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Sample records for karakterisasi sifat optik

  1. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT-SIFAT BIOKIMIA EKSTRAK KASAR LIPASE EKSTRASELULER BAKTERI Azospirillum sp.PRD1

    Santi Nur Handayani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzim lipase mempunyai peranan penting dalam katalis berbagai reaksi industri satu diantaranya pembuatan flavor melalui reaksi esterifikasi. Lipase adalah biokatalis yang berperan besar dalam aplikasi bioteknologi, seperti dalam sintesis biopolimer, biodiesel, produksi obat, dan produksi flavor. Peningkatan penggunaan lipase untuk industri mendorong dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan sumber-sumber lipase baru. Sumber lipase yang potensial salah satunya adalah bakteri Azospirillum sp.PRD1 dari isolat lokal Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Biologi Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kasar lipase dan menentukan karakteristik sifat-sifat biokimiawinya. Metode yang digunakan antara lain peremajaan bakteri Azospirillum sp.PRD1, dan produksi inokulum, penentuan waktu produksi optimum dan fase pertumbuhan bakteri, ekstraksi dan produksi ekstrak kasar lipase dan penentuan karakteristik sifat-sifat biokimiawinya. Hasil penelitian diperoleh ekstrak kasar lipase dari inokulum berumur 7 jam dan medium produksi dengan induser minyak zaitun yang diinkubasi selama 3 jam memiliki aktivitas spesifik 7,0547 Unit/mg. Lipase ekstrak kasar optimum pada pH 7, suhu 40 oC dan waktu inkubasi selama 25 menit. Lipase merupakan metaloenzim dengan kofaktor Zn2+ , Mn2+, Hg2+, Ca2+, Co2+ and Mg2+.

  2. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Sifat Pati Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata L. Beberapa Varietas Lokal Indonesia

    Priyanto Triwitono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mung beans is a kind of legumes that possesses a potential  amylose to produce low calories RS-3. Studies on the characteristics of the starch will be useful for the treatment of obesity in the future. Isolation and characterization of the properties of mung bean starch of 4 local Indonesian varieties (Walet, Sriti, Murai, and Vima-1 have done. Isolation of starch using a modified method of Hoover. The analyzed properties of starch consist of starch content, amylose content, granular shape, color, swelling power, WHC, the blue value, amylograph and crystallinity properties. The results indicated that the mung bean varieties Walet have the highest amylose content (55.39%, that’s potential as source of  RS-3. Mung beans Walet have the 42.11% of starch content; 35.33% of yield starch; 99.63%  of starch purity; 17.11 g/g of highest swelling power; 65.26 g/g of WHC; 59.36 g/g  of OHC; 8.92% of blue value; Oval granular shape; white  color (88.09 of  Lightness; 78.7 °C of gelatinization temperature; tipe C of X-ray diffraction pattern, and 1430 Cp of the fastest retrograded starch viscosity. ABSTRAK Kacang hijau merupakan jenis kacang-kacangan sumber pati beramilosa tinggi yang potensial menghasilkan RS-3 tinggi dan rendah kalori. Kajian tentang karakteristik patinya akan membuka peluang pemanfaatannya untuk penanganan obesitas di masa datang. Telah dilakukan isolasi dan karakterisasi sifat-sifat pati kacang hijau dari 4 varietas lokal Indonesia (Walet, Sriti, Murai, dan Vima-1. Isolasi pati menggunakan metode Hoover yang dimodifikasi dan sifat-sifat pati yang dianalisis meliputi kadar pati, amilosa, bentuk granula, warna pati, swelling power, WHC, blue value, viskositas, dan sifat kristalinitas pati. Hasil isolasi dan analisis menunjukkan bahwa kacang hijau varietas Walet memiliki kadar amilosa paling tinggi (55,39%, sehingga potensial sebagai bahan dasar RS-3. Kacang hijau Walet menghasilkan kadar pati 42,11%; rendemen pati 35

  3. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL FRAKSI PATI UWI UNGU (DIOSCOREA ALATA

    Lula Nadia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSize fractionation of yam starch granule could be achieved through dry sieving Retsch Siever with 400 and 500 mesh. Although the fractionation was not completely separate the granule size, however it could provide a significant difference in average size of the fractions. Starch granule morphology, size distribution, amylose and phosphorus contents, crystal structure, thermal properties, and rheological characteristic of the starch fraction were evaluated. In this study, based on the average value of the granule size, significant effects of fraction were obtained on phosphorus content and relative crystallinity of the starch. The size fraction differences did not give a significant impact on its gelatinization character, while in the pasta formations the effect of the fraction was found in peak and final viscosity. In the bigger size fraction, the phosphorus content increased but the relative crystallinity decreased. These differences made the large size fraction of starch granule had the advantage in paste profiling than starches and fractions against stirring, heating and cooling for its potential use in food processing as thickner.Keywords: dioscorea alata, starch, size fractionation, size distribution, viscoelastisityABSTRAKFraksinasi ukuran granula pati uwi dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan pengayakan kering Retsch Siever 400 dan 500 mesh. Meskipun metode fraksinasi ini tidak sempurna memisahkan ukuran granula, tetapi dapat memberikan perbedaan yang signifikan dari nilai rerata ukuran fraksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi morfologi granula, distribusi ukuran, kandungan amilosa, kadar fosfor, struktur kristal dan kristalinitas relatif, sifat termal, serta karakteristik rheologi dari fraksi pati. Penelitian menunjukkan, berdasarkan nilai rerata ukuran granula, pengaruh signifikan dari fraksi diperoleh pada kandungan fosfor dan kristalinitas relatif pati. Perbedaan ukuran fraksi granula tidak cukup memberi pengaruh yang

  4. KAJIAN SIFAT OPTIK FILM TIPIS BST DIDADAH NIOBIUM DAN TANTALUM

    Farida Huriawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST has been synthesis with different compositions Ba0,5Sr0,5TiO3 and Ba0,25Sr0,75TiO3 which doped by Nb2O5 (Niobium and Ta2O5 (Tantalum on Si (100 type-p substrate. Thin films were produced by chemical solution deposition technique (CSD and spin coating technique with annealing temperature at 850oC, 900oC dan 950oC. Rotation velocity at 3000 rpm and time of rotation is 30 seconds. Characterization of Films is optic Characterization (absorbance ana reflectance. From the Characterizations were obtained BNST thin film with 5% doping and anneling temperature at 8500C as photodiode light sensor which applied in electronic circuit.

  5. Karakterisasi Permen Jeli yang Dibuat dari Hasil Formulasi Jelly Powder

    Ellya Sinurat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian karakterisasi permen jeli dengan bahan baku formula jelly powder telah dilakukan. Formula jelly powder terdiri dari campuran karaginan murni, konjak, dekstrosa, dan KCl. Jelly powder ini digunakan untuk pembuatan permen jeli dengan variasi 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; dan 5,0%. Sebagai pembanding digunakan produk permen jeli impor berbahan dasar karaginan yang sudah ada di pasaran. Untuk mengetahui kualitas permen jeli, parameter yang diamati meliputi aktivitas air, sifat fisik (kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elastisitas serta nilai organoleptik (kenampakan, bau, rasa, tekstur, elastisitas, transparansi, dan penerimaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi  jelly powder menyebabkan meningkatnya kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elastisitas permen jeli. Nilai organoleptik untuk rasa, tekstur, elastisitas, transparansi, dan penerimaan yang paling baik menurut panelis adalah pada konsentrasi jelly powder 4,5%

  6. Analisis Pengaruh Doping Nitrogen Terhadap Sifat Kapasitif Superkapasitor Berbahan Graphene

    Diah Ayu Safitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan manusia akan barang elektronik semakin meningkat, sehingga meningkat pula kebutuhan akan media penyimpan listrik. Salah satu media penyimpan energy yaitu kapasitor. Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC merupakan superkapasitor yang memiliki waktu hidup yang lebih lama, rapat daya dan kecepatan charging-discharging tinggi. Graphene telah banyak dieksplorasi sebagai material untuk EDLC, salah satunya yaitu dengan pendopingan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh doping nitrogen terhadap struktur dan morfologi serta pengaruh doping nitrogen terhadap sifat kapasitif dari elektroda superkapasitor berbahan Graphene. Sintesis graphene diawali dari grafit yang dioksidasi menjadi grafit oksida dengan metode Hummer. Grafit oksida lalu direduksi dengan metode hydrotermal menjadi graphene. Penelitian ini memvariasikan doping nitrogen dengan penambahan NH4OH 0.1 ml, 0.3 ml dan 1 ml. Material yang disintesis ini dikarakterisasi menggunakan XRD(X-Ray Diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy , EDS (Energy Disspersive X-Ray analysis, FPP (Four Point Probe, dan FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopu. Dari hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa material yang disintesis adalah graphene. Sifat kapasitif Elektroda diukur dengan melakukan uji Cyclic Voltametry (CV dengan rentang scan rate 5, 10, 50 dan 100 mV/s. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan doping nitrogen pada graphene yang paling optimal adalah dengan penambahan NH4OH 0.3 ml yaitu 5.2%at dengan nilai kapasitansi sebesar 208.47 F/g.

  7. Studi Perancangan Jaringan Komunikasi Serat Optik Dwdm L Band dengan Penguat Optikal Edfa

    Sri Danaryani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telekomunikasi juga disertai dengan teknik transmisi yang dapat membawa bandwidth yang besar, seperti SONET / SDH yang memiliki bit rate hingga 40 Gb / s. Serat optik adalah media yang paling tepat digunakan untuk transmisi, yang untuk komunikasi jarak jauh jenis single mode step index adalah yang paling sesuai. Maju multiplexing WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing memungkinkan SONET, ATM dan saluran lainnya dapat menyebarkan dalam serat optik tunggal. Bandwidth tumbuh membuat WDM berkembang menjadi DWDM .. Berbagai masukan membuat perangkat yang dipilih untuk menjadi beragam, yang pada gilirannya dapat masuk ke dalam DWDM dengan kapasitas 10 Gbps. Kapasitas DWDM harus dipilih, misalnya dengan menggunakan 4 nilai panjang gelombang sesuai dengan grid ITU-T 1568.77nm, 1569.59nm, 1571,23 nm n 1.572,05 nm. Hasilnya dapat meminimalkan efek dari FWM mana harmonik yang dihasilkan tidak termasuk dalam panjang gelombang fundamental. Penggunaan EDFA dalam transmisi serat optik di DWDM shut sedang mempertimbangkan OSNR. Perhitungan OSNR tergantung pada jumlah panjang gelombang, bit rate, dispersi serat dan jumlah amplifier yang digunakan. Secara umum, semakin amplifier digunakan OSNR akan lebih kecil. bandwidth yang besar juga menurun OSNR. Jadi OSNR lebih kecil menunjukkan suara lebih dominan dibandingkan dengan sinyal.

  8. Isolasi karakterisasi dan pengelompokan strain Salmonella typhi asal Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya Nusa Tenggara Timur berdasarkan sifat-sifat fenotip

    Charis Amarantini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is highly endemic in the South-West Sumba Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. The incidence rate of the diseases is high estimated at 725/100,000. It is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella typhi. The clinical symptoms of the disease are extremely diverse, starting from the mild form to severe ones with the most feared complication being perforation within the small intestine. Therefore, it is important to perform isolation, characterization, and grouping of S. typhi strains from the blood culture in order to determined definitely diagnosis and the different phenotypic characteristics in the community. Isolation was done in selective and differential media: BacT/ALERT FA culture media, Selenite Cystine Broth, Chromocult Coliform Agar, MacConkey Agar, andSalmonella Shigella Agar. The typical colony of Salmonella was confirmed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Urea agar, and L-Lysinedecarboxylation media. Phenotypic characteristics of all isolates were identified using API 20E and API 50CHE diagnostics. Based on biochemical characteristics the result showed that 18 strains obtained from different geographical origins were diverse. Four strains have similarity value 100% while the remained strains have similarity value 86.3-98.4%. All of the strains were categorized in the species of S. typhi.

  9. Karakterisasi dan Aplikasi Enzim Transglutaminase dari Streptoverticillium ladakanum pada Daging Lumat IKan Mata Goyang

    Yusro Nuri Fawzya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan karakterisasi enzim transglutaminase mikroba (MTGase yang diproduksi dari Streptoverticillium ladakanumdengan menggunakan media yang mengandung limbah cair tahu dan hidrolisat tepung tapioka. Enzim MTGase yang dikarakteris as i merupakan enzim kasar yang telah dipekatkan menggunakan ultrafiltrasi dan dikeringbekukan. Enzim ini kemudian diaplikasikan pada daging lumat ikan mata goyang (Priacanthus macracanthus lalu diamati sifat fisik (tekstur produk restrukturisasi yang dihasilkan. Sebagai pembanding,  dilakukan aplikasi TGase komersial (KTGase pada daging lumat yang sama. Penambahan TGase dilakukan dengan 2 cara, yaitu:  (1 bersama-sama dengan garam NaCl 1%, (2 bersama-sama dengan garam NaCl 1% dan sodium kaseinat 1%. Sebagai control adalah daging lumat ditambah garam N aCl 1% (tanpa penambahan enzim TGase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa MTGase dari S. ladakanumbekerja optimum pada pH 8 dan suhu 55°C. Aktivitas enzim ini relatif tidak terpengaruh oleh adanya ion logam Ca2+,Mg2+, Na+, dan K+maupun inhibitor seperti ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA, dan phenylmethyl-sulfonylfluoride(PMSF. Enzim MTGase tanpa penambahan sodium kaseinat menunjukkan kemampuan membentuk gel yang tidak berbeda dengan TGase komersial, menghasilkan kekuatan gel 16848 g mm dan nilai kekenyalan 0,97. Enzim ini juga terbukti dapat meningkatkan kekuatan gel, kekenyalan, dan kepadatan produk restrukturisasi daging lumat ikan yang hanya ditambah garam NaCl saja atau yang ditambah garam NaCl dan sodium kaseinat.

  10. Karakterisasi Morfologi dan Sifat Kuantitatif Gandum (Triticum aestivum L. di Dataran Menengah

    Sartika Widowati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIndonesia is one of the largest wheat importers. Suitable environmental condition for wheat needs to be studied if wheat is going to be widely cultivated in Indonesia. The adaptability of wheat grown in various climates and altitudes is one of the important aspects. The objective of this experiment was to study the quantitative and morphological character of wheat grown in middle land (540 m asl in Bogor, West Java. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Wheat genotypes used were three national varieties (Nias, Selayar, and Dewata, four new improved varieties (Guri 3 Agritan, Guri 4 Agritan, Guri 5 Agritan, and Guri 6 Unand, and one introduced genotype (SBD. Data were collected for several quantitative variables and seventeen morphological characters based on UPOV descriptor. The result showed that wheat growth was restricted in Bogor. Genotype determined plant height, leaf number, ear length, root length, number of spikelet, harvest time, seed weight, number of tillers, and plant biomass. Based on ear length, grain weight, and plant biomass, Guri 3 Agritan had the highest production than the other genotypes.Keywords: diversity, genetic relationship, high temperature, introduced genotype, phylogenetic

  11. Karakterisasi Serbuk Hasil Produksi Menggunakan Metode Atomisasi

    M. Halim Asiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Metalurgi serbuk (powder metallurgy,yaitu merupakan teknologi produksi logam dengan bahan dasar Aluminum dengan unsur lain Ti,Mn,Mg,Si,sebagai unsur penguat sebelum diproses pencairan terlebidahulu melakukan pengujian sifat mekanik antara lain uji struktur makro dan mikro kemudianuji kekerasan (hardness tes, uji kekuatan (tensile strength. Setelah selesai diadakan pengujian sifat-sifat mekanik terhadap logam dasar, maka proses selanjutnya mencairkan logam dasar denganmelalui dapur peleburan (fornaices dengan temperature panas sekitar 1200 s/d 1350? dan titik cair logam aluminum 650?. Setelah mencair kemudian di holding time selama 20 menit selanjutnya pembuatan proses granulasi (pembutiran dengan menggunakan sistim Atomisasi Air (water atomization dengan menggunakan variasi tekanan penyemprotan sebesar 20 s/d 25 Psi, dengan debit 4 l/s,variasi waktu yg digunakan 6 s/d 8 detik. Hasil dari proses sistim metode Atomisasi ini kita dapatkan macam-macam karakteristik bentuk butiran mulai dari Mesh 8 (2360????m,mesh 16 (1180????m, mesh 30(600????m, mesh 50(300????????,mesh 100 (150????m,mesh 200 (75????m. Untuk mengetahui data-data ini melalui pengamatan dengan menggunakan mikroskop makro dan mikro.Selanjutnya bisa juga melakukan pengujian dengan menggunakan alat uji SEM dan X – Ray (XRD.Kata kunci: uji sifatsifat mekanik, sifat bahan, komposisi kimia dan porositas (civitis Abstract : Powder metallurgy (powder metallurgy, which is a production technology with basic materialsAluminum metal with other elements Ti, Mn, Mg, Si, as a reinforcement agent before beingprocessed casting prior testing of mechanical properties among others, macro and micro structuraltest then hardness test, test of strength. After completion of the testing of mechanical properties ofthe base metal, then the next process with the base metal melt through the furnace with atemperature of about 1200 s / d in 1350 and the melting point of aluminum is 650C. After melt

  12. Pengaruh Massa Zn Dan Temperatur Hydrotermal Terhadap Struktur Dan Sifat Elektrik Material Graphene

    Muhammad Rizki Ilhami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi yang sangat berkembang pada saat ini membutuhkan material yang tidak hanya kecil ataupun ringan, tetapi juga memiliki sifat thermal, elektrik, dan mekanik yang baik. Graphene adalah material yang dapat menjawab kebutuhan hal tersebut. Permasalahan yang kemudian muncul adalah proses sintesis massal yang masih menjadi kendala. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis material graphene dengan metode hydrothermal dan menggunakan serbuk Zn sebagai reduktor. Penelitian ini menganalisa pengaruh varaiasi penambahan massa sebesar 0,8 gram, 1,6 gram, dan 2,4 gram zinc serta variasi temperatur hydrthermal 160ᵒC, 180ᵒC, 200ᵒC. Proses karakterisasi material graphene dilakukan dengan pengujian Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infraredspectroscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC, dan Four Point Probe digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai konduktivitas elektrik material. Morfologi dari graphene yang dihasilkan berbentuk lembaran-lembaran transparan dan tipis yang saling menumpuk.Semakin banyak serbuk Zn yang diberikan menjadikan permukaan graphene semakin tipis. Nilai konduktivitas elektrik terbesar dihasilkan dari variasi panambahan serbuk zinc sebesar 2,4 gram dan temperatur hydrothermal sebesar 180ᵒC dengan nilai sebesar 0,012526 S/cm.

