diabetic rats were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-10 software and the ANOVA test was used. Results: Oral administrations of licorice extract significantly decreased activity of AST and ALT in serum of diabetic rats but not in normal rats. The licorice extract as same as glibenclamide significantly decreased activity of liver enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded that the licorice can be considered as a suitable candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  6. Licocalchone-C Extracted from Glycyrrhiza Glabra Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Interferon-γ Inflammation by Improving Antioxidant Conditions and Regulating Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression

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    Mario Felaco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Glycyrrhiza consists of about 30 species, amoung these, G. glabra is the source of several phenolic compounds, known as flavonoids, such as licoagrodin, licoagrochalcones, licoagroaurone and licochalcone C, kanzonol Y, glyinflanin B and glycyrdione A, which have shown various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, anti-ulcer and antioxidative effects. Among these compounds, licochalcone C was isolated but its biology has not been fully examined. In our study we reproduced an inflammatory state by treating THP-1 (human myelomonocytic leukaemia cells with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-γ and we investigated the possible antioxidant activity of licochalcone C at a concentration of 50 μM. Our results show that treatment with licochalcone C attenuates the LPS-IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response by significantly decreasing the expression and activity of iNOS via NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-B, by influencing extracellular O2− production, and by modulating the antioxidant network activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase, CAT (catalase and GPx (glutathione peroxidase activity. Based on these results we hypothesize that Licochalcone C has antioxidant properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently reduces the activity of iNOS.

  7. Microwave - assisted Extraction of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%光果甘草中光甘草定的微波辅助提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞丽; 李雪琴; 张晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新疆光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.根中光甘草定(Glabridin,GB)的检测条件和提取工艺.方法 采用反相高效液相色谱( RP - HPLC)对光甘草定和光果甘草根提取物进行分析测定,考察提取溶剂、提取方法及提取工艺条件对光甘草定得率的影响.结果 微波提取法适用于光甘草定的提取,在提取溶剂为70%乙醇水溶液,料液比为1:15(g/ml),温度为65℃,单次提取40 min的条件下,光甘草定得率为0.256%.结论 由RP - HPLC定量分析光甘草定含量.微波法提取光果甘草中光甘草定工艺简单、易操作,比传统的超声提取法和热回流提取法节约时间、效率高.

  8. Simultaneous determination of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra root by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

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    Ambika Chamoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present research work is to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA and 18β-GA (18β-GA of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Materials and Methods: About 20 μL aliquots of each 18α-GA and 18β-GA were analyzed using reversed-phase C-18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran:water (10:80:10, v/v/v. The run time was 10 min at flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 254 nm. Results: 18α-GA and 18β-GA were well resolved in reversed phase C-18 column using mobile phase acetonitrile: tetrahydrofuran: water (10:80:10, v/v/v, pH 7.9. The Rtof 18α-GA and 18β-GA was detected at 2.091 and 2.377 min, respectively. Conclusion: The developed chromatography method could be extended for potential quantification or simultaneous determination of these markers in plant as well as in herbal formulation.

  9. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

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    Bimalendu Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p. on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01 by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01 only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg, whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01, whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01 in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.01 the MDA and increased (P < 0.01 both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.

  10. Metabolite profiling of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different locations using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Rastrelli, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2016-03-24

    Profiling of the main metabolites from several licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) samples collected at different locations is carried out in this work by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. The optimized method was based on the application of a HILIC-based separation in the first dimension combined with fast RP-based second dimension separation. This set-up was shown to possess powerful separation capabilities allowing separating as much as 89 different metabolites in a single sample. Identification and grouping of metabolites according to their chemical class were achieved using the DAD, MS and MS/MS data. Triterpene saponins were the most abundant metabolites followed by glycosylated flavanones and chalcones, whereas glycyrrhizic acid, as expected, was confirmed as the main component in all the studied samples. LC × LC-DAD-MS/MS was able to resolve these complex licorice samples providing with specific metabolite profiles to the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin. Namely, from 19 to 50 specific compounds were exclusively determined in the 2D-chromatograms from the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin, which can be used as a typical pattern that could potentially be related to their geographical location and authentication.

  11. Phenetic relationships among natural population accessions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae in central Zagros region of Iran, based on quantitative morphology, flavonoids and glycyrrhizin contents data

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    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenetic relationships among thirty five accessions from natural populations of two varieties of Glycyrrhiza glabra in central Zagros region of Iran were studied. Twenty one quantitative morphological characters were measured for twenty seven accessions. PCO, clustering, K-means and MDS analyses were performed on morphological dataset. Polar flavonoid constituents of twenty four accessions were extracted, purified using TLC and characterized at the skeleton class level. Glycyrrhizin contents of rhizomes in twenty four accessions were quantified using image processing methods. Results of multivariate analysis of both morphological and flavonoid spot profile data showed that accessions could be partitioned into two main groups based on geographical locality of the populations. The most variable morphological trait based on CV values, was seed area and the least variable one was Legume width in the widest portion. Accessions of both varieties produced various flavonoids of class flavones and flavonols. Seven flavonoid constituents from the two varieties were separated based on different Rf values. The results revealed that there were moderate (not prominent levels of variation between the studied accessions. Separation of the varieties based on the single qualitative character in the available literature, was confirmed. Rhizomes of both varieties showed similar amounts of glycyrrhizin and almost similar types of flavonoids in their TLC profiles, suggesting that both were equivalent as herbal drugs in folk medicine.

  12. Consumer acceptability of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) as an alternative sweetener and correlation with its bioactive content and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Jurić, Slaven; Bušić, Arijana; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Durgo, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Consumer acceptability and sensory properties of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) were evaluated. Quantitation of total polyphenolics and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), as well as the antioxidant capacity of liquorice extracts, was conducted and their biological effects (cytotoxic, antioxidative/pro-oxidative activity, lipid peroxidation on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line) compared to the ones of their predominant bioactive compound - GA. Conducted consumer survey revealed poor familiarity with liquorice (12.37% of correspondents), but willingness towards its use as an alternative sweetener (77.32% of consumers). Polyphenolic content of evaluated extracts ranged from 1018.18 to 1277.27 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/l while GA content varied between 2179.53 and 2944.13 mg/l. The most pronounced cytotoxic effect (60%) and lipid peroxidation were exerted by treatment with the highest applied extract concentrations (10 mg/ml). Pure GA exhibited cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects at concentrations of 0.12-0.6 mg/ml. Due to high GA content, coupled with its pronounced cytotoxic activity, the intake of liquorice root should be limited.

  13. An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75 mg twice daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale, the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.

  14. 三角梅在咸宁市的生活习性研究%Study on the Life Habit of Bougainvillea glabra in Xianning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼军; 何野; 杨园园

    2012-01-01

    The dormancy habit, vegetative growth habit, reproductive growth habit, cutting propagation characteristics of purple Bougainvillea glabra Choisy in Xianning city was studied. The results showed that the germination period was from late March to early April, the germination time depended on the average temperature of the February, the flowering period was from May to June and August to December; The dormant period was different due to the varieties, some in October, some in December; Continuous low temperature in the dormant period could make the leaves shedding from frostbite.%试验以紫花三角梅为材料,通过对紫花三角梅在成宁市的休眠习性、营养生长习性、生殖生长习性、扦插繁殖特点等进行研究后发现,紫花三角梅在成宁市的发芽时间是3月下旬~4月上旬,发芽期随2月份的平均气温升高而提早;花期在5~6月和8~12月;进入休眠的时期因表现型不同而异,有的在10月、有的在12月;休眠期如有持续的低温会使叶片冻伤和脱落.

  15. Gene expression of monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase during fruit ripening and in response to environmental stresses in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltelib, Hani A; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2011-04-15

    Acerola (Malpighia glabra) is an exotic fruit cultivated primarily for its abundant ascorbic acid (AsA) content. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the metabolism of AsA in acerola have yet to be defined. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are key enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain reduced pools of ascorbic acid and serve as important antioxidants. cDNAs encoding MDHAR and DHAR were isolated from acerola using RT-PCR and RACE. Phylogenetic trees associated acerola MDHAR and DHAR with other plant cytosolic MDHARs and DHARs. Expressions of the two genes correlated with their enzymatic activities and were differentially regulated during fruit ripening. Interestingly, MDHAR expression was only detected in overripe fruits, whereas the transcript level of DHAR was highest at the intermediate stage of fruit ripening. Under dark conditions, there was a sharp and significant decline in the total and reduced ascorbate contents, accompanied by a decrease in the level of transcripts and enzyme activities of the two genes in acerola leaves. MDHAR and DHAR transcripts and enzyme activities were significantly up-regulated in the leaves of acerola under cold and salt stress conditions, indicating that expression of both genes are transcriptionally regulated under these stresses.

  16. 圆滑番荔枝种子化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from the seeds of Annona glabra (annonaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰; 朱久香; 余竞光; 余冬蕾; 李德宇; 周立东

    2003-01-01

    目的研究圆滑番荔枝(Annona glabra)种子的抗肿瘤活性成分.方法利用色谱技术分离纯化, 根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据鉴定结构.结果从己烷提取物鉴定18个化合物,其中14个为番荔素:glabrencin A (1), bullatencin (2), glabrencin B (3), uvariamicin-I (4), uvariamicin-II (5), uvariamicin-III (6), reticulatain-1 (7), desacetyluvaricin (8), 4-deoxyasimicin (9), asimicin (10), bullatacin (11), squamocin (12), motrilin (13), cherimolin-2 (14);豆甾醇(stigmasterol,15)及脂肪酸酰胺混合物:棕榈酸酰胺(palmitic amide,16),硬脂酸酰胺(stearic amide,17)和花生酸酰胺(arachidic amide,18).结论 glabrencin A (1),glabrencin B (3)为新番荔素;2,4~7,9,11,13,16~18是首次从该植物中分离得到.

  17. 小花棘豆添加量对卡拉库尔羊利用青贮饲料的影响%Effect of oxytropis glabra DC addition on the utilization of silage in karakul rams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 贾琦珍; 陈根元; 张玲; 胡建军; 马春晖

    2011-01-01

    Nine male health karakul rams was chosed in the experiment, The method of total collect fe-ces was used to study the karakul rams' utilization of silage at different oxytropis glabra DC addition. The results showed that the karakul rams' appetite of DM、CP、EE and mineral matter was increased, when the amount of breeding for oxytropis glabra DC was 400 g/d and 800g/d,but the Karakul Rams' appetite of NDF and ADF was decreased. The karakul rams' digestion rate of NDF had no significantly difference indigestibility among three groups,but the digestion rate of DM、CP、EE、ADF and mineral matter was raised when affixed oxytropis glabra DC. Detect the activity of AMA、AKP、BUN、GCn、GPT and LDH from blood serum of karakul rams, the amount of breeding for oxytropis glabra DC was 400 g/d and 800 g/d had no harmful effects for karakul rams.%试验选用9只健康的雄性卡拉库尔公羊为试验动物,采用全收粪消化试验方法,研究不同的小花棘豆添加量下卡拉库尔羊对青贮饲料的利用率.试验结果表明,小花棘豆添加量在400 g/d和800 g/d时,卡拉库尔羊干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和矿物质采食量均有所提高,NDF和ADF采食量降低;卡拉库尔羊干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、矿物质和ADF的消化率均显著增高,NDF消化率变化不显著.通过对试验羊AMA、AKP、BUN、GOT、GPT、LDH活性的监测,400 g/d和800 g/d的小花棘豆添加量对卡拉库尔羊的健康无明显影响.

  18. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahi, Vida; Mirzaie-asl, Asghar; Piri, Khosro; Nazeri, Sonbol; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2014-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an important medicinal plant throughout the world. Glycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid that is among the most important secondary metabolites produced by liquorice. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the levels of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effect of drought stress on the expression of important genes involved in the glycyrrhizin biosynthetic pathway was examined. Drought stress at the seedling stage was applied to 8-day-old plants using polyethylene glycol. Subsequently, the samples were collected 0, 4, 8 or 24 h post-treatment. At the adult plant stage, 10-month-old plants were subjected to drought stress by discontinuing irrigation. Subsequently, samples were collected at 2, 16 and 28 days after drought imposition (S(2d), S(16d) and S(28d), respectively). We performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays to evaluate the gene expression levels of sequalene synthase (SQS), β-amyrin synthase (bAS), lupeol synthase (LUS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) during stress. Finally, the glycyrrhizin content of stolons was determined via HPLC. The results revealed that due to osmotic stress, the gene expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased, whereas those of CAS were relatively unchanged at the seedling stage. At the adult plant stage, the expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased under drought stress conditions, whereas the gene expression level of CAS remained relatively constant. The glycyrrhizin content in stolons was increased only under severe drought stress conditions (S(28d)). Our results indicate that application of controlled drought stress up-regulates the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and directly enhances the production of secondary metabolites, including glycyrrhizin, in liquorice plants.

  19. Colchicine effect on the DNA content and stomata size of Glycyrrhiza glabra var.glandulifera and Carthamus tinctorius L. cultured in vitro

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    Nahid Moghbel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro induction of polyploids using colchicine causes an increase in DNA content in plants. This is of high importance especially for plants that have medicinal and commercial values. Seeds of two medicinal plants, licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var.glandulifera and safflower Carthamus tinctorius were treated with different concentrations of colchicine, 0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.08%, 0.1% (W/V in vitro for 24 and 48 h. Treated seeds then were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS media under controlled conditions. After a month, the length of the stomata was measured to study the effect of colchicine on stomata size. Cellular DNA content of the regenerated plants was measured by spectrophotometry. Flow cytometry was used for confirming the results obtained from stomata size measurement and spectrophotometry. Results suggested that treated plants have a fair amount of larger stomata, significantly in licorice plantlets that were treated with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and safflower plantlets that were treated with 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.1% colchicine. Safflower DNA content in all treatments enhanced significantly, but in licorice only DNA content of plantlets that were treated with 0.05% colchicine for 24 h and 0.1%, 0.03% colchicine for 48 h found to be increased significantly. The morphological features of treated plantlets such as shoot and leaf thickness were found to be increased. Flow cytometry confirmed the previously mentioned results and suggested tetraploids in all treated safflower plantlets and licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.08% of colchicine and mixoploids in licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.1% of colchicine.

  20. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues.

  1. The effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra Rhizome on the Mechanical Activity of the Colon of Male Rats and its Interaction with Adrenergic System

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    N Ghayedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Back ground & aim: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice is a native medicinal plant of Iran which its rhizome has been traditionally used for treatment of bowel spasm and diarrhea. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice rhizome on mechanical activity of isolated colon of male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, the colon tissue of 10 adult male rats were dissected and divided into two groups: experimental and control. Each group consisted of 10 strips of tissue. Then, the mechanical activity of tissue strips were recorded by power lab A-D instrument in basal condition, and after administration of phenylephrine and epinephrine and propranolol in the presence and absence of licorice rhizome extract (with effective dose 0.036 mg/ml. Moreover, the mechanical activity of control group strips were recorded at the same condition with extract solvent (ethanol %70. Data were analyzed statistically with using the SPSS software version 19 using Independent-Samples t-test. Result: The mechanical activity of tissue in presence of extract and epinephrine significantly decreased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. While the mechanical activity in the presence of extract and propranolol significantly increased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. However, no significant modification was observed in the mechanical activity of the tissue  in the presence of phenylephrine and extract compared to the control group.  Conclusion: According to the present study, it could be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice maybe has modifying effect on colon motility via synergist effect with beta adrenergic receptors and independent of the alpha adrenergic receptors.

  2. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae) and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae) in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E; Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Sady, Gabriel C

    2013-09-01

    Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra) in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species). We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content), and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate) were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vxmax and Jmax) and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation) occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species) enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  3. Medicinal effect and its JP2/RyR2-based mechanism of Smilax glabra flavonoids on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy model of cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yueqin; Tu, Jue; Pan, Shuizhen; Jiang, Jianping; Shou, Qiyang; Ling, Yun; Chen, Yunxiang; Wang, Dejun; Yang, Weiji; Shan, Letian; Chen, Minli

    2015-07-01

    Rhizome and root of Smilax glabra Roxb (Liliaceae family) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) named Tu-fu-ling (TFL) for cardiac disease therapy. The TFL flavonoids (TFLF) has been extracted and proven to possess the anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect in our previous reports. Such effect could be mediated by the modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) flux in myocardial cells, in which junctophilin-2 (JP2) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) play an important role. However, its mechanism of the anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect remains unclarified. 2μmol/L Ang II was applied to induce hypertrophy model of rat primary cardiomyocytes. After treatment of TFLF at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml, the cell size was microscopic measured, and the protein and mRNA expressions of JP2 and RyR2 in cardiomyocytes were estimated by immunofluorescence imaging, ELISA and real-time PCR assay. Obvious hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes was induced by Ang II but reversed by TFLF from 0.5 to 1.0mg/ml. The protein and mRNA expressions of JP2 and RyR2 in cardiomyocytes were also inhibited by Ang II but restored by TFLF at its dose range. Such effect of TFLF was exerted at a dose dependent manner, which was even better than that of verapamil. Our findings may evidence the correlation between JP2/RyR2 and myocardiac hypertrophy, and indicate the JP2/RyR2-mediated anti-hypertrophy mechanism of TFLF for the first time. It deserves to be developed as a promising TCM candidate of new drug for myocardial hypertrophy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species. We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content, and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vcmax and Jmax and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  5. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome) Extract Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth by S Phase Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy via Redox-Dependent ERK1/2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Tiantian; Qu, Like; Wang, Lixin; Yang, Xingxin; Xu, Shuo; Feng, Junnan; Gao, Yujing; Zhao, Chuanke; Han, Yong; Cai, Shaoqing; Shou, Chengchao

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is still the major cause of death across the world. Regular approaches cannot effectively solve the emerging problems, including drug/radiation resistance, side effects, and therapeutic ineffectiveness. Natural dietary supplements have shown effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome) has growth-inhibitory effects on several cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, with little toxicity on normal cells. However, the mechanism underlying its function remains elusive. In the present study, we examined the anticancer activity of the supernatant of the water-soluble extract (SW) from sarsaparilla. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight (LC/MS-IT-TOF) analysis identified flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenylpropanoids as the major bioactive components of SW. SW was shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines in the in vitro and in vivo assays. S phase arrest, autophagy, or/and apoptosis were partly responsible for SW-induced growth inhibition. Results of microarray analysis and validation by quantitative RT-PCR indicated the involvement of oxidative stress and the MAPK1 pathway in SW-treated cells. We further found that SW destroyed intracellular-reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) balance, and supplement with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH) significantly antagonized SW-induced S phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy. In addition, SW-induced GSH/GSSG imbalance activated the ERK1/2 pathway, which contributed to SW-induced S phase arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and resultant growth-inhibitory effect. Together, our results provide a molecular basis for sarsaparilla as an anticancer agent.

  6. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  7. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent.

  8. Alternative to antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra on membrane permeability and inhibition of efflux activity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its in vitro time-kill activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The multi-drug resistance offered by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics can be attributed towards its propensity to develop biofilm, modification in cell membrane and to efflux antibacterial drugs. The present study explored the activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and one of its pure compounds, glycyrrhizic acid against P. aeruginosa and their mechanism of action in terms of the effect on membrane permeability, efflux activity, and biofilm formation were determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by using broth dilution technique. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were assessed on agar plate. The MIC of the extract and glycyrrhizic acid was found to be 200 and 100 μg ml(-1), respectively. The MBC was found to be 800 and 400 μg ml(-1) in the case of extract and glycyrrhizic acid, respectively. Time -dependent killing efficacy was also estimated. Flowcytometric analysis with staining methods was used to determine the effect of extract and glycyrrhizic acid at 2 × MIC on different physiological parameters and compared it with the standard (antibiotic). The growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited by extract and the pure compound. The herbal extract and the glycyrrhic acid were also found to effective in targeting the physiological parameters of the bacteria that involve cell membrane permeabilization, efflux activity, and biofilm formation. This study reports the antipseudomonal action of Glycyrrhiza glabra and one of its compound and provides insight into their mode of action.

  9. NaCl胁迫对光果甘草和苦豆子种子萌发的影响%Effect of NaCl Press on Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提; 伊力哈木·艾合买提; 马刘峰

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了不同浓度的氯化钠对光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)和苦豆子(Sophora alopecuroides L.)种子萌发的影响进行了研究.研究结果表明:在不同浓度的NaCl条件下,光果甘草和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.但在1.8%浓度时,光果甘草种子仍能保持60%以上的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率只有4.8%.光果甘草种子发芽的最适盐浓度为1.6%,临界浓度为1.9%,极限浓度为2.4%.而苦豆子种子发芽的最适盐浓度为0.9%,临界盐浓度为1.2%,极限盐浓度为1.9%.光果甘草种子的发芽指数、活力指数和盐害指数迅速下降的浓度都比苦豆子高,而盐害率比苦豆子低很多.盐浓度提高到1.9%时,光果甘草种子的盐害率只有40.06%,而苦豆子的为100%,由此可看出,光果甘草的抗盐能力非常强,能适应含NaCl盐量高达1.8%的恶劣的生态环境.而苦豆子的抗盐能力相对较弱,只能适应含盐量为1.2%的土壤条件.对胚根胚芽生长来讲,在低浓度时NaCl盐对胚根胚芽生长的影响较小,浓度升高到1.2%以上,胚根胚芽生长受到严重影响,其中胚根生长受到影响较大.%This paper studied the seed germination of light fruit licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra L. And Sophora ( Sophora alopecuroides L. ) under the different concentrations of NaCl. The result showed that seed germination rate,germination index, vigor index and length of radical,the growth of embryo of light fruit licorice and Sophora alopecuroides decreased with the concentration of NaCl increasing. But the seed germination rate of Glycyr-rhiza glabra remained above 60% after being treated by the concentration of 1. 8% NaCl and that of Sophora alopecuroides was only 4. 8%. The critical concentration and the limit concentration were 1.9% and 2.4% for Glycyrrhiza glabra,respectively and 1.2% and 1.9% for Sophora

  10. Tumorigenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals are alleviated by licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract through suppression of AhR expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiao Ting; de la Cruz, Joseph; Hwang, Seong Gu; Hong, Heeok

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to interfere with estrogen signaling. Exposure to these chemicals decreases the immune response and causes a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. Recently, many studies showed that licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (LRE) commonly called "gamcho" in Korea exhibits antioxidative, chemoprotective, and detoxifying properties. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of LRE and to determine if and how LRE can alleviate the toxicity of EDCs. LRE was prepared by vacuum evaporation and freeze-drying after homogenization of licorice root powder that was soaked in 80% ethanol for 72 h. We used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a representative EDC, which is known to induce tumors or cancers; MCF-7 breast cancer cells, used as a tumor model, were treated with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, TCDD stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, but LRE significantly inhibited TCDD-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of TCDD toxicity-related genes, i.e., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), AhR nuclear translocator, and cytochrome P450 1A1, was also down-regulated by LRE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle distribution after treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD showed that LRE inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via G2/M phase arrest. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis also revealed that LRE dose-dependently increased the expression of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p27 and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes. These data suggest that LRE can mitigate the tumorigenic effects of TCDD in breast cancer cells by suppression of AhR expression and cell cycle arrest. Thus, LRE can be used as a potential toxicity-alleviating agent against EDC-mediated diseases.