  13. Analisis Proses Bisnis dan Penerapan Manajemen Strategis pada PT Optik XYZ

    Hendra Alianto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available That optic business is increasingly mushrooming followed by a decrease in market share, forces Optik XYZ to have competent management strategies to achieve a strong position in competing in similar industry. Therefore a study was conducted to provide a structured and systematic analysis of management strategies required by Optik XYZ. Stages of study were initiated by data collection from interviews, literature studies and field studies, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis and implementation of management strategies. The study generated a formulation of management strategy proper for Optik XYZ. Management strategies formulated in this study can help carrying out the company's activities in decision making, so that the business processes run optimally. 

  14. Beberapa Sifat dari Modul dan Gelanggang dengan Dimensi Goldie Berhingga (Suatu Kajian Pustaka

    Amir Kamal Amir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modul M dikatakan mempunyai demensi Goldie berhingga jika modul tersebuttidak memuat suatu jumlahan langsung dari takberhingga banyak submodul-submodultaknol. Sedangkan, suatu gelanggang R dikatakan mempunyai dimensi Goldie kanan berhinggajika gelanggang tersebut mempunyai dimensi Goldie berhingga sebagai suatu modul kanan.Tulisan ini akan menyajikan beberapa sifat dari modul dan gelanggang yang mempunyai dimensiGoldie berhingga. Sifat-sifat tersebut bukanlah merupakan sifat-sifat yang baru. Namundemikian, tulisan ini akan menyajikan pembuktian dari sifat-sifat tersebut dengan cara yanglebih terperinci dan lengkap sehingga lebih mudah dimengerti, terutama bagi pembaca pemuladalam bidang aljabar.

  15. Aplikace marketingového mixu na příkladu firmy Optik Otava

    Otavová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The final aim of my study is to create marketing mix for selling luxury eyeglasses. This study is worked out in conditions of the company named Optik Otava which does not use professional marketing strategic planning. First of all the optical profession is presented and the optical market is analyzed. In the second part, there is prepared a theoretical base for marketing mix creation. Marketing mix is just one part of marketing strategic planning, therefore I also have to speak of particular ...

  16. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI MEMBRAN HIBRIDA KITOSAN-SILIKA- PEG

    F Widhi Mahatmanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Membran kitosan mempunyai efektivitas pemisahan relatif tinggi tetapi kestabilan mekanik rendah. Untuk meningkatkan kestabilan perlu ditambahkan silika sehingga dihasilkan membran kitosan-silika. Sebagai bahan dasar silika digunakan natrium silikat yang diisolasi dari abu sekam padi. Dalam pembuatan membran kitosan-silika, plasticizer (polietilen glikol/PEG digunakan untuk meningkatkan kestabilan mekanik membran secara signifikan. Pembuatan membran kitosan-silika-PEG dilakukan dengan cara penguapan larutan dan pencetakan. Membran kitosan-silika-PEG dikarakterisasi sifat mekaniknya dengan menguji kekuatan tarik, persen perpanjangan dan Modulus Young, perubahan gugus fungsi, morfologi, sifat kristalinitas, kestabilan terhadap suhu, sifat hidrofilisitas, dan uji terhadap fluks air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa membran kitosan-silika dengan komposisi kitosan/silika 1:0,8 mempunyai harga kuat tarik optimum. Penambahan PEG akan meningkatkan harga persen perpanjangan, tidak menunjukkan perubahan yang signifikan pada hasil uji FTIR dan XRD, tetapi meningkatkan sifat hidrofil seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi PEG dan pH. Nilai Fluks air menurun dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi PEG, dimungkinkan PEG terjebak secara fisik dalam padatan komposit.

  17. Isolasi Dye Organik Alam dan Karakterisasinya Sebagai Sensitizer

    Nurussaniah Nurussaniah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui cara mengisolasi dan karakteristik dye organik alam sebagai sensitizer. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui beberapa tahap yaitu persiapan, isolasi dye organik alam, karakterisasi sifat optik, analisis dan menyimpulkan. Isolasi dye organic alam dilakukan untuk memperoleh sari dari bahan-bahan alam. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan alam yaitu jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata. Karakterisasi optik dye organik alam dalam penelitian ini dilihat dari spektrum absorbansi yang diukur menggunakan Spektrophotometer Uv-Vis. Spektrum absorbansi dye diukur dalam kuvet optik, pada panjang gelombang 350-800 . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolasi dye organik alam diperoleh melalui metode ekstraksi, yaitu suatu metode untuk memperoleh sari dari bahan-bahan alam. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan melarutkan biji jagung (Zea mays dan daging buah labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata dalam pelarut etanol dengan konsentrasi 1:5. Karaktistik optik jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata  menunjukkan panjang gelombang yaitu berada pada cahaya tampak dengan rentang panjang gelombang 350 – 500 nm.  Dengan demikian  dye  beta-karoten yang berasal dari jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sensitizer dalam prototipe Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC.

  18. Karakterisasi Parsial Streptomyces spp., Agens Pengendali Hayati Peyakit Lincat Tembakau

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Local isolates of Streptomyces spp. were proven could suppress "lincat disease" of tobacco in the field. Six isolates were chosen for partial characterization of their bacteriological properties as based for the next experiments purposes. The results indicated that the isolates produce miselium with spore chains, gram positive, aerob, catalase and oxidase positive. The isolates also hydrolize starch, gelatine and esculine; produce lecithinase enzyme, reduce nitrate to nitrite, do not produce melanine pigment, did not produce hydrogen sulfide. The isolates were sensitive against streptomycine and rifampicin; able to use several carbon and nitrogen sources tested. Capable to grow on several medium pH, from 4,3 to 8,0. The isolates were able to grow from 5° C to 45° C; able to grow on medium containing 4% to 7% NaCl and ion the medium containing 0,1% of phenol. Plant pathogenicity test result showed negative responses which indicated that the used isolates were non plant pathogenic. The ability in suppressing lincat pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro was vary between isolates.   Streptomyces spp, isolat lokal terbukti dapat menekan penyakit lunvat tembakau di lapangan. Sebanyak enam isolat dipilih untuk dicirikan sebagai sifat-sifat bakteriologinya sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai dasar dalam penelitian berikutnya. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap sifat morfologi, fisiologi dan sifat biokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat yang diteliti menghasilkan miselium yang memproduksi rangkaian spora, Gram positif, aerob, katalase dan oksidase positif. Isolat-isolat tersebut menghidrolisis pati, gelatin, eskulin; membentuk ensim lechitinase, mereduksi nitrat menjadi nitrit, tidak menghasilkan pigmen melanin, tidak membentuk hidrogen sulfida. Isolat yang diteliti peka terhadap antibiotik streptomisin dan nifampisin; mampu menggunakan beberapa sumber karbon dan sumber nitrogen yang diujikan, Kisaran pH untuk

  19. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Parsial Kolagen dari Teripang Gamma (Stichopus variegatus

    Yusro Nuri Fawzya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolasi dan karakterisasi parsial kolagen dari teripang gamma (Stichopus variegatus telah dilakukan. Isolasi dilakukan melalui tiga tahap yaitu preparasi, ekstraksi dan isolasi. Tahap preparasi meliputi tahapan penyiangan, pencucian dan perendaman dalam akuades, dalam alkohol, dalam larutan Tris-HCl dan etilenadiaminatetraasetat  (EDTA dan perendaman dalam larutan natrium hidroksida (NaOH. Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan perendaman asam asetat 0,5M. Isolasi dilakukan dengan cara pengendapan menggunakan NaCl dilanjutkan proses dialisis. Isolat kolagen teripang gamma yang diperoleh memiliki rendemen sebesar 16,40% (bobot kering, nilai pH 6,08 dan derajat putih 77,02%. Gugus fungsi kolagen terdiri dari amida A (3412 cm-1, B (2929 cm-1, I (1654 cm-1, II (1554 cm-1, dan III (1239 cm-1. Asam amino utama penyusun kolagen yaitu glisin, prolin, dan alanin, masing-masing sebesar 16,88%; 6,71%; dan 6,42%. Kolagen yang dihasilkan merupakan kolagen tipe I, diduga terdiri dari 3 rantai a1 yang homolog dengan berat molekul 130,33 kDa.

  20. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL ISOLAT PROTEIN ‘BLONDO’ (COCONUT PRESSCAKE DARI PRODUK SAMPING PEMISAHAN VCO (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL DENGAN BERBAGAI METODE

    Siti Permatasari

    2015-11-01

    OHC tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antar metode (p≤ 0,05. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa metode fisik menghasilkan sifat fungsional terbaik. Kata kunci: Sifat fungsional, isolat protein, blondo, VCO

  1. PENGEMBANGAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES DAN PEMAHAMAN SISWA KELAS X MELALUI KIT OPTIK

    - Widayanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Keterampilan proses sains sangat diperlukan sebagai dasar agar siswa mampu memecahkan masalah. Ketrampilan proses sains dapat dilatihkan melalui kegiatan laboratorium. Dengan memanfaatkan kit optik peneliti bertujuan meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains dan pemahaman materi fisika bagi siswa SMA. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas X-C SMA 3 Sragen tahun ajaran 2006/2007. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan kit optik dalam pembelajaran dapat meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan proses sains siswa. Skor rata-rata pemahaman siswa pada siklus I sebesar 73,27 dengan ketuntasan belajar secara  klasikal  sebesar  80,49%,  sedangkan  siklus II  skor  rata-rata  adalah  84,20  dengan  ketuntasan klasikal  sebesar  100%. Sedangkan prosentase rata-rata keterampilan proses sains siswa pada siklus I sebesar 77,37% dan siklus II sebesar 87,36%.The science process skills play an important role as basic for students in solving their problems and can be developed through laboratory activities. By using optical kit, we aim increasing science process skill and understanding physics matter for students. The research subject is X-C Class Senior High School 3 Sragen academic year 2006/2007. The research result show that the use of optical  kit  in  the  learning  can increase  understanding  and  science  process  skill  of students.  The  average  score  of  students understanding at cycle I equals to 73,27 with mastery of learning as much as 80,49%, while that of the cycle II equals to 84,20% with the classically mastery of learning 100%. In addition, the average percentages of students science process skill at cycle I and II are 77,37% and 87,36% respectively© 2009 Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNNES SemarangKeywords: mastery of learning; optical kit; learning process

  2. Development of the evaluation instrument use CIPP on the implementation of project assessment topic optik

    Asfaroh, Jati Aurum; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to develop an evaluation instrument models CIPP valid and reliable as well as determine the feasibility and practicality of an evaluation instrument models CIPP. An evaluation instrument models CIPP to evaluate the implementation of the project assessment topic optik to measure problem-solving skills of junior high school class VIII in the Yogyakarta region. This research is a model of development that uses 4-D. Subject of product trials are students in class VIII SMP N 1 Galur and SMP N 1 Sleman. Data collection techniques in this research using non-test techniques include interviews, questionnaires and observations. Validity in this research was analyzed using V'Aikens. Reliability analyzed using ICC. This research uses 7 raters are derived from two lecturers expert (expert judgment), two practitioners (science teacher) and three colleagues. The results of this research is the evaluation's instrument model of CIPP is used to evaluate the implementation of the implementation of the project assessment instruments. The validity result of evaluation instrument have V'Aikens values between 0.86 to 1, which means a valid and 0.836 reliability values into categories so well that it has been worth used as an evaluation instrument.

  3. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN SIFAT PENYANGGA ALUMINA TERHADAP SIFAT KATALIS HYDROTREATING BERBASIS NIKEL-MOLIBDENUM

    Maria Ulfah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF ALUMINA SUPPORT PROPERTIES ON THE NICKEL-MOLIBDENUM BASE HYDROTREATING CATALYST. Effect of surface characteristics of three species of synthesized γ-alumina (alumina-1, alumina-2 and alumina-3 on characteristics NiMo catalysts has been studied. Those aluminas are derived from boehmite Catapal B by varying rasio mol nitric acid to boehmite. A sol-gel method is used to synthesize γ-Al2O3 support. The Nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR of H2, Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD of NH3, and mechanical strength are used to characterize the supports and catalysts. The results showed that the surface area alumina affects the formation of crystalline MoO3 in the NiMo catalyst, while γ-Al2O3-3 support which has the highest surface area (about 195 m2/g compared to the other two types of alumina (>195 m2/g does not have a crystalline MoO3. The formation of crystalline MoO3 is not influenced by the acidity alumina. Based on the results of XRD, it is  indicated that the supported alumina-3 NiMo catalyst (having the highest acid strength shows that there is no presence of crystalline MoO3. Pore size distribution of support did not change significantly after the deposition of Ni and Mo oxides. Mechanical strength of support also affects the strength NiMo catalyst. Support alumina-3 which has the highest mechanical strength gives the mechanical strength of the highest NiMo catalyst. Pengaruh sifat penyangga γ-alumina hasil pengembangan (alumina-1, alumina-2 dan alumina-3 pada karakter katalis hydrotreating nikel-molibdenum (NiMo telah dipelajari. Ketiga jenis γ-alumina diturunkan dari boehmite “Catapal B” dengan menvariasikan nisbah mol asam nitrat terhadap boehmite. Pembuatan γ-alumina menggunakan metoda sol-gel. Adsorpsi Nitrogen, X-ray difraksi (XRD, Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR H2, Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD NH3, dan kekuatan mekanik digunakan untuk

  4. KARAKTERISASI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK JELANTAH MENGGUNAKAN PEREAKSI BIOETANOL TETES TEBU

    Sagung Ngurah Mayuni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Biodiesel merupakan bahan bakar alternatif yang dapat disintesis dari minyak jelantah dan alkohol melalui proses esterifikasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan dasar minyak jelantah dengan kadar asam lemak bebas sebesar 9,16 %, dimana alkohol yang digunakan adalah bioetanol tetes tebu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkarakterisasi biodiesel hasil esterifikasi dan transesterifikasi minyak jelantah dengan hasil destilasi bioetanol tetes tebu. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah menggunakan perbandingan bervariasi antara minyak jelantah dan etanol yaitu 1 : 1 (B1, 3:1 (B2, 5:1 (B3. Hasil karakterisasi biodiesel diperoleh sesuai dengan SNI berturut-turut untuk densitas B1 = 860,3, B2 = 865,3 , B3 = 866,3 (kg/m3, Viskositas B1 = 19,138 , B2 = 24,881 , B3 = 25,359(mm2/s, Titik NyalaB1 = 138,5, B2 = 93,5, B3 = 212,5 (0C. Titik tuang B1 = 6, B2 = 93,5, B3 = 212,5. Titik Tuang B1 = 6, B2 = 6, dan B3 = 9 (0C. Korosi B1 = 1a, B2 = 1a dan B3 =1a. Untuk kadar air dengan hasil B1 = 0,05, B2 = trace (tidak terdeteksi dan B3 = 0,2 (% v/v.Biodiesel minyak jelantah dan etanol tetes tebu dapat terbentuk, setelah dianalisis dengan kromatografi gas menunjukkan adanya senyawa ester (etil palmitat, etil linoleat, etil laurat dengan waktu retensi masing-masing adalah 17,0, 18,6 , 18,7 menit. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bioetanol tetes tebu dapat digunakan dalam sintesis biodiesel. Penggunaan bioetanol tetes tebu dalam sintesis biodiesel diperoleh karakteristik sesuai dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI -04-7182-2006 kecuali viskositas. ABSTRACT: Biodiesel is an alternative energy for fossil fuel. It can be synthesized by esterification of waste cooking oil with alcohol. In this research, the used waste cooking oil contains 9.16 % FFA, while the alcohol used was bioethanol fermented from molase. The aim of this research was to characterize biodiesel produced from esterification and transesterification of used cooking oil with

  5. Mikrostruktur dan Karakterisasi Sifat Mekanik Lapisan Cr3C2-NiAl-Al2O3 Hasil Deposisi Dengan Menggunakan High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray Coating

    Edy Riyanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating processing of industrial component with thermal spray coatings have been applied in many industrial fields. Ceramic matrix composite coating which consists of Cr3C2-Al2O3-NiAl had been carried out to obtain layers of material that has superior mechanical properties to enhance component performance. Deposition of CMC with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating has been employed. This study aims to determine the effect of powder particle size on the microstructure, surface roughness and hardness of the layer, by varying the NiAl powder particle size. Test results show NiAl powder particle size has an influence on the mechanical properties of CMC coating. Hardness of coating increases and surface roughness values of coating decrease with smaller NiAl particle size.  

  6. Hubungan Parameter Sifat Magnetik Dan Sifat Keteknikan Tanah Pada Tanah Residual Vulkanik

    Mela Faridlah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai karakteristik tanah residual vulkanik menggunakan metode magnetik dan metode geoteknik telah dilakukan pada lereng stabil dan lereng longsor yang berada di Desa Langensari Kecamatan Lembang Kabupaten Bandung Barat Provinsi Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui gambaran karakteristik suseptibilitas magnetik dan parameter keteknikan tanah residual vulkanik. Karakteristik geoteknik ditentukan melalui uji fisik berupa uji bobot isi, berat isi tanah basah, berat isi tanah kering, kadar air, derajat kejenuhan dan porositas, uji batas atterberg serta uji ukuran butir tanah.. Karakteristik magnetik ditentukan melalui uji suseptibilitas magnetik menggunakan Bartington MS2B (Magnetic Suseptibility System sensor B dual frekuensi yaitu 470 Hz dan 4,7 kHz. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan peningkatan nilai-nilai χLF (suseptibilitas frekuensi rendah dan χFD% (suseptibilitas bergantung frekuensi kearah horizon bagian atas profil tanah residual. Peningkatan nilai-nilai χLF dan χFD% ke arah horizon bagian atas merupakan karakteristik dari suseptibilitas magnetik.Dari hasil penelitian geoteknik dan magnetik didapatkan hasil jenis tanah residual vulkanik tersebut merupakan tanah lempung dengan mineral dominan yaitu Ilmenit. Hubungan antara parameter magnetik dan keteknikan tanah yaitu beberapa parameter keteknikan yang mempengaruhi sifat kemagnetan diantaranya berat isi tanah basah dan kadar air. Research on volcanic residual soil characteristics using magnetic methods and geotechnic methods was carried out on a stable slope and landslide slope are located in Langensari Lembang west Bandung, West Java Province. This study are intended to describe the characteristics of the magnetic susceptibility and residual volcanic soil engineering parameters. Geotechnical characteristics were determined by physical properties tests such as bulk density test, wet density, dry density, water content, degree of saturation and porosity

  7. SIFAT FISIKA DAN KETEGUHAN PATAH PAPAN SEMEN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemungkinan pemanfaatan pelepah kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku papan semen partikel dan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen partikel pada berbagai perbandingan semen dan partikel dari dua merek semen (Tonasa dan Tiga Roda. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan pola faktorial 2 x 3 sebanyak 5 kali ulangan, dimana faktor A adalah merek semen yaitu semen tonasa dan semen Tiga Roda kemudian faktor B adalah perbandingan antara partikel dan semen. Hasil pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika masing-masing menunjukan pengaruh yang sangat berbeda nyata, hal ini disebabkan karena semakin banyak penambahan jumlah perekat semen maka semakin baik pula sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen yang dibuat, sedangkan untuk faktor merek semen tidak menunjukan perbedaan yang nyata. Kata kunci : Pelapah kelapa sawit, sifat fisika dan mekanika, papan semen partikel

  8. Peningkatan Sifat Mekanik Kawat Anyam (Wire Mesh) Baja Melalui Proses Pelapisan Nikel

    Widagdo, Baskara Surya; Sulistyo, Sulistyo

    2017-01-01

    Teknologi pelapisan logam telah berkembang dengan pesat. Metode yang dikembangkan bervariasi. Salah satu tujuan teknologi pelapisan logam adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas logam baik dari sifat ketahanan korosi maupun peningkatan ketahanan sifat mekanik seperti tahan aus maupun kekuatan tarik logam tersebut. Paper ini membahas tentang teknologi pelapisan logam berbentuk kawt anyam (wire mesh) menggunakan lapisan nikel. Kawat anyam dibersihkan dengan larutan HCl dan dicuci dengan air sabun ke...

  9. SIFAT MEKANIK KOMPOSIT COKELAT BATANG DENGAN FILLER BIJI METE

    P A Wiguna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahan komposit yang banyak dijumpai di masyarakat umumnya terbuat dari material berat seperti, logam, keramik, atau polimer. Pada bahan pangan terdapat pula yang termasuk ke dalam kategori material komposit, diantaranya adalah cracker, cookie, kue pie, chasew chocolate, dan lain sebagianya. Diantara komposit bahan pangan tersebut yang paling banyak digemari sebagai makanan camilan adalah  cokelat. Hal menarik yang dikaji pada studi ini berkaitan dengan sifat mekanik komposit cokelat yaitu kekuatan tekan dari komposit tersebut. Komposit ini terbuat dari bahan makanan cokelat dengan variasi  fraksi massa mete sebagai filler yaitu 13 %, 17%, 20%, 23%, 26 %, dan 29%. Matriks yang digunakan adalah cokelat jenis dark chocolate. Sifat mekanik yang dikaji adalah kuat tekan pada komposit cokelat batang. Parameter ini diukur untuk mengetahui ukuran maksimum beban yang dapat diterima komposit tersebut. Komposit yang memiliki kekuatan tekan terbesar ada pada cokelat batang dengan fraksi massa mete 29 % yaitu sebesar 2,81 MPa. Hal ini menunjukkan  bahwa variasi fraksi massa mete berpengaruh pada sifat mekanik material komposit karena berkaitan dengan perilaku distribusi partikel. Kuat tekan komposit cokelat teramati meningkat dengan kenaikan jumlah biji mete pada cokelat batang.Generally, the composite materials found in the civilization are made from heavy materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, and polymers. In fact, the composite material also found in food, such as crackers, cookies, pies, and cashew chocolates. Cashew chocolates usually consumed as the most favourite snack. The most interesting object from this study is related with the mechanical composite characteristic of the chocolate, i.e. compressive strength. Chocolate composite is made from chocolate with variety of cashew mass fraction as the filler, i.e. 13 %, 17%, 20%, 23%, 26 %, and 29%. In this study, the composite matrix was a dark chocolate, whereas the mechanical characteristic determined

  10. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Bakteriosin yang Dihasilkan Oleh Lactobacillus lactis dari Sedimen Laut

    Rofiq Sunaryanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan isolasi dan karakterisasi bakteriosin yang dihasilkan oleh Lactobacillus lactis yang berasal dari sedimen laut. Karakterisasi bakteriosin meliputi uji aktivitas antimikroba, stabilitas terhadap suhu, pH, penambahan enzim, surfaktan, dan stabilitas bakteriosin terhadap penyinaran lampu UV. Aktivitas antimikroba bakteriosin diuji melawan bakteri uji Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 66923, Staphyllococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, dan Candida albican. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bakteriosin mampu menghambat pertumbuhan E.coli ATCC 25922, E. faecalis ATCC 29212, S. aureus ATCC 25923 dan B. subtilis ATCC 66923, namun demikian tidak mampu menghambat pertumbuhan L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, dan C. albican. Bakteriosin yang dihasilkan oleh Lactobacillus lactis stabil terhadap pemanasan sampai dengan suhu 70 °C dan stabil pada rentang pH 3 sampai dengan 7. Aktivitas bakteriosin hilang dengan penambahan tripsin, pepsin, dan proteinase-K, namun aktivitas bakteriosin stabil terhadap penambahan a-amilase. Penambahan tween 20, tween 80, dan EDTA mampu meningkatkan aktivitas bakteriosin sebesar 1,1 sampai dengan 1,2 kali dibandingkan dengan tanpa penambahan surfaktan. Penyinaran lampu UV selama 15 menit tidak berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas bakteriosin.

  11. Ekstraksi Dan Karakterisasi Serbuk Nano Pigmen Dari Daun Tanaman Jati (Tectona Grandis Linn. F

    Riahna br Kembaren

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman Jati (Tectona grandis linn. F umumnya hanya dimanfaatkan bagian kayunya untuk industri meubel, namun bagian lain seperti daun kurang dimanfaatkan. Daun jati terutama bagian pucuk daun muda dapat menghasilkan pigmen. Produksi serbuk nano pigmen dari daun jati dan karakterisasi serbuk nano pigmen tersebut belum dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan nano pigmen dari pucuk daun jati muda dalam bentuk serbuk dengan menggunakan persentase filler yang berbeda dan melakukan karakterisasi serbuk nano pigmen jati tersebut. Pucuk daun jati muda diberi perlakuan mekanik dengan penggerusan kemudian disaring, larutan yang diperoleh diukur partikelnya dengan Particle Size Analyzer (PSA, dan dikeringkan dengan penambahan filler maltodekstrin 5% dan 10%. Serbuk yang diperoleh dihitung rendemen, ukuran partikel, dan kelarutan dalam air. Warna merah yang dihasilkan dari filtrat pucuk daun jati muda berasal dari zat warna antosianin yang terkandung dalam daun jati muda. Ekstrak dari pucuk daun jati muda memiliki ukuran dengan kisaran 87,8- 318,1 nm dengan ukuran rata-rata 109,2 nm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak tersebut merupakan produk nano di alam. Penambahan filler dengan konsentrasi berbeda berpengaruh terhadap warna, rendemen, ukuran partikel serbuk, dan kelarutan pigmen serbuk dalam air. 

  12. KARAKTERISASI STRUKTUR MIKRO DAN STRUKTUR KRISTAL FILM TEBAL FETIO3 DARI BAHAN MINERAL INDONESIA

    Yus Rama Denny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan studi awal pembuatan dan pengolahan bahan mineral Indonesia sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan termistor NTC. Bahan mineral yarosit dari alam dimurnikan dengan larutan HCl, diendapkan dengan menggunakan NH4OH dan dipanaskan pada suhu kalsinasi 700oC selama 2 jam. Pembuatan termistor NTC dilakukan dengan mecampurkan serbuk yarosit hasil pemurnian dan pengendapan dengan TiO2. Pasta termistor FeTiO3 dicetak dipermukaan alumina substrat dengan metode screen printing, kemudian dilakukan pemanasan pada suhu 500oC selama 1 jam diruangan udara dilanjutkan disinter pada suhu 1100oC selama 1 jam diruangan hidrogen. Sifat listrik keramik film tebal hasil sinter diukur pada berbagai suhu. Struktur kristal dievaluasi dengan difraksi sinar x (XRD, dan struktur mikro dievaluasi dengan menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Data analisis XRD memperlihatkan bahwa seluruh keramik film tebal berstruktur heksagonal (Illiminite. Data struktur mikro dan sifat listrik memperlihatkan bahwa termistor dari yarosit memenuhi kebutuhan pasar.

  13. SIFAT MEKANIK BAHAN GESEK REM KOMPOSIT DIPERKUAT SERAT BAMBU

    Sutikno -

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan gesek komposit diperkuat serat bambu untuk kampas rem otomotif dibuat menggunakan mesin pres isostatik panas pada 19oC selama 3 jam. Jumlah serat bambu dan serbuk logam di dalam pencampuran dioptimasi, setiap komposisi komponen lain dibuat tetap, pengaruhnya pada sifat-sifat mekanik dan struktur mikro diselidiki. Serat bambu disini digunakan sebagai pengganti serat asbes yang jumlahnya divariasi antara 2,86-17,14% dari volume total dan fraksi berat masing-masing unsur penyusun ditentukan menggunakan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Angka kekerasan Brinell, kekuatan tarik maksimum, dan ketahanan aus khas bahan gesek yang difabrikasi berada pada rentang 21,7-43,4 kg/mm2, 0,021-0,036 ton, dan 1,5exp-11-5,2exp-11 m2/N.Friction materials of bamboo fibers reinforced composites for automotive brakes were made using hot isostatic pressing machine at 190oC for 3 hours. The contents of bamboo fiber and metal powder in the mixing were optimized, each composition of other components was fixed, its effects on mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. Bamboo fibers were used here as substitutes for asbestos fibers whose number varied between 2.86 to 17.14% of the total volume and weight fraction of each constituent element is determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Brinell hardness number, the maximum tensile strength and specific wear resistance of friction materials fabricated in the ranges of 21.7 to 43.4 kg/mm2, 0.021 to 0.036 tons, and 1.5 exp-11-5, 2exp-11 m2 / N, respectively.

  14. Pemberdayaan Pembelajaran Materi Ajar Identifikasi Sifat-Sifat Bangun Datar Bagi Pengembangan Nilai Karakter Berpikir Kritis dan Logis

    Afia Rahmadini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kesuksesan seseorang tidak ditentukan semata-mata oleh pengetahuan dan kemampuan teknis (hard skill saja, tetapi lebih oleh kemampuan mengelola diri dan orang lain (soft skill.Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut adalah dikeluarkannya Permendiknas no. 41 tahun 2007 tentang standar proses dan UU No 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional pada Pasal 3. Pertanyaan utama dalam penelitian ini adalah: bagaimanakah hasil pengembangan dan ketercapaian pelaksanaan perangkat pembelajaran matematika berbasis pemanfaatan lingkungan dan alat peraga manipulatif pada materi pokok mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat bangun datar di SDN Sekaran 01? Bagaimanakah kualitas proses pembelajaran dengan menggunakan perangkat yang dikembangkan? Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian Research and Development dengan menggunakan Model 4 D yang meliputi tahap pendefinisian (define, tahap perancangan (design, tahap pengembangan (develop. Sementara tahap penyebaran (disseminate tidak dilakukan mengingat terbatasnya waktu dan biaya.  Adapun hasil penelitian ini adalah (1perangkat pembelajaran berupa RPP dengan lampiran- lampirannya yang berupa LAS, LTS, prototype APM, dan setting lingkungan yang valid; (2 perangkat dapat diterapkan dengan kategori keterlaksanaan adalah terlaksana dengan baik, KBM berjalan lancar dan pembelajaran mampu memacu semua siswa untuk aktif sehingga secara empiris perangkat yang dikembangkan efektif untuk diterapkan dalam proses pembelajaran; (3 kualitas proses pembelajaran cukup tinggi hal ini ditinjau dari hasil belajar siswa dengan ketuntasan kelas 88,37%, motivasi belajar  25,58% siswa tinggi dan 74,42% siswa memiliki motivasi sangat tinggi, respon siswa positif sebanyak 97,67% dan kesan guru terhadap penerapan perangkat yang dikembangkan positif  sebanyak 100%. 

  15. IMLEMENTASI SIMULASI PhET DAN KIT SEDERHANA UNTUK MENGAJARKAN KETERAMPILAN PSIKOMOTOR SISWA PADA POKOK BAHASAN ALAT OPTIK

    S. Prihatiningtyas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menuntaskan hasil belajar psikomotor fisika siswa dengan penerapan simulasi PhET dan KIT sederhana pada siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keterlaksanaan pembelajaran berjalan dengan baik sesuai dengan RPP, hasil psikomotor kelas eksperimen 1 dengan menggunakan simulasi PhET dan kelas eksperimen 2 dengan menggunakan KIT sederhana dapat menuntaskan hasil belajar siswa, serta respon siswa terhadap pembelajaran positif. Berdasarkan hasil temuan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa implementasi simulasi PhET dan KIT sederhana untuk mengajarkan keterampilan psikomotor siswa pada pokok bahasan alat optik dapat menuntaskan hasil belajar psimotor siswa. This study aims to resolve learning outcomes physics psychomotor of students with the application of PhET simulations and simple KIT on students. The results showed that implementation of learning  going well according to the lesson plan, student who are in the experimental class 1 using PhET simulation and the experimental class 2 using a simple KIT could complete the learning outcomes, and student respond to learning was positive. According to the finding above it could be conclude that the implementation PhET simulation and simple KIT to teach psychomotor skills of students on the subject of optical can to complete psychomotor learning outcomes of students.