  11. Target-guided separation of Bougainvillea glabra betacyanins by direct coupling of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerz, Gerold; Wybraniec, Sławomir; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-02

    In this study, preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography was directly coupled to an electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry device (IP-HSCCC/ESI-MS-MS) for target-guided fractionation of high molecular weight acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae). The direct identification of six principal acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins in the mass range between m/z 859 and m/z 1359 was achieved by positive ESI-MS ionization and gave access to the genuine pigment profile already during the proceeding of the preparative separation. Inclusively, all MS/MS-fragmentation data were provided during the chromatographic run for a complete analysis of substitution pattern. On-line purity evaluation of the recovered fractions is of high value in target-guided screening procedures and for immediate decisions about suitable fractions used for further structural analysis. The applied preparative hyphenation was shown to be a versatile screening method for on-line monitoring of countercurrent chromatographic separations of polar crude pigment extracts and also traced some minor concentrated compounds. For the separation of 760mg crude pigment extract the biphasic solvent system tert.-butylmethylether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water 2:2:1:5 (v/v/v/v) was used with addition of ion-pair forming reagent trifluoroacetic acid. The preparative HSCCC-eluate had to be modified by post-column addition of a make-up solvent stream containing formic acid to reduce ion-suppression caused by trifluoroacetic acid and later significantly maximized response of ESI-MS/MS detection of target substances. A variable low-pressure split-unit guided a micro-eluate to the ESI-MS-interface for sensitive and direct on-line detection, and the major volume of the effluent stream was directed to the fraction collector for preparative sample recovery. The applied make-up solvent mixture significantly improved smoothness of the continuously

  12. An investigation of compositions and effects of local herbal Glycyrrhiza glabra and Mentha pulegium extracts on Helicobacter pylori and cell Line of stomach cancer (AGS by MTT assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Salmani Jamaat1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:According to globally development of stomach cancer especially in Ardabil, Iran, as the second major cause of mortality throughout the world, increased drug-resistant bacteria including Helicobacter pylori as the most important risk factors for stomach cancer, and side effects of antibiotics and chemical drugs normally used to treat. Experimental: The current research was conducted to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial effects of native herbs of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium extractions for finding a solution with the lowest complications in control or treatment of stomach cancer.The extractions were firstly obtained using Soxhlet and methanol solvent and then their compounds were determined by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activity, MIC and MBC of the extractions were assessed respectively using agar diffusion and broth dilution test and the anticancer effect on stomach cancer (cell line AGS was assessed by MTT assay. H. pylori ATCC 26695 was respectively revived and purified on Brucella broth containing 7% citrated horse serum and Columbia agar. Results: The analysis showed that liquorice extract contains 15 compositions, mainly consists of 26.48% Nonane, 23.38% Ethylcyclohexan, 8.29% 3-Bromodecane, 10.31% trans-2-Heptenal, 8.93% 9-Octadecenamide and 4.68% β-pregna and pennyroyal extract contains 17 compositions, mainly including 3.36% Camphor, 22.79% Pulegone, 4.92% Paramenth-3-n8-l, 8.06% Menthoforan, 7.54% Cis-Isopulegon and 24.58% α-Selinene. The bacteria were resistant or semi-sensitive to common antibiotics, whereas had considerable sensitivity to herbal extracts and liquorice showed almost three times more antibacterial effect. Pennyroyal extract had no cytotoxic effects, but the anticancer effect was observed in liquorice extract with optimal concentration of 25 μg/ml after 48 hours. Recommended applications/industries: In conclusion, liquorice extract due to the significant health

  13. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ('Carolina Sapphire').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Ellis, Jane; Gray, Sandra; Lackey, Brett R; Murphy, Christine; Khan, Ikhlas A; Wedge, David E

    2013-02-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needle-twigs (NT) and wood-bark (WB) of 'Carolina Sapphire' [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the investigated essential oils were as follows: FC: alpha-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; MC: alpha-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 6.1%; NT: alpha-pinene 20.7%, epi-zonarene 10.4%, zonarene 7.6%, limonene 5.9% umbellulone 5.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 5.8%; WB: alpha-pinene 40.7%, limonene 3.2% and umbellulone 2.9%. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only WB essential oil showed moderate activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited biting deterrent activity at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index (BDI) values of 0.64, 0.59, 0.65 and 0.72, for FC, MC, NT and WB, respectively, and were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the synthetic insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), at 25 nmol/cm2 against Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of NT and WB oils at 100 microg/cm2 with BDI values of 1.04 and 1.01, respectively, were similar, whereas the activity of MC (BDI = 0.88) and FC (BDI = 0.62) essential oils was lower than DEET at 25 nmol/cm2. Essential oil from FC with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than MC (LD50 = 53.6 ppm), NT (LD50 = 55.5 ppm) and WB (LD50 = 44.6 ppm) essential oils.

  14. Effects of media temperature on rooting and leaf photosynthesis of Bougainvillea glabra cuttings%基质温度对三角梅插穗生根及其叶片光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志南; 钟赞华; 赖瑞云; 张雪芹; 苏明华

    2011-01-01

    The effects of media temperature(18 ℃ ,20 ℃ ,25 ℃ ,30 ℃ and 33 ℃) on rooting and leaf photosynthesis of Bougainvillea glabra cuttings were measured under the condition of intelligent monitor and control. The results showed that with the increasing of media temperature,an increasing of the net photosynthesis rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration in B. glabra cuttings leaves, while the stomatal limitation decreased. The net photosynthesis rate was lower and there was no obvious differences of treatment 18 ℃ and 20 ℃.The differences of net photosynthesis rate among treatment 25 ℃ ,30 ℃ and 33 ℃ were obvious. The rooting number per cutting was less,and the root length was shorter,while the survival rate of the cutting was lower when the media temperature was lower than 20 ℃. When the media temperature was higher than 30 ℃, the fallen number and the basal sterns rotting rate of cutting increased,while the survival rate decreased. In summary,25-30 ℃ is the optimal media temperature for rooting of Bougainvillea glabra cuttings.%探讨了智能调控下18、20、25、30、33℃的5个基质温度处理对三角梅叶片光合作用及插穗生根的影响.结果表明:随着基质温度上升,三角梅插穗叶片净光合速率增加,18、20℃处理的净光合速率较低,两处理间未见显著性差异,但均显著地低于处理间未见明显差异的25、30、33℃处理.随着基质温度上升,叶片蒸腾速率、气孔导度及胞间CO2浓度增加,气孔限制值下降.低于20℃基质温度处理插穗生根数较少、根长度较短,同时成活率较低.高于30℃基质温度处理插穗落叶数及茎基腐烂率明显提高,成活率显著下降.三角梅插穗生根的基质温度以25~30℃为适宜.

  15. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems Investigação do efeito citotóxico e mutagênico da polpa da fruta Malpighia glabra L. (acerola e da vitamina C em sistema teste vegetal e animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.As frutas são importantes fontes de nutrientes na dieta humana e a Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é de particular interesse devido ao seu alto teor de antioxidantes. Dietas ricas em frutas e legumes protegem os indivíduos contra doenças e câncer, mas a ingestão excessiva de vitaminas pode atuar como pró-oxidante e gerar alterações no DNA. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da polpa in natura da Acerola (BAN e congelada (BAF, e da vitamina C sintética na forma líquida (VC, em nível cromossômico e sobre o ciclo de divisão celular, foram utilizadas células meristemáticas de raiz de Allium cepa L. e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, Rattus norvegicus, como sistema teste. Em Allium cepa L., BAN, na maior concentração (0,4 mg.mL-1 e BAF

  16. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  17. A comparative study on scavenging reactive oxygen species of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. Uralensis%光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草清除活性氧能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毛成; 丁家宜; 李刚

    2003-01-01

    采用化学发光法测定了光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)与乌拉尔甘草(G. uralensis Fisch.)中总黄酮和总皂甙对3种重要活性氧(O2 +÷、*OH和H2O2)的清除能力, 发现它们对3种活性氧均有很强的清除能力,其中光果甘草对活性氧的清除能力超过乌拉尔甘草;黄酮类化合物对3种活性氧的清除能力强于皂甙类化合物.因此, 若以清除活性氧为应用目标,应尽量使用光果甘草.

  18. Effects of different extraction methods on yield of Smilax glabra polysaccharides and antioxidant activity%不同提取法对土茯苓多糖得率及抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婷; 赵靖雯; 王敏; 易剑峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察不同提取方法对土茯苓多糖得率及抗氧化活性的影响。方法采用冷水、热水、氢氧化钠溶液、乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA•2Na)水溶液提取土茯苓多糖,测定清除羟自由基活性、对超氧阴离子自由基的清除作用、还原能力,评价土茯苓多糖的体外抗氧化能力。结果冷水溶粗多糖、热水溶粗多糖、碱溶粗多糖、酸溶粗多糖的多糖得率分别为0.31%、1.1%、10.8%、2.0%。4种方法提取所得土茯苓粗多糖清除超氧自由基的能力均较好;冷水溶粗多糖、热水溶粗多糖、酸溶粗多糖清除羟自由基的能力及还原能力较好,且随浓度增加而上升;碱溶粗多糖基本无清除羟自由基的能力及还原能力。结论4种方法提取所得粗多糖均具有一定的抗氧化活性,且各组分的体外抗氧化活性与多糖含量呈正相关性,结合得率,EDTA•2Na 水溶液提取法最好。%Objective To explore the effects of different extraction methods on yield of Smilax glabra polysaccharides and antioxidant activities. Methods Crude polysaccharides were extracted by using cold water, hot water, NaOH aqueous solution, and EDTA•2Na aqueous solution . Antioxidant activities of Smilax glabra polysaccharides were compared by the methods of scavenging superoxide anion radical , scavenging hydroxyl radical or reducing power. Results Yield of crude cold water-soluble polysaccharides, crude boiling water-soluble polysaccharides, crude alkali-soluble polysaccharides and crude acid-soluble polysaccharides were 0.31%, 1.1%, 10.8 %, 2.0%, respectively. Polysaccharides by using four kinds of different extraction methods had strong scavenging superoxide anion radical power; crude cold water-soluble polysaccharides, crude boiling water-soluble polysaccharides , crude acid-soluble polysaccharides had strong scavenging hydroxyl radical and reducing power , the capacity increased with the increasing

  19. Research on the Technique System of Propagation in Vitro in Bougainvillea glabra%三角梅组织培养外植体再生体系建立研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶顶英; 张健

    2004-01-01

    以三角梅(Bougainvillea glabra)的带芽茎段、茎尖、叶片等营养器官为外植体进行组织培养,着重研究三角梅的最佳外植体类型,最佳培养基配方及植株再生的可能途径.研究表明:①不同类型的外植体再生能力大小为:茎段>茎尖>叶片;②初代培养最佳的诱导培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0mg/L+IBA 0.5mg/L;③继代培养丛芽增殖最佳培养基为MS+BA 2.0mg/L+IBA 0.1mg/L.

  20. 三角梅在咸宁地区盆栽育花技术初探%Preliminary Studies on Flowerforcing Technique of Potted Bougainvillea Glabra Choisy in Xianning Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼军; 王珊崇; 杨园园

    2013-01-01

    三角梅(Bougainvillea glabra Choisy)在咸宁地区盆栽需采用人为催花措施方能繁花似锦.将三角梅在春季用小盆盆栽,夏季进行干旱胁迫以抑制营养生长,达到一定时间或程度时随即扩盆松土、施肥浇水,可取得较好的催花效果.此外,摘心、拉枝、强光高温对三角梅具有一定的催花效果.培育三角梅整齐的花枝花冠还需适时轻剪和秋季保温.

  1. Flower Forcing Technique to Bougainvillea glabra Choisy Cutting Seedlings in Xianning in this Year%咸宁地区三角梅当年扦插育花技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼军; 王珊崇

    2014-01-01

    It was introduced that flower forcing technique to Bougaincillea glabra Choisy cutting seedling in Xianning in this year. It included varieties choice,stem cutting with leaves in hothouse in winter,cuttage with leaves in spring,hothouse management and management outdoors,so as to provide references for cropper.%介绍咸宁地区三角梅当年扦插育苗技术,包括品种选择、温室越冬保叶、春季带叶扦插、温室管理、室外管理等方面内容,以供种植者参考。

  2. Effect of Hormone on Content of Total Flavonoids in Callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%激素对光果甘草愈伤组织总黄酮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余茜; 赵红艳; 马淼

    2011-01-01

    The effects of hormone kinds and its levels on content of total flavonoids in 6 callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Were studied by spectrophotometry. The results showed that hormone levels and explants type including their interaction could significantly affect the content of total flavonoids in the licorice callus. The content of flavonoids in callus derived from internodes was the highest among the all treatments. It was as high as 2. 316% ±0. 015% when incubated on MS+6-BA4. 0 mg/L+NAAl. 0 mg/L. So the combination of 6-BA and NAA was beneficial to the flavonoids production of G. Glabra.%采用分光光度法研究了不同激素组合与激素水平对光果甘草根、下胚轴、子叶、真叶、节、以及节间等6种外植体愈伤组织中总黄酮含量的影响,结果表明:激素水平、外植体类型、以及激素水平与外植体类型的互作均会对光果甘草愈伤组织中总黄酮含量产生极显著的影响.在附加6-BA 4.0 mg/L与NAA1.0 mg/L的MS培养基中,节间愈伤组织中总黄酮含量最高,为2.316%±0.015%.因此,利用愈伤组织培养生产光果甘草总黄酮的研究是可行的.

  3. Multifunction of Ribosome-inactivating Protein from Bougainvillea glabra Choisy Showed in Transgenic Tomato%三角梅核糖体失活蛋白在转基因番茄中的功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛群; 刘建军; 刘铭; 周涵韬

    2011-01-01

    根据已报道的三角梅(Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd)的核糖体失活蛋白(RIP)基因序列,以厦门本地艳紫三角梅(B.glabra Choisy cv.Sanderiana)为材料,通过RT-PCR技术扩增到其RIP成熟蛋白的基因序列BouM并成功转化番茄.经检测,BouM转基因番茄对蚜虫、蚂蚁及番茄灰霉菌都有很好的抗性作用,显示了其在植物抗病抗虫中的应用前景.但是同时转基因番茄对小白鼠的生长有一定的抑制作用,因此将其作为植物抗病虫基因利用时,其生物安全性也是一个值得重视的问题.%Bougainvillea mature ribosome inactivating protein(RIP) are supposedly the least toxic. Its enzymatic activities, toxic to cancer cells or HIV and antivirus activity in plant have already been reported. In this study,gene sequence of RIP from Bougainvillea glabra Choisy cv. Sanderiana> named as BouM was cloned and transferred to tomato. Results showed that transgenic plants of BouM are resistant to aphid, ant and Botrytis cinerea. These results imply a huge application potential of Bougainvillea RIP in improving plant resistance. On the other hand,it seems that there is still a safe problem in the application of Bougainvillea RIP because transgenic plants of BouM are found to be toxic to laboratory mouse to some degree in this research.

  4. Diadelphous stamens in Glycyrrhiza glabra: their development and adaptive significance%光果甘草二体雄蕊的发育及其适应意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润炜; 陆嘉惠; 李学禹; 余营; 谢良碧; 秦忠立

    2013-01-01

    甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)植物具“9+1”二体雄蕊,其中9枚合生雄蕊的上部花丝分离,分离的花丝在发育过程中存在由早期长、短交错的二组排列方式转变为后期以雄蕊管最长的1枚雄蕊为中心向两边渐次缩短的倒“V”形排列.为了解这种雄蕊发育动态、分化现象及发育成熟后的适应意义,该文以光果甘草(G.glabra)为实验材料,比较了雄蕊发育过程中的形态变化、成熟花粉的理化性质及在传粉中的作用.结果显示:雄蕊发育早期长、短两组雄蕊在花药大小与形状上存在分化,但后期伴随着花丝的快速生长与花粉的成熟、散出,花药大小与形状趋于一致;花粉组织化学成分及授粉成功率无差异,但成熟花粉的数量和花粉活力存在差异;去雄处理虽然使访花者在一天内的两个访花高峰期的访花频次降低,但结实率高于自然对照,说明以异交为主的花去除雄蕊后,降低了雌、雄蕊间的功能干扰,提高了传粉昆虫的授粉率;发育早期长、短交错排列的二组雄蕊到成熟期时发生的倒“V”形排列的转变,使不同数量与活性的花粉分布在花内不同空间,最大化接触访花者,实现了资源节约,提高了雄蕊的雄性适合度,即在有限的空间内用最节约的雄性资源投入、使传粉空间与传粉几率最大化的方式,来提高雄性功能.

  5. Chemical Test and TLC Analysis of Oxytropis glabra DC%小花棘豆化学成分预试及薄层色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈基萍; 牟新瑞; 白松; 赵宝玉; 王占新; 李蓉

    2011-01-01

    为给小花棘豆化学成分研究及其各萃取部分指纹图谱的建立提供依据,采用植物化学成分系统预试法、薄层色谱分析技术及平面色谱图像定量法对小花棘豆化学成分进行分析.结果表明,小花棘豆含有油脂、酚类、鞣质、生物碱、黄酮及其苷类、皂甙、有机酸、蒽醌类等化合物,无强心苷、氰甙和脂肪族硝基化合物;石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取部分至少含有9、7、6和5种化合物,经与标准品对照,证明正丁醇萃取部分含有苦马豆素;各萃取部分相对含量最高的斑点依次为1、7、5、1,小花棘豆化学成分主要集中在石油醚和正丁醇萃取部分.%For further investigating the chemical principals of Oxytropis glabra DC and providing theoretical bases to prevention and treatment of locoweed poisoning and developing the medicinal value.Phytochemistry composition preliminary systematic and special tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were applied to analyze the chemical principals.The results showed that the plant contained oils, phenols, tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, Saponins organic acid, chinones, et al.but no cardiac glycoside, cyanophoric glycoside and aliphatic nitro compounds; 10 kg materials were reflux extracted with industrial alcohol for four times and 1 167.5 g extractum was obtained.After dissolving with distilled water, the extractum was extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in turn.Four parts were separately obtained 172.23, 12.64,30.71, 180.5 g,which indicated that the principals were distributed in petroleum ether and n-butanol fractions; it was showed that 9, 7, 6 and 5 kinds of principals were located in the four fractions after analyzed by TLC and swainsonine was contained in n-butanol fraction when compared with the proof sample.The silica gel plates best developed were analyzed to determine the contents with planar chromatography image

  6. Optimization of the Extraction of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.using Response Surface Analysis%响应面法优化提取光甘草定工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊金玲; 张琳; 朱文学; 马海乐; 巩卫东

    2012-01-01

    A three-level Box-Behnken design, combined with the canonical and ridge analyses, was employed to optimise the process parameters for glabridiri extraction from the Glycyrrhiza glabra L. one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines. The critical factors selected for the investigation were methanol/solid ratio, duration of time and extraction temperature. The experimcntal results were fitted with a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis and more than 98.08% and 91.21% of the variation could be predicted by the yield and the purity of glabridin models. The canonical analysis of surface responses revealed that the three eigenvalues had different signs, indicating a saddle stationary surface. The optimal conditions for extraction of glabridin from the Clycyrrhiza glabra L. were determined, using the ridge analysis, as extraction time, 64min; extraction temperature, 50.4℃; at methanol/solid ratio of 138.5 g/mL. Under these conditions, the highest yield of glabridin reached with estimated value and verified value being of 0.52% and 0.51%.%研究光果甘草中光甘草定的提取工艺.在单因素实验的基础上,以100%工业甲醇为提取溶剂,选定料液比、提取时间和提取温度3个因素的3个水平进行中心组合实验,建立光甘草定得率和纯度的二次回归方程,其决定系数分别为98.08%和91.21%.通过响应面及岭嵴分析得到优化的提取工艺条件是:料液比1∶38.5 g/mL、提取时间64 min、提取温度50.4℃,在该条件下光甘草定得率预测值为0.52%,验证值为0.51%.

  7. 光果甘草营养器官不同季节总黄酮消长规律的研究%Changes of Total Flavonoids Content in Vegetative Organs of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.in Different Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陆嘉惠; 秦忠立; 谢良碧; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV) was used to study the changes of the-total flavonoids content in vegetative organs of 2-year-old cultivated Glycyrrhiza glabra L. In different seasons. It was shown that the sequence of total flavonoids content from the highest to the lowest was below: upper leaves,middle leaves, hairy root,horizontal rhizome,lateral root,main root,vertical rhizome,upper stem,middle stem and lower stem. It had a great fluctuation from April to November. The higher content was occurred in June, September and October. These results indicated that total flavonoids content was the highest in the parts of the leaf and the hairy root. It was suitable for 2-year-old cultivated G. Glabra L. To harvest in early autumn. Therefore,we suggested that the leaf could be harvested for medicine.%利用紫外分光光度法对二年生栽培光果甘草不同营养器官、不同季节中总黄酮含量的消长规律进行分析研究,以探索光果甘草中总黄酮含量的消长规律,为生产中确定合理的采收期及其采收部位提供依据.结果显示:不同营养器官中,二年生栽培光果甘草总黄酮含量的高低顺序为:上部叶>中部叶>毛状根>水平根茎>侧根>主根、垂直根茎、上部茎>中部茎、下部茎;4~11月,二年生栽培光果甘草总黄酮含量波动较大,6、9、10月含量较高.综合分析表明:叶和毛状根是总黄酮含量最高的部位,二年生栽培光果甘草最佳采收期为早秋;建议对叶采收入药,综合利用光果甘草资源.

  8. 光果甘草异黄酮类成分光甘草定的制备工艺%Study on the Preparation Technology of Isoflavon Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑燕; 木合布力·阿布力孜; 巴哈尔古丽·卡哈尔; 何倩

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究提取和分离新疆光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L)的异黄酮类活性成分光甘草定(Glabridin,GB)的工艺.方法:用丙酮粗提光果甘草提取物,用氧化铝和硅胶柱层析法分离不同极性的组分,用制备型薄层层析法和重结晶法进行纯化,再用核磁共振、质谱、红外和紫外光谱法进行结构鉴定.结果:从光果甘草的干燥根中分离获得GB纯品,原制备工艺得到优化.结论:本方法在少量快速制备GB纯品中具有重要作用.

  9. Therapeutic effects of Euphorbia Pekinensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites Partially Via Regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 Signal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Yan, Chen; Li, Yuting; Mao, Xia; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Ya; Guo, Qiuyan; Duan, Jingao; Lin, Na

    2017-02-01

    To clarify unknown rationalities of herbaceous compatibility of Euphorbia Pekinensis (DJ) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (GC) acting on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites, peritoneum transcriptomics profiling of 15 subjects, including normal control (Con), HCC ascites mouse model (Mod), DJ-alone, DJ/GC-synergy and DJ/GC-antagonism treatment groups were performed on OneArray platform, followed by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. DEGs between Mod and Con groups were considered as HCC ascites-related genes, and those among different drug treatment and Mod groups were identified as DJ/GC-combination-related genes. Then, an interaction network of HCC ascites-related gene-DJ/GC combination-related gene-known therapeutic target gene for ascites was constructed. Based on nodes’ degree, closeness, betweenness and k-coreness, the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis with highly network topological importance was demonstrated to be a candidate target of DJ/GC combination acting on HCC ascites. Importantly, both qPCR and western blot analyses verified this regulatory effects based on HCC ascites mice in vivo and M-1 collecting duct cells in vitro. Collectively, different combination designs of DJ and GC may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites partially via regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis, implying that global gene expression profiling combined with network analysis can offer an effective way to understand pharmacological mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  10. 三角梅在咸宁市不同环境条件下越冬的抗寒表现%Cold Response of Overwintering Bougainvillea glabra under Different Environments in Xianning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼军; 刘立祥; 杨园园

    2013-01-01

    三角梅(Bougainvillea glabra Choisy)在成宁市因冬季低温进入被迫休眠,同品种同类型的三角梅在不同环境所致的不同开花状态下进入体眠的早晚不同,开花状态的三角梅进入休眠相对较晚.三角梅在越冬期蒸腾强度呈现逐渐减弱的趋势,越冬期因叶片蒸腾和土面水分蒸发使盆土相对含水量日下降0.5%左右.当气温低于-4℃时三角梅受冻;如果没有叶片的防冻保护,三角梅在-2℃就受到低温和寒风的危害,受害程度与风力的大小有关.

  11. 光叶三角梅'Formosa'叶片挥发性组分的GC-MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Components from Bougainvillea glabra 'Formosa'by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夙侠; 黄青云; 刘鸿洲; 林春松

    2009-01-01

    三角梅不仅观赏性强,而且具有多方面的保健作用.为了阐明三角梅的次生代谢机制,本研究采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取光叶三角梅(Bougainvillea glabra 'Formosa')叶的挥发性成分,并通过GC-MS法进行定性和定量分析.本试验共分离出61种成分,经NIST数据库检索、与标准谱图比较,鉴定出47个化学组分,占总挥发性组分含量的90%以上.结果表明,该三角梅叶中含有叶醛、植醇、棕榈酸、对乙烯基愈创木酚、柠檬烯等对人体有益的化合物.

  12. Ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography in fractionation of a high-molecular weight variation of acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-02-15

    The natural pigment composition of purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae) consists of a highly complex mixture of betacyanins solely differing by the substitution with a variety of acyl-oligoglycoside units. This study was focused on a two-dimensional chromatography approach, a combination of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and analytical C18-HPLC with ESI-DAD-MS/MS detection which finally enabled a more detailed view into the pigment profile and elucidated the existence of an overwhelming amount of varying betacyanin structures occurring in Bougainvillea bracts. The detected molecular weights of the pigments reached so far unknown high values and ranged up to maximum values of 1653 and 1683 Da for the largest molecules due to oligosaccharide linkage and multiple acyl substitutions. The preparative IP-HSCCC separation yielded 15 complex fractions containing betacyanins of enhanced polarity as well as structures with highly increased lipophilicity. Betacyanin structures extended by large oligosaccharide chains with bigger number of glycoside units and also carrying a reduced number of hydroxycinnamic acid substitutions were characteristic for polar pigments occurring mainly in the early eluting CCC fractions. IP-HSCCC was proven to be extremely effective for fractionating this complex crude betalain pigment extract into more defined 'polarity-windows'. Structural analysis by analytical LC-ESI-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode detected a total sum of 146 different betacyanin pigments in the CCC fractions of reduced complexity.

  13. Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Stem Segment of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy%光叶子花茎段愈伤组织的诱导及其植株再生的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚伟; 胡庭兴; 宫渊波; 熊庆娥; 王景燕; 张健; 李俊

    2005-01-01

    研究了光叶子花(Bougainvillea glabra Choisy)茎段愈伤组织的诱导及植株再生.结果表明:愈伤组织诱导以MS+BA 3.0 mg·L-1+2'4-D 0.2 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1培养基最好,茎段愈伤组织的诱导率和分化率分别达78.2%和25.6%.不定芽的产生有两种类型:直接从茎段基部诱导产生不定芽和茎段基部形成大块愈伤组织后再从愈伤组织上分化出不定芽.丛生苗诱导以MS+BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1为培养基,增殖倍数可达5.4,当培养基中BA 3.0 mg·L-1和2’4-D 0.5~1.0 mg·L-1时再生植株会出现叶片变异现象.MS+BA 0.2 mg·L-1+GA3 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1培养基对有效苗培养具有较好的效果;生根诱导以MS+NAA 3.0 mg·L-1培养基诱导率最高,为88.3%.

  14. Effects of Sarcandra glabra extract on immune activity in restraint stress mice%中药九节茶提取物对应激负荷小鼠免疫功能的改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蓉蓉; 王敏; 李怡芳; 戴毅; 段营辉; 姚新生; 粟原博

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究中药九节茶对束缚应激小鼠免疫功能的改善作用.方法:实验将雄性C_(57)BL/6小鼠分为正常对照组,应激对照组,125,500 mg·kg~(-1)九节茶提取物给药组,制备脾脏淋巴细胞悬液,流式细胞术分析T淋巴细胞亚群、NK细胞和NKT细胞比例及数目.结果:与应激对照组相比,中药九节茶可以提高束缚应激小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞总数,改善T淋巴细胞亚群比例,同时增加脾脏NK细胞和NKT细胞比例及数目.结论:中药九节茶可以改善应激负荷小鼠淋巴细胞数目及淋巴细胞亚群比例.%Objective: To study the protective effect of Sarcandra glabra extract (SGE)on immune system in restrained mice. Method: The male C_(57)BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, stress control group, 125, 500 mg·kg~(-1) SGE group. The spleen lymphocyte suspensions of each group were prepared. The parameters of spleen T cells subsets, NK cell and NKT cell proportion and number was detected by Flow cytometry. Result: SGE regulated the balance of T cell subsets, increased the percent of NK cells and NKT cell proportion and number in restrained mice. Conclusion: SGE has immunologic protective effect in restrained mice probably via the amelioration of immune cells proportion and number.

  15. 光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草开花与传粉方式对生殖及种间关系的影响%Effect of Flowering Mode and Pollination on Reproductive Success and the Relationship between Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润炜; 陆嘉惠; 谢良碧; 秦忠立; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    通过对光果甘草和乌拉尔甘草花期物候和访花昆虫行为的观察及人工授粉实验,探讨开花模式及传粉方式对生殖成功及种间关系的影响.结果表明:(1)两种甘草的种群水平花期重叠时间长达21 d,均表现出“集中大量开花”模式,但乌拉尔甘草呈现分批渐次开花趋势,这对提高生殖成功率,避免近交衰退,维持物种的稳定具有重要意义.(2)两种甘草的访花昆虫在种类和数量上有所不同,但具有共同传粉者——宽板尖腹蜂、意大利蜂和紫木蜂.(3)以乌拉尔甘草为母本、光果甘草为父本的种间杂交结实率为48.3%;以光果甘草为母本、乌拉尔甘草为父本的种间杂交结实率为39.4%,说明种间杂交亲和,不存在生殖障碍.研究认为,花期重叠、共有传粉昆虫及种间杂交亲和使光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草自然种群杂交种的形成成为可能.%Effect of flowering mode and pollination on reproductive success and interspecific relationship of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were studied by flowering phenology observation, pollinator observation, hand-pollination experiments. (1) Their overlapping time of the florescence was 21 days, both G. glabra L. and G. uralensis Fisch demonstrated "concentrate a large number of flowering mode", but G. uralensis Fisch. was batches gradually flowering. And that'have great significance for improve the reproductive success rate, avoid inbreeding depression and maintain the stability of the species. (2)Their pollination insects are different in numbers and varieties, but Coelixys afra Lepeletier,Apis mel-lifera Linnaeus and Xylocopa valga Gerstaecker pollinate for both of them. (3) The rate of fruitage in crossing combination of "♀G, uralensis×♂G. glabra" was 48. 3% , the "♀G. glabra× ♂G. uralensis" was 39. 4%. This means that hybridization between G, glabra L. and G. uralensis Fisch. are compatible and nd reproductive

  16. Study on the Characteristics of Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides Under the Condition of Different Concentrations of Sodium Sulfate%不同浓度的硫酸钠条件下光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子的萌发特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2012-01-01

    It studied the effects of seed germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides under the condition of different concentrations of sodium sulfate. The results showed that it decreased for germination power,the percentage of germination,germination index,vigor index and the growth length of radical and germ with the increase of concentration of sodium sulfate. But it remained 91.7% for Glycyrrhiza glabra and zero for Sophora alopecuroides at the concentration of 2.4% sodium sulfate. The optimization of sodium sulfate concentration was 2.4% or above,and this without critical concentration and limit concentration for Glycyrrhiza glabra. And it was the optimal concentration of 1. 8% , 1. 9% critical concentration and 2.4% of limit concentration for Sophora alopecuroides. And the germination index and vigor index of Glycyrrhiza glabra was higher than that of Sophora alopecuroides, but the rate of salt injury of Glycyrrhiza glabra was lower than that of Sophora alopecuroides. And the rate of salt injury of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides were 8% and 100% at the 2.4% concentration of sodium sulfate,respectively. So,it deduced that the competence of Na2SO4-resistance was stronger for Glycyrrhiza glabra and could adapt the hostile ecological environment of 2. 4% concentration of sodium sulfate. But it was of poor competence of Na2SO4-resistance and only apt to the 1.8% concentration of sodium sulfate. It was of lower effects on the growth length of radical and germ and the former was larger than tbe latter under different concentration of sodium sulfate.%用不同浓度的Na2SO4对光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子萌发的影响进行了研究.结果表明:在不同浓度的Na2SO4条件下,光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.但在浓度为2.4%时,光果甘草种子仍能保持91.7%的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率为0.

  17. Simultaneous Extraction of Glabridin and Glycyrrhizic Acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%同时提取光果甘草中光甘草定和甘草酸的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉会; 徐德平; 张连富

    2011-01-01

    本文主要对光果甘草中光甘草定、甘草酸两种重要活性成分的同时提取工艺进行了研究.通过单因素试验确定了影响提取的主要因素及适宜水平范围,通过正交试验确定了其最佳提取条件为:用含0.6%氨水的60%乙醇溶液作为提取剂,料液比为1:20(w:v),在75℃条件下提取2 h.最佳提取条件下光甘草定的得率为0.238%±0.002%,甘草酸的得率为5.08%±0.03%.该工艺操作简单,投入一批原料,即可同时提取其中的光甘草定和甘草酸,为实现甘草资源高附加值的综合加工利用奠定了基础.%To study the technology of simultaneous extraction of glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L., the single factor experiments were done to determine the influencing factors and the orthogonal tests were done to optimize the extracting condition. The extraction conditions were optimized as follows:60% ethanol containing 0.6% ammonia as extractant,ratio of material to liquid 1:20 (w: v) ,extraction temperature 75 °C ,and duration was 2 h. Under these conditions,the extraction rates of Glabridin and Glycyrrhizic acid were 0.238 ±0.002% and 5.08 ±0.03% respectively. This technology featured simple operation and yielded the two important bioactive compounds at the same time. The research provided a basis for comprehensive development and utilization of Glycyrrhiza re sources with high valued-added.

  18. Effects of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and energy dissipation of Sarcandra glabra under drought stress%外源5-氨基乙酰丙酸对干旱胁迫下草珊瑚叶绿素荧光特性及能量分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春平; 何平; 袁凤刚; 喻泽莉; 杜丹丹; 韦品祥; 胡世俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and energy dissipation of Sarcandra glabra and get the method of alleviating drought stress, so as to provide theoretical basis against drought in planting. Methods Several physiological indexes of S. Glabra treated by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) under drought stress (PEG-6000 at the concentration of 15%) were measured, such as the contents of photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and energy parameters. Results Exogenous ALA obviously increased the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, enhanced the maximum fluorescence (Fm), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, Fv/Fm), potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo), photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fmr), PSII actual photochemical efficiency (OPSII), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), electronic transfer rate (ETR), and photochemistry rate (PCR), as well as significnatly decreased the level of minimum fluorescence (Fo), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) coefficient, and heat dissipation rate (HDR). The proportion of ALA absorbed light in photochemistry (P) was increased, the fraction of antenna pigment heat dissipation (D) and excess energy (£) for NPQ was decreased. The fraction of P was the main pathway for excessive energy dissipation. ALA could promote the redistribution of energy reasonablely. Conclusion Exogenous ALA (100 mg/L) could significantly reduce the dissipation of excess excitation energy, improve the photochemical electron transport efficiency,and efficiently protect leaf blade of S. Glabra from PSII damage under drought stress. ALA could obviously promote the droughtresistance of S. Glabra plantlet.%目的 探讨干旱胁迫对草珊瑚叶绿素荧光特性及能量分配的影响,找到延缓干旱胁迫的方法,为抗旱栽培提供理论依据.方法 考察15% PEG-6000模拟干旱胁迫条件下,经过不同浓度5-氨基乙酰丙酸(ALA)和不同时间处理后

  19. Comparison the Content of Total Flavonoids in Different Callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%光果甘草不同愈伤组织中总黄酮含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余茜; 马淼; 赵红艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究不同激素组合、激素水平及添加物(水解乳蛋白)对光果甘草6种外植体愈伤组织中总黄酮含量的影响.方法:通过组织培养的方法获得愈伤组织,以芦丁为标准品,采用分光光度法于500 nm处测定愈伤组织中总黄酮的含量.结果:在附加6-BA 4.0 mg/L+ NAA 1.0 mg/L的MS培养基中,节间愈伤组织中总黄酮含量最高,为2.316%±0.015%.培养基中添加水解乳蛋白500 mg/L后极显著地增加了所有外植体愈伤组织中的黄酮含量;在附加了6-BA 1.0 mg/L+ NAA1.0 mg/L+水解乳蛋白500 mg/L的MS培养基中,节间愈伤组织中总黄酮含量最高,为2.376%±0.003%.结论:6-BA与NAA的激素组合,以及水解乳蛋白的添加,均有利于光果甘草愈伤组织总黄酮的生产.%Objective; To study the effects of hormone kinds, hormone levels and additives ( hydrolysate lactopro-tein) on content of total flavonoids in 6 callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Method; Callus were obtained by micropropagation. ,the content of flavonoids was determined at wavelength of 510 nm with spectrophotometry by the standard of rutin. Result;The content of flavonoids in callus derived from internodes was the highest among the all treatments,it was as high as 2. 316% ±0.015% when incubated on MS + 6-BA4.0 mg/L + NAA 1.0 mg/L. The contents of flavonoids were significantly increased as hydrolysate lactoprotein was added in MS solid medium. When the internodes were inoculated on MS + 6-BA 1. 0 mg/L + NAA 1.0 mg/L + hydrolysate lactoprotein 500 mg/L,the content of flavonoids was the largest as high as 2. 376% ±0. 003% . Conclusion; Combination of 6-BA and NAA, as well as lactoprotein hydrolysate was beneficial to the production of licorice flavonoids.

  20. 土茯苓内生芒果球座菌的次级代谢产物及其抗肿瘤活性研究%Secondary metabolites of endophytic Guignardia mangiferae from Smilax glabra and their antitumor activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁法亮; 李冬利; 陈玉婵; 陶美华; 章卫民; 张德志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the secondary metabolites of the endophytic fungus Guignardia mangiferae from Smilax glabra and their antitumor activities. Methods The compounds were isolated by various column chromatographies on silica gel, reversed silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC, and so on. Their structures were identified by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1-7 on SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cell lines were tested in vitro by SRB method. Results Twelve compounds were isolated from the extract of 100 L liquid fermentation broth and ten of them were identified as 15-hydroxyl tricycloaltemarene 5b (1), guignardiaene D (2), guignardiaene C (3), guignardone A (4), guignardone B (5), 3-(4-methylphenoxy)-propanoic acid (6), nonane-2,4-diol (7), ergosterol keone (8), tyrosol (9), and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10). The meroterpenes 1-5 showed inhibitory effects on SF-268, while compounds 6 and 7 showed inhibitory effects on MCF-7 selectively. Conclusion Compounds 6-10 are isolated from fungus of the genus Guignardia Viala et Ravaz for the first time and compounds 6 and 7 are firstly reported as natural products.%目的 研究土茯苓内生芒果球座菌Guignardia mangiferae的次级代谢产物及其抗肿瘤活性.方法 采用硅胶柱、反相硅胶柱、凝胶柱和制备薄层色谱等色谱技术进行分离纯化,通过现代波谱技术进行结构鉴定;以神经胶质瘤细胞SF-268、乳腺癌细胞MCF-7、大细胞肺癌细胞NCI-H460为供试细胞株,采用SRB法对化合物进行体外抗肿瘤活性研究.结果 从土茯苓内生芒果球座菌的100 L液体发酵提取物中分离得到12个化合物,经波谱数据分析鉴定其中10个化合物,分别为15-hydroxyl tricycloaltemarene 5b(1)、guignardiaene D(2)、guignardiaene C (3)、guignardone A(4)、guignardone B(5)、3-(4-甲苯氧基)-丙酸(6)、2.4-壬二醇(7)、麦角甾酮(8)、酪醇(9)、对羟基苯甲醛(10).杂合萜类化合物1

  1. Pro tective Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced Hepatotoxicity in Primary Cultured Hepatocytes of Jian Carp(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)%甘草提取物对叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)诱导的建鲤原代培养肝细胞损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍; 贾睿; 杜金梁; 丁炜东; 殷国俊

    2012-01-01

    以肝(细胞)损伤为主要特征的鱼类肝胆综合症是水产养殖中日趋严重的病害之一,目前还没有有效的防治措施.本研究拟以叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)构建建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)原代肝细胞损伤模型,并利用该模型评价甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra)提取物对t-BHP诱导的鱼类急性肝细胞损伤的保护作用.1 mmol/L的t-BHP与原代肝细胞共培养2h能显著提高肝细胞培养上清中谷丙转氨酶(GPT)、谷草转氨酶(GOT)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)和丙二醛(MDA)水平,显著降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量以及肝细胞增殖活性.在t-BHP诱导肝细胞损伤前(前处理)、损伤后(后处理)、损伤前和损伤后(前后处理)将不同浓度(0.1、0.2和0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物加入肝细胞培养液中,与肝细胞共培养2h,结果显示,前后处理时,不同浓度(0.1、0.2和0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物均能显著抑制t-BHP诱导的GOT、GPT、LDH和MDA水平的升高,恢复GSH-Px和SOD水平;前处理时,高浓度(0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物对抑制GOT、GPT、LDH和MDA水平的升高,恢复GSH-Px水平有显著效果;后处理时,只有高浓度(0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物能有效提高GSH-Px活性;中浓度和高浓度(0.2和0.4mg/mL)的甘草提取物在前处理、后处理及前后处理时均能显著提高肝细胞的增殖活力.研究的结果表明,中药与损伤剂的给予顺序影响着甘草提取物对肝细胞的保护作用,前后处理时甘草提取物对损伤肝细胞的保护效果明显优于前处理和后处理.研究证实了甘草提取物对t-BHP诱导的鱼类肝细胞损伤具有保护作用,对应用甘草提取物作为鱼类肝胆综合症的防治药物还需要进一步的在体研究.%Fish "liver and gall syndrome",characterized by liver (hepatocyte) injury,has become more and more serious in China aquaculture,however no effective methods have been found for the prevention and

  2. 光果甘草毛状根培养过程中对活性氧清除能力和总黄酮含量的变化%Researches on scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total flavonoid content in hairy root of Glycyrrhiza glabra during culture process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裔惟; 丁家宜; 周倩耘; 谢毛成; 刘峻

    2004-01-01

    采用化学发光法, 分析了光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)毛状根培养过程中对3种活性氧(ROS: O-2(÷)、HO·和H-2O-2)清除能力的动态变化, 并测定了培养过程中总黄酮含量的动态变化. 实验结果表明, 毛状根在对数生长期(20~28 d)对3种ROS都有很强的清除能力,在生长停滞期(29~40 d)对HO·和H-2O-2的清除能力仍维持较高的水平,而对O-2(÷)的清除能力随培养时间的延长逐渐下降.总黄酮含量在对数生长期呈现增加的趋势,至31 d时达到最高含量(0.78%),随培养时间的延长含量逐渐降低.

  3. 圆滑番荔枝叶乙醇提取物不同萃取组分对胡椒瘟病菌的抑菌活性测定%Determination of the Antifungal Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Annona glabra Leaf against Phytophthora capsici

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟亚峰; 孙世伟; 高圣风; 桑利伟; 刘爱勤

    2014-01-01

    Annona glabra leaf ethanol extracts were extracted by liquid -liquid partition method. Getting different petroleum ether, trichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract components. Testing the different components antifungal activity against Phytophthora capsici with growth rate method. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract components had high inhibition rate against Phytophthora capsici mycelium growth. When the concentration was 20 mg/mL, the inhibition rate reached to 74.43%.%采用液-液分配法对圆滑番荔枝叶乙醇提取物进行萃取分离,得到石油醚、三氯甲烷、乙酸乙酯等不同萃取组分。采用生长速率法测定不同萃取组分对胡椒瘟病菌的抑制作用。结果表明:乙酸乙酯萃取组分对胡椒瘟病菌的抑制作用最强,其中20 mg/mL乙酸乙酯萃取组分对胡椒瘟病菌菌丝生长的抑制率达到74.43%,具有较好的抑菌效果。

  4. Changes of Endogenous Hormones, Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Nutrition during the Flower Bud Differentiation of Bougainvillea glabra%勒杜鹃花芽分化过程中内源激素含量和碳氮营养的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨义标; 邵志芳; 邱少松; 李永红

    2008-01-01

    以勒杜鹃(Bougainvillea glabra)为材料,研究成花过程中叶片内源激素含量和碳氮营养的变化,为勒杜鹃花期调控提供理论依据.结果表明:勒杜鹃花芽分化前期IAA和GA3含量降低,ABA、ZT含量的升高;花芽分化中期 GA3、ABA 含量继续上升,ZT 略有下降;花芽分化末期,ZT/IAA、ABA/IAA、ZT/GA3、ABA/GA3比值均呈现不同程度的上升.在初花期时 ZT/IAA、ZT/GA3呈现下降趋势.勒杜鹃花芽分化过程中可溶性糖含量先升后降.总氮含量持续下降.