  16. PENGARUH VARIASI MEDIA QUENCHING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIS RANTAI ELEVATOR FRUIT KELAPA SAWIT

    Saufik Luthfianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh proses heat treatment dengan media pendingin air+garam terhadap sifat mekanis rantai elevator,  mengetahui pengaruh proses heat treatment dengan media pendingin oli 20w – 50w terhadap sifat mekanis rantai elevator, mengetahui pengaruh proses heat treatment dengan media pendingin air laut terhadap sifat mekanis rantai elevator. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen murni. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui Hasil uji one way ANOVA yang telah dilakukan mengindikasikan bawa Fhitung uji kuat tarik sebesar 2,046, yang lebih kecil daripada Ftabel (2,6 sebesar 5,14 (Fhitung Ftabel, artinya uji kekerasan (Quenching pada ketiga jenis media signifikan berbeda atau terdapat perbedaan kekerasan yang signifikan diantara ketiga jenis penggunaan media

  17. Sifat Mekanik Membran Berbasis Paduan Kitosan Suksinat-Kitosan Terinsersi Litium

    L.O.A.N Ramadhan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sifat mekanik merupakan salah satu karakter yang penting dalam pengembangan material polimer fungsional seperti membran elektrolit yang berpotensi untuk penghantar litium. Dalam penelitian yang telah dilakukan, membran elektrolit disintesis dengan bahan dasar kitosan suksinat dan kitosan, serta litium. Membran dipreparasi melalui metode inversi fasa dengan variasi komposisi fraksi massa kitosan suksinat dan kitosan. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji sifat mekanik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan fraksi massa kitosan suksinat sampai dengan 60% (b/b cenderung meningkatkan kekuatan tarik dan perpanjangan, serta menurunkan Modulus Young. Pada fraksi massa kitosan suksinat 70% (b/b sampai dengan 80% (b/b, kekuatan tarik dan perpanjangan cenderung menurun, serta Modulus Young meningkat. Nilai maksimum kekuatan tarik, perpanjangan, dan Modulus Young masing-masing adalah 0,18 MPa, 112 %, dan 14,31 MPa. Berdasarkan hasil analisis sifat mekaniknya, membran paduan kitosan suksinat-kitosan terinsersi litium memiliki stabilitas mekanik yang cukup baik. 

  18. PENGARUH UMUR PANEN RUMPUT LAUT Eucheuma cottonii TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL KARAGENAN Effect of Harvest Time of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Physical, Chemical and Fungsional Properties of Carra- geenan

    Djagal W. Marseno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different harvesting times of Eucheuma cottonii on both physical, chemical and functional properties of carrageenan. Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii was obtained from water territorial of Tablolong Kupang. The study was carried out into two steps. The first step was to investigate the effect of harvesting time of 30, 45, and 60 days after planting on physical and chemical properties of obtained carrageenan. The second step was to study the effect of functional properties of obtained carrageenan on viscocity and the stability of tomato sauce. The results showed that seaweed which was harvested in 45 days after planting has good physical and chemical properties of carrageenan in term of moisture 12.45 %; protein 5.03 %; extract ether 1.40 %; ash 21.29 %; carbohy- drate 72.28 %; sulphate 19.69 %; and crude extract 48.20 %. The obtained carrageenan at concentration of 1,5%, also give highest viscocity of 11.50-45 cps and gel strength of 0.8961-4.0709 kg/cm2. Further identification show that the obtained carrageenan produced was classified as kappa carrageenan and at 0,2 % (w/v was able to stabilize tomato sauce up to 86 % and viscosity of 60 cps after 2 weeks of storage at room temperature. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji sifat fisik dan kimia karagenan yang diperoleh dari rumput laut Eucheuma cot- tonii pada umur panen yang berbeda dari perairan Tablolong Kupang dan mengetahui sifat fungsionalnya sebagai stabilizer dan thickener dalam saos tomat. Penelitian diawali dengan menanam rumput laut pada interval tanam yang berbeda, sehingga pada saat panen yang bersamaan diperoleh rumput laut dengan umur yang berbeda yaitu 30, 45,60 hari. Tahap berikutnya adalah ekstraksi dan karakterisasi karaginan yang dihasilkan, kemudian aplikasi karaginan yang diperoleh untuk menjaga stabilitas viskositas saos tomat pada konsentrasi karagenan (0,1 %, 0,15 %, 0,2 % b/v. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa

  19. Perancangan, Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Tranduser Ultrasonik 3,5 MHz Untuk Pengujian Bahan Padat

    Mokhamad Halim Fathoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dibuat sepasang transduser ultrasonik untuk pengujian bahan padat. Konstruksi transduser ultrasonik yang dibuat terdiri dari holder berbahan akrilik dan kuningan, backing material berbahan styrofoam, epoxy dan busa karet, elemen aktif berbahan piezoelektrik dan matching layers menggunakan akrilik. Bahan penyusun konstruksi tersebut dilakukan pengujian terlebih dahulu untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik transduser ultrasonik. Dan untuk menunjang pengujian, maka dibuat sebuah alat sederhana dengan metode transmisi pulsa untuk melakukan pengukuran Time of Flight(TOF gelombang ultrasonik. Karakterisasi bahan transduser dilakukan dengan melakukan beberapa tahap pengujian. Tahap pertama dilakukan  pengujian respon frekuensi pada piezoelektrik untuk mendapatkan frekuensi resonansi yang sesuai. Kemudian dilakukan pengujian bahan backing material untuk mengetahui respon impulse dari sinyal ultrasonik dan menguji bahan matching layers untuk mendapatkan faktor delay pada pengukuran. Setelah karakterisasi bahan didapatkan, maka dilanjutkan dengan implementasi transduser ultrasonik untuk pengujian cacat pada bahan. Pengujian ini menggunakan aluminium berdimensi (15x5x1cm dengan bentuk cacat yang telah ditentukan. Proses pengujian cacat ini dilakukan dengan cara scanning secara manual dengan perubahan jarak setiap 0.5 cm. Dari hasil pengujian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh  karakteristik transduser ultrasonik dengan holder berbahan akrilik, backing material berbahan styrofoam, frekuensi resonansi sebesar 3.5 MHz, bandwith sebesar 2.04 MHz, respon impulse >10 siklus, delay sebesar 1,6 us ,Q (faktor kualitas mekanis getaran harmonis sebesar 1,667 dan impedansi sebesar 78,6 ohm. Untuk pengujian cacat bahan didapatkan hasil bahwa transduser ultrasonik bisa mendeteksi adanya cacat dan mengestimasi panjang ukuran cacat dengan error pengukuran sebesar 0.5 cm. Namun, kedalaman cacat tidak bisa ditentukan sehingga

  20. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK SUBTITUSI TEPUNG KIMPUL DALAM PEMBUATAN CAKE

    Taufik Rafika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptic properties of kimpul flour substitution in the cake making. Kimpul is a one of tuber food source, which contains carbohidrate, protein, fat, some mineral and vitamins. The aims of this research is to find out the sensory properties (hedonic quality and hedonic of the kimpul cake flour substitution. This experimental research uses a completely-randomized design using an analysis of variance. The results analysis of the hedonic quality of color, texture and flavor obtain the highest mean rates at the amount of 40% substitution of kimpul flour, and the results  were not significantly different between treatments. The hedonic test of color, flavor, and texture obtain the highest mean rates at the amount of 80% substitution of kimpul flour.   Kimpul merupakan sumber pangan umbi-umbian yang mengandung karbo­hidrat, protein, lemak, beberapa mineral dan vitamin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah  mengetahui sifat sensori (mutu hedonik dan hedonik cake subtitusi tepung kimpul. Penelitian eksperimen ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap  mengguna­kan analisis sidik ragam (Analysis of Variance. Hasil analisis uji mutu hedonik warna, tekstur dan rasa memperoleh rerata tertinggi pada jumlah substitusi tepung kimpul 40% yang tidak berbeda antar perlakuan. Uji hedonik (uji tingkat kesukaan warna, rasa, dan tekstur  memperoleh rerata tertinggi pada jumlah subtitusi tepung kimpul 80%.

  1. Aktivitas Antioksidan, Sifat Fisik, Dan Tingkat Penerimaan Permen Marshmallow Dengan Penambahan Brokoli

    Jalasena, Rizka Akbar; Anjani, Gemala

    2016-01-01

    Latar Belakang : Komsumsi sayur pada anak masih rendah. Brokoli merupakan salah satu sayuran tinggi antioksidan. Salah satu cara meningkatkan konsumsi sayur pada anak adalah melalui produk yang disukai seperti permen. Penambahan brokoli pada permen marshmallow diharapkan dapat menjadi alternatif produk tinggi antioksidan.Tujuan : Menganalisis kandungan aktivitas antioksidan, sifat fisik (kekerasan dan kekenyalan), dan tingkat penerimaan permen marshmallow dengan penambahan brokoli.Metode : Me...

  2. Sifat Strong Perron-Frobenius Pada Solusi Positif Eventual Sistem Persamaan Differensial Linier Orde Satu

    Yulian Sari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membicarakan tentang sifat strong Perron-Frobenius pada solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu. Syarat perlu agar solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu diajukan. Beberapa kriteria tentang matriks eksponensial positif eventual dan matriks positif eventual juga akan digunakan dalam teorema.

  3. Sifat Strong Perron-Frobenius Pada Solusi Positif Eventual Sistem Persamaan Differensial Linier Orde Satu

    Yulian Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membicarakan tentang sifat strong Perron-Frobenius pada solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu. Syarat perlu agar solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu diajukan. Beberapa kriteria tentang matriks eksponensial positif eventual dan matriks positif eventual juga akan digunakan dalam teorema.

  4. Perbedaan Pandangan Ajaran Sifat Melawan Hukum Materiil Tindak Pidana Korupsi

    Seno Wibowo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penerapan ajaran sifat melawan hukum materiil dalam fungsi positif dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2001 tentang Perubahan Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 1999 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi (UU Tipikor 2001 oleh Mahkamah Agung pasca putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi telah bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Pasal 28 ayat (1 huruf D dan asas legalitas serta asas pemisahan kekuasaan negara. Selain itu, hal tersebut juga dinilai tidak mengindahkan sudut hierarki peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia, sehingga tidak mencerminkan kepastian hukum. Mahkamah Agung tidak berwenang menerapkan kembali ajaran sifat melawan hukum dalam fungsi positif yang terdapat dalam UU Tipikor 2001 dikarenakan dengan hal tersebut dinyatakan tidak memiliki kekuatan hukum mengikat oleh Mahkamah Konstitusi. Putusan judicial review Mahkamah Konstitusi tidak hanya mengikat para pihak yang berperkara namun juga rakyat dan lembaga tinggi negara termasuk Mahkamah Agung. Mahkamah Agung harus melaksanakan dan mematuhi putusan judicial review tersebut mengingat kedudukan putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi sebagai negative legislation. Apabila instansi penegak hukum maupun aparaturnya menggunakan suatu instrumen hukum yang telah dinyatakan tidak mempunyai kekuatan mengikat secara hukum, maka akibat hukum yang terjadi dapat berupa kerugian finansial. Instansi penegak hukum atau aparaturnya dapat menanggung akibat hukum secara pribadi (personal liability untuk mengganti kerugian yang dituntut melalui peradilan biasa yang ditegakkan secara paksa dan demi hukum batal sejak semula (ab initio. Abstract The application of the unlawful material doctrine in a positive function in Law Number 20 in 2001 on The Amendment of Law Number 31 in 1999 on Corruption Eradication (UU Tipikor 2001 by the Supreme Court after the decision of the Constitutional Courts contrary to the Constitution of 1945 Article 28 D paragraph 1 and the principle of legality and separation of state

  5. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI NANOPARTIKEL EKSTRAK ETANOL TEMU KUNCI (Boesenbergia pandurata PADA BERBAGAI VARIASI KOMPOSISI KITOSAN

    Dessy Kurniasari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat dan mengetahui karakteristik nanopartikel dari ekstrak etanol temu kunci (Boesenbergia pandurata dan rasio optimal variasi konsentrasi kitosan dan NaTPP dalam pembuatan nanopartikel temu kunci.             Pembuatan ekstrak temu kunci (Boesenbergia pandurata menggunakan metode maserasi menggunakan etanol teknis 96% dilanjutkan evaporasi hingga terbentuk ekstrak kental temu kunci. Koloid nanopartikel dibuat dengan mencampurkan ekstrak temu kunci dalam etanol p.a, akuades, larutan kitosan dalam asam asetat glasial, dan larutan NaTPP. Ada 9 variasi komposisi antara larutan kitosan dan  NaTPP yakni rasio (5:1; (10:1; (15:1; (20:1; (3,33:1; (8:1; (9:1; (11:1; dan (12:1. Padatan dalam koloid nanopartikel dipisahkan dengan cara sentrifugasi. Endapan yang didapatkan disimpan dalam freezer. Koloid nanopartikel yang terbentuk dikarakterisasi menggunakan Particle Size Analyzer (PSA dan Zeta Sizeruntuk mengetahui ukuran partikel dan nilai zeta potensial. Padatan yang didapatkan dari proses sentrifugasi selanjutnya dikarakterisasi menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM untuk mengetahui kondisi morfologi padatan tersebut. Karakterisasi dengan KLT pada padatan yang didapatkan bertujuan untuk mengetahui kesamaan kandungan senyawa antara ekstrak etanol temu kunci dan ekstrak etanol temu kunci dalam sediaan berukuran nano.             Koloid nanopartikel yang telah dibuat berwarna kuning dan setelah di sentrifugasi terbentuk padatan berwarna kuning kecokelatan. Karakterisasi menggunakan PSA menunjukkan ukuran partikel pada rentang 389-877 nm sebanyak 98,1% pada rasio konsentrasi kitosan dan NaTPP = (8:1. Nilai rerata zeta potensial adalah 41,87 mV. Hasil foto SEM menunjukkan morfologi partikel yang memiliki permukaan yang tidak rata. Rf keenam sampel menunjukkan hasil bahwa senyawa yang terkandung dalam ekstrak etanol temu kunci maupun ekstrak etanol temu kunci dalam sediaan nanopartikel

  6. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM KITOSANASE DAR] ISOLAT BAKTERI KPU 2123 DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PRODUKS1 OLIGOMER KITOSAN

    Yusro Nuri Fawzya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan sebagian dari rangkaian penelitian mengenai eksplorasi enzim kitinolitik dari mikroba lingkungan laut, khususnya dari limbah udang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi isolat bakteri KPU 2123 dari limbah udang, mengkarakterisasi dan mengaplikasikan enzim kitosanase yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri tersebut untuk produksi oligomer kitosan dan menguji bioaktivitas oligomer kitosan tersebut sebagai antitumor dan antibakteri. Karakterisasi enzim dilakukan dengan menguji aktivitas enzim pada berbagai suhu dan pH. Selain itu juga ditentukan besarnya aktivitas yang tersisa setelah enzim diinkubasi pada suhu dan lama waktu tertentu. Pengaruh ion logam terhadap aktivitas enzim juga dilihat dengan mereaksikan enzim dengan 1 mM ion logam dalam bentuk larutan khlorida. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan analisis gen 16S-rRNA, isolat bakteri KPU 2123 memiliki kemiripan 95% dengan Stanotrophomonas maltophilia. Enzim kitosanase dari isolat ini bekerja optimal pada suhu 50 ºC dan pH 6. Enzim ini cukup stabil pada suhu 37 ºC selama 120 menit. Penambahan ion logam berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas enzim. Ion logam Zn²+ (sebagai garam klorida 1 mM menghambat 100% aktivitas enzim tersebut. Penggunaan enzim kitosanase dalam menghidrolisis substrat kitosan, menghasilkan oligomer kitosan yang mengandung tetramer, pentamer dan heksamer Oligor kitosan tersebut mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus sebesar 10,06% dan dapat menyebabkan kematian sel HeLa dengan LC50 pada dosis 120 ppm.