  5. Influence of depectinization in the ultrafiltration of West Indian cherry (Malpighia glabra L. and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Meer juices Influência da despectinização sobre a ultrafiltração dos sucos de acerola e abacaxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli T. D. Barrosi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available West Indian cherry (Malpighia glabra L. and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Meerjuice clarification by cross-flow UF, using polysulphone hollow fiber and ceramic tubular membranes with, respectively, nominal molecular weight cut off values of 100kDaltons and average pore diameters of 0.01mm, were studied. The influence of enzymatic treatment using enzyme concentrations of 20, 100 and 300mg/L, a time of 90min and a temperature of 40ºC for depectinization was verified. The juices were then clarified in a laboratory scale filtration unit, with an effective filtration area of 0.12m² for the polysulphone hollow fiber membrane and of 0.005m² for the ceramic tubular membranes. The influence of enzymatic treatment on viscosity, turbidity and total pectin of the juice, before ultrafiltration, is reported. Membrane performance was evaluated in terms of flow rate and clarity of the permeate. The permeate flow rate of depectinized pineapple juice was higher (30 - 60% for both membranes. Depectinized West Indian cherry juice presented a lower permeate flow rate for the polysulphone hollow fiber membrane. The increase in permeate flow rate, with the use of the 300mg/L and 100mg/L enzyme concentration was not significant, so it is economically advantageous to ultrafilter depectinized juice, treated with an enzyme concentration of 20mg/L.Foi estudada a clarificação através da ultrafiltração por flow rateo cruzado, dos sucos de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. e Abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L. Meer, usando membranas de polisulfona fibra oca e tubular cerâmica com peso molecular de corte de 100kDaltons e diâmetro médio de poro de 0,01mm, respectivamente. A influência do tratamento dos sucos, com concentrações de enzima de 20, 100 e 300mg/L, tempo de tratamento de 90min a temperatura de 40ºC, foi verificada, e então os mesmos foram clarificados numa unidade de ultrafiltração com uma área efetiva de 0,12m² para a membrana de polisulfona e de 0,005m² para

  6. 太湖流域上游西苕溪源头溪流中毛竹、石栎和山胡椒落叶分解比较%Leaf litter breakdown of Phyllostachys heterocycla, Lithocarpus glabra and Lindera glauca in a headwater stream of Xitiaoxi watershed, upper reaches of Taihu Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢东琪; 张勇; 刘东晓; 王备新

    2012-01-01

    比较了毛竹、石栎和山胡椒叶片的理化属性,采用粗网叶袋法研究了三种落叶在太湖流域上游西苕溪中的分解过程,探讨了毛竹叶成为溪流优势外来能源后对溪流生态过程和底栖动物群落结构的影响.三种落叶的氮、磷含量及叶片厚度都存在显著差异,毛竹叶的氮含量(30.23 g/kg)远高于石栎(20.98 g/kg)和山胡椒(9.69g/kg),其中毛竹叶的分解速率最快(k =0.00592 d-1),山胡椒(0.00297 d-1)和石栎叶(0.00212 d-1)较慢.三种落叶叶袋间的大型底栖无脊椎动物包括各取食功能团的多度和生物量无显著差异,而4次采样间的差异很显著.大型底栖动物的取食功能团中,撕食者的数量比例最高(40.3%),生物量比例为41.6%,是落叶分解的重要功能类群.撕食者中,利用阔叶筑巢的鳞石蛾Lepidostoma数量最多,占全部底栖动物的14%,是该溪流中主要的撕食者类群.因此,由于毛竹叶具有氮、磷含量较高、叶形较窄,以及两年进行一次换叶的特点,当毛竹叶替代其他阔叶秋季落叶的树种成为源头溪流优势外来能源后,可能会改变源头溪流中的氮磷含量、溪流外来能源的量和滞留时间以及底栖动物群落结构.%In order to explore the impact of the change of the dominant leaf litter source in stream from broad leaf trees to a bamboo tree of Phyllostachys heterocycla on headwater stream ecosystem and their associated benthic macroinvertebrates, we compared the leaf physical and chemical characters of Phyllostachys heterocycla, Luhocarpus glabra and Lindera glauca, and then evaluated the leaf litter breakdown of above three species using coarse-mesh litter bags in a headwater stream of Xitiaoxi watershed, Zhejiang Province. The concentrations of nitrogen , phosphorus and the thickness of the three categories of leaves varied significantly. The nitrogen concentration of bamboo tree leaf (30.23 g/kg) was much higher than that of L. glabra (20

  7. Study on cow urine and Pongamia pinnata Linn seed in farmyard: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TRUST IN GOD

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... 5Department of Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India ... Though chemicals and bactericides control BLB, they also cause several ..... disease, and nematode pests of rice and wheat in the indo-gangetic.

  8. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sadhan Kumar; Malodia, Lalit

    2017-09-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out using Calotropis leaf extract with zinc acetate salt in the presence of 2 M NaOH. The combination of 200 mM zinc acetate salt and 15 ml of leaf extract was ideal for the synthesis of less than 20 nm size of highly monodisperse crystalline nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). Effects of biogenic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on growth and development of tree seedlings in nursery stage were studied in open-air trenches. The UV-Vis absorption maxima showed peak near 350 nm, which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. DLS data showed that single peak is at 11 nm (100%) and Polydispersity Index is 0.245. XRD analysis showed that these are highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles having an average size of 10 nm. FTIR spectra were recorded to identify the biomolecules involved in the synthesis process, which showed absorption bands at 4307, 3390, 2825, 871, 439, and 420 cm-1. SEM images showed that the particles were spherical in nature. The presence of zinc and oxygen was confirmed by EDX and the atomic % of zinc and oxygen were 33.31 and 68.69, respectively. 2D and 3D images of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by AFM studies, which indicated that these are monodisperse having size ranges between 1.5 and 8.5 nm. Significant enhancement of growth was observed in Neem (Azadirachta indica), Karanj (Pongamia pinnata), and Milkwood-pine (Alstonia scholaris) seedlings in foliar spraying ZnO nanoparticles to nursery stage of tree seedlings. Out of the three treated saplings, Alstonia scholaris showed maximum height development.

  9. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients.

  10. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, T.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India); Baruah, D.C. [Energy Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  11. Study on the Characteristics of Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides under the Condition of Sodium%碱性盐胁迫对光果甘草和苦豆子种子萌发的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同浓度的碳酸钠对光果甘草和苦豆子种子萌发的影响.结果表明:在不同浓度的碳酸钠盐(Na2CO3)条件下,光果甘草和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着Na2CO3浓度的增加而下降.但Na2CO3浓度提升到0.9%时,光果甘草种子还能保持73%的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率只有26%.光果甘草种子发芽的最适Na2CO3浓度为0.9%,临界浓度为1.2%,极限浓度为2.1%.而苦豆子种子发芽的最适Na2CO3浓度为0.6%,临界浓度在0.6%和0.9%之间,极限浓度为1.8%.光果甘草种子的发芽指数和0.9%以上浓度的活力指数都比苦豆子高,而盐害率比苦豆子种子低很多.Na2CO3浓度提高到0.9%时,光果甘草种子的盐害率只有26.71%,而苦豆子种子的为70.28%,由此可以确定,光果甘草种子萌发抵抗Na2CO3盐的能力比苦豆子种子强,能适应含Na2CO3盐量达0.9%以上的恶劣的碱土生态环境.而苦豆子种子萌发抗Na2CO3盐的能力相对较弱,只能适应Na2CO3含量为0.6%的碱性土壤条件.%In this study, the effect of Na2 CO3 with different concentration on the seed germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides were investigated. The results indicated that with the increasing concentration of Na2CO3 ,germinative force,germination percentage,germination index,vital index,radicle and germ length of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides all declined. But the germination percentage of 73% in the Glycyrrhiza glabrain was much different from 26% in the Sophora alopecuroides under the condition of concentration of 0.9% in Na2CO3. The better growing concentration, critical concentration and maximum concentration of Na2CO3 for seed germination in the Glycyrrhiza glabrain was 0.9% ,1.2% and 2. 1% respectively,but the above three concentration in the Sophora alopecuroides was 0.6% ,0.6% -0.9% and 1. 8% respectively

  12. Противомикробная активность выделенных биологически активных веществ и экстракта корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L

    OpenAIRE

    Астафьева, Оксана; Сухенко, Людмила; Егоров, Михаил

    2013-01-01

    Изучена противомикробная активность выделенных в виде фракций биологически активных веществ корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L., произрастающей в Астраханском регионе. Методом высокоэффективной жидкостной хроматографии (ВЭЖХ) получен качественный и количественный состав фракций и экстракта корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L. по содержанию глицирризина и 18β-глицирретовой кислоты....

  13. ПРОТИВОМИКРОБНАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ ВЫДЕЛЕННЫХ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИ АКТИВНЫХ ВЕЩЕСТВ И ЭКСТРАКТА КОРНЯ GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Астафьева, Оксана Витальевна; Сухенко, Людмила Тимофеевна; Егоров, Михаил Алексеевич

    2014-01-01

    Изучена противомикробная активность выделенных в виде фракций биологически активных веществ корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L., произрастающей в Астраханском регионе. Методом высокоэффективной жидкостной хроматографии (ВЭЖХ) получен качественный и количественный состав фракций и экстракта корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L. по содержанию глицирризина и 18β-глицирретовой кислоты....

  14. 新疆光果甘草黄酮对人肝癌Bel-7402细胞增殖的抑制活性研究%Anticancer Activity of Flavonoids from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza glabra in Human Bel-7402 hepatocarcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木合布力・阿布力孜; 王永波; 徐方野; 马红艳; 阿布力孜・阿布杜拉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory activity of flavonoid extracts and monomer glabridin from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza glabra L (GgL) towards human Bel‐7402 hepatocarcinoma cells .Methods General flavonoid extract (GF‐A) was prepared from GgL root within ethanol extraction ;the extract GF‐A was purified within polyamide column chromatography for obtaining fine total flavonoids (GF‐B) ;monomer glabridin (Gb) was isolated from the extract GF‐B ;human Bel‐7402 hepatocarcinoma cells were respec‐tively treated with these samples ,and the cell viability was determined by MTT method .Results Three flavonoid samples :GF‐A (flavonoid content 31 .18% ) ,GF‐B (52 .5% ) and monomer glabridin were char‐acterized ;these substances showed significant inhibitory activity towards human Bel‐7402 cancer cell pro‐liferation .At the concentration range of 25 ~ 250 μg/mL ,their maximum inhibitory activity was up to 67 .92% ,84 .28% and 90 .11% ,respectively .Conclusion The human Bel‐7402 hepatocarcinoma cells have certain sensitivity to the anticancer mechanism of flavonoid extracts of GgL ;glabridin may be one of the active flavonoid component in this plant with anticancer potency .%目的:探讨新疆光果甘草(Glycyrrhiz a glab ra L)总黄酮及单体成分光甘草定(glabridin ,Gb)对人肝癌 Bel‐7402细胞增殖的抑制活性。方法采用乙醇提取法从光果甘草制备总黄酮提取物(GF‐A );经聚酰胺富集法精制而制备黄酮含量高于50%的标准化提取物(GF‐B);从 GF‐B 中纯化制备单体成分光甘草定(Gb);以人肝癌Bel‐7402细胞株作为体外模型,用 M TT 法测定各样品对肝癌细胞增殖的抑制活性。结果制备和鉴定3种提取物:GF‐A(总黄酮含量31.18%)、GF‐B(含量52.5%)和 Glabridin 单体;3种物质对人肝癌 Bel‐7402细胞的增殖显示明显的抑制活性,其浓度在25~250μg/mL 范围内对肿瘤细

  15. Effects of Sarcandra Glabra,Cordyceps Sinensis Powder and Radix Puerariae on Viscera Index in Rats with Hepatic Fibrosis%草珊瑚、虫草菌粉及葛根对肝纤维化大鼠脏器指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊耀斌; 傅缨; 俞红; 资晓飞; 杨慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of sarcandra glabra(SG),cordyceps sinensis pow-der(CS)and radix puerariae(RP)on viscera index in rats with hepatic fibrosis.Methods Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups:normal group(N group),model group(M group),SG group,CS group and PR group,with 10 rats in each group.Rats in M,SG, CS and PR groups were given subcutaneous injection of 40% carbon tetrachloride twice per week for 6 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis.After the induction of hepatic fibrosis,rats in SG,CS and PR groups were given SG liquid extract,fermented CS and PR by gavage,respectively.However, rats in N and M groups were given distilled water.After administration for 6 weeks,rats were dis-sected under anesthesia and the liver,spleen,kidney and thymus were collected to calculate the viscera index.Results Compared with N group,liver,spleen and kidney indexes significantly in-creased in M,SG,CS and PR groups(P 0.05).In addition,there were no significant differences in kidney weight and kidney index among M,SG,CS and PR groups(P >0.05).Compared with N group,thymus weight significantly de-creased in CS and PR groups(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Compared with M or SG group,thymus weight and thymus index significantly decreased in PR group(P <0.05 or P <0.01).Conclusion The SG,CS and PR may alleviate hepatic fibrosis through different pathways in rats.Among them,PR exerts the strongest effect on immunologic function.%目的:观察草珊瑚、虫草菌粉及葛根对肝纤维化大鼠脏器指数的影响。方法将50只 SD 大鼠按随机数字表法分为正常组、模型组、草珊瑚组、虫草组及葛根组,每组10只。模型组、草珊瑚组、虫草组及葛根组均采用40%四氯化碳皮下注射,每周2次,6周制作大鼠肝纤维化模型。第7周开始草珊瑚组、虫草组及葛根组分别给予草珊瑚流浸膏、发酵虫草菌粉及葛根灌胃;正常组及模型组不给药,只灌服蒸馏水。给药6

  16. Gastroprotective Properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Seeds; Role as Antioxidant and H+, K+-ATPase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vismaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts are the most attractive sources of newer drugs and have been shown to produce promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Karanjin, a furano-flavonoid has been evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property by employing adult male albino rats. Karanjin (>95% pure was administered to these rats in two different concentrations, that is, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w. Ulcers were induced in the experimental animals by swim and ethanol stress. Serum, stomach and liver-tissue homogenates were assessed for biochemical parameters. Karanjin inhibited 50 and 74% of ulcers induced by swim stress at 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w., respectively. Gastric mucin was protected up to 85% in case of swim stress, whereas only 47% mucin recovery was seen in ethanol stress induced ulcers. H+, K+-ATPase activity, which was increased 2-fold in ulcer conditions, was normalized by Karanjin in both swim/ethanol stress-induced ulcer models. Karanjin could inhibit oxidative stress as evidenced by the normalization of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme (i.e., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels. Karanjin at concentrations of 20 mg kg−1 b.w., when administered orally for 14 days, did not indicate any lethal effects. There were no significant differences in total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase between normal and Karanjin-treated rats indicating no adverse effect on major organs. During treatment schedule, animals remained as healthy as control animals with normal food and water intake and body weight gain.

  17. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  18. Analysis of lubrication properties of zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP) additive on Karanja oil (Pongamia pinnatta) as a green lubricant

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnanunni P., Mohammed Rafeekh P.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a major concern when petroleum based lubricants are used in industries [1]. The effluents produced and their subsequent disposal cause severe environmental hazards especially in the hydraulic, mining, agriculture and petrochemical industries. The mineral based oils cannot be used in food industry because of their toxic nature [2]. Vegetable oils with high oleic acid content are the preferred substitute for mineral oils in industries

  19. 光果甘草的研究进展%Advances in studies on Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祖良; 李倩; 覃洁萍; 杨美华

    2011-01-01

    光果甘草的主要化学成分为三萜皂苷和黄酮类化合物,具有调血脂、抗氧化、抗炎和抑制酪氨酸酶活性等药理作用.在临床应用中,光果甘草中的甘草皂苷成分在镇咳祛痰、清热解毒、治疗溃疡和急慢性病毒性肝炎等方面都具有显著效果.光果甘草在医疗和日用化工行业具有广阔的发展前景.就近年来国内外对光果甘草的化学成分、药理作用和临床应用的研究进展作了综述,为光果甘草的进一步开发利用提供科学依据.

  20. Antioxidative activity and stability of the extracts of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PATRICHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The active principles from the aqueous liquorice plant extracts were investigated and quantified by evaluation of bioactive compounds (saponins through phytochemical reactions. The presence of saponins was evaluated by measuring the foam index, which was around 500. A major component was Glycyrrhizic acid, responsible for the antioxidant activity, found in concentration of 5.82 % at plant maturity. A time-dependent decrease in concentration of the bioactive compounds from aqueous liquorice extracts was observed. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested by the agar diffusion method, showing a moderate inhibitory activity against Bacillus sp. and strong inhibitory activity against coliforms. A liquorice syrup was obtained and subsequently could be used as nutraceutical additive in bread with good results, showing characteristic, optical and antimicrobial properties and good stability in time. Adding liquorice syrup in food products could be an alternative to improve nutraceutical potential.

  1. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) disrupting effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract in mice: a possible role of monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Haidy E; Tadros, Mariane G; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-06-07

    Liquorice extract was reported to have nootropic and/or antiamnestic effects. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a multimodal, cross-species phenomenon used as a measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous studies indicated that liquorice/its constituents augmented mouse brain monoamine levels. Increased brain monoamines' transmission was suggested to underlie PPI disruption. However, the effect of antiamnestic dose(s) of the extract on PPI has not been investigated despite the coexistence of impaired memory and PPI deficit in some neurological disorders. The effect of administration of the antiamnestic dose of the extract (150 mg/kg for 7 days) was tested on PPI of acoustic startle response in mice. It resulted in PPI disruption and therefore its effect on monoamines' levels was investigated in a number of mouse brain areas involved in PPI response mediation. Results demonstrated that the extract antiamnestic dose augmented cortical, hippocampal and striatal monoamine levels. It was therefore concluded that liquorice extract (150 mg/kg)-induced PPI deficit was mediated through augmenting monoaminergic transmission in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. These findings can be further investigated in experimental models for autism, psychosis and Huntington's disease to decide the safety of using liquorice extract in ameliorating memory disturbance in disorders manifesting PPI deficit.

  2. Absorption and desorption behaviour of the flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf on macroporous adsorption resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Zhao, Mouming; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Lin, Lianzhu

    2015-02-01

    The kinetics of adsorption and desorption behaviours of five macroporous resins for enriching flavonoids from Glycyrrhizaglabra L. leaf were investigated. All five resins showed similar and effective adsorption and desorption properties. A pseudo-second-order kinetics model was suitable for evaluating the whole adsorption process. Additionally, two representative resins (XAD-16 and SP825) were chosen for adsorption thermodynamics study. The adsorption of the representative resins was an exothermic and physical adsorption process. Further column chromatography of XAD-16 and SP825 showed that the total flavonoids (from 16.8% to 55.6% by XAD-16 and to 53.9% by SP825) and pinocembrin (from 5.49% to 15.2% by XAD-16 and to 19.8% by SP825) were enriched in 90% ethanol fractions. Meanwhile, the antioxidant capacities and nitrite-scavenging capacities were 2-3times higher than those of the crude extract. The fractions with high flavonoid and pinocembrin contents could be used as biologically active ingredients in functional food.

  3. Ecophysiological aspects of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. germination under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ghanbari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza is an industrial/medicinal plant however, in Iran is known as a weedy species in dry lands and orchards. Germination of Glycyrrhiza seeds collected from Kermanshah and Fars (Zarghan were studied in a range of temperatures (0, 3, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 C. The highest germination percentage for both Kermanshah and Fars populations were obtained at 20 and 25 C while maximum germination percentage of Fars seeds was higher than Kermanshah. At 40 C maximum germination of 27 and 43% was observed for Kermanshah and Fars seeds, respectively. The same trend was observed for germination rate. Time period for 10, 50 and 90% germination was lowest between 20-30C for both seed populations. Base, optimum and ceiling temperatures were obtained respectively, 2.2, 29.1, and 45.3 C for Kermanshah and 2.4, 29,2 and 44 C for Fars populations.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin in Combination: A Possible Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and transaminase reactions are some of the mechanisms that can lead to liver dysfunction. A time-dependent study was designed to evaluate the ability of silymarin (SLN and glycyrrhizin (GLN in different dosage regimens to lessen oxidative stress in the rats with hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride. Wistar male albino rats (n = 60 were randomly assigned to six groups. Group A served as a positive control while groups B, C, D, E, and F received a dose of CCl4 (50% solution of CCl4 in liquid paraffin, 2 mL/kg, intraperitoneally twice a week to induce hepatic injury. Additionally, the animals received SLN and GLN in different doses for a period of six weeks. CCl4 was found to induce hepatic injury by significantly increasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances while decreasing total protein and the activities of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Treatment with various doses of SLN and GLN significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Our findings indicated that SLN and GLN have hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress of the liver.

  5. Development and Validation of HPLC and HPTLC Methods for Estimation of Glabridin in Extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vivek; Mukne, Alka P

    2016-01-01

    Glabridin is a major bioactive phytoconstituent of licorice. This work discusses the development and validation of HPLC and HPTLC methods for analysis of glabridin in licorice. The HPLC separation was performed using a Purospher STAR RP-18e column (5 μm silica particle size, 250 mm × 4.6 mm inner diameter) with gradient elution of 0.2% acetic acid in water-acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min. Quantification was performed at a detection wavelength of 280 nm. HTPLC separation was performed on precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum plate (10 × 10 cm, 250 μm thickness). A linear ascending development was done using a mobile phase of hexane-ethyl acetate-chloroform (5 + 4 + 3, v/v/v). After development, the plates were scanned at 285 nm. Both of the methods provided good separation of glabridin from other constituents of licorice extract. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines. Comparison by Student t-test showed that there was a statistically insignificant difference between the mean glabridin content estimated by both methods at 95% confidence interval. The glabridin content in licorice extract was 3.90% by HPLC and 3.79% by HPTLC.

  6. The comparative effect of heating and irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of licorice roots powders (Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of the licorice root powders extracts as a function of heating, steaming, gamma irradiation and storage periods. Physical and chemical analyses of the extracts were performed after 0 and 12 months of storage, whereas, sensory evaluation was done only two days after irradiation. The results showed that the extraction yield of licorice root measured as organic dissolved solids was significantly increased by heating and decreased by steaming, but there was no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Reduced sugar, glycyrrhizin components, pH values, and color of the extracts were found to be decreased due to heating and steaming. Also the heating and steaming increased the total sugar and viscosity of the licorice root extracts. No differences were verified in the overall sensorial (color, flavor, texture, and taste, physical (color and viscosity, and chemical (total sugar, reduced sugar, glycyrrhizin components, and pH values properties of licorice root extracts after irradiation with 10 kGy.

  7. Drug Resistance Reversal Potential of Isoliquiritigenin and Liquiritigenin Isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pooja; Pal, Anirban; Darokar, Mahendra Padurang; Bhakuni, Rajendra Singh

    2016-10-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) and liquiritigenin (LTG) are structurally related flavonoids found in a variety of plants. Discovery of novel antimicrobial combinations for combating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is of vital importance in the post-antibiotic era. The present study was taken to explore the in vitro and in vivo combination effect of LTG and ISL with β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin and oxacillin) against mec A-containing strains of MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both LTG and ISL exhibited significant anti-MRSA activity (50-100 µg/mL) against clinical isolates of MRSA. The result of in vitro combination study showed that ISL significantly reduced MIC of β-lactam antibiotics up to 16-folds [∑ fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) 0.312-0.5], while LTG reduced up to 8-folds (∑FIC 0.372-0.5). Time kill kinetics at graded MIC combinations (ISL/LTG + β-lactam) indicated 3.27-9.79-fold and 2.59-3.48-fold reduction in the growth of clinical isolates of S. aureus respectively. In S. aureus-infected Swiss albino mice model, combination of ISL with oxacillin significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001) lowered the systemic microbial burden in blood, liver, kidney, lung and spleen tissues in comparison with ISL, oxacillin alone as well as untreated control. Considering its synergistic antibacterial effect, we suggest both ISL and LTG as promising compounds for the development of novel antistaphylococcal combinations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In silico and in vivo anti-malarial studies of 18β glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Kalani

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69 µg/ml anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68-100% at doses of 62.5-250 mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress.

  9. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

    2014-12-15

    Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots.

  10. In silico and in vivo anti-malarial studies of 18β glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Agarwal, Jyoti; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Pal, Anirban; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69 µg/ml) anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock) score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68-100% at doses of 62.5-250 mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress.