  7. Simulasi Sifat Fisis Model Molekuler Dinamik Gas Argon dengan Potensial Lennard-Jones

    Wira Bahari Nurdin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOWNLOAD PDFTelah  dilakukan  pembuatan  dan  pengujian  suatu  simulasi  tentang  sifat  fisis  gasargon  dengan  menggunakan  dinamika  molekuler  menggunakan  potensial Lennard-Jonesdalam sistem terisolasi (ensemble mikrokanonik. Jumlah molekul, energi total sistem danluas  kotak  simulasi  telah  divariasikan.  Untuk  menghitung  perubahan  posisi  digunakanalgoritma Verlet. Sifat fisis yang ditentukan dalam simulasi adalah temperatur dan energitotal  sistem  untuk  menentukan  adanya  fase  transisi.  Dari  hasil  simulasi,  terdapatkesesuaian antara simulasi dengan gas argon dan tidak diperoleh adanya fase transisi.Kata kunci: Simulasi dinamika molekul, argon, potensial Lennard-Jones, ensemblemikrokanonik, algoritma Verlet

  8. Pengaruh Pencucian terhadap Sifat Fungsional Daging Lumat Ikan Patin Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Suryanti Suryanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pencucian terhadap sifat fungsional daging lumat ikan patin siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus. Ikan patin siam hidup diperoleh dari kolam ikan di Parung, Bogor. Ikan diberok selama 24 jam, kemudian ikan dimatikan dengan perendaman dalam air es selama ± 20 menit. Daging dipisahkan dari tulang dan kulit hingga diperoleh filet daging. Filet dicuci dan dilumatkan dengan mincer. Daging lumat yang diperoleh dicuci satu sampai tiga kali dalam air pada s uhu 4–5oC dengan rasio 1:5 (w/v, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyaringan dan pengepresan. Sebagai kontrol adalah daging lumat yang dipress tanpa melalui pencucian dan penyaringan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pencucian satu kali menghasilkan sifat fungsional terbaik dalam hal water holding capacity41,98%, sifat emulsi (aktivitas emulsi 0,37 dan stabilitas emulsi 48,37%, serta kekuatan gel 1364 g cm. Komposisi proksimat daging lumat dengan pencucian satu kali menghasilkan kadar air 81,21%, protein 87,25% (bk, abu 1,63% (bk, dan lemak 10,29% (bk.

  9. KAJIAN KADAR SERAT, KALSIUM, PROTEIN, DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK CHIFFON CAKE BERBAHAN MOCAF SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGGANTI TERIGU

    Dian Ayu Damayanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of Fiber, Calcium, and Protein Content and the Organoleptic Cha­rac­teristics of Mocaf Chiffon Cake as an Alternative Substitution of Wheat Flour. This research aims to identify the physical properties, the hedonic quality, the level of preferences, as well as the fiber, calcium, and protein contents of mocaf chiffon cakes. Data is analyzed using t-test. The results show: (1 the physical properties of colors has colors L (brightness, a+ (redness, and b+ (yellowish; (2 the highest value of preference level of color is 4.28; (3 the highest value of the hedonic quality of flavors is 4.60; (4 the highest value of the chemical properties of calcium is 10.53, (5 the lowest value of the protein content is 5.97 g, and (6 the highest value of fiber content is 4.34 g.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisik, mutu hedonik, tingkat kesukaan, kandungan serat, kandungan kalsium, dan kandungan protein chiffon cake berbahan mocaf. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji-t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 sifat fisik warna memiliki kisaran warna L (kecerahan, a+ (kemerahan, dan b+ (kekuningan; (2 tingkat ke­suka­­an warna memiliki nilai tertinggi 4,28; (3 mutu hedonik rasa memiliki nilai tertinggi 4,60; (4 sifat kimia kalsium memiliki nilai tertinggi 10,53; (5 kan­dung­an protein memiliki nilai terendah 5,97g; dan (6 kandungan serat memiliki nilai ter­tinggi  4,34 g.

  10. Pengaruh Media Lagu Terhadap Hasil Belajar Matematika Pada Materi Sifat-Sifat Bangun Datar Siswa Kelas 5 SD Negeri 5 Kota Bengkulu

    Myti Sandri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk mengetahui pengaruh media lagu terhadap hasil belajar matematika pada materi sifat-sifat bangun datar untuk siswa kelas 5 SD Negeri 5 Kota Bengkulu Tahun Ajaran 2015/2016 Semester II. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas 5 SD Negeri 5 Kota Bengkulu. Sampel penelitian ini dua kelas yaitu  kelas eksperimen yang menerapkan metode ekspositori dengan menggunakan media lagu dan  kelas kontrol yang menerapkan metode ekspositori tanpa menggunakan media lagu. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan instrumen tes. Untuk analisis data menggunakan uji-t dengan data berdistribusi normal dan homogen. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh nilai rata-rata siswa yang diajar dengan menggunakan media lagu lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan nilai rata-rata siswa yang diajar tanpa menggunakan media lagu. Nilai rata-rata siswa kelas eksperimen adalah 72.04 dan  nilai rata-rata siswa kelas kontrol adalah 60.21. Hal ini sesuai dengan hasil uji hipotesis nilai thitung = 1.8282 lebih dari nilai ttabel = 1.67065 dalam taraf signifikan 5%. Maka H0 ditolak sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada pengaruh media lagu terhadap hasil belajar matematika pada sifat-sifat bangun datar kelas 5 SD Negeri 5 Kota Bengkulu. Kata kunci : Hasil belajar, Media Lagu, Metode Ekspositori. Abstrak. The aim of research is knowing how to the effect of media songs on the study’s result of mathematics learning on the material of the two dimentionals characters for student class 5.C SD Negeri 5 Kota Bengkulu school of year 2015/2016 Semester II. Population of this research  is student class 5 SD Negeri 5 Kota Bengkulu. Sample of this research is student class 5.C by 31 student for the experiment class apply to expository methods to use media songs and class 5.A by 31 student for control class to apply expository method not to use media songs. The tecnich data collection is instrument test. For data analysis using t-test with normal distribution

  11. SIFAT FISIK-KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK BAWANG GORENG PALU PADA BERBAGAI FREKUENSI PEMAKAIAN MINYAK GORENG

    Nur Alam

    2015-02-01

    diulang tiga kali. Frekuensi pemakaian minyak goreng pengaruhnya sangat nyata menurunkan warna, tekstur, kadar air, minyak dan tingkat kesukaan panelis terhadap kerenyahan bawang goreng Palu serta meningkatkan laju oksidasi asam lemak tidak jenuh  pada minyak goreng. Mutu fisik-kimia dan organoleptik bawang goreng Palu secara berturut-turut terbaik diperoleh dari penggorengan menggunakan minyak goreng segar, 1, 2 dan 3 kali pemakaian. Pemakaian minyak goreng > 3 kali, asam lemak bebas telah teroksidasi sehingga kurang layak untuk digunakan jika ditinjau dari aspek daya tahan simpan bawang goreng dan kesehatan. Kata kunci: Bawang goreng, sifat fisik-kimia dan organoleptik, frekuensi pemakaian minyak goreng

  12. Pengaruh Suhu dan Metode Perlakuan Panas terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kualitas Finishing Kayu Mahoni

    Ragil Widyorini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perlakuan panas dikenal sebagai metode yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dimensi dan menurunkan higroskopisitas. Di sisi lain, perlakuan panas dapat membuat warna kayu menjadi lebih gelap, penurunan sifat mekanika kayu, dan sifat wetabilitas kayu. Oleh karena itu, penelitian mengenai perlakuan panas pada kondisi yang optimum sangat menarik untuk dilakukan agar menghasilkan kayu dengan kualitas yang lebih baik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh interaksi suhu dan metode perlakuan panas terhadap sifat fisika dan kualitas finishing kayu mahoni. Contoh uji perlakuan dibuat dari kayu mahoni yang berasal dari industri penggergajian kayu rakyat. Penelitian ini menggunakan 2 metode perlakuan panas yaitu metode oven dan penguapan (steaming pada variasi suhu 90°C, 120°C, dan 150°C selama 2 jam waktu efektif. Pengujian sifat fisika diuji berdasarkan standar ASTM, yang meliputi : kadar air seimbang, perubahan dimensi, perubahan warna, dan wetabilitas. Pengujian finishing meliputi cross cut test, uji delaminasi, dan uji kekilapan (glossy test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi antara suhu dan metode perlakuan panas berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap perubahan warna, serta berpengaruh nyata terhadap penyusutan radial, cross cut test, dan uji delaminasi. Metode oven menghasilkan contoh uji dengan kadar air dan pengembangan radial yang lebih rendah, warna yang lebih terang, serta uji delaminasi yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan metode penguapan. Kata kunci: perlakuan panas, metode oven, metode penguapan, suhu, finishing   Effect of temperature and heat treatment on physical properties and finishing quality of mahagony wood Abstract Heat treatment is well known as a method for increasing dimensional stability and reducing hygroscopicity of wood. However, heat tratment can cause the color of wood become darker and reduce the wettability, as well as its mechanical properties. Therefore, the optimum condition of heat

  13. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL ISOLAT PROTEIN BIJI KECIPIR (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. [Characterization of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Winged-Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. Protein Isolate

    Slamet Budijanto1,2*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. has similar protein concentration to soybean. Higher productivity of winged-bean as compared to soybean and ground nut makes it feasible to develop this legume as a natural source of vegetable protein. Protein isolate was made by isolating protein from defatted winged-bean flour employing its isoelectric point, and several stages of centrifugation. The protein content of winged-bean protein isolate was 83.87% (db. Analysis of physicochemical properties of winged-bean protein isolate, suggested that the bulk density was 0.60 g/ml with water and oil absorption capacity of 2.61 g H2O/g solid; 1.60 ml oil/g solid, respectively. Moreover, this protein isolate had emulsion capacity of 70.5%; foam capacity of 89.5% and formed gel at concentration of 15%. Data on amino acids composition indicated that glutamic acid was the highest concentration (6.37%, whereas tryptophan was the lowest one (0.37%. Several essential amino acids, such as leucine dan lysine, were found in winged-bean protein isolate at a concentration of 3.2% and 2.8%, respectively, calculated from the total amino acid.

  14. Kajian Sifat Fisik Dan Kimia Tepung Labu Kuning (Cucurbita Maxima) Dengan Perlakuan Blanching Dan Perendaman Natrium Metabisulfit (Na2s2o5)

    Purwanto, Chatrine Chrisandy; Ishartani, Dwi; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisik dan kimia tepung labu kuning yang diberi perlakuan blanching dan perendaman natrium metabisulfit. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua tahap utama, yaitu pembuatan tepung labu kuning dan pengujian sifat fisik dan kimia tepung labu kuning. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan dua kali ulangan analisa. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan metode Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Bila ada perbedaan antar perlakuan maka dilan...

  15. Pengaruh variasi berat polimer terhadap sifat fisik Patch NaF

    Diyah Fatmasari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of weight polymer variation towards sodium fluoride patch physical properties. Fluoride has been proven as a material for strengthen teeth. Many fluoride modalities are available nowadays, and the recent is sodium fluoride (NaF patch which delivers fluoride via transdermal. No report was found about the physical properties of NaF patch based on polymer variation used. Research purpose was to find NaF patch with polymer variation which has good physical properties. Research design was quasy experimental with post test group research as research approach. Dependent variables included polymer variation and stored time; independent variable included patch thickness; resistance of folding; weight; drug content; percentage of moisture uptake and percentage loss on drying. NaF Patch manufacturing used solvent casting method the polymer PVA and PVP mixed in 2 ml aquabidest inwater bath until polymer dissolved; 100 mg of NaF mixed in 2 ml aquabi 0,1 ml oleic acid; 0,1 ml IPA mixed in glass tube and dissolved in 3,8 ml aquabidest. Three kinds of NaF patch with polymer variation were made. All materials were mixed in glass tube and stirred until dissolved, then pour into petry disc and allowed for 3 days until it dry. Research result showed a difference of physical properties among three NaF patch. Patch with variation PVP : PVA = 1 : 2 resulted in the best physical properties. Storing patch in aluminum foil did not cause any differences of physical properties. NaF patch with good polymer variation can be developed for further research.   ABSTRAK Fluorida sudah terbukti sebagai bahan untuk memperkuat permukaan gigi. Berbagai sediaan fluoride sudah banyak ditemukan. Sediaan fluoride yang terbaru adalah dalam bentuk plester yang melepaskan ion fluorida lewat kulit. Sediaan plester sodium fluorida (NaF sudah ditemukan tetapi belum ada lapran mengenai sifat fisik plester berdasarkan variasi polimer yang digunakan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk

  16. KARAKTERISASI GENETIKA RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii YANG DIBUDIDAYAKAN DI SULAWESI SELATAN

    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karakterisasi genetika rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui variasi genetika rumput laut K. alvarezii dari beberapa lokasi budi daya di Sulawesi Selatan yakni Polmas, Pinrang, Takalar, dan Bantaeng. Sampel dipreservasi dengan menggunakan larutan TNES-Urea sebelum ekstraksi DNA. Ekstraksi genom DNA dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode konvensional fenol-khloroform. Amplifikasi DNA dilakukan dengan teknik Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Untuk dokumentasi riset, hasil PCR dielektroforesis pada agarosa gel dengan menggunakan buffer TBE. Data dianalisis menggunakan program Tools for Population Genetic Analyses (TFPGA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelima “primers” (P-40, P-50, DALRP, Ca01, dan Ca-02 yang digunakan dapat menghasilkan beberapa fragmen spesifik yang mengindikasikan fragmen spesifik spesies dan lokasi budi daya K. alvarezii. Keragaan genetika intra dan inter lokasi rumput laut menunjukkan variasi yang relatif kecil yang ditandai dengan rendahnya perbedaan jumlah/ukuran fragmen DNA, polimorfisme, indeks similaritas, dan jarak genetikanya. Total fragmen yang didapatkan dari lima primer adalah 47—55 pada ukuran fragmen 175—2.600 bp, sedangkan polimorfisme dan indeks similaritas masing-masing adalah 3,6%—31,0% dan 0,79%—0,99%. Jarak genetika antar beberapa lokasi K. alvarezii berkisar antara 0,1758—0,5689 di mana kekerabatan yang terdekat didapatkan antara Takalar dan Bantaeng. Genetic characterization of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii was observed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique to reveal the genetic variability of seaweed from different locations in South Sulawesi. The sample of farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was collected from Polmas, Pinrang, Takalar, and Bantaeng. Genomic DNA was extracted by using the conventional method of phenol-chloroform. Sample was preserved by TNES-Urea buffer prior to

  17. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI ARANG DARI BATANG TANAMAN GUMITIR (Tagetes erecta PADA BERBAGAI SUHU DAN WAKTU PIROLISIS

    I Made Siaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pembuatan dan karakterisasi arang dari batang tanaman gumitir (Tagetes erecta pada berbagai suhu dan waktu pirolisis. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh suhu dan waktu yang optimum dalam pembuatan arang serta mengetahui karakteristik arang yang dihasilkan pada suhu dan waktu optimumnya. Karakteristik arang mengacu pada SNI 06–3730-1995 dengan melakukan analisis terhadap kadar air, abu, volatile, dan karbon serta daya serapnya terhadap odine dan metilen biru. Suhu optimum pirolisis pembuatan arang adalah 300oC dengan karakteristik terbaik berupa rendemen, kadar air, volatile, abu, dan karbon berturut-turut sebesar 40,27 ±; 4,00 ± 0,00; 6,58 ± 0,07; 4,34 ± 1,22; dan 85,06%, serta daya serapnya terhadap iodin dan metilen biru sebesar 631,0935 ± 0,00 dan 131,34 ± 1,7 mg/g arang. Waktu pirolisis optimum adalah 90 menit dengan karakterisitik paling baik, yakni rendemen, kadar air, volatile, abu, dan karbon berturut-turut sebesar 42,30 ± 8,7; 2,00 ± 0,00; 2,87 ± 0,07; 9,68 ± 1,17; dan 85,44% serta daya serapnya terhadap iodin dan metilen biru sebesar 647,4642 ± 0,00 dan 136,20 ± 1,28 mg/g arang. Arang yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis pada suhu dan waktu optimum memiliki karakteristik yang sesuai dengan SNI 06-3730-1995 memiliki gugus fungsi O-H dan berupa karbon alifatik.   ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the manufacture and characterization of carbon made from the stems of marigold (Tagetes erecta at various temperatures and times of pyrolysis. This research aimed to obtain the optimum temperature and time of pyrolising in producing carbon, as well asto recognize the characteristics of the carbon produced. Characteristics of the carbon quality followed the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 06-3730-1995 by analyzing the contents of water, volatile substances, ash, and carbon, as well as, the ability of the carbon in absorption capacities of iodine and methylene blue. The optimum pyrolysis