  11. Growth Promotion of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by Salt-Tolerant Plant Growth Promotion Rhizobacteria under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabborova D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of agriculture. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR which produce phytohormones is one of the options to mitigate salt stress in plants and improve their growth and improvement under saline conditions. We study the effect of salt-tolerant P.putidaNUU8strain on plant growth of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. under saline soils. The treatment inoculation of P. putidaNUU8strainstatistically significantly increased roots and shoots length plant–1 over the control under a pot experiment. The results showed that inoculation of Glycyrrhizaglabra with of salt-tolerant P.putidaNUU8can enhance salt tolerance and plant growth under soil saline conditions. In our previous study we reported that the salinity did not inhibit the IAA production by strain. Strain P. putidaNUU8appeared to produce IAA in media contained NaCl up to 9 % and it was able to growth at high salt condition.Salt-stressed Glycyrrhizaglabra inoculated with the P. putidaNUU8sharply increased than uninoculated plants. Inoculation of P. putidaNUU8 strain significantly improved the root length 56% and shoots lenth 49% of Glycyrrhizaglabracompared with uninoculated control.

  12. Inhibition of lipid oxidation and rancidity in precooked pork patties by radical-scavenging licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xin; True, Alma D; Zhou, Lirong; Xiong, Youling L

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of licorice extract (LE) to curtail lipid oxidation and protect sensory attributes of ground pork during refrigerated and frozen storage. Pork patties (20% fat) were formulated with 0%, 0.02%, 0.05%, and 0.1% (meat basis) LE or rosemary extract (RE) as comparison or 0.01% (fat basis) BHA with 0 or 1.5% NaCl. Raw and precooked (75 °C) patties were packaged in polyvinylchloride overwrapped trays and stored at 2 °C up to 7 and 14 d, respectively, or at -20 °C up to 6 mo. Lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and sensory attributes of stored patty samples were evaluated, radical scavenging activity of the LE was measured, and the active phenolic compounds were identified. Cooking yield (<85%) was similar among antioxidant treatments, and lipid oxidation was minimal in refrigerated or frozen raw samples. However, TBARS values in refrigerated precooked control patties (0.22 mg/kg) rose to 9.3 to 9.4 mg/kg after 14 d, compared to 3.4 to 4.4 and 4.4 to 6.9 mg/kg in patties treated with 0.1% LE and RE, respectively. In frozen precooked samples, TBARS (0.22 mg/kg) increased to 1.3 mg/kg (P < 0.05) in control patties after 6 mo and had no significant change in patties treated with 0.1% LE or 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisol. Sensory panel evaluation confirmed strong inhibition of rancidity production by LE, corroborating its remarkable antiradical activity due to the presence of multiple phenolics. The results indicate that licorice has great potential as a natural antioxidative additive to extend the shelf-life of precooked pork.

  13. Pathways for epidermal cell differentiation via the homeobox gene GLABRA2: update on the roles of the classic regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing; Qing, Lin; Aoyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Recent plant development studies have identified regulatory pathways for epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, some of such pathways contain transcriptional networks with a common structure in which the homeobox gene GLABLA2 (GL2) is downstream of the transactivation complex consisting of MYB, bHLH, and WD40 proteins. Here, we review the role of GL2 as an output device of the conserved network, and update the knowledge of epidermal cell differentiation pathways downstream of GL2. Despite the consistent position of GL2 within the network, its role in epidermal tissues varies; in the root epidermis, GL2 promotes non-hair cell differentiation after cell pattern formation, whereas in the leaf epidermis, it is likely to be involved in both pattern formation and differentiation of trichomes. GL2 expression levels act as quantitative factors for initiation of cell differentiation in the root and leaf epidermis; the quantity of hairless cells in non-root hair cell files is reduced by gl2 mutations in a semi-dominant manner, and entopically additive expression of GL2 and a heterozygous gl2 mutation increase and decrease the number of trichomes, respectively. Although few direct target genes have been identified, evidence from genetic and expression analyses suggests that GL2 directly regulates genes with various hierarchies in epidermal cell differentiation pathways. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; Arman, M; Ibrahim, M; Shafique, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  15. 簕杜鹃的扦插繁殖技术%Cutting Propagation Techniques of Bougainvillea glabra choisy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹桂逢

    2009-01-01

    介绍了我国南方地区广泛种植的园林观赏植物--簕杜鹃的扦插技术,就其基质、插穗准备和扦插方法及管理方面的技术进行阐述,旨在为生产上的大规模繁殖与开发利用提供技术支撑.

  16. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Puławska

    2015-01-01

    In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the ove...

  17. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puławska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the overlying and underlying tiers.

  18. Pathways for Epidermal Cell Differentiation via the Homeobox Gene GLABRA2: Update on the Roles of the Classic Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Qing; Takashi Aoyama

    2012-01-01

    Recent plant development studies have identified regulatory pathways for epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.Interestingly,some of such pathways contain transcriptional networks with a common structure in which the homeobox gene GLABLA2 (GL2) is downstream of the transactivation complex consisting of MYB,bHLH,and WD40 proteins.Here,we review the role of GL2 as an output device of the conserved network,and update the knowledge of epidermal cell differentiation pathways downstream of GL2.Despite the consistent position of GL2 within the network,its role in epidermal tissues varies; in the root epidermis,GL2 promotes non-hair cell differentiation after cell pattern formation,whereas in the leaf epidermis,it is likely to be involved in both pattern formation and differentiation of trichomes.GL2 expression levels act as quantitative factors for initiation of cell differentiation in the root and leaf epidermis; the quantity of hairless cells in non-root hair cell files is reduced by g/2 mutations in a semi-dominant manner,and entopically additive expression of GL2 and a heterozygous g/2 mutation increase and decrease the number of trichomes,respectively.Although few direct target genes have been identified,evidence from genetic and expression analyses suggests that GL2 directly regulates genes with various hierarchies in epidermal cell differentiation pathways.

  19. Effect of flavonoids from Pongamia pinnata root on gastric ulcer induced by pyloric-ligation in rats%水黄皮根总黄酮抗大鼠幽门结扎型胃溃疡作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘可云; 朱毅

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究水黄皮根总黄酮(PRF)对大鼠幽门结扎型胃溃疡的作用机制.方法 采用大鼠幽门结扎模型观察PRF对胃溃疡的保护作用;幽门结扎收集胃液观察PRF对大鼠胃液分泌和黏液分泌的影响;采用免疫组化染色法观察PRF对幽门结扎大鼠胃黏膜表皮生长因子(EGF)表达的影响;采用放射免疫方法观察PEF对幽门结扎大鼠血清胃泌素的影响.结果 与模型对照组的溃疡指数(4.37±0.69)比较,PRF中、高剂量组分别为(2.62±0.69),(2.12±0.92),对大鼠幽门结扎型胃溃疡有明显的保护作用(P<0.01);与模型对照组的积分吸光度(0.67±0.24)比较,PRF低、中、高剂量组分别为(0.93±0.41),(1.36±0.59),(1.54±0.68),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);与模型对照组比较,PRF各剂量组可明显降低胃液量(P<0.05,P<0.01);PRF中、高剂量能明显降低大鼠游离酸度、总酸度以及总酸排出量(P<0.01).结论 水黄皮根总黄酮对大鼠幽门结扎型胃溃疡具有明显保护作用,可能与通过抑制胃泌素分泌、促进EGF分泌、促进胃黏液分泌有关.

  20. Experimental investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of J20, P20, N20 Biodiesel blends and Sound Characteristics of P20 Biodiesel blend Used in Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    rajasekar, R.; karthik, N.; Xavier, Goldwin

    2017-05-01

    Present work provides the effect of biodiesel blends and Sound Characteristics of P20 Biodiesel blend compared with Performance and emission Characteristics of diesel. Methods and analysis biodiesel blends was prepared by the Transesterification Process. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Research is mainly focused on pongamia oil. It was observed that a 20% Pongamia oil blends and its properties were similar to diesel. The results showed that 20% Pongamia oil blends gave better performance, less in noise and emission compared with ester of Jatropha and neem oil blends. Hence Pongamia blends can be used in existing diesel engine without compromising the engine performance.

  1. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian; Asokan Guruprasath; Marta Vivar; Skryabin Igor; Karuppian Srithar

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD) and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD) are taken for the experimental analysis. Ex...

  2. Identification of glabridin as a bioactive compound in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, John F; Glynn, Kelly M; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Licorice, the root and stolons of the Glycyrrhiza plant (Fabaceae), has been used for centuries as a food additive (sweetener), in cosmetics, and in traditional medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that licorice extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, one of the activating phytochemicals is glabridin. Glabridin was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist.

  3. 光果甘草原生质体分离条件优化%Research on the Protoplasts Isolation Conditions of Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王礼强; 杨瑞; 袁伯川; 刘春生; 刘颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索光果甘草原生质体分离的最佳条件.方法:对光果甘草原生质体分离的若干影响因子,包括材料来源、酶液组成、酶解方式、酶解时间、渗透压、预处理方式进行考察,以确定最佳的原生质体分离条件.结果:光果甘草原生质体分离的最佳条件为:以生长7d光果甘草无菌苗的子叶作为分离材料,4℃、MS培养基上预培养12 h,以1.5%纤维素酶+0.5%果胶酶作为分离原生质体酶液体系,以含有0.7 mol/L甘露醇作为渗透保护剂的CPW溶液配制酶液,于25℃静置条件下酶解14 h.结论:采用本实验所确定的光果甘草原生质体最佳分离条件可获得大量优质的原生质体,为后续细胞融合及遗传转化等实验奠定了良好的基础.

  4. Microwave Technique Extraction and Content Determination of Chromoco in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%甘草总黄酮的微波提取及含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 李艳; 成玉怀

    2003-01-01

    目的:从甘草中提取总黄酮,并测定其含量.方法:运用微波技术提取甘草总黄酮,用比色法测定总黄酮含量.结果:测得甘草中总黄酮含量为1.721%,平均回收率为98.26%,RSD=0.62% (n=6).结论:首次运用微波技术从甘草中提取出总黄酮,反应速度加快,实验结果令人满意.

  5. RP-HPLC测定光果甘草中光甘草定的含量%Determination of Glabridin in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆从艳; 王新春; 江发寿; 王园姬; 陈文

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立测定光果甘草中光甘草定含量的HPLC方法.方法:采用Kromasil C18柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-2%冰醋酸溶液(pH3)(53:47),检测波长280nm,流速1.0 mL/min,进样体积10μL.结果:光甘草定在0.0810~0.7290μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率(n=9)为99.8%,其相对标准偏差为2.2%.结论:该方法简单、结果准确,重现性好,适用于光甘草定的含量测定.

  6. HPLC测定光果甘草中光甘草定的含量%HPLC determinated the content of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林灵超; 阮佳佳

    2012-01-01

    目的:采用HPLC测定光果甘草粗黄酮浓缩物中光甘草定的含量.方法:以FL2200-Ⅱ为高效液相色谱仪,采用Ultimate XB-C18色谱柱,以水和乙腈为流动相,进行梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm,流速1.0 mL· min-1.结果:光甘草定在9.5~475 μg·mL-1内线性良好,r =0.9998;测得某光果甘草粗黄酮浓缩物中光甘草定的平均含量为3.58%,RSD=1.23%,平均加标回收率99.04%,RSD=0.26%.结论:利用反相高效液相色谱对甘草粗黄酮浓缩物中的光甘草定进行含量测定,方法简便,准确度高,重现性好,可应用于光甘草定的含量测定.

  7. 新疆光果甘草黄酮类成分的抗氧化活性%Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoids from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木合布力·阿布力孜; 毛新民; 热娜·卡斯木; 马淑燕; 季晓娟

    2008-01-01

    目的 从新疆光果甘草中制备总黄酮(LGFs)及单体成分光甘草定(glabridin,GLB),并研究它们的抗氧化活性.方法 用常规方法 制备LGFs和GLB;利用HL-60细胞中的Myeloperoxidase/H2O2/HClO氧化系统和肝微粒体中的细胞色素P450/NADPH氧化系统做体外抗氧化实验模型,对LGFs和GLB的抗氧化活性进行测定.系统中自由基诱发程度由探针物DCFH-DA的氧化产物DCF的浓度来检测.银杏叶提取物EGb761用作阳性对照物.结果 在两种体外模型中,LGFs和GLB均显示较强的抗氧化活性,它们清除自由基活性强度为EGb761≥GLB>LFs.结论 甘草总黄酮及其中的主要活性成分GLB在HL-60细胞和肝微粒体氧化系统中具有很强的抗氧化活性.这些结果 可部分解释甘草药理作用与其抗氧化预防活性的关系.

  8. 光果甘草叶总黄酮测定方法%Determination of Total Flavonoids in Leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怡; 林恋竹; 赵谋明

    2013-01-01

    选用4种常用的黄酮显色方法,通过波长扫描分别确定3种标准对照品(芦丁、槲皮素、甘草苷)及新疆光果甘草叶80%乙醇提取物在各显色方法下的两个吸收波长,并分别建立标准曲线.按照建立标准曲线的方法测定新疆光果甘草叶80%乙醇提取物中总黄酮含量,并对各测定方法的精密度、稳定性、重现性及加样回收率进行测定.通过对比实验结果最终确定光果甘草叶总黄酮测定方法为:以槲皮素为对照品,A1C13-CH4O显色法,检测波长为314nm;在此条件下,该方法的精密度、重现性、稳定性及加样回收率的相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为0.92%、2.15%、0.87%和(105.02±1.11)%.

  9. 光果甘草根精油的化学成分分析%Analysis on composition of volatile oil from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君义; 张继; 姚健; 王一峰

    2005-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取,同时运用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用法结合计算机检索对光果甘草根精油的化学成分进行分析和鉴定,用气相色谱面积归一化法测定各组分的相对百分含量.经毛细管色谱分离出16个峰,并且确认了其中的15种化合物,所鉴定化合物的含量占精油总量的93.8%,其化学成分主要为亚油酸乙酯(31.02%);十六酸乙酯(14.52);(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸乙酯(7.28%);E-乙酸-8-甲基-9-十四烯-1-酯(6.90%);十五烷(5.35%);1-十八烯(5.01%)等,上述六种化合物的含量占总量的70.08%.首次报道了光果甘草根精油的化学成分,为进一步开发利用提供了科学依据.

  10. In Silico and In Vivo Anti-Malarial Studies of 18β Glycyrrhetinic Acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Agarwal, Jyoti; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Pal, Anirban; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69µg/ml) anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock) score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68–100% at doses of 62.5–250mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress. PMID:24086367

  11. The Influence of 1-Triacontanol on the Growth, Flowering, and Quality of Potted Bougainvillea Plants (Bougainvillea glabra var. “Elizabeth Angus”) under Natural Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker; Golam Faruq; M. Motior Rahman; Sofian-Azirun, M.; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce

    2013-01-01

    Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P,...

  12. The Influence of 1-Triacontanol on the Growth, Flowering, and Quality of Potted Bougainvillea Plants (Bougainvillea glabra var. “Elizabeth Angus” under Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P, and K, as well as increased total soluble solids (TSS and higher sugar and protein contents, were recorded in treated plants. Furthermore, 46% more flowers, a 1.5-fold increase in bract weight, increased longevity, and 40% less leaf abscission were recorded following 2.5 mg/L TRIA treatment. Phenol and flavonoid contents, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, and antioxidant activities were also markedly increased with 2.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. However, ethylene production was significantly lower in the treated plants. Positive correlations were observed between leaf TSS and flowering time and flower number, between leaf sugar content and bract weight, and between net photosynthesis and bract growth and dry matter production. It can be concluded that the foliar spray of TRIA stimulates growth, enhances flowering, and improves the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants.

  13. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Bougainvillea glabra%叶子花的组织培养与快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李师翁

    2000-01-01

    @@1 植物名称 叶子花(Bougainvilleaglabra)。 2 材料类别 顶芽、具腋芽茎段。 3 培养条件 无性系建立培养基:(1)MS+(单位下同)+NAA 0.05;(2)MS + 6-BA 0.1 + IBA 0.1 + IAA 0.1; (3)MS +IAA 0.2; (4) 1/2MS + 6-BA 0.5 + NAA 0.05。增殖培养基:(5)MS + 6-BA 0.5 + NAA 0.05。生根培养基:(6) 1/2MS + IBA 0.2 + IAA 0.2;(7)1/2MS + IBA 0.5 + IAA 0.5; (8) 1/2MS +IBA 0.2+ IAA 0.2 + NAA 0.1; (9)1/2MS +I3A 0.5+ IAA 0.5 + NAA 0.2; (10) 1/2MS +IBA 1 + IAA 1 + NAA 0.2。上述各培养基均加3%食用白糖、0.4%琼脂,pH 5.8,培养温度为(20±5)℃,每天光照10 h,光照度约1 500lx左右。

  14. Overview of studies on detoxification effect of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma on mercury poisoning%土茯苓解汞毒的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐笑飞; 陈红风; 叶媚娜

    2012-01-01

    Mercury-containing preparations are widely used in surgery department of traditional Chinese medicine and have made remarkable achievements. But they are toxic to human kidney, nerve, immune, etc. Smilacis Clabrae Rhizoma is sweet, tasteless and neutral in nature and able to enter liver and stomach channels and detoxify mercury poisoning. This article summarizes the mercury poisoning and the detoxification effect of Smilacis Clabrae Rhizoma in ancient records, pharmaceutical studies and clinical application , in order to provide ideas and methods for the safe use of mercury-containing preparations in surgery department of traditional Chinese medicine.%含汞制剂在中医外科中应用广泛,作用显著,然因含汞而在人体肾脏、神经、免疫等方面有明显的毒性.土茯苓性甘、淡、平,归肝、胃两经,有解汞毒之功效.该文通过汞的毒性、土茯苓解汞毒的古籍记载、土茯苓解毒的药理研究及其临床应用等方面,综述土茯苓解汞毒的相关研究概况,为中医外科临床安全使用含汞制剂提供可行的思路与方法.

  15. The influence of 1-triacontanol on the growth, flowering, and quality of potted Bougainvillea plants (Bougainvillea glabra var. "Elizabeth Angus") under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Faruq, Golam; Rahman, M Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2013-01-01

    Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P, and K, as well as increased total soluble solids (TSS) and higher sugar and protein contents, were recorded in treated plants. Furthermore, 46% more flowers, a 1.5-fold increase in bract weight, increased longevity, and 40% less leaf abscission were recorded following 2.5 mg/L TRIA treatment. Phenol and flavonoid contents, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and antioxidant activities were also markedly increased with 2.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. However, ethylene production was significantly lower in the treated plants. Positive correlations were observed between leaf TSS and flowering time and flower number, between leaf sugar content and bract weight, and between net photosynthesis and bract growth and dry matter production. It can be concluded that the foliar spray of TRIA stimulates growth, enhances flowering, and improves the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants.

  16. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Hosseini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.  

  17. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  18. A kinetic study on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of oil cakes:Effect of cellulose and lignin content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakrishna Gottipati; Susmita Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of three different oil cakes such as Pongamia ( Pongamia Pinnata), Madhuca (Madhuca Indica), and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) were investigated in this study.The cellulose and lignin contents of oil cakes play very important role in pyrolysis and combustion processes.A kinetic investigation of three oil cakes was carried out and major part of the samples decomposed between 210 ℃ and 500 ℃.Pyrolysis and combustion were carried out with the mixtures of cellulose and lignin chemicals in different ratios and compared with the oil cakes.The biomass with higher cellulose content showed faster rate of pyrolysis than the biomass with higher lignin content.However at higher temperatures ( >600 ℃ ) all the oil cakes exhibited similar conversion at low heating rate in N2 atmosphere.Apparent activation energies increased for Madhuca and Pongamia oil cakes indicating the presence of more cellulose whereas, low activation energy of Jatropha confirms more lignin content.

  19. 光果甘草生殖生物学特性的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on the Characteristics of Reproductive Biology of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云海; 陆嘉惠; 张际昭; 刘静; 李学禹

    2010-01-01

    对光果甘草的花部特征、花粉活力、柱头可授性和花粉-胚珠比(P/O)进行了初步研究.结果表明:(1)光果甘草雄蕊异型,雌雄蕊异位,有利于避免自花授粉;(2)开花当天花粉活力在上午12:00最高,为91.8%,14:00迅速下降,16:00到达最低,16:00以后逐渐上升;(3)柱头可授性可持续4 d,以开花当天可授性最强;(4)花粉-胚珠比(P/O)为1 751.1±217.002,表明其繁育系统类型为兼性异交.

  20. Tyrosinase inhibition activities of the ethyl acetate phase of glycyrrhiza glabra%光果甘草乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨萌; 李影影; 李明静

    2015-01-01

    酪氨酸酶是生物体合成黑色素的关键酶,实验以光果甘草为原料,研究其提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶活性的抑制作用及机理.采用L-多巴速率氧化法体外测定光果甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶的抑制活性,并绘制了Lineweaver-Burk双倒数曲线以此判断其抑制类型.结果表明光果甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相半抑制浓度(IC60)为(266.5±1.4) mg/L.对酪氨酸酶抑制机理测定分析的结果表明,光果甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶活性的抑制作用表现为可逆抑制,对酪氨酸酶活性的抑制类型是混合型抑制,抑制常数KI为(182.86±1.43)mg/L,α值为(15.49±0.68) mg/L.可见甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶有较强抑制作用.

  1. Effects of inclusion of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) leaves, a tannin-containing plant, in a low-protein diet on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of fat-tailed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rajaei Sharifabadi, Hossein; Bagheri, Amir Sajjad; Solhjoo, Amanollah

    2015-03-01

    The protein-sparing effect of condensed tannins (CT) was investigated in growing lambs fed a low- or high-protein diet during a 50-day period. Isocaloric diets containing 106 g crude protein/kg dry matter (DM) (low protein; LP) or 138 g crude protein/kg DM (high protein; HP) were formulated using 70 % concentrate, 15 % corn silage, and 15 % dried licorice leaves, providing CT (4.1 g/kg DM). Twenty-four crossbred male lambs (3-4 months old, 23.9 ± 5.2 kg body weight) were assigned to one of four diets: LP with polyethylene glycol (PEG; 40 g/kg DM) supplementation (LP + PEG), LP without PEG supplementation (LP - PEG), HP with PEG supplementation (HP + PEG), and HP without PEG supplementation (HP - PEG). The effect of dietary crude protein level and CT on feed intake was not significant (P > 0.05). However, a positive effect on daily gain (P 0.05) in groups without PEG supplementation. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CT can minimize the negative effect of low-protein diets on FCR in lambs.

  2. HPLC Determination of Glabridin from Three Residues of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.With Different Extraction Methods%HPLC测定3种甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 李巍; 张化; 赵余庆

    2011-01-01

    目的:测定新疆光果甘草渣、吉尔吉斯光果甘草渣和发霉吉尔吉斯光果甘草渣中光甘草定的含量,比较3种工艺的提取效率.方法:应用闪式法(STE)、超声波法(USE)、微波法(MWE)提取,采用HPLC法测定比较3种甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量.色谱柱条件:Kromasil C色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流动相:乙腈-1%醋酸水溶液(53:47),流速:1 mL·min;检测波长:282 nm;柱温:25℃.结果:不同甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量不同,3种提取工艺光甘草定含量有差异.结论:在本试验条件下,吉尔吉斯甘草废渣中光甘草定含量较高;霉变的光甘草定含量较低.STE法光甘草定提取率较高.