  18. KARAKTERISASI PERTUKARAN ION TIMBAL (II DENGAN KALSIUM PADA PROSES BIOSORPSI ALGA HIJAU CLADOPHORA FRACTA

    Ade Wirli Putra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKarakterisasi pertukaran ion Pb2+ dengan Ion Ca2+ dalam larutan menggunakan proses biosorbsi dengan biomassa alga hijau cladofora fracta  telah diteliti.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui selektifitas pertukaran pertukaran ion Pb2+  dengan ion Ca2+ dan sebaliknya, Pengaruh pH eluen terhadap desorpsi  ion Pb2+  dan adsorpsi Ion Ca2+, Karakterisasi desorpsi  Ion Ca2+ dan  Ion Pb2+ dengan larutan HNO3 0,1 M dan H2O akan diamati pada penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh memperlihatkan bahwa proses pertukaran ion Ca2+ dengan ion Pb2+ lebih mudah terjadi dibandingkan pertukaran ion Pb2+ dengan Ca2+. Desorpsi  ion Pb2+ relatif rendah saat pH eluen sama dengan pH optimum biosorpsi  ion  Pb2+ (pH 4,0. Pada pH 5,0 kemungkinan terjadi endapan  timbal (II hidroksida ( Pb(OH2 .  Penyerapan  ion Ca2+, yang terdapat  dalam eluen, lebih besar terjadi pada pH yang lebih tinggi (pH 5,0. Desorpsi ion Pb2+ dengan larutan HNO3 0,1M dan H2O memperlihatkan hasil yang berbeda (masing-masing  28,10% dan 15,56%, sedangkan desorpsi ion Ca2+ dengan  larutan HNO3 0,1M dan H2O tidak memperlihatkan berbeda yang signifikan (masing-masing 37,91% dan 34,75%, sehingga larutan HNO3 0,1M sebagai eluen pendesorpsi ion Pb2+ dari biosorben lebih efektif dibandingkan eluen H2O.  ABSTRACTCharacterization of  Pb 2+ ion exchange with Ca2 + ions using the process biosorbtion with green algae biomass Cladofora fracta been investigated. This study aims to determine the selectivity of the exchange ion exchange Pb 2+ ions with Ca2 + and vice versa, Effect of pH eluent to desorption of ions Pb 2+ and adsorption of ions Ca2 +, Characterization desorption of ions Ca2 + and Ion Pb 2+ with a solution of HNO3 0.1 M and H2O will be observed in this study. The results obtained showed that the Ca2 + ion exchange process with Pb 2+ ions more readily than Pb 2+ ion exchange with Ca2 +. Desorption of Pb 2+ ion is relatively low at the same eluent pH with a p

  19. KORELASI KOMPOSISI UNSUR TERHADAP SIFAT TERMAL SERBUK BAHAN BAKAR U-ZrHX

    Masrukan Masrukan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK KORELASI KOMPOSISI UNSUR TERHADAP SIFAT TERMAL SERBUK BAHAN BAKAR      U-ZrHx. Telah dilakukan analisis untuk menentukan korelasi komposisi terhadap sifat termal pada serbuk bahan bakar U-ZrHx. Serbuk U-ZrHx dibuat dari proses hidriding ingot U-Zr, dimana ingot U-Zr merupakan hasil peleburan logam U dan Zr. Dalam percobaan ini dibuat tiga variasi serbuk yaitu U-35ZrHx, U-45ZrHx, dan U-55ZrHx. Perlunya dilakukan penentuan kadar Zr terhadap sifat termal adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar Zr terhadap sifat transformasi panas dari bahan bakar tersebut. Mula –mula dilebur logam U dan Zr didalam tungku peleburan busur listrik hingga menghasilkan ingot U-Zr. Ingot U-Zr selanjutnya dibuat serbuk dengan teknik hidridring-milling hingga menghasilkan serbuk U-Zr. Serbuk U-Zr dianalisis komposisi dengan menggunakan teknik sepektroskopi serapan atom (SAA dan sepektroskopi UV-Vis. Hasil analisis komposisi menunjukkan bahwa pada analisis untuk menentukan kandungan U dan Zr hampir semua sampel uji yang dianalisis mempunyai perbedaan yang cukup besar antara kandungan U dan Zr yang ditentukan dengan hasil analisis U dan Zr terkecuali hasil analisis pada serbuk U-45Zr yang hanya berbeda 0,609 %. Dari hasil pengujian unsur pengotor diperoleh bahwa semua unsur pengotor yang ada masih memenuhi persyaratan untuk bahan. Pengujian kapasitas panas yang dilakukan pada rentang temperatur 35ºC hingga 437ºC memperlihatkan bahwa nilai kapasitas yang paling besar adalah serbuk U-35ZrHx dengan nilai kapasitas panas sebesar 0,13 J/g.oC. Sementara itu dari pengujian transisi perubahan fasa diperoleh bahwa pada U-45ZrHx mengalami dua tahapan reaksi disertai perubahan fasa. Dapat disimpulkan apabila dilihat dari kandungan U dan Zr  belum bisa digunakan untuk bahan bakar, sedangkan dari analisis kandungan unsur pengotor diperoleh bahwa semua unsur yang ada masih  memenuhi persyaratan untuk bahan bakar kecuali unsur Fe. Sementara itu hasil analisis sifat termal

  20. Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Material Nanokomposit CNT/MnO2 Untuk Aplikasi Material Superkapasitor

    A. Subagio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan fabrikasi material nanokomposit CNT/MnO2 sebagai material elektroda superkapasitor dengan reaksi redox antara CNT dan KMnO4. Variasi komposisi dari kedua bahan tersebut dilakukan untuk mengetahui sifat struktur, morfologi dan kelistrikannya dengan perbandingan massa CNT/MnO2 sebesar 0, 25, 50 dan 75%. Pola struktur kristal dan morfologi dari material serbuk nanokomposit CNT/MnO2 dikarakterisasi dengan X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM dan transmission electron microscope (TEM, sedangkan pola ikatannya dikarakterisasi dengan FTIR. Serbuk nanokomposit CNT/MnO2 ini selanjutnya dibuat pellet berbentuk silinder berukuran diameter 1 cm dan ketebalan 2 mm dengan variasi penambahan pengikat polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF sebesar 10, 20 dan 30% dari campuran CNT/MnO2. Pellet dari material CNT/MnO2 ini selanjutnya dipanaskan pada temperatur 70 oC selama 1 jam. Hasil pengukuran resistansinya menunjukkan bahwa material CNT/MnO2 dengan perbandingan massa CNT/MnO2 sebesar 75% dan penambahan pengikat PVDF sebesar 20% menunjukkan nilai resistansi yang paling rendah. Selanjutnya prototip superkapasitor CNT/MnO2 dengan menggunakan PVDF sebesar 20% diukur dengan metode electrochemical impedance spectroscopy menghasilkan nilai kapasitansi spesifik sebesar 7,86 F/gr. Nanocomposite materials CNT/MnO2 have been fabricated as candidate of supercapacitor electrode material with a redox reaction between CNT and KMnO4. Variations in the composition of the two materials were carried out to determine the structure, morphology and electrical properties of CNT/MnO2 with mass ratio of 0, 25, 50 and 75 %. Pattern of the crystal structure and morphology of the CNT/MnO2 nanocomposite powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM, while the bond pattern was characterized by FTIR. CNT/MnO2 nanocomposite powder was managed to make cylindrical pellets with

  1. Pemanfaatan serat silicon carbon dan partikel alumina pada matrik aluminium untuk meningkatkan sifat mekanis material komposit

    Ketut Suarsana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pemanfaatan penguat material komposit berbasis serat dan juga partikel pada pembuatan bahan komposit sekarang ini sangatpotensial untuk dikembangkan dan diteliti. Beragam sumber serat dan juga penguat dalam bentuk partikel bisa didapat dari seratalami dari tumbuh-tubuhan dan juga serat yang sudah dikenakan perlakuan sebelumnya. Indonesia memiliki potensi sumberalam yang sangat potensial terutama sebgai sumber serat dari tumbuhan juga berupa logam aluminium (bauxite dari fosil.Bahan ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk kebutuhan masyarakat industri sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan komposit bermatrikAluminium dan sebagai penguat berupa serat maupun partikel alumina. Metode pembuatan Aluminum Matrix Composite (AMCdengan proses metalurgi serbuk pada gaya tekan/kompaksi 2,5 ton mengunakan alat press hydrolik, waktu penahanan 15menit, serta proses perlakuan pada variasi komposisi berat (%wt. Variasi komposisi penguat serat Silicon Carbon (SiC danAl2O3 (alumina pada matrik Aluminium adalah : 30% SiC + 0% Al203, 27% SiC + 3% Al203, 24% SiC + 6% Al203 dan 21% SiC+ 9% Al203 dengan matrik 70% Al, pada kondisi tempertaur 500oC, 550oC dan 600oC. Setelah material komposit terbentuk, diujiuntuk mengetahui sifat mekanik akibat pengaruh variasi komposisi antara matrik dan penguatan pada komposit. Uji karakteristikdilakukan di laboratorium untuk menggetahui sifat kekuatan dan kekerasan material komposit. Selanjutnya dicari hubunganantara sifat masing-masing komposisi penguat serat SiC dan Al2O3 pembentuk komposit yang dibuat untuk mengetahui manfaatdari penguat serat dan partikel alumina.Kata Kunci: Sifat kekuatan, kekerasan, serat SiC dan Al2O3 Abstract: Utilization reinforcement fiber-based composite material and particles in the manufacture of composite materials now havepotential to be developed and researched. Various sources of fiber and reinforcement in particle form can be obtained fromnatural fibers from plants and fiber that has been subjected to a

  2. Pengaruh Perbedaan Jenis Asam dan Waktu Demineralisasi pada Nilai Rendemen dan Sifat Fisiko Kimia Gelatin Tulang Sapi Bali.

    Ramadani, Dewi

    2014-01-01

    2014 Dewi Ramadani (I 411 10 267). Pengaruh Perbedaan Jenis Asam dan Waktu Demineralisasi pada Nilai Rendemen dan Sifat Fisiko Kimia Gelatin Tulang Sapi Bali. Muhammad Irfan Said Sebagai Pembimbing Utama dan Farida Nur Yuliati Sebagai Pembimbing Anggota. Gelatin merupakan senyawa hasil hidrolisis serabut kolagen secara persial. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh jenis larutan dan waktu demineralisasi pada nilai rendemen dan sif...

  3. PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN PRAKTIKUM SIFAT KOLIGATIF TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR SISWA KELAS XII

    Muhammad Hubbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract: The process of learning colligative properties have tend to learn chemistry as a product so that students have difficulty understanding this topic. Guided inquiry-based learning laboratory is a learning strategy that can accommodate chemistry learning as product and process. This research aims to know the effect of practice learning strategy based on guided inquiry to the instructional result of year 12 of science of MA Ma’arif 7 Lamongan on the topic of colligative properties of solution. The instructional result is the score from a report of practice result and written test. The subject of this research is 34 students of 12-E IPA class of MA Ma’arif 7 Lamongan in the academic year 2015-2016. The research design that used is the one group pretest-posttest. The research instruments used written test and observation checklist. The written test measured the result of validated instrcution before it is used and has reliability 0,802. The obtained data then was analysed with a descriptive analysis and different test. The different test used t-paired test. Paired t-test results obtained sig 0,000 which is smaller than 0.05 so H0 is rejected by 95% reliability. Based on these results it can be concluded that there was significant improvement of learning outcomes using laboratory procedures of colligative properties. The average value of student learning outcomes was increased from 61.05 into 81.44. This increase showed that the practice learning based on guided inquiry had a good level of effectiveness.Abstrak: Proses pembelajaran materi sifat koligatif cenderung hanya mempelajari kimia sebagai produk sehingga siswa mengalami kesulitan dalam memahami topik ini. Pembelajaran praktikum berbasis inkuiri terbimbing merupakan strategi pembelajaran yang dapat mengakomodasi pembelajaran kimia sebagai produk dan proses. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh strategi pembelajaran praktikum berbasis inkuiri terbimbing terhadap hasil

  4. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM POLIFENOL OKSIDASE BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao Linn. Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao Linn.

    G.P. Ganda Putra

    2012-05-01

    max equals to 595,24 U/gram (db of cocoa beans and K equals to 0,20 M; result of SDS- PAGE of enzyme shows protein bands at M� of 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 and 131,52 kDa; and finally, optimumcondition of enzyme activity is at the temperature of 53,43oC; pH 5,42 and incubation time of 80,91 minutes. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui karakteristik enzim polifenol oksidase dan (2 menen- tukan kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase, yang diisolasi dari biji kakao kering. Hasil penelitian berupa kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase akan diaplikasikan untuk perbaikan mutu biji kakao kering melalui teknik rehidrasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui tahapan: (1 isolasi enzim polifenol oksidase dari 10 sampel biji kakao kering di Provinsi Bali, (2 karakterisasi enzim polifenol oksidase (aktivitas, kinetika enzim, BM dan (3 penentuan kondisi suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa: (1 aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase rata-rata 157,49 ± 58,03 U/gram (bk biji kakao dengan aktivitas maksimum 258,22 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan minimum 59,01 U/gram (bk biji kakao; maks sebesar 595,24 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan K sebesar 0,20 M; hasil SDS-PAGE enzim menunjukkan pita-pita protein yang terbentuk pada BM 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 dan 131,52 kDa; dan (2 kondisi optimum aktivitas enzimadalah suhu 53,43oC; pH 5,42 dan waktu inkubasi 80,91 menit.

  5. Pengaruh Fermentasi Bakteri Asam Laktat Terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung Gadung Modifikasi (Dioscorea hispida

    R. Haryo Bimo Setiarto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea hispida is one of the tubers belonging to the family dioscoreaceae. Yam tubers not only have high content of carbohydrate, but also contain some toxic compounds such as: cyanogenic glycosides, alkaloids dioscorin, dehydrodioscorin, saponin and sapogenin. Fermentation of yam tubers can affected for physicochemical and amylography characteristics of modified yam flour and reduced toxic compounds. This study was aimed to determine effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation on the physicochemical properties and characteristics of yam flour amilography modification. From the 15 isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum had been selected two isolate (L. plantarum B291 and B307 with the highest amylase enzyme activity to be used as starter fermentation to produce modified yam flour. Fermentation of LAB could reduce levels of HCN on modified yam flour, although decreased levels of HCN was not significant with requirements of SNI. Fermentation of LAB increased levels of protein, fat and lactic acid, but decreased pH value and carbohydrate content in modified yam flour. Based on results of amylography analysis, control of yam flour with shredded without fermentation had the best gelatinization profile because it most resistant about heating.ABSTRAKGadung (Dioscorea hispida merupakan salah satu jenis umbi-umbian yang tergolong dalam family Dioscoreaceae.  Ubi gadung memiliki kandungan karbohidrat yang tinggi, akan tetapi juga mengandung beberapa senyawa racun berupa glikosida sianogenik, alkaloid dioscorin, dehydrodioscorin, saponin dan sapogenin yang berbahaya bagi kesehatan. Fermentasi umbi gadung dapat mempengaruhi sifat fisikokimia dan amilografi tepung gadung modifikasi serta menurunkan senyawa toksiknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bakteri asam laktat (BAL penghasil amilase terhadap sifat fisikokimia dan amilografi tepung gadung modifikasi. Sebanyak 15 isolat Lactobacillus plantarum telah diseleksi, sehingga

  6. Pengaruh Kecepatan Homegenisasi Terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kimia Krim Nanopartikel dengan Metode High Speed Homogenization (HSH

    Galuh Suprobo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle cream is the development of nanotechnology in cosmetics fields for improving the function of cream. High speed homogenization (HSH is one of the methods for creating nanoparticle cream. In this research, the use of natural materials based palm oil derivative  such as stearic acid, cetil alcohol, cetil stearil alcohol was chosen in nanoparticle cream producing by using HSH methods.The speed variable of  homogenization of 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2,000 rpm and 2,500 rpm  intended to find out the influence of speed toward the  properties of cream product. The observation result showed the influence on physical display in term of texture but not in homogeneity , stability and cream color. The pH of the product during two months storage for all variables were still stable. The particle size was increased in the homogeneity of speed at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm. In this research has produced the cream in particle size from 239.86 to 358.10 nm which enter in nanoparticle category 50 nm to 1000 nm. The stability of nanoparticle cream product in the range of 97,20 to 98%.ABSTRAKKrim nanopartikel merupakan pengembangan nanoteknologi di bidang kosmetik untuk meningkatkan fungsi krim tersebut. High speed homogenization (HSH merupakan salah satu metoda dalam pembuatan krim nanopartikel. Pada penelitian ini, krim nanopartikel dibuat menggunakan bahan baku alami turunan kelapa sawit yaitu asam stearat, setil alkohol, setil stearil alkohol dengan metoda HSH. Variabel kecepatan homogenisasi pada 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2000 rpm dan 2500 rpm dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kecepatan terhadap sifat-sifat krim. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa perubahan kecepatan homogenisasi dalam reaktor berpengaruh terhadap tampilan fisik dari segi tekstur, akan tetapi tidak mempengaruhi terhadap kehomogenan, stabilitas dan warna krim. Dari pengamatan selama 2 bulan penyimpanan diketahui tidak terjadi perubahan pH selama penyimpanan untuk keempat variabel. Ukuran partikel