  3. 人工栽培光果甘草不同根系黄酮含量的测定%Determination of flavonids in different root systems of cultivated Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 郁晓艺; 汪河滨; 李学禹; 李炳奇

    2005-01-01

    目的测定并比较人工栽培光果甘草不同根系中总黄酮的含量,为光果甘草的合理种植、采收利用及质量评定提供依据.方法以柚皮苷作为对照品,用紫外分光光度法于417 nm处测定黄酮的含量.结果总黄酮含量水平根为1.62%,主根为1.22%,侧根为1.13%.结论光果甘草的不同根系总黄酮含量不同,且有明显差异.

  4. Effect of Salt Stress on Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%3种盐胁迫对光果甘草种子萌发的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2014-01-01

    就不同浓度的氯化钠、硫酸钠和碳酸钠对光果甘草种子萌发的影响进行了研究.结果表明:在不同浓度的3种盐条件下,光果甘草种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.光果甘草抗硫酸钠盐的能力最强,能适应含盐量达2.1% ~2.4%的土壤条件,抗氯化钠的能力为第二,能适应含盐量达1.8%的较恶劣的生态环境,而抗碳酸钠的能力相对最差,能适应含盐量为0.9%的碱性土壤条件.

  5. 超高压同时提取光果甘草中甘草酸和光甘草定的研究%Ultrahigh pressure extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 段文娟; 王晓; 方磊; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    采用超高压技术提取光果甘草中甘草酸、光甘草定两种活性成分,考察提取溶剂、压力、时间和料液比对二者提取率的影响,通过正交试验优化得到超高压最佳提取条件为:60%乙醇作为提取溶剂、提取压力500 MPa、提取时间3 min、料液比1∶40 (g/mL),光果甘草中甘草酸和光甘草定的提取率分别达到49.84 mg/g和1.05 mg/g.超高压提取法同超声提取法、热回流提取法进行比较,结果显示,超高压提取效果明显优于超声提取,同时,超高压提取时间只需1 min,是超声提取的1/30、热回流提取的1/120,缩短了提取时间,提高了工作效率,是一种快速、简单、常温的提取方法.

  6. RP-HPLC Determination of Glabridin Content in Different Licorice Residues from Glycyrrhiza glabra L%RP-HPLC测定不同产地光果甘草废渣中光甘草定含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵杰; 木合布力·阿布力孜; 孟磊; 李宏智

    2010-01-01

    目的 利用反相高效液相色谱法测定由不同产地光果甘草制备的甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量.方法 对4种产地的光果甘草用同一种水提法制备甘草废渣;再用不同提取法制备6种总黄酮粗提物;采用symmetry C18反相色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-水-冰醋酸(55:44:1),检测波长为282nm,流速为1.0mL·min-1,柱温为30℃,测定各样品中光甘草定的含量.结果 光甘草定在0.09~0.45 mg·mL-1内呈良好线性关系(r=0.9997),平均回收率100.2%,RSD为0.89%.6种总黄酮粗提物中光甘草定含量分别为1.31%,1.16%,1.59%,2.93%,0.98%,0.85%;4种甘草废渣中,先甘草定含量分别为0.225%,0.290%,0.211%,0.218%.结论 反相高效液相色谱法简便、快速、重复性好,适用于光果甘草中光甘草定的含量测定.4种光果甘草废渣中,新疆和静的光果甘草废渣所含光甘草定含量明显高于其他产地的光果甘草废渣.此外,利用甲醇回流提取法制备光甘草定时,提取率和总黄酮出膏率都高于乙醇回流提取法和甲醇超声提取法.

  7. GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn%光果甘草叶挥发性化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君义; 张继; 姚健; 郑生霞

    2006-01-01

    目的分析光果甘草叶的挥发性化学成分.方法用水蒸气蒸馏法提取光果甘草叶挥发性化学成分并采用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用技术结合计算机检索对其进行分析分离和鉴定,用气相色谱面积归一化法测定各组分的相对百分含量.结果分离出88个峰,鉴定出80种化合物,其含量占挥发油总量的91.1%.结论通过对光果甘草叶挥发性化学成分的研究,为甘草资源的进一步开发利用提供了实验依据.

  8. 甘草药渣中黄酮类成分及其抗氧化活性的研究%Flavonoids and their anti-oxidant activities of the herb residues of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方诗琦; 冷康; 段金廒; 李存玉; 魏娟花; 郑云枫; 彭国平

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究甘草药渣中黄酮类成分及其抗氧化活性,为其资源再利用提供依据.方法 甘草药渣提取液中的黄酮成分采用硅胶、C18中压反相柱色谱和重结晶进行分离纯化,波谱分析进行结构鉴定,然后其抗氧化活性采用1,1-二苯基-2-苦肼基(DPPH)自由基清除及酪氨酸酶抑制实验来测定.结果 从中分离鉴定出10个黄酮类化合物,分别为甘草查尔酮甲(1)、异甘草素(2)、甘草黄酮C(3)、甘草黄酮(4)、甘草异黄酮乙(5)、光甘草酮(6)、甘草素(7)、半甘草异黄酮B(8)、甘草异黄酮甲(9)、芒柄花素(10).其中,化合物1、2、5、6清除DPPH自由基作用相对较强,IC50分别为27.9、61.0、18.2、26.0μg/mL;化合物1~3能较显著地抑制酪氨酸酶,IC50分别为60.3、4.9、54.9 μg/mL.结论 甘草药渣中仍含有多种具抗氧化活性的黄酮类化合物,应进一步开发利用.

  9. Structural Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.Leaf%光果甘草叶中性多糖结构表征及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林恋竹; 焦铭

    2016-01-01

    本文以光果甘草叶为原料,提取得到水溶性多糖GCC,采用DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow柱层析法对GCC进行分离纯化,得到一种中性多糖(GCⅠ),两种酸性多糖(GCⅡ和GC Ⅲ),选择DPPH自由基清除能力、氧自由基吸收能力(ORAC)强的中性多糖GCⅠ,对其进行结构特征分析.采用高效凝胶渗透色谱法(GPC)、红外光谱法(FT-IR)、PMP柱前衍生-高效液相色谱法(HPLC)、甲基化-气相色谱质谱法(GC-MS)测定GCⅠ的分子量、单糖组成以及糖苷键连接方式.GCⅠ含有两个分子量分布不同的多糖,它们的平均分子量分别为980 ku及20 ku;红外光谱中4000~500 cm-1波数范围内出现了多糖的特征峰;GCⅠ由5种单糖组成,包括:甘露糖、鼠李糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖和阿拉伯糖;GCⅠ中→2)-Araf-(1→、→6)-Galp-(1→和→6)-Glcp-(1→残基含量最高.

  10. 新疆甘草黄酮类成分光甘草定的制备工艺改进%Lmproved Preparation Process of Isoflavon Constituent Glabridin from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza Glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赛力曼·哈得尔; 李宏智; 木合布力·阿布力孜; 巴哈尔古丽·卡哈尔

    2008-01-01

    目的:考察利用简便方法提取和分离新疆光果甘草异黄酮类成分光甘草定的工艺.方法:分别利用二氯甲烷、甲醇和乙醇等3种溶剂提取法,对光果甘草中光甘草定的提取率进行考察;再利用硅胶柱层析和制备薄层层析法对光甘草定进行分离纯化,对文献工艺进行简化.结果:利用3种不同提取方法获得的光果甘草总黄酮粗提物中,光甘草定的含量分别达2.9%(出膏率2.5%)、2.6%(4.8%)和2.3%(4.5%).结论:用乙醇提取光果甘草总提取物具有提取率高、安全和环保等优点;利用硅胶柱层析法对粗提取物中的不同极性组分进行分离、再利用制备薄层法进行分离纯化,在快速制备高纯度的光甘草定中具有一定参考价值,此方法比文献工艺简便易行.

  11. Study on the in vitro and ex vitro Rooting for Test-tube Seedlings of Bougainvillea glabra%三角梅组培苗试管内外生根研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶顶英

    2011-01-01

    以紫花三角梅和紫红重瓣三角梅组培苗为试材,研究其在试管内、外的生根情况.结果表明:试管内生根以1/4 MS+IBA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05 mg/L处理的生根情况最好,生根率为92.53%,平均生根数量11条,平均根长4.75 cm;试管外的生根率为43%.

  12. 外源ABA对叶子花开花及内源ABA合成关键酶的影响%Effects of Abscisic Acid on Flowering and Some Key Enzymes of Bougainvillea glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家昱; 潘远智; 李永红

    2014-01-01

    以叶子花‘大红宝巾’(Bougainvillea glabra‘Mrs Butt’)为试材,研究外源脱落酸(ABA)对其开花及其生物合成关键酶含量与活性变化的影响.结果表明:外源ABA对叶子花的成花有促进作用;去甲二氢愈创木酸(NDGA)浓度大于10 μmol·L-l时,ABA的合成明显被抑制,低浓度NDGA与高浓度ABA共同作用反而对内源ABA含量的升高具有增效作用;内源ABA的变化趋势与9-顺式-环氧类胡萝卜素双氧合酶(NCED)含量的变化趋势相一致,表明NCED为ABA生物合成途径中的限速酶;外源ABA使玉米黄质环氧化酶(ZEP)、NCED、ABA醛氧化酶(AAO)含量及活性均明显上升,表明ABA能自我催化调节其合成,且单一酶基因或单一酶促反应并不能合理解释ABA水平的变化,推测ABA信号的作用机制是一个由多酶有机统筹系统控制的结果.

  13. Comparative Research on Multiplication of Two Types of Shoots from Bougainvillea glabra Micropropagation%三角梅两种植株再生途径丛生芽增殖比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶顶英

    2011-01-01

    以紫花三角梅和紫红重瓣三角梅为外植体,进行丛生芽增殖比较研究,以期筛选出丛生芽诱导和增殖的最佳培养基.结果表明:愈伤组织丛生芽增殖最佳培养基为MS+BA2.0 mg/L(2.5 mg/L)+IBA 0.2 mg/L+GA3 1.0 mg/L,增殖系数达7.7以上;侧芽途径丛生芽的增殖最佳培养基为MS+BA 3.0 mg/L+IBA 0.1 mg/L,增殖系数达4.0以上.考虑生产成本和生产周期,侧芽途径优于愈伤组织途径.

  14. Effects of Endophyte on Germination, Growth and Resistance to Osmotic Stress of Oxytropis glabra%内生真菌对小花棘豆种子抗渗透胁迫能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程翠; 王雨梅; 赵萌莉; 韩国栋; 李娜; 张爱萍

    2009-01-01

    以含有内生真菌的小花棘豆种子为材料,采用剥除种皮的方式构建内生真菌未感染的小花棘豆种群,通过比较内生真菌感染和内生真菌未感染种群在正常条件下(对照)和渗透胁迫条件下种子发芽、幼苗生长等方面的差异,探讨内生真菌对其宿主植物的直接和间接影响.结果表明:内生真菌对种子发芽率无显著影响;内生真菌可促进小花棘豆幼苗的生长.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Five Polyphenols in Rhizoma smilacis Glabrae by HPLC%高效液相法同时测定土茯苓中五种多酚成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清峰; 张汉扬; 上官新晨; 郑国栋

    2013-01-01

    本文建立了土茯苓中五种多酚成分:5-O-咖啡酰莽草酸、落新妇苷、花旗松素、黄杞苷及白藜芦醇的高效液相色谱分析方法.色谱柱为Agilent Zorbax SB C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm i.d.,5μm),流动相为乙腈(A)及0.1%醋酸水溶液(B),线性梯度洗脱程序为0~15 min,16~21%A; 15~40 min,21~40%A.五种成分线性良好(r>0.998),保留时间相对标准偏差介于0.22~0.76%,峰面积相对标准偏差介于2.67~4.64%,加标回收率介于96.5~103.7%.对18批土茯苓样品分析结果表明,落新妇苷是土茯苓中最主要黄酮成分,含量范围为5.48~25.75 mg/g;花旗松素、黄杞苷、异黄杞苷、落新妇苷及其三种异构体(以落新妇苷计)等七种黄酮总量介于6.72~35.3 mg/g,平均含量为18±8.5 mg/g; 5-O-咖啡酰莽草酸含量也较高,含量范围为0.97~6.29 mg/g,该成分在土茯苓中的含量测定为首次报道.但花旗松素和白藜芦醇含量较低,在一些样品中未检测到.

  16. A Contribution to the Problem of Tree Necrosis in Cities: Soil Properties in the Habitat of Ulmus glabra Huds. and Ulmus minor Mill. Greenery Elements of the City of Kielce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świercz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of soils have a significant impact on the growth and development of vegetation. In urban areas, because of increased human activity, changes occur in both grain-size composition as well as physical and chemical properties of soils. These soils are frequently saline and contaminated with heavy metals, which limit the development of vegetation and cause its necrosis. Elm is a commonly growing tree with low habitat requirements, whose population has been considerably reduced because of progressing Dutch elm disease. This study attempts to assess the relationship of dependency between physicochemical parameters of soils and health status of elms from the area of the City of Kielce. Two elms were selected for the study, that is, one alive tree being a natural monument and one necrotic tree. The soil analysis concerned physicochemical parameters such as size composition, reaction, salinity measured by means of proper electrolyte conductivity (PEC, acidity, organic carbon content, carbonates, nitrogen, and selected elements including heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn. The study indicates differentiation amongst the physicochemical parameters of the analysed soils. A characteristic feature of the soils being the habitat of the necrotic elm is that they have considerably higher salinity than those being the habitat of the alive elm. Increased levels of sodium and chlorides could negatively affect water transportation in vegetation what might have resulted, amongst others, in necrosis of the tree.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity Is a Possible Mechanism by Which the Polyherbal Formulation Comprised of Nigella sativa (Seeds, Hemidesmus indicus (Root, and Smilax glabra (Rhizome Mediates Its Antihepatocarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna B. Galhena

    2012-01-01

    oral administration of the decoction. As with the positive control, indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w. the inhibitory effect was pronounced at 3rd and 4th h after carrageenan injection. A notable IKK α/β mediated hepatic NF-κB inactivation was associated with a significant hepatic TNFα downregulation among mice-bearing hepatocarcinogenic changes subjected to decoction treatment. Inhibition of NO production, leukocyte migration, and membrane stabilization are possible mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory effect is mediated by the decoction. Overall findings imply that anti-inflammatory activity could be one of the mechanisms by which the decoction mediates its antihepatocarcinogenic effects.

  18. Preliminary Expiration on Reason for Low Yield of Armeniaca vulgaris var.glabra and Its Prevention Measures%敦煌李光杏低产原因及其防治措施初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余生明; 蔺创业

    2013-01-01

    总结了由于受气候及果园综合管理水平等因素的制约,导致李光杏败育花比例上升和授粉品种、授粉昆虫减少,异花授粉受精受阻,开花多、结果稀少;提出了治理措施.

  19. The Effect of Dried Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract on Obesity Management with Regard to PPAR-γ2 (Pro12Ala) Gene Polymorphism in Obese Subjects Following an Energy Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Mirtaheri, Elham; Farajnia, Safar

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem which results from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract with a calorie restricted diet on anthropometric indices and insulin resistance with nutrigenetic approach. Methods: For this pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 72 eligible subjects were randomly allocated to Licorice or placebo group. They received a low-calorie diet either with a 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices and dietary intake in genotype subgroups at the baseline. Findings indicated that supplementation with Licorice extract did not change anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters significantly compared to a hypocaloric diet alone. However, from the nutrigenetic point of view, significant changes in anthropometric indices and QUICKI were observed in the Pro12Pro genotypes compared to the Pro12Ala at the end of the study (pPro12Ala genotype was found. Conclusion: In obese subjects, the Pro/Pro polymorphism of the PPAR-γ2 gene seems to induce favourable effects on obesity management. Further studies are needed to clarify whether PPAR-γ2 gene polymorphisms or other obesity genes can affect responses to obesity treatment.

  20. A new Strychnos from Borneo (Loganiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1966-01-01

    A subsp. maingayi praecipue characteribus sequentibus differt: Folia 13 cm longa, 5½ cm lata. Inflorescentiae praecipue axillares, tenerae, 1½—2 cm longae, 3—11-florae, glabrae. Flores 4- vel 5-meri. Calyx heterosepalus, sepala dua 1.2 mm longa, tria 0.8 mm longa, omnia ovata, obtusa, extus glabra,

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.1 68418.m02891 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.1 68418.m02891 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.3 68418.m02893 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.2 68418.m02892 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.3 68418.m02893 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.2 68418.m02892 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  7. Experimentation on bio-kerosene stove using organic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshini, M.; Shetty, Divakar

    2017-07-01

    One of the basic worthy item used in most of the villages even now a day's also is the kerosene stove. But in the current scenario, the petroleum products are been replenished. So an alternate fuel should be found in order delve. This work is to check the contingency of blending pongamia oil and kerosene in which is used as an additive. Pongamia is one of the forest based fast growing evergreen tree which is capable of yielding 9 - 90 kg seeds from which 25% of oil can be extracted. Distilled cow urine is to be used so that the fuel can be stored for longer time and is odorless. Blends of 10% to 70% neat pongamia oil - kerosene(KEP) and pongamia oil - kerosene with additive(KEPWA) are prepared. The properties such as flash point, fire point and viscosity are determined. The blends are been compared by doing emission test. The blends with additive showed better properties and reducing in emission characteristics compared to neat blends. It is also observed that emission of CO is decreasing with increasing blends.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1408 - Licorice and licorice derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)(1) Licorice (glycyrrhiza) root is the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of Glycyrrhiza glabra or other species of Glycyrrhiza. Licorice extract is that portion of the licorice root that...

  9. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ... for better root establishment, growth. and development in relation to the three ... Keywords: Gibbrellic Acid, Sowing Media, Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea, ..... India. 2nd Edition Indian Council of Agricultural. Research, New Delhi, India.

  10. Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of povidone iodine and homoeopathic mother tinctures as antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohsin Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms the antibacterial activity and more effectiveness of Thuja occidentalis and Rhus glabra mother tinctures than povidone iodine. The other tested mother tinctures also have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Echinacea.

  11. Paspalum hydrophylum spec. nov., aus Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1922-01-01

    Paspalum hydrophylum HENR., spec. nov. — Planta aquatica, perennis, rhizoma crassum. Culmi erecti, metrales vel ultra, simplices, teretiusculi vel subcompressi, laeves, glaberrimi, multinodes, summo nodo supra medium culmi. Vaginae laxae, ecarinatae, leviter striatae, glabrae, internodiis longiores,

  12. Eine neue Calandriden-Art der Gattung Paratasis, Chevr. aus Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1892-01-01

    Elliptico-ovata, glabra supra planiuscula, capite, thorace pygidioque nigro; elytris viridiaeneis, singulo tenuiter quinquestriato; subtus rufo-ferruginea; tarsis, fibiis, coxis, trochanteribus, basi apiceque femorum et segmentis ventralibus apice, nigris; rostro arcuato thorace paulo breviore, ante

  13. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Keywords: Gibberellic Acid, Sowing Media, Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea, Rosa chinensis ... growth and development and hence concentration and ..... Horticulture. 1st Indian Edition. Biotech Books. Tri -Nagar, New Delhi,. India.

  14. Eine neue Calandriden-Art der Gattung Paratasis, Chevr. aus Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1892-01-01

    Elliptico-ovata, glabra supra planiuscula, capite, thorace pygidioque nigro; elytris viridiaeneis, singulo tenuiter quinquestriato; subtus rufo-ferruginea; tarsis, fibiis, coxis, trochanteribus, basi apiceque femorum et segmentis ventralibus apice, nigris; rostro arcuato thorace paulo breviore, ante

  15. Zwei neue Apogonien von den Philippinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1897-01-01

    Fulva, parce viridi-metallico micans, supra glabra, subtusatro-viridis, squamulis setiformibus albis sat parce tecta; clypeo antice truncato, creberrime et quam fronte fortius punctato; prothorace aliquid remote punctato, angulis anticis acutis; scutello subtiliter punctato, interdum laevi; elytris

  16. Archboldia, a new Verbenaceous genus from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Archboldia, nov. gen. — Frutices; folia opposita; inflorescentiae terminales, paniculato-corymbosae, e cymis compositae; calyx plus minusve patens, infundibuliformis, 5-lobatus; corolla exserta, ventricoso-cylindrica, utrinque glabra, aetinomorpha, breviter 5-lobata; stamina 4 alternipetalia, intror

  17. Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... With the protocol reported herein, some green embryo-like cultures were ... glabra L., callus induction, embryogenesis, cell culture, histological section. .... All experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design.

  18. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hyde et. Mouzouras, Hypoxylon oceanicum Scott Schatz. Belizeana tuberculata Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Swampomyces armeniacus Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm. and Hydronectria tehys Kohlm. et. Kohlm. var. glabra Kohlm. recorded for the first time from submerged...

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  20. Metabolic responses of tropical trees to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapla, J; Kamalakar, J A

    2004-07-01

    Plants fumigated with 40ppbv, 80ppbv and 120ppbv concentrations of O3 exhibited significant reduction in total chlorophyll content, RuBP carboxylase activity and net photosynthesis. The reduction in total chlorophyll activity ranged from 12 to 36% in Bauhinia variegata, 11 to 35% in Ficus infectoria and 3 to 26% in Pongamia pinnata on fumigation with O3, while the RuBP carboxylase activity was reduced by 10 to 32% in Bauhinia variegata, 10 to 23% in Ficus infectoria and 9 to 15% in Pongamia pinnata. The net photosynthesis was also reduced by 6 to 26% in B. variegata, 16 to 39% in F. infectoria and 7 to 31% in P. pinnata on fumigation with 03. The relative higher sensitivity of tropical trees to O3 suggests that the ambient air quality standards in tropical tree areas need to be stringent to prevent vegetation from air pollution.

  1. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop.

  2. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED USING JATROPHA BIO DIESEL BLENDED FUELED

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesels have recently been recognized as a potential substitute to Diesel oil. It is produced from oils or fats using a process called transesterification, in which oils are reacted with alcohols in order to form the esters, which are called biodiesels. Feedstock for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils Jatropha, Mahua, Sunflower, Palm, Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja), Cotton seed, Neem, Rubber seed, Corn, Sesame, Cotton seed. Biodiesel is a liquid closely similar in properties to foss...

  3. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)—a storage pest of groundnut

    OpenAIRE

    Harish, G.; Nataraja, M. V.; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P. P; Jadon, K. S.; Savaliya, S. D.; Padavi, R. D.; Koradia, V. G.; Gedia, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs ...

  4. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination.