  7. SOIL PROPERTIES OF EIGHT FOREST STANDS RESULTED FROM REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LAND ON THE TROPICAL AREA FOR ALMOST A HALF CENTURY (Sifat-sifat Tanah Delapan Tegakan Hutan Hasil Rehabilitasi Lahan Terdegradasi pada Daerah Tropika Selama Setengah Abad

    Haryono Supriyo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil are influenced by vegetation types which grow above it. Different tree species of stands will produce difference litter quantity, litter quality and also plants’ root system. Therefore quantifying physical and chemical soil properties in several stands after rehabilitation of degraded land will increase the understanding of forest soil characteristics. The research was conducted in 8 forest stands in Wanagama I, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Collection of soil samples was done at the depth of 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm by making soil profile. The result showed that the textural classes were from sandy clay loam to clay. The content of clay increased with increasing soil depth. Bulk density did not differ much among the profiles and soil depth, ranging from 0.90 to 1.28 g/cm3, and so were particle density ranged from 2.19 to 2.55 g/cm3 and pore space ranged from 47.89 to 58.08 %. pH H2O ranging from 5.81 to 7.49 (slightly acid to neutral, meanwhile  pH KCl ranging from 4.44 to 6.37. C-organic content varied widely among the vegetations and soil depth ranged between 0.11 and 5.17 %. Available P and total P varied widely from 1 to 104 ppm and from 20 to 390 ppm, respectively. CEC were not much different among the profiles and soil depths, ranging from 19.80 to 38.06 cmol (+/kg and base saturation in all samples were very high i.e. > 100 %.   ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah dipengaruhi oleh tipe vegetasi yang tumbuh di atasnya. Perbedaan spesies pohon suatu tegakan akan menghasilkan perbedaan jumlah seresah, kualitas seresah dan juga sistem perakaran. Kuantifikasi sifat-sifat fisik dan kimia tanah pada beberapa tegakan hutan pada lahan terdegradasi setelah direhabilitasi akan meningkatkan pemahaman mengenai sifat-sifat tanah hutan. Penelitian dilakukan pada I jenis tegakan hutan di Hutan Pendidikan Wanagama, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Pengambilan sampel tanah dilakukan pada

  8. PENGARUH VARIASI TEKANAN PENGEPRESAN DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS BRIKET ARANG

    Reni Setiowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar alternatif diperlukan untuk pengganti sumber daya alam yang tidak dapat diperbarui.Salah satu bahan bakar alternatif tersebut yang dikembangkan adalah briket arang dengan memanfaatkan limbah biomassa.Pada penelitian ini dibuat briket arang dengan mengkaji pengaruh variasi tekanan pengepresan dan komposisi bahan terhadap sifat fisis briket arang. Proses karbonisasi pada tempurung kelapa 450ºC selama 15 menit. Serbuk kayu dikarbonisasi menggunakan klin drum selama 4-5 jam. Perbandingan komposisi bahan tempurung kelapa dengan serbuk kayu adalah sebagai berikut 75%:25%, 25%:75%, 50%:50%, 100%:0%, 0%: 100% dengan tekanan pengepresan 50 N/cm2, 100 N/cm2,150N/cm2. Pengeringan briket dilakukan di dalam oven dengan suhu 60°C selama 24 jam. Briket berbentuk silinder dengan diameter 5 cm.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan briket paling optimum dengan perbandingan komposisi bahan 100% tempurung kelapa menggunakan tekanan antara 100-150 N/cm2 dengan nilai parameter uji sebagai berikut densitas 0.634 gr/cm3, kekuatan mekanik 43.167 N/cm2 dan lama pembakaran 64,39 menit.

  9. Karakterisasi Paduan AlMgSi Untuk Kelongsong Bahan Bakar U3Si2/Al Dengan Densitas Uranium 5,2 gU/cm3

    Aslina Br. Ginting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya densitas uranium dari 2,96 gU/cm3 menjadi 5,2 gU/cm3 bahan bakar U3Si2/Al harus diikuti dengan penggunaan kelongsong yang kompatibel. Bahan bakar berdensitas tinggi mempunyai kekerasan yang tinggi, sehingga bila menggunakan paduan AlMg2 sebagai kelongsong dapat menyebabkan terjadi dogbone pada saat perolan. Selain fenomena dogbone, pada saat bahan bakar tersebut digunakan di reaktor dapat terjadi swelling karena meningkatnya hasil fisi maupun burn up. Oleh karena itu, perlu dicari pengganti bahan kelongsong untuk bahan bakar U3Si2/Al densitas tinggi. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan karakterisasi paduan AlMgSi sebagai kandidat pengganti kelongsong AlMg2. Karakterisasi yang dilakukan meliputi analisis termal, kekerasan, mikrostruktur dan laju korosi. Analisis termal dilakukan menggunakan DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis dan DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Analisis kekerasan menggunakan alat uji kekerasan mikro, mikrostruktur menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope dan analisis laju korosi dilakukan dengan pemanasan pada temperatur 150 oC selama 77 jam di dalam autoclave. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kelongsong AlMgSi maupun AlMg2 mempunyai kompatibilitas panas dengan bahan bakar U3Si2/Al cukup stabil hingga temperatur 650 oC. Kelongsong AlMgSi mempunyai kekerasan sebesar 115 HVN dan kelongsong AlMg2 sebesar 70,1 HVN. Sementara itu, analisis mikrostruktur menunjukkan bahwa morfologi ikatan antarmuka (interface bonding kelongsong AlMgSi lebih baik dari kelongsong AlMg2, demikian halnya dengan laju korosi bahwa kelongsong AlMgSi mempunyai laju korosi lebih kecil dibanding kelongsong AlMg2. Hasil karakterisasi termal, kekerasan, mikrostruktur dan laju korosi menunjukkan bahwa PEB U3Si2/Al densitas 5,2 gU/cm3 menggunakan kelongsong AlMgSi lebih baik dibanding PEB U3Si2/Al  densitas 5,2 gU/cm3  menggunakan kelongsong AlMg2. Kata kunci: U3Si2/Al, densitas 5,2 gU/cm3, kelongsong AlMgSi dan AlMg2.

  10. SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KEMIRI SUNAN (Reutealis trisperma Oil DENGAN KATALIS KOH (VARIASI KONSENTRASI KATALIS

    SD Anggraini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Pada penelitian ini new feedstock biodesel diproduksi dari crude minyak kemiri sunan (Reutealis Trisperma-Oil (RETRO. RETRO adalah minyak tumbuhan yang melimpah di Indonesia dan belum tereksploitasi dikarenakan sifatnya yang beracun. RETRO disiapkan melalui reaksi esterifikasi dengan metanol menggunakan katalis asam sulfat untuk menurunkan nilai Free Fatty Acid (FFA dan dilanjutkan reaksi transesterifikasi dengan metanol dan katalis basa. Reaksi transesterifikasi RETRO menggunakan katalis kalsium hidroksida (KOH pada variasi 0,5–2,0 %wt minyak telah dilakukan pada suhu 65 °C. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodesel meningkat dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi katalis (pada 0,5-1,0 %wt dan menurun dengan konsentrasi katalis (pada 1,5-2.0 %wt. Hasil Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME optimum sebesar 83,33% diperoleh dengan menggunakan katalis KOH dengan konsentrasi katalis 1 %wt minyak. Karakterisasi hasil biodesel RETRO dilakukan dengan membandingkannya dengan ASTM D6751-02 diperoleh angka asam 0,55 mgKOH/g, densitas 0,90 g/cm3, viskositas 10,6 cSt pada suhu 40 oC, angka setana 54,7 serta residu karbon 0,24%.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ In this research new feedstock biodiesel was produced from Crude Reutealis Trisperma-Oil (RETRO. RETRO is vegetable oil that is overabundance in Indonesia it has not been explored because of its toxicity. RETRO was prepared through the reaction of esterification with methanol by using sulfuric acid catalyst to decrease Free Fatty Acid (FFA, and then transesterification reaction of refined RETRO was performed with methanol by using the alkaline catalyst. RETRO transesterification  reaction using potassium hidroxyde (KOH as catalyst with variation of 0.5 – 2,0 wt% of oil has been done at 65 °C. The biodiesel yield increased with the

  11. KARAKTERISTIK SIFAT FISIK KAYU JABON(Anthocephalus cadamba Miq PADA ARAH LONGITUDINAL DAN RADIAL

    Ary Widiyanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the physical properties of jabon (Anthocephalus cadambaMiq. wood and its variations in the stem longitudinaland radial direction. A total of 3samplesof jabontrees were taken from private forest in Talagawangi Village, Pakenjeng sub-District, Garut District, West Java Province. Speciments of physical properties were taken at 3 different heightsof the longitudinal direction(bottom, midle and top of trunkas well as 3 differentradialdirections (near pith, middle and near barkof the jabontrunk. The observation focused on the physical properties in three position of both longitudinal and radial orientation. The parameters observed were green wood moisture content(GMC, air-driedmoisture content (ADMC, specific gravity on green wood moisture volume (SGG, and specific gravity on air-dried moisture volume (SGAD. Result showed that the average of GMC and ADMC of jabon wood were 118,43% and 15.36% respectively, while SGG and SGAD are 0.33 and 0.37 respectively.The specific gravity (both SGG and SGAD of jabon wood was significantly differencein bothlongitudinal and radial direction; while the ADMC and FMC were not significantly difference for longitudinal direction but significantly difference for radial direction. On radial direction, the GMC decreased from the pith to midle and increased near ther bark; while the ADMC regularly decreased from the pith to bark. The specific gravity value on the longitudinaldirection consistently increases from the bottom of the trunk to the top. On radial direction, the specific gravity value consistently increases from the pith to near the bark. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik sifat fisik kayu jabon (Anthocepalus cadamba Miq dan variasinya pada arah longitudinal dan radial batang.Sebanyak 3 pohon, masing-masing diambil sampel 3 titik pada arah longitudinal dan radial batang kayu jabondiambil dari hutan rakyat Desa Talagawangi, Kecamatan Pakenjeng

  12. Perhitungan Volume dan Karakterisasi Material Endapan Erupsi Gunungapi Kelud Tahun 2014, di Sungai Bladak Bagian Hulu Dengan Metode Geofisika

    Anastasia Neni Candra Purnamasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Erupsi Gunungapi Kelud pada 13 Februari 2014 menghasilkan material endapan di hulu Sungai Bladak dalam jumlah yang sangat besar.Endapan hasil erupsi yang terdapat di hulu sungai berpotensi sebagai material lahar bagi wilayah di hilir.Upaya mitigasi untuk mengurangi bencana banjir lahar memerlukan informasi volume material endapan. Selain itu, informasi karakteristik fisik material endapan juga penting untuk pemanfaatannya bagi masyarakat. Penelitian untuk mengetahui volume material endapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode geofisika pada pengukuran ketebalan dari material endapan.Metode geofisika yang digunakan adalah metode mikroseismik dan metode seismik refraksi.Hasil yang didapatkan dari pengolahan data lapangan mikroseismik adalah nilai frekuensi natural (f0 dari setiap titik pengukuran mikroseismik. Hasil yang didapatkan dari pengolahan data lapangan seismik refraksi adalah kecepatan gelombang P dari material endapan, dimana kecepatan gelombang P akan diturunkan sehingga didapatkan kecepatan gelombang S. Kecepatan gelombang S akan digunakan untuk penghitungan ketebalan material endapan yang digabungkan dengan nilai frekuensi natural dengan rumus h=Vs/4f0. Berdasarkan ketebalan material endapan yang didapatkan dari hasil penghitungan setiap titik mikroseismik, kemudian dibuat kontur ketebalan material endapan dan dilakukan penghitungan volume material endapan. Karakterisasi material endapan dilakukan dengan cara menghitung persentase pumice dan nonpumice secara fisual menggunakan foto lapangan. Ketebalan endapan pumice di permukaan lahan dianalisis persebarannya menurut satuan-satuan lereng. Volume material endapan yang didapatkan dari hasil penelitian sebesar 27,6 juta m3. Hasil karakterisasi material diketahui bahwa pumice pada material endapan yang ada di hulu Sungai Bladak 91,82 % dan sisanya 7,18 % adalah nonpumice. Jumlah pumice yang sangat banyak tersebut merupakan sumberdaya alam yang bernilai ekonomi tinggi. Pumice dapat

  13. SIFAT FISIKA MEKANIKA PAPAN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH NIPAH (Nyfa fruticans Wurmb DAN SERBUK GERGAJI DENGAN PEREKAT UREA FORMALDEHYDE Physical-mechanical Properties of Particle Boards Made From Nipah (Nyfa fruticans wurmb and Sawdust with Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive

    Noor Mirad Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan buatan dari pelepah nipah dan serbuk gergaji yang meliputi kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air, pengembangan tebal, keteguhan lengkung dan keteguhan patah. Penelitian dan pengujian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Teknologi Hasil Hutan untuk pembuatan partikel, dan pengujian sifat fisik mekanik dilakukan di Balai Riset dan Standarisasi Industri Banjarbaru. Pengujian sifat fisik yang meliputi pengujian kadar air, kerapatan, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal, pengujian sifat mekanik meliputi pengujian MOE dan MOR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Kadar air dari papan partikel hampir semuanya masuk standar SNI  kecuali pada perlakuan A yaitu sebesar  16,74 %, semua perlakuan untuk kerapatan telah memenuhi standar SNI yaitu  0,40 kg/cm2 – 0,90 kg/cm2, penyerapan air yang masuk standar SNI adalah perlakuan D yaitu 28,88 % dan 23,42 %, kisaran nilai perlakuan pengembangan tebal  3,82 % - 12,29 % telah memenuhi standar SNI, semua sifat mekanika MOE tidak ada yang memenuhi standar SNI kecuali pada MOR untuk perlakuan D yaitu sebesar 85,43 kg/cm2. Kata kunci:  Sifat Fisik  Mekanik, Pelepah Nipah dan Serbuk Gergaji, Urea Formaldehide

  14. PENGUKURAN SIFAT POLARISASI BERBAGAI MINYAK NABATI MENGGUNAKAN LAMPU IR DAN LASER HE-NE

    U Kaltsum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji sifat polarisasi berbagai minyak nabati (minyak sawit, minyak kedelai, minyak zaitun, VCO, minyak curah, dan jelantah dengan variasi keadaan baru dan kadaluwarsa, menggunakan lampu IR dan laser He-Ne. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menempatkan minyak nabati diantara polarisator dan analisator. Hasil penelitian pada kedua sumber cahaya menunjukkan pola yang hampir sama. Minyak zaitun dan VCO memiliki perubahan sudut polarisasi alami kecil, sedangkan minyak sawit, kedelai, jelantah, dan curah memiliki perubahan sudut polarisasi alami besar. Besarnya perubahan sudut polarisasi minyak kadaluwarsa lebih besar dibanding minyak baru. Perubahan sudut polarisasi sebanding dengan jumlah radikal bebas (ALB, peroksida dan molekul asimetri (asam lemak jenuh, molekul rantai panjang. Meskipun pola yang dihasilkan oleh kedua sumber cahaya sama, namun lampu IR memberikan nilai perubahan sudut polarisasi yang lebih tinggi dari laser He-Ne. Hal ini dimungkinkan karena daya lampu IR lebih besar dari He-Ne, sehingga energi yang dihasilkan lampu IR lebih tinggi dan perubahan sudut polarisasinya lebih besar. This research based on previous research that using IR lamp (250 watt and He-Ne laser (1 mW on a mixture of palm oil and animal oil. Both of light source were used again to measure polarization properties of various vegetable oils (palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, VCO, rainfall oil and used cooking oil with a variety of new and expired. The tools used were a set polarization, IR lamp, He-Ne laser, and power supply. The experiment was done by placing vegetable oil between the polarizer and analyzers. The result showed both of light sources had similar pattern; polarization changes of olive oil and the VCO were small, while polarization changes of palm oil, soybean oil, used cooking oil, and rainfall were high. Polarization change of expired oil was higher than new oil. The value of polarization change was proportional to free