  5. Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Noor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the barks and roots of some Apocynaceae species have anticancer and antimalarial properties. In this study, leaf extracts of five selected species of Apocynaceae used in traditional medicine (Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa and Vallaris glabra were assessed for antiproliferative (APF and antiplasmodial (APM activities, and analysed for total alkaloid content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC and radical-scavenging activity (RSA. As V. glabra leaf extracts showed wide spectrum APF and APM activities, they were further screened for saponins, tannins, cardenolides and terpenoids. Methods APF and APM activities were assessed using the sulphorhodamine B and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. TAC, TPC and RSA were analysed using Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays, respectively. Screening for saponins, tannins, cardenolides and terpenoids were conducted using the frothing, ferric chloride, Kedde and vanillin-H2SO4 tests, respectively. Results Leaf extracts of A. angustiloba, C. gigantea and V. glabra displayed positive APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activity against all six human cancer cell lines tested. DCM extract of A. angustiloba was effective against three cancer cell lines. Against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, DCM extract of C. gigantea was stronger than standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin and tamoxifen. All five species were effective against K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and three species (C. gigantea, D. costulata and K. fruticosa were effective against 3D7 strain. Against K1 strain, all four extracts of V. glabra displayed effective APM activity. Extracts of D. costulata were effective against 3D7 strain. Selectivity index values of extracts of A. angustiloba, C. gigantea and V. glabra suggested that they are

  6. 不同种植年限的光果甘草对人乳腺癌细胞增殖抑制作用的研究%Comparative Studies on the Anti-proliferation Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Different Living Span on Human Breast Cancer BCAP Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帅; 户元林; 马淼

    2009-01-01

    本文采用MTT法检测不同光果甘草样品的水提物及总黄酮对人乳腺癌BCAP细胞的增殖抑制效应,旨在探明光果甘草抗肿瘤活性成分的最佳的采收时期.研究结果表明光果甘草样品的水提物及总黄酮对人乳腺癌BCAP细胞均具有良好的增殖抑制作用,但以总黄酮的效果更佳;药效最佳的部位为主根和水平根,最佳种植年限为3年.

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles components obtained from the Glycyrrhiza glabra L.leaf and root%光果甘草叶、根中挥发性成分气相色谱-质谱法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵甜甜; 董怡; 赵谋明

    2013-01-01

    经同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)提取得到新疆光果甘草叶、根中挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术,结合计算机检索进行分析和鉴定,通过色谱峰面积归一化法对各组分进行定量分析.最终从光果甘草叶与根中分别分析鉴定28种和16种化合物,并对各组分进行归纳分析.通过对比甘草叶、根中的挥发性物质发现,叶中具有较多对风味贡献良好的挥发性化合物.实验结果为甘草资源的进一步开发利用提供了理论指导.

  8. 光果甘草营养器官结构及其总黄酮的组织化学定位和含量研究%Anatomical Structure,Total Flavonoids Histochemical Localization and Content Comparization of Vegetative Organs in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云海; 陆嘉惠; 李娜; 张际昭; 李学禹

    2010-01-01

    应用植物解剖学、组织化学和植物化学方法,对光果甘草各营养器官的结构、总黄酮的组织化学定位和含量差异进行了研究.结果显示:(1)光果甘草叶为异面叶,由表皮、叶肉和叶脉组成.叶表皮具腺毛,叶肉中具胶囊细胞,主脉发达;茎由表皮(周皮)、皮层、维管柱组成,其髓中具有粘液细胞;根由周皮、次生维管组织组成,周皮具厚木栓层,次生维管组织中次生木质部和纤维发达.(2)黄酮类物质在叶中分布在表皮、腺毛、胶囊细胞、厚角组织和韧皮部和木质部中的薄壁细胞中;茎中分布在周皮、韧皮部和粘液细胞中;在根中则分布在周皮中.(3)不同营养器官中黄酮类物质含量存在差异:叶>根茎>主根>茎.(4)温度的下降促使黄酮类物质从地上合成器官向地下储藏器官的转运.建议每年可在果熟期和枯萎期之间采挖药材,地上部分收割也作药用,综合利用光果甘草资源.

  9. Simultaneous determination of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.by HPLC%3种不同基原甘草中4个主要黄酮类化合物的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞; 袁伯川; 马永生; 周姗; 张皓桢; 刘靓怡; 李文东; 刘颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:对中国药典规定的3种不同基原甘草样品中甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素的含量进行分析比较.方法:以栽培于同一产地的3种不同基原两年生甘草作为实验材料,HPLC法对材料中的甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素含量进行测定.采用CAPCELL PAK C18 MGⅡ(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈(A)-0.1%磷酸溶液(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为276 nm(0~13 min,检测甘草苷)、360 nm(13~23 min,检测异甘草苷)、276 nm(23~28 min,检测甘草素)、376 nm(28~55 min,检测异甘草素),柱温为30℃.结果:甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素分离良好,线性范围分别为1.15×10-2~0.230 μg(r=-1.000)、4.45×10-3~8.90×10-2μg(r=1.000)、1.15×10-3~2.30×10-2μg(r=-0.998)、2.27×10-3~4.54×10-2μg(r=-1.000),检测限和定量限依次为1.13 ng和3.42 ng、0.896 ng和2.70 ng、0.463 ng和1.39 ng、0.454 ng和1.38 ng.本方法灵敏度、精密度、准确性、重复性、回收率、耐用性均良好.在3种基原的甘草样品中,4个黄酮类成分的含量存在极显著差异(P<0.01),甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素、异甘草素在乌拉尔甘草中的含量均最高,分别为(20.75±0.524)mg·g-1、(4.453±0.057) mg·g-1、(0.610±0.019) mg·g-1和(0.272±0.008) mg·g-1,光果甘草次之,含量分别为(6.623±0.405) mg· g-1、(1.562±0.053) mg· g-1、(0.325±0.036) mg· g-1和(0.180±0.012)mg·g-1,胀果甘草最低,含量分别为(2.700±0.232) mg·g-1、(0.821±0.042) mg·g-1、(0.153±0.006)mg·g-1(0.115±0.005)mg·g-1;甘草苷与异甘草苷、甘草素与异甘草素的含量在3种不同基原甘草样品中均存在极显著相关关系(P<0.01).结论:本文建立的HPLC方法经方法学验证,可用于甘草中甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素的含量分析,并为甘草的质量控制及以黄酮类化合物为目标的优质甘草筛选与定向育种提供科学依据.

  10. Extraction of glabridin frOm Glycyrrhiza glabra L.with ultrasound technology optimized by response surface analysis%响应面法优化超声提取光果甘草中光甘草定的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 张清溪; 袁其朋; 吕姣

    2009-01-01

    考察了不同有机溶剂对光果甘草中光甘草定的提取效果,确定了最佳提取溶剂.在单因素实验的基础上,选择超声提取液料比、提取时间和超声功率3因素为自变量,光甘草定提取率为响应值,采用3因素3水平的响应面实验方法,对光果甘草中光甘草定的超声波提取工艺条件进行了优化.结果表明,光甘草定提取的最佳工艺条件为:以乙酸乙酯为溶剂超声提取,液料比23:1(mL/g)、提取2次、提取温度44℃、提取时间30 min、超声功率500 W,该条件提取光甘草定的提取率为0.269%.验证实验表明,所得模型方程能较好地预测实验结果.

  11. Effect of NaCl and Na2CO3 Stress on the Content of Chloroplast Pigment in Leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra Seedlings%NaCl与Na2CO3胁迫对光果甘草幼苗叶片叶绿体色素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新华; 谢亚军; 田峻颉

    2005-01-01

    以水培光果甘草幼苗作为试验材料,分别进行不同浓度NaCl[0.2%,0.5%,0.8%(w/v)]与Na2CO3[0.01%,0.05%(w/v)]胁迫处理,以完全营养液培养作为对照,在处理第5天后测定各处理叶片中叶绿素a,叶绿素b,类胡萝卜素含量并计算叶绿素a与叶绿素b的比值.结果表明:在NaCl胁迫处理下,甘草叶片chla、chab、car含量均以0.2%NaCl为最高,之后随盐浓度升高而下降,而cha/chlb值则随盐浓度的升高而升高,在Na2CO3处理下,甘草叶片chla、chlb、car含量随Na2CO3胁迫处理浓度的升高而升高,而cha/chlb值则呈现下降的变化趋势.无论是NaCl处理还是Na2CO3处理各处理浓度间上述指标差异均达显著或极显著水平.

  12. Effect of NaCl and Na2CO3 stress on the content of osmotic substance in leaves of glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings%NaCl和Na2CO3胁迫对甘草幼苗渗透调节物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新华; 刘凤敏

    2006-01-01

    目前有关抗盐机制方面的研究已取得了长足进展,但仍以NaCl胁迫下Na+离子代谢、渗透调节、抗盐性相关基因的分子生物学及盐胁迫信息传导等为主要研究方向.尤其是关于渗透调节的研究报道很多.盐胁迫可以导致两大类渗透调节物质,即无机离子与有机渗透调节物质如可溶性糖、脯氨酸、游离氨基酸及甜菜碱等的大量积累.这些物质的积累对维持细胞膨压、植物光合作用等具有非常重要的意义,然而实际上,就我国而言,除新疆和松花江部分地区土壤以硝酸盐为主外,

  13. Effect of Drought Stress on Germination and Soluble Protein Content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L and Glycyrrhiza inflata Seeds During the Process of Primary Germination%干旱胁迫对光果胀果甘草种子萌发及可溶性蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新华; 张明哲; 高金霞

    2004-01-01

    光果、胀果甘草种子用10%(w/v)、20%(w/v)PEG6000模拟干旱处理,测定了种子的发芽势、发芽率、胚根长、霉烂数、硬实数及萌发期每隔24h的可溶性蛋白质含量的变化情况.结果表明:随着PEG浓度的加大,两种甘草种子的各项萌发生理指标均呈下降趋势;除胚根长,胀果甘草的其余萌发生理指标的下降程度均大于光果甘草.对两品种甘草萌发期可溶性蛋白质含量的测定,发现两品种甘草在萌发24h~48h期间,可溶性蛋白质含量均呈快速上升趋势,但从萌发48h~72h,则呈现快速下降趋势,之后,下降趋于平缓.其中胀果在10%(w/v)PEG6000处理下在萌发96h后出现了一次可溶性蛋白质含量的高峰,估计可能是原有蛋白质组分的变化或是新的蛋白质组分的生成.上述结果表明:萌发48h前后是甘草种子萌发的代谢关键时期.

  14. Effect of drought stress on the content of malondialdehyole and activity of cell defense enzymes in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings roots%干旱胁迫对光果甘草幼苗根系MDA含量及保护酶POD、CAT活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新华; 史大刚

    2006-01-01

    实验室用甘露醇模拟不同程度干旱胁迫,观测光果甘草幼苗根系膜脂过氧化水平受影响的情况.结果表明当干旱胁迫程度由-0.5 MPa上升到-1.0 MPa时,甘草根系MDA的含量随干旱胁迫程度的增强而升高,同时甘草幼苗根系POD活性下降,而CAT的活性则呈现升高趋势.说明干旱胁迫程度由轻度转为中度后,甘草幼苗的根系产生了膜脂过氧化作用.POD与CAT这两种保护酶活性也随之产生变化,POD活性先升后降,而CAT活性则持续上升,二者相互配合协同作用,以维持和保护甘草幼苗根系细胞膜的完整性,降低膜脂过氧化水平.

  15. Isolation of NCED,the Key ABA Biosynthesis Gene and Its Function Analysis in Flowering Regulation of Bougainvillea glabra%叶子花脱落酸生物合成关键酶基因NCED的克隆及调节开花功能初探

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    田亚然; 薛璟祺; 赵家昱; 彭坚; 谷茂; 李永红

    2015-01-01

    以叶子花品种‘大红宝巾’(Bougainvillea glabra‘ Mrs Butt’)的2年生扦插苗为试验材料,克隆到了一个9-顺式-环氧类胡萝卜素双氧合酶(NCED)同源基因,并分析了内源脱落酸(ABA)含量及NCED活性等变化与该基因表达之间的内在联系,探讨ABA对促进叶子花开花的作用机理.结果表明:(1)外源50 mg·L-1 ABA处理促进了叶子花开花,而与10 μmol·L-1的去甲二氢愈创木酸(NDGA,ABA合成抑制剂)共处理可抑制这种效果.(2)外源ABA处理可诱导叶子花叶片中内源ABA含量和NCED含量与活性上升,这种诱导可被NDGA抑制.(3)克隆得到的NCED基因全长为2 380 bp,其推定的编码蛋白包含618个氨基酸残基,与草莓中的FvNCED1同源性最高,命名为BgNCED1.(4) Real-time PCR结果显示,外源ABA处理显著诱导BgNCED1基因的表达,而10 μmol·L-1的NDGA可显著抑制BgNCED1基因的诱导效果,这种表达模式与内源ABA含量及NCED活性等的变化趋势较为一致.研究认为,外源ABA可能通过诱导BgNCED1的表达,增强内源ABA的生物合成,进而促进叶子花从营养生长到生殖生长的转变,使其提前开花.

  16. 叶子花属(南美紫茉莉)植物的品种引进现状及其景观应用研究%Study on Variety Introduction Status and Landscape Application of Bougainvillea(Bougainvillea glabra) Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志娟; 陈冠铭; 李宏杨

    2016-01-01

    笔者系统论述了叶子花属(南美紫茉莉)植物的生物学特性,概括介绍了我国叶子花属植物的种质资源状况,总结了现有的3个种,2个杂交种,35个园艺品种.根据花色、叶色、枝条形态等特征划分了观赏品种,并对其在园林中的应用形式进行介绍,认为可建立植物专类园,或用于装饰花架、拱门,用于屋顶、阳台绿化等.

  17. 毛药山茶——中国广东山茶属一新种%A new species of the genus Camellia from Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶创兴; 郑新强

    2001-01-01

    @@毛药山茶新种图1 Camellia renshanxiangiae C. X. Ye et X. Q. Zheng, sp. nov.* (Subgen. Metacamellia H. T. Chang, Sect. Eriandria Cohen-Stuart). Fig. 1 Species C. craterae H. T. Chang et C. trigonocarpae H. T. Chang affinis, sed illa floribus rubris (teste notula collectoris), bracteolis sepalisque utrinque flavo-pubescentibus differt, haec bracteolis sepalisque utrinque pubescentibus differt, ab quibus differt antheris pilosis. Frutex, circiter 3 m altus; gemmae albo-puberulae; rami graciles; ramuli hornotini cinereo-brunnei pubescentes, demum glabrescentes. Folia tenuiter coriacea, oblonga vel ovata vel anguste ovata, (2.7~) 4~7.5 cm longa, (1.3~) 1.7~3 cm lata, apice longe caudata, caudis 1.5~2 cm longis, basi rotundata vel late cuneata, margine serrulata, dentibus 2~3 mm remotis, caudis et basin versus 1/3 integra, supra in sicco atro-viridia, glabra, costis prominentibus pubescentibus, subtus pallide viridia parce pilosa, glabrescentia, costis prominentibus, dense pubescentibus, nervis lateralibus irregulariter circiter 9-jugis, utrinque inconspicuis; petioli 2~3 mm longi, pubescentes. Flores albi fragrantes, in axillis 3~8 caespitosi; pedicelli 1.5 mm longi, breviter puberuli, apicem versus crassi; bracteolae circ. 6, persistentes, inferiores 3 late triangulares, 1~1.5 mm altae, superiores 3 majores, semiorbiculares vel orbiculares, 2~2.5 mm altae, extus glabrae vel interdum puberulae, intus glabrae; sepala 5, persistentia, inaequalia, exteriora 3 mm longa et lata, intimum 6 mm altum, 5 mm latum, omnia extus glabra vel interdum puberula, intus glabra, margine scariosa; corolla basi in tubum 1 mm longum tubo staminum adnatum connata; petala 5~7, extremum conchiforme, concavum, viridulum, 7 mm longum, 5 mm latum, apice rotundatum, cetera obovata usque late obovata, 9~15 mm longa, 6~9 mm lata, extus glabra vel interiora extus puberula, intus glabra; stamina 2-seriata, 7~10 mm longa, filamentis glabris, exterioribus in tubum 4

  18. New Records from Tibet%西藏植物分布新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪书丽; 兰小中; 罗建

    2012-01-01

    首次报道了西藏2个新记录属,蔷薇科(Rosaceae)的羽衣草属(Alchemilla)和鸢尾科(Iridaceae)的庭菖蒲属( Sisyrinchium),并报道2个新记录种,即无毛羽衣草(Alchemilla glabra Neygenf.)和庭菖蒲(Sisyrinchium rosulatum Bickn.).%Two newly recorded plants, Alchemiila glabra Neygenf. and Sisyrinchium rosulatum Bickn. , respectively belonging to Alchemiila of Rosaceae and Sisyrinchium of Iridaceae, were reported from Tibet.

  19. Discovery of the messaoudensis–trifidum acritarch assemblage (upper Tremadocian–lower Floian, Lower Ordovician in the subsurface of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Nowak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The upper Tremadocian to lower Floian messaoudensis–trifidum acritarch assemblage was first described from the Skiddaw Group of England and subsequently from several localities on the Gondwanan margin that were positioned in high southern latitudes during the Early Ordovician. It is here reported for the first time from North Africa, from the Fezouata formations (Tremadocian to Floian in the AZ-1 borehole, southeastern Morocco. The assemblage is comparable with that from the Skiddaw Group, with Cymatiogalea deunffii, C. messaoudensis, C. velifera, Caldariola glabra glabra, Stelliferidium trifidum and Veryhachium lairdii s.l. The Moroccan assemblage indicates a late Tremadocian age.

  20. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEESIA * Blume (Bombacaceae

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    SOEPADMO SOEPADMO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1     Eight species are described:  N. altissima, synandra, glabra, koster-mansiana, malayana, parpurascens, piluliflora and strigosa.2     N. kostermansiana is a species new to science.3     N. glabra and synandra, formerly included in N. altissima are reinstated  as distinct species.4     The area of distribution of the genus covers Lower Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, with Borneo as centre.

  1. The Beguniaceae of Colombia The Beguniaceae of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lyman B.

    1946-12-01

    Full Text Available Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia Dugandiana / Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia alnifolia / Begonia (§ Pritzelia glabra / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum guaduensis / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum Barrigae / Begonia (§ Meionanthera Holtonis / Begonia (§ Lepsia microphylla / Begonia (§ Lepsia foliosa  / Begoniella / Begoniella Whitei / Begoniella libera / Begoniella Kalbreyeri / Begoniella angustifolia.Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia Dugandiana / Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia alnifolia / Begonia (§ Pritzelia glabra / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum guaduensis / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum Barrigae / Begonia (§ Meionanthera Holtonis / Begonia (§ Lepsia microphylla / Begonia (§ Lepsia foliosa  / Begoniella / Begoniella Whitei / Begoniella libera / Begoniella Kalbreyeri / Begoniella angustifolia.

  2. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Fuel Injection Pressure on Diesel Engine Emission for Sustainable Environment

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    Kandasamy Muralidharan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diesel engine emits more pollutants to atmosphere causing air pollution. This necessitates the search of a renewable alternate fuel which is environment friendly. The objective of this research was to investigate the environmental aspects of pongamia bio-fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine with the influence of fuel injection pressure. Approach: Bio-fuel was prepared from non-edible Pongamia pinnata oil by transesterification and used as a fuel in C.I engine. The effect of fuel injection pressure on the engine emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pongamia pinnata methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel from 0-30% with an increment of 5% at full load. The tests were conducted at five different injection pressures (190, 200, 210, 220 and 230 KN m-2 by means of adjusting injector spring tension. Results: Compared to diesel, blend B5 exhibits lower engine emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon di oxide at full load. The High injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 shows lesser emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide while oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are found to be slightly higher than diesel and blends at full load. Conclusion: From the test results, it was found that a high injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 causes better atomization with improved engine emission characteristics for diesel and blends at full load. Moreover blend B5 showed best results at 220 KN m-2 injection pressure.

  3. 具治疗痔疮作用的草药协同剂

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    陈军(摘)

    2008-01-01

    取以下植物提取物:水黄皮Pongamia pinnata(L.)Pierre4%(质量分数,下同)、辣木Moringa oleifera Lam.4%、望江南决明Cassia occidentalis L.4%、阔荚合欢Albizia lebbeck(L) Benth.4%,配以蔗糖一乳糖(质量比为66.7:1.2)、乙醇10%和水(与乙醇一起使之达100mL)。

  4. Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eevera, T.; Rajendran, K.; Saradha, S. [Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Periyar Nagar, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613 403 (India)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, both edible (coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil, and rice bran oil) and non-edible oils (pongamia, neem and cotton seed oil) were used to optimize the biodiesel production process variables like catalyst concentration, amount of methanol required for reaction, reaction time and reaction temperature. The fuel properties like specific gravity, moisture content, refractive index, acid value, iodine number, saponification value and peroxide value were estimated. Based on the cetane number and iodine value, the methyl esters obtained from palm and coconut oils were not suitable to use as biodiesel in cold weather conditions, but for hot climate condition biodiesel obtained from the remaining oil sources is suitable. (author)

  5. New species of Annonaceae from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-Jacobs, M.J.

    1970-01-01

    Arbor circ. 8 m alta. Ramuli novelli pilis sparsis adpressis, mox glabrescentes, nigrescentes. Petiolus crassus, rugosus, adpresse tomentosus, 6-9 mm longus; lamina chartacea, supra glabra et nitida praeter costam hirsutam, subtus pilis sparsis adpressis, anguste elliptica vel elliptica, 12-18 cm lo

  6. 乌拉尔甘草规范化生产标准操作规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆光; 成治军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 甘草为豆科植物甘草Clycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.、胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.的干燥根及根茎[1],具有抗溃疡、抗炎、抗过敏、镇咳祛痰等药理作用[2].

  7. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  8. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a struct

  9. A new Burmannia from Enggano (Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.P.

    1938-01-01

    Herba pusilla, saprophytiea, 10—13 cm alta. Radices ignotae. Caulis simplex, erectus, teres, glaber, succulentus. Folia 3—8, squamas simulantia, lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata, glabra, acuta vel acuminata, 2—6 mm longa, uninervia, nervo prominente. Folia basalia rosulata nulla. Bracteae plm. 5 mm l

  10. A new Protium from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J.J.

    1950-01-01

    Protium Pullei Swart n.sp. Arbor circ. 12 m alta. Ramuli robusti 4 mm diam. teretes glabri fusci lenticellis oblongis ferrugineis muniti. Folia trifoliolata 17 (16—21) cm longa glabra, petiolis robustis semiteretibus 4.5 cm longis basi incrassatis demum transverse rimosis, petiolulis semiteretibus r

  11. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... pumila; Filbert (hazelnut), Corylus spp.; Hickory nut, Carya spp.; Macadamia nut (bush nut), Macadamia spp.; Pecan, Carya illinoensis; Walnut, black and English (Persian), Juglans spp. EPA proposes to... (Makino) Rehder, J. ailantifolia Carri re) Hickory nut (Carya cathayensis Sarg., C. glabra (Mill.)...

  12. Cottonwoods of the Midwest: A Community Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis X X Pignut hickory Carya glabra X Pecan Carya illinoensis X Shellbark hickory Carya lacinios X Shagbark...rugosa X Pawpaw Asimina triloba X River birch Betula nigra X American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana X Water hickory Carya aquatica X...hickory Carya ovata X Mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa X Sugarberry Celtis laevigata X Hackberry Celtis occidentalis X X Eastern redbud

  13. La Farge Lake, Kickapoo River, Vernon County, Wisconsin, Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-18

    alternifolia (Wingstem), Asimina. triloba (Paw Paw), Aster vimineus, Buchloe dactylodes (Buffalo Grass), Carya glabra (Sweet Pg-ut), illinoensis (Pecan...black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Quercus alba), and hickory ( Carya cordiformes) generally occupy the drier uplands and slopes with south and

  14. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  15. Report on the new and insufficiently studied taxa in the flora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatković, B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several important floristic records were established during our recent floristic investigations of southeastern Serbia and Province Kosovo-Metohija. Minuartia mediterranea (Caryophyllaceae and Arabis glabra subsp. pseudoturritis (Brassicaceae are reported for the first time from the territory of Serbia, while presence of neglected species Symphytum bulbosum (Boraginaceae and Valerianella microcarpa (Valerianaceae is reevaluated, as they were reported from new localities.

  16. New amazonian species: Coussapoa prancei and Perebea mennegae (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Planta ephytica; rami glabri. Folia elliptica, oblonga vel subobovata, 2-6 cm longa, 1-3.5 cm lata, apice indistincte breviterque acuminata, basi obtusa, undique glabra; venae laterales 2-4-jugae, venulae interpositae parallelae fere horizontaliter patentes approximatae; petiolus 0.5-2.5 cm longus;

  17. A new Phrynium (Matantaceae) from Great Nicobar Island, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Herbae erectae caespitosae 1.5—2.0 m altae; rhizoma suberectum 1—2 cm diametro. Folia multa apice rhizomatis spiratim aggregata; petioli usque ad 1 m longi basi vaginantes, sparsim pubescentes; laminae ellipticae oblongo-lanceolatae glabrae 18—35 cm longae, 8—15 cm latae, basi acutae vel cuneatae, a

  18. A new species of Corybas (Orchidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kores, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Herba parva erecta, 1—3(—7) cm alta. Tuber globosum, 4—6 mm diam., albidum aut dilute brunneum, subtiliter villosum. Rhizomata atque pars subterranea albida. sparse villosa. Pars supraterranea caulis dilute viridis, glabra, ad basim per unicam vaginam tubularem inclusa. Vagina 8—12 mm longa, uninerv

  19. Functional Investigation of a Cotton Fiber HOX Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Most of the plant homeodomain-containing proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation and organ development,and Arabidopsis GLABRA2(GL2),a member of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper(HD-ZIP) proteins,is a trichome and non-root hair cell regulator.We have

  20. A new species of Medinilla (Melastomataceae) from Sumatra and notes on allied species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayar, M.P.

    1970-01-01

    Frutex. Ramis junioribus subangulatis, puberubs, vetustioribus teretibus glabratis. Folia opposita, elliptico-lanceolata, 6—10 cm longa, 1.5—2.8 cm lata, basi cuneata, apice longe acuminato-attenuata, margine integra, supra glabra, subtus minute puberula, 3-nervia, venulis transversis indistinctis,

  1. Two new Grasses from Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1922-01-01

    Paspalum plumosum, HENR. nov. spec., — Perenne, dense caespitosum. Culmi stricte erecti, 6—9 dm alti, graciles, simplices, teretes, laeves pauci-nodes, nodis paullulo pilosis. Foliorum vaginae subarctae, apice hiantes, leviter compressae, laeves, glabrae, nitentes, striatae, sordide stramineo-fuscae

  2. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, W.; Spelt, C.E.; Bliek, M.; de Vries, M.; Wit, N.; Faraco, M.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.

    2016-01-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) fromArabidopsis thalianaand associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein

  3. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  4. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  5. Taxonomic studies of the Penicillium glabrum complex and the description of a new species P. subericola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R. A.;

    2011-01-01

    A mycological survey of fungi, present in several stages of the manufacturing of cork discs for champagne stoppers in Portugal, was made. Sixty-nine strains belonging to the Glabra series of the genus Penicillium were isolated and subsequently grouped according to their partial β-tubulin gene seq...

  6. A revision of the genus Tephrosia (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.T.M.; Haas, de A.J.P.

    1983-01-01

    In Malesia the genus Tephrosia is represented by 20 species, native or introduced and naturalized, including 6 subspecies and 5 varieties; 4 species are restricted to Malesia. Two of these species are newly described: T. barbatala and T. elliptica; the former includes one new variety (var. glabra).

  7. Correlação entre as atividades antiradical, antiacetilcolinesterase e teor de fenóis totais de extratos de plantas medicinais de farmácias vivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o conteúdo de fenóis de extratos de 18 plantas medicinais comuns nas Farmácias Vivas com a atividade sequestradora do radical livre DPPH e com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Maiores conteúdos de fenóis totais foram encontrados nas plantas: Eugenia uniflora, Lippia alba, Lippia microphylla, Mentha x villosa, Ocimum gratissimum e Ocimum selloi. As espécies que apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante, semelhante a quercetina, foram: Spondias mombim, Malphigia glabra, L. alba e Croton zenhtneri,. As plantas Cecropia pachystachia, L. alba, L. microphylla, M. glabra, O. gratissimum e Plectranthus ornatus mostraram maiores halos de inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Combinando as duas ações, as plantas mais ativas foram a M. glabra e a L. alba e somente a segunda correlaciona-se diretamente com o maior teor de fenóis totais. Através deste estudo, M. glabra e L. alba foram consideradas as plantas mais promissoras para estudos subsequentes a fim de encontrar novos compostos com ação potencial contra a doença de Alzheimer.

  8. Microtensile strength of spruce pine after exposure to acids and bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd G. Manwiller; Paul R. Godfrey

    1972-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood microtensile specimens from 12 trees of Pinus glabra Wal. were subjected to 10-percent solution of 5 acids and 3 bases at 90oC for up to 3 hours. Hydrochloric and sulfuric acids were the most damaging, lowering maximum tensile strength 27 and 17 percent in earlywood and 36 and 39 percent in latewood; they...

  9. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  10. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, W.; Spelt, C.E.; Bliek, M.; de Vries, M.; Wit, N.; Faraco, M.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.

    2016-01-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) fromArabidopsis thalianaand associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein

  11. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a

  12. Vegetable-Oil-Based Hyperbranched Polyester-Styrene Copolymer Containing Silver Nanoparticle as Antimicrobial and Corrosion-Resistant Coating Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia oil (PO was converted to Pongamia oil hydroxyl (POH via epoxidation process. The esterification of POH with linolenic acid was carried out to form hyperbranched polyester (HBPE, and further styrenation was performed at the conjugated double bond in the chain of linolenic acid. After styrenation, silver nanoparticle was added in different weight percentages (0.1–0.4 wt%. The structural elucidation of POH, HBPE, and HBPE-St was carried out by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Physicochemical and physicomechanical analyses were performed by standard method. Thermal behavior of the HBPE-St was analyzed by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The coatings of HBPE-St were prepared on mild steel strips. The anticorrosive behavior of HBPE-St resin-based coatings in acid, saline, and tap water was evaluated, and the molecular weight of HBPE-St was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antibacterial activities of the HBPE-St copolymers were tested in vitro against bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The HBPE-St copolymers exhibited good antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial and corrosion-resistant coating materials.

  13. Role Of Ascorbic Acid In Imparting Tolerance To Plants Against Oxidizing Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant in plants which play important role in activation of many physiological and defense mechanisms. The level of ascorbic acid in plants is determinant of its tolerance against the adverse effect of oxidizing pollutants. The present study tries to relate the variation in ascorbic acid content with the tolerance and sensitivity of two selected plant species viz. Azadirachtaindica and Pongamiapinnata by calculating their Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI during winter season from November to March in the urban city Delhi of North India. Moreover ascorbic acid is also an important part of chloroplast it protects different components of photosynthetic system from oxidative stress. Thus to understand the role of ascorbic acid in imparting tolerance to plants against oxidizing pollutants the changes in chlorophyll content of the selected plant species with variation in ambient ozone concentration was analysed. It was found that as per APTI values Azadirachta sp. came under tolerant range with highest ascorbic acid content whereas Pongamia sp. was under intermediate range with less ascorbic acid content. It was statistically established that ozone has no significant relation with chlorophyll content of Azadirachta sp. which has the highest ascorbic acid content. Whereas ambient ozone concentrations showed significant negative relation with the chlorophyll content of Pongamia sp. p 0.05. Thus it was observed that the plants with high ascorbic acid content are tolerant and have greater ability to remediate pollutants.

  14. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C

    2010-10-01

    Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants.

  15. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  16. A Review On Dump Slope Stabilization By Revegetation With Reference To Indigenous Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The waste sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents low moisture retention capacity higher bulk density low nutrients lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis--vis the site condition and characteristics can enhance the long term stability both mechanical and ecological of dumps waste sub-grade ROM and fines through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion amp gully formation consolidation of dump top amp side surfaces binding the loose particles through intricate roof system etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting Lemmon Grass Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at Survival at fittest the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta Sal CROTON ROXBURGHII Dal-bergia Sisoo SHISHAM KARANJ Azadirachta NEEM etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

  17. Biocontrol Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against Ailanthus Defoliator, Eligma narcissus (Cram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eligma narcissus is recognised as a serious pest of Ailanthus in Southern India and defoliation of Ailanthus by this pest causes apparent loss of growth increment. The common control methods for this pest is mostly insecticides and the concern about the environmental effects of chemical insecticides, has emphasised the use of environmentally more benign microbial agents. Among entomopathogens, Fungi are the most explored and often act as important natural control agents that limit insect populations. On this point of view, Bio efficacy of 25 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae was assessed to establish their virulence against E. narcissus in the laboratory and effective formulations of two potent isolates were subsequently evaluated in the field. MIS7 and MIS13 were more effective among the different isolates evaluated against E. narcissus. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of all the isolates ranged from 6.46×105 conidia/ml to 628.92×105 conidia/ml. Median lethal concentration of (LT50 of 4.9 and 5.4 days were recorded for MIS7 and MIS13 respectively at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/ml. Virulence tests of the isolates MIS7 and MIS13 and 0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil, individually and in different combinations, indicated improved efficacy of the isolates when used in combination and also when combined with seed oil. Formulations composed of “MIS7+MIS13+0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil” and “MIS7+MIS13” proved to be superior against E. narcissus, causing 76.30% and 93.93% mortality, respectively. Field evaluation of the formulation MIS7+MIS13+0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil recorded 5.79 larvae per plant resulting in 60.53% reduction of infestation while the formulation, MIS7+MIS13 showed 53.76% reduction of infestation with 6.56 larvae per plant. The observations from this study suggest the prospects of using the entomopathogenic fungus, M. anisopliae for the control of E. narcissus.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  19. Temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais Freezing points of various tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor o efeito das baixas temperaturas sobre as frutíferas de clima tropical e possibilitar o desenvolvimento de novas variedades, mais tolerantes, simularam-se geadas em câmaras frigoríficas para a determinação da temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais. Os resultados permitiram classificar as espécies em três grupos: Grupo I - moderada tolerância (-4°C: condessa (Annona reticulata; goiaba (Psidium guajava; acerola (Malpighia glabra e abacate (Persea americana var. Geada; Grupo II - média tolerância (-5°C: conde (A. squamosa; araticum-mirim (Rollinea spp.; anona-do-brejo (A. glabra; falsa-gravioleira (A. montana; araticum-de-folha-miúda (R. ermaginata e maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Grupo III - acentuada tolerância (-6°C: cherimóia (A. cherimola.The effect of low temperature on tropical fruits was studied in order to guide future developments of frost resistant varieties. Simulations of frost were done in a freezing chamber to determine the freezing points of various fruit plants. On the basis of the results the studied species can be classified into three groups according to their tolerance to low temperatures: Group I - little tolerance (-4°C: Annona reticulata; Psidium guajava; Malpighia glabra and Persea americana (var. Geada; Group II - medium tolerance (-5°C: A. squamosa; Rollinea spp.; A. glabra; A. montana; R. ermaginata and Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Group III - high tolerance (-6°C: A. cherimola.

  20. 含总序天冬和光果甘草等植物的制剂用于抗胃溃疡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    该剂由粉末状的总序天冬Asparagus racemosus Willd.和光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.再加入适量的粉末状盾叶轮环藤Cyclea peltata Hook.f.et Thoms和白花酸藤子Embelia ribes Burm.f.等以及一种或多种添加剂或载体组成。

  1. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knipping Karen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. Methods 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV. One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11 infection. Results Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to have the strongest antiviral activity (IC50 46 μM, followed by luteolin and vitexin from Aspalathus linearis (IC50 respectively 116 μM and 129 μM and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Melissa officinalis (IC50 150 μM. A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. Conclusions These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f. R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

  2. Accumulation of some trace elements in plants of the Kuraminskiy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akzhigitova, N.I.; Lezhneva, N.D.

    1975-01-01

    Spectral analysis was made of shrubs, semi-shrubs and perennial herbaceous plants with deeply penetrating root systems; Rosa kokanica, Alhagi sparsifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Inula grandis, Amygdalus spinosissima, Cerasus erythrocarpa, Centaurea squarrosa are the main dominants and components of associations widespread in the Kuraminskiy range in the Uzbek SSR (USSR). The content of trace elements (Cu, Mo, Ag, Pb) in the ash of these species over ore deposits is 2-6 times higher than over nonmetalliferous fields.

  3. Flower Promoting Technologies of Bougainvillea glabira in Spring%花叶紫花宝巾春季促花技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢子良; 黄亚光

    2008-01-01

    通过采用薄膜大棚温度的调控对花叶紫花宝巾花(Bougainvillea glabra"Variegata")春季开花影响的试验表明,花叶紫花宝巾花的花期可以通过温度调控,使花叶紫花宝巾花在春季开花,延长观赏期,提高观赏价值.

  4. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Lakeview Marina Site Boat Ramp and Access, Saylorville Lake, Polk County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    cover of yellow sweet clover, red clover, and a small amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate...clover, brome grass , and switchgrass ( Paspalum virgatum) with small amounts of goldenrod (Solidago sp.) poison ivy, milkweed (Amaranthus sp.), thistle...amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate size shagbark hickory, sumac (Rhus glabra), and white

  5. Environmental Assessment: Relocation of Facilities at Hurlburt Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), sand pine (Pinus clausa), live oak (Quercus virginiana), and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). The entire NE Area is...mesic pine flatwoods (Hurlburt Field, 2008; Hipes and Norden, 2003). The dominant canopy species within the NE Area is longleaf pine . Shrub and...dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and shrub and herbaceous species in the area include saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), gallberry (Ilex glabra

  6. Effect of aqueous Glycyrrhza globra extract on menopausal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moslemizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Most women consider menopausal symptoms as natural period in their life. Many of them experienced some problems before and after the condition. There are many side effects of hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms.In different regions with various diet regimens, menopausal symptoms are different. Glycyhrhza glabra has constituents with estrogen like activity. In this study for the first time aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra extract was evaluated for decreasing menopausal symptoms.Materials and Methods: Aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra extract prepared by maceration method. The extract was concentrated and then powdered. The powder used as 250 mg capsule and standardized by glycyrrhizha content. After matching for age, menopausal age and BMI, 29 and 24 women were allocated in case and control groups respectively. Three 250 mg capsules were prescribed per day to women in case group and women in control group received placebo. The mean number of hot flashes and degree of menopausal symptoms, KI (Kupperman Index were calculated every two weeks and classified as; without symptom, weak, medium and severs. Data were analyzed using T-test and the effects of drug on hot flash and KI were assessed in different weeks.Results: The mean age and menopausal age were 50.5 ± and 48± respectively. Results showed that the mean numbers of hot flashes, KI and FSH decreased significantly in case group but they were not significant in control group. Also estradiol hormone increased significantly in case group.Conclusion: Aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra affects hot flash and KI and is a simple and cheap drug for menopausal symptoms without any side effects.

  7. SAD2 in Arabidopsis Functions in Trichome Initiation through Mediating GL3 Function and Regulating GL1,TTG1 and GL2 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Gao; Ximing Gong; Wanhong Cao; Jinfeng Zhao; Liqin Fu; Xuechen Wang; Karen S. Schumaker; Yan Guo

    2008-01-01

    Most genes identified that control Arabidopsls trichome initiation and formation are transcription factors or regulatory components in transcriptional networks and include GLABROUS1 (GL1), GLABRA2 (GL2), GLABRA3 (GL3) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1). Herein, we report that an importin β-like protein, SENSITIVE TO ABA AND DROUGHT2 (SAD2),is required for trichome initiation. Mutations in SAD2 disrupted trichome initiation resulting in reduced trichome number,but had no effect on trichome development or root hair number and development. Expression levels of GL1, MYB23, GL2 and TTG1 were reduced in shoots of sad2 mutants while expression levels of GL3 and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3)were enhanced. Overexpression of GL3 increased trichome numbers in wild type but not in sad2 mutants, indicating that the function of the GL3 protein is altered in the sad2 mutants. In contrast, overexpression of GFP-GL1 decreased trichome number in both wild type and sad2. Double mutant analysis of gl1 sad2 and gl3 sad2 indicated that SAD2 functions genetically, at least in part, in the same pathway with these two genes. Co-immunoprecipitation indicated that the sad2 mutation does not disrupt formation of the TTG1-GL3-GL1 complex. Analysis of GFP fusions of GL1, GL2, GL3 and TTG1 suggested that these proteins are most likely not direct cargo of SAD2. Our data suggest that SAD2 is involved in trichome initiation by regulating these nuclear genes.

  8. HPLC Quantification of Flavonoids and Biflavonoids in Cupressaceae Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Romani; C. GALARDI; P. PINELLI; Mulinacci, N.; D. HEIMLER

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain qualitative and quantitative profiles of the flavonoid and biflavonoid composition of six cypress species - Cupressus funebris L., Cupressus semper- Wrens L., Cupressus glabra L., Cupressus arizonica L., Cupressus goveniana L., and Cupressus lusitanica L. HPLC-diode-array detection (DAD), HPLC-MS, and HPTLC were used to identify the individual compounds. A chromatographic method was optimized for identification and quantification of t...

  9. Comparative Study of the Pollen Protein Contents in Two Major Varieties of Cupressus arizonica Planted in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Shahali; Ahmad Majd; Zahra Pourpak; Golnaz Tajadod; Maryam Haftlang; Mostafa Moin

    2007-01-01

    During past few years, the Cupressus arizonica has been abundantly planted in Tehran, causing a significant increase of allergic diseases from the middle of winter to the beginning of spring. The aim of this study was the comparison of pollen protein content in two major varieties of C. arizonica planted in Tehran, including C. arizonica var. arizonica and C. arizonica var. glabra, in order to determine pollen's specificity of each variety and also to find out whether environmental conditions...

  10. Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Kuin Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC, and radical scavenging activity (RSA using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, respectively. Results: Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation.

  11. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  12. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest. PMID:27195310

  13. Study of fossil wood from the Middle–Late Miocene sediments of Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam, India and its palaeoecological and palaeophyto-geographical implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Mehrotra; S K Bera; S K Basumatary; G Srivastava

    2011-08-01

    In order to reconstruct the palaeoclimate, a number of fossil wood pieces were collected and investigated from two new fossil localities situated in the Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam. They belong to the Tipam Group considered to be of Middle–Late Miocene in age and show affinities with Gluta (Anacardiaceae), Bischofia (Euphorbiaceae), Bauhinia, Cynometra, Copaifera-Detarium-Sindora, Millettia-Pongamia, and Afzelia-Intsia (Fabaceae). The flora also records a new species of Bauhinia named Bauhinia miocenica sp. nov. The assemblage indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of the sediments. The occurrence of some southeast Asian elements in the fossil flora indicates that an exchange of floral elements took place between India and southeast Asia during the Miocene.

  14. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  15. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  16. Genome relationship among nine species of Millettieae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Panda, Pratap Chandra

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker was used to establish intergeneric classification and phylogeny of the tribe Millettieae sensu Geesink (1984) (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) and to assess genetic relationship between 9 constituent species belonging to 5 traditionally recognized genera under the tribe. DNA from pooled leaf samples was isolated and RAPD analysis performed using 25 decamer primers. The genetic similarities were derived from the dendrogram constructed by the pooled RAPD data using a similarity index, which supported clear grouping of species under their respective genera, inter- and intra-generic classification and phylogeny and also merger of Pongamia with Millettia. Elevation of Tephrosia purpurea var. pumila to the rank of a species (T. pumila) based on morphological characteristics is also supported through this study of molecular markers.

  17. Effect of growing media on seed germination and vigor in biofuel tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Mariappan; P. Srimathi; L. Sundaramoorthi; K. Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate laboratory germination media, seed germi-nation rates and methodology for both Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were counted in different germination medium, such as river sand, quartz sand and vermiculite. The seeds of both species were sown at 2-cm depth of river sand, quartz sand and vermiculite. We evaluated methodologies of seeds of J. curcas and P. pinnata by ISTA (Interna-tional Seed Testing Association). The results showed that river sand is the best medium for tree seeds planted at 2-cm depth of River sand. Vermiculite was second best. On paper media, there were many abnor-mal seedlings and this media were unsuitable for germination of the larger seeds.

  18. Regeneration of five commercially-valuable tree species after experimental logging in an Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Albertina Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration variation of five commercially valuable tree species in relation to different intensities of felling in fourteen 4-ha plots in an area under experimental forest management. This experiment was carried out in a typical Amazonian tropical forest sample on "terra-firme," in Manaus (AM. Plots were logged 7 and 8 years (1987 and 1988, or 3 years (1993 before the study. All trees with height greater than 2 m, and diameter at breast height (DBH smaller than 10 cm were measured. Only Aniba hostmanniana, Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, Eschweilera coriacea and Goupia glabra were sufficiently common for individual analyses. These species have high timber values in the local market. Eight years after logging, the species responded differently to logging intensities. The numbers of individuals of Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana were positively related to the intensity of logging, while Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, and Eschweilera coriacea showed no statistically significant response. In the most recently (1993 logged areas, Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana had higher numbers of individuals than the control plots.

  19. Unequivocal glycyrrhizin isomer determination and comparative in vitro bioactivities of root extracts in four Glycyrrhiza species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as licorice, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and as sweetener in the food industry. This species contains a myriad of phytochemicals including the major saponin glycoside glycyrrhizin (G of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA aglycone. In this study, 2D-ROESY NMR technique was successfully applied for distinguishing 18α and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. ROESY spectra acquired from G. glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata crude extracts revealed the presence of G in its β-form. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Glycyrrhiza species, G, glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots was assessed against COX-1 inhibition revealing that phenolics rather than glycyrrhizin are biologically active in this assay. G. inflata exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against PC3 and HT29 cells lines, whereas other species are inactive. This study presents an effective NMR method for G isomer assignment in licorice extracts that does not require any preliminary chromatography or any other purification step.

  20. 三角梅属四个品种花挥发性组分的GC-MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Components of Flowers from Four Bougainvilleas by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夙侠; 黄青云; 刘鸿洲; 林春松

    2010-01-01

    三角梅不仅观赏性强,而且具有多方面的保健作用.为了揭示三角梅的次生代谢机制,本研究采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取三角梅属四个品种(Bougainvillea glabra 'Magnifica'、Bougainvillea glabra 'Pink Pixie'、Bougainvillea glabra 'Formosa' 和Bougainvillea×buttiana 'Mahara')花的挥发性成分;通过GC-MS法对所提取的成分进行定性和定量分析.共分离出85种成分,经NIST数据库检索,并与标准谱图比较共鉴定出72个化学组分,占总挥发性组分含量的90%以上.结果表明,4个三角梅品种的花中含有植醇、丁子香酚、亚油酸、亚麻酸以及维生素E等对人类有益的化合物.