  15. Pengaruh Perlakukan Alkali terhadap Sifat Fisik, dan Mekanik Serat Kulit Buah Pinang

    Cokorda Putri Kusuma Kencanawati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menganalisis pengaruh perlakukan alkali dan tanpa perlakukan alkali terhadap karakateristik fisik, morfologi dan sifat mekanik serat kulit buah pinang (areca Catechu L.. Selama ini pemanfaatan limbah pertanian belum dilakukan secara maksimal, sehingga dapat menimbulkan pencemaran terhadap lingkungan. Serat kulit buah pinang (Areca Husk Fiber/AHF selama ini hanya dipergunakan sebagai bahan bakar biomassa dan media tanam sedangkan untuk pemanfaatan lain belum ada sama sekali. AHF diberi perlakukan NaOH 2,5%, 5%, 7,5% dan 10% dengan waktu perendaman 2 jam pada temperatur kamar, untuk mengetahui karakteristik fisik AHF maka dilakukan pengukuran panjang dan diameter serat, pengujian densitas, pengujian kadar air dan moisture sedangkan untuk mengetahui karakteristik mekanik dilakukan pengujian tarik serat tunggal sesuai dengan ASTM D 3379. Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa diameter AHF mengalami pengurangan diameter akibat perlakukan alkali, hal ini terkait dengan hilangnya kandungan lignin, pektin dan wax. Densitas AHF menurun dengan meningkatan prosentase NaOH bila dibandingkan dengan AHF tanpa perlakukan NaOH. Kekuatan tarik bervariasi dengan adanya perlakuan alkali.  Kekuatan tarik AHF tertinggi pada serat yang mengalami perlakukan NaOH 5% yaitu sebesar 165 Mpa dan kekuatan tarik terendah pada AHF dengan perlakuan Alkali 10% yaitu sebesar 137 MPa . This paper analyzes the effect of alkali and non-alkali treatments on the physical characteristics, morphology and mechanical properties of betel nut huks fiber (areca Catechu L.. the used of agricultural waste has not been done optimally, causing environmental pollution. Areca Husk Fiber (AHF only used as biomass fuel and planting medium, while for the other uses it has not existed. AHF was given 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% NaOH treatment with 2 hours immersion at room temperature, to known the physical characteristics of AHF then measured the length and diameter of fiber, density test, water

  16. PENERAPAN PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD PADA PASTEURISASI SARI BUAH APEL VARIETAS ANA: KAJIAN KARAKTERISTIK NILAI GIZI, SIFAT FISIK, SIFAT KIMIAWI DAN MIKROBIA TOTAL Application of Pulsed Electric Field in Pasteurization of Apple Juice of Ana Cultivar : Study on

    La Choviya Hawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, extracted from apple of ana cultivar , was pasteurized using a pulsed electric field (PEF method. The aimof this research was to analyze the changes on nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes from apple juice after pasteurization. The research was conducted from July until Oktober 2009 located in Malang. The PEF treatment was carried out using treatment time variation for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. Several parameters of vitamin A and C, water content, density, pH, total soluable solid and total microbes were observed. The results showed that PEF treatment did not significantly change nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes after pasteurization with PEF in compared with no treatment pasteurization. The highest degradation was found in treatment time for 60 seconds, i.e. 93.53 %. ABSTRAK Sari buah apel, yang diekstrak dari apel varietas ana, dipasteurisasi dengan metode pulsed electric field (PEF. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan karakteristik nilai gizi, sifat fisik, kimiawi dan total mikrobia sari buah apel sesudah dipasteurisasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Juli sampai dengan Oktober 2009 di Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi waktu pengolahan 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 dan 60 detik. Parameter pengamatan yaitu vitamin A dan C, kadar air, berat jenis, pH, total padatan terlarut dan total mikrobia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai gizi, sifat fisik dan kimiawi dari sari apel  tidak mengalami perubahan signifikan dibandingkan sari apel tanpa perlakuan PEF. Penurunan total mikrobia terbesar pada waktu perlakuan 60 detik dengan efektivitas pembunuhan sebesar 93,53%.

  17. Pemanfaatan Vinasse -Limbah Industri Alkohol- untuk Perbaikan Sifat Fisik Tanah dalam Pengembangan Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L di Lahan Pasir Pantai

    M. Zulfan Arrodli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lahan pasir pantai merupakan lahan bermasalah untuk pertanian karena sifat tanahnya tidak mendukung pertumbuhan tanaman dan vinasse merupakan limbah industri ethanol yang jumlahnya sangat besar yang apabila dibuang di lahan terbuka akan mencemari lingkungan. Penggunaan vinasse sebagai bahan perbaikan tanah tanpa memberikan pengaruh negatif kemungkinan dapat dikerjakan untuk tanah bertekstur kasar seperti tanah di lahan pasir pantai. Oleh karena itu dalam penelitian ini, vinasse akan dicoba digunakan untuk membudidayakan tebu pada media tanah yang diambil dari lahan pasir pantai. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan percobaan pot faktorial 4x4 yang disusun dalam rancangan lingkungan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian vinasse dengan dosis 60.000 l/ha hanya sekali pada awal penanaman tebu mampu memperbaiki kemampuan tanah menyimpan air. Vinasse terbukti tidak memberikan pengaruh kurang baik terhadap tanaman yang dibudidayakan, bahkan pemberian vinasse cenderung memperbaiki pertumbuhan tebu baik dilihat pada tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, berat kering akar dan tajuk, meskipun pengaruhnya tidak berbeda nyata.

  18. Karakterisasi Mutu dan Nilai Gizi Nasi Mocaf dari Beras Analog - (Characterization of Quality and Nutrition Value of Cooked Rice Mocaf from Rice Analog

    Enny Hawani Loebis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on rice consumption needs to be reduced to overcome the problems of rice supply and health problems. Alternative proposed is producing mocaf-based rice analog. This research aims to study the quality characterization and nutritional value of mocaf-based rice analog. Rice mocaf was made based on mixture of mocaf, rice flour, water and palm oil using variable: 50, 60 and 70% mocaf.  Mocaf rice then cooked by using rice cooker, steamer or microwave. The results showed mocaf rice 60% yield highest calorific value.  The best cooking method  was steaming that resulted nutrient content and calorific value consisting of 49.15% water; 2.05% fat; 2.09% protein; 46.45% carbohydrate; 35.8 mg/kg of iron; 403.4 mg/kg of potassium; 193.8 mg/kg of calcium, 2.0 mg/kg of vitamin B1 and 212.53 ca/100 g calorific value.Keywords: mocaf, nutritional value, quality characterisation, rice ABSTRAKKetergantungan pada konsumsi beras perlu dikurangi untuk mengatasi permasalahan pasokan beras dan masalah kesehatan. Alternatif yang dapat diusulkan adalah dengan pembuatan beras analog berbasis mocaf. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari karakterisasi mutu dan nilai gizi nasi mocaf dari beras analog. Beras mocaf dibuat berdasarkan campuran mocaf, tepung beras, air dan minyak goreng sawit, dengan komposisi mocaf  50, 60 dan 70%. Beras mocaf kemudian dimasak dengan cara menggunakan rice cooker, pengukusan atau microwave. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan beras mocaf 60% menghasilkan nasi mocaf dengan nilai kalori tertinggi. Pemasakan terbaik adalah dengan cara pengukusan dengan kandungan gizi dan nilai kalori yang dihasilkan terdiri dari 49,15%  air; 2,05% lemak; 2,09% protein; 46,45% karbohidrat; 35,8 mg/kg besi; 403,4 mg/kg kalium; 193,8 mg/kg kalsium, 2,0 mg/kg vitamin B1 dan 212,53 kal/100 g nilai kalori.Kata kunci: beras, karakterisasi mutu, mocaf, nilai gizi

  19. SILAR yöntemi ile üretilen CuO filmlerin yapısal, morfolojik ve optik özelliklerine ikili katkılamanın (Zn, Li etkisi

    Raşit Aydın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada katkısız CuO ve farklı konsantrasyonlarda Li-katkılı Li-ZnCuO filmler cam altlıklar üzerine SILAR yöntemi ile başarılı bir şekilde büyütüldü. Üretilen bu filmler metalurjik mikroskop (MM, X-ışını kırınımı (XRD ve UV-Vis. spektroskopi ile karakterize edildi. MM sonuçları, CuO filmlerin morfolojisi üzerine Li-Zn ikili katkılama konsantrasyonunun önemli bir etkiye sahip olduğunu gösterdi. XRD verileri filmlerin nanoboyutta kristalize olduklarını ve kristallenme kalitesinin katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak değiştiğini açığa çıkardı. Uv-Vis. analiz sonuçları, filmlerin hem optik bant aralığı değerlerinde hem de geçirgenliklerinde katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak önemli farklılıkların oluştuğunu ortaya koydu.

  20. KONDISI SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA TANAH PADA BEKAS TAMBANG NIKKEL SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TRENGGULI DAN MAHONI

    Merryana Kiding Allo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities through land clearing, dredging and backfilling will lead to changes in the ecosystem. Land conditions badly damaged among other unproductive, high erosion and loss of top soil layer of soil. The physical properties of the soil pH is acid soil, the texture increased dust causes soil compacted is difficult to be processed and chemical properties of the soil decreased to lower and lower, that it can not support the root system of plants and would affect the plant growth is not normally. The need for nutrients origin of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers combined with the planting hole and alcosorb can spur the growth of trengguli and mahoni that is expected to speed up the recovery process mined lands of nickel. Planting  trengguli and mahogany produced by percentage grew to 95% by using a experiments using completely randomized design (CRD with a combination of the size of the hole, the dosage of fertilizer and alcosorb on trengguli and mahoni plants produce the best height and diameter growth on the kind trengguli obtained from treatment of the planting hole size 0.30 mx 0.40 mx 0.30 m ( A2 15 kg of organic fertilizer (B3 with alcosorb 3 gr and the best diameter growth in mahoni generated by the use of manure dosage of 7.5 kg and 7.5 gr NPK (B2. Kegiatan penambangan secara land clearing, pengerukan dan penimbunan  akan menyebabkan perubahan ekosistem. Kondisi lahan rusak berat antara lain tidak produktif, terjadi erosi berat dan hilangnya lapisan top soil tanah. Sifat fisik fisik pH tanah menjadi masam, tekstur debu meningkat menyebabkan pemadatan tanah sukar diolah dan sifat kimia tanah menurun menjadi makin rendah, sehingga tidak dapat mendukung sistem perakaran tanaman dan akan berdampak pertumbuhan tanaman tidak normal. Kebutuhan akan unsur hara asal pupuk organik maupun pupuk anorganik yang dikombinasikan dengan lubang tanam dan alcosorb dapat memacu pertumbuhan tanaman jenis trengguli dan mahoni yang

  1. PENGARUH VARIASI SUHU PADA PROSES SELF TEMPERING DAN VARIASI WAKTU TAHAN PADA PROSES TEMPERING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIS BAJA AISI 4140

    Sunardi Sunardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sifat mekanis pada baja AISI 4140 dengan proses tempering dengan variasi waktu tahan dan variasi suhu pada proses self tempering. Material terlebih dahulu dipanaskan pada suhu 850°C, di tahan dengan waktu 14 dan 28 menit, media pendinginan adalah Oli SAE 20. Pada proses tempering baja dipanaskan kembali dengan suhu 200°C di tahan dengan waktu 30 dan 120 menit. Sedangkan untuk proses self tempering, baja di panaskan pada suhu 850°C di tahan dengan waktu 14 dan 28 menit kemudian didinginkan, suhu yang harus dicapai pada pendinginan adalah 200°C, 400°C dan 600°C. Proses tempering dengan variasi waktu tahan mempunyai nilai kekerasan terbesar 50,1 HRC dengan waktu tahan 120 menit, sedangkan nilai kekerasan terbesar pada proses self tempering dengan variasi suhu adalah 29,68 HRC pada suhu 200°C. Nilai ketangguhan terbesar pada saat proses tempering adalah 0,341 (J/mm2 dengan waktu tahan 120 menit, sedangkan pada saat proses self tempering ketangguhan terbesar pada suhu 600°C dengan nilai 0,375 (J/mm2. Laju korosi terbesar pada saat tempering adalah 0,055 (mpy dengan waktu tahan 30 menit, sedangkan pada saat proses self tempering laju korosi terbesar pada suhu 400°C dengan nilai 0,0388 (mpy. 

  2. PENGARUH PERSENTASE PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack DAN KULIT DURIAN (Durio Zibethinus Murr TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKA DAN MEKANIKA PAPAN SEMEN

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian sifat fisika meliputi kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal dan sifat mekanika meliputi keteguhan lentur (MoE keteguhan patah (MoR serta  pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan. Rancangan Percobaan Yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu 100% pelepah kelapa sawit; 100% kulit durian dan  50% pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit durian dengan 3 kali ulangan. Standar yang digunakan untuk perbandingan  yaitu SNI–03– 2104-1991-A. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut : Sifat Fisika yaitu kerapatan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 0,90 gr/ cm3, 0,91 gr/ cm3, 0,81 gr/ cm3, Kadar air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7,37%, 6,59%, 7,08%, Penyerapan air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 49,51%, 44,99%, 50,11%, Pengembangan tebal rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 1,67%, 2,04%, 3,44%, Kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal tidak berpengaruh nyata. Sifat Mekanika yaitu Keteguhan lentur (MoE rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7.350,68 kg/cm2, 3.590,43 kg/cm2, Keteguhan patah (MoR rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 11,82kg/cm2, 8,66kg/cm2, 4,53 kg/cm2Pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 8,92 %, 10,01 %, 9,92 %, Keteguhan patah (MoR berpengaruh nyata sedangkan keteguhan

  3. Sifat Fisika Mekanika dan Ketahanan Papan Partikel Bambu dengan Perekat Asam Sitrat terhadap Serangan Rayap Kayu Kering

    Ragil Widyorini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai penggunaan asam sitrat sebagai agen pengikat alami masih relatif sedikit. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini difokuskan pada pengaruh jumlah asam sitrat dan suhu pengempaan terhadap sifat papan partikel bambu, termasuk ketahanannya terhadap serangan rayap kayu kering. Bahan penelitian adalah partikel bambu petung. Komposisi kimia bahan baku bambu diuji untuk kadar ekstraktif, holoselulosa, lignin, dan alfa selulosa. Faktor pada penelitian ini adalah jumlah asam sitrat (0 - 40% berdasarkan berat kering udara partikel dan suhu pengempaan (200 oC dan 220 oC. Sifat fisika dan mekanika papan partikel diuji berdasarkan standar pengujian JIS A 5908. Analisis menggunakan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR juga dilakukan untuk mengetahui perubahan gugus ester pada berbagai jumlah asam sitrat dan suhu pengempaan. Pengujian ketahanan terhadap serangan rayap kayu kering juga dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai pengurangan berat dan mortalitas rayap setelah 6 minggu. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi kedua faktor berpengaruh nyata terhadap nilai pengembangan tebal, penyerapan air, modulus elastisitas dan modulus patah. Intensitas gugus C=O yang ditunjukkan pada puncak 1720 cm-1 semakin bertambah besar seiiring dengan semakin banyaknya jumlah asam sitrat, yang menyebabkan kekuatan perekatan dan stabilitas dimensi papan partikel menjadi semakin kuat. Kondisi optimum pada penelitian ini adalah papan partikel dengan penambahan jumlah asam sitrat 20 % pada suhu pengempaan 200 oC dengan kualitas yang dapat memenuhi standar JIS A 5908 tipe 8. Penambahan asam sitrat dapat meningkatkan mortalitas rayap kayu kering secara nyata. Penambahan 20 % asam sitrat pada suhu pengempaan 200 oC menghasilkan nilai pengurangan berat 0,9 % dan mortalitas rayap 57 %. Kata kunci: bambu petung, asam sitrat, suhu pengempaan, jumlah asam sitrat.   Mechanical properties and durability against the dry termite attacks of particleboard made from bamboo

  4. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN PENGISI DALAM PERBAIKAN SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK DODOL BUAH MERAH (Pandanus conoideus L SEBAGAI SUMBER β-KAROTEN The Use of Filler on Enhancing Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Redfruit Dodol as A Source of Β-Car

    Murtiningrum Murtiningrum

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in preparation of redfruit dodol is the soft texture of dodol. In the research, preparation of red fruit dodol was done by adding different flours (wheat, rice and tapioca to the total weight of glutinous flour and redfruit paste, as much as 15 % by weight. The preferences of panelists and physicochemical properties tests were done on the redfruit dodol product. The result indicated that the best formulation was the red fruit dodol with tapioca. The panelist preference scores of colour, flavor, odor and texture of the best dodol formulation were fairly like (5.40, fairly like (5.05, like (6.05 and fairly like (5.70 respectively. The physical properties of dodol including hardness, sticky and elasticity level were 951.43 gf, 216.68 gf and 0.35 % respectively. The dodol contained moisture 37.86 %, total solid62.14 with water availibility (a 0.83 and β-carotene 1.02 ppm. ABSTRAK Permasalahan utama dalam pembuatan dodol buah merah, yaitu teksturnya lembek dan lunak. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penambahan jenis tepung yang berbeda, yaitu tepung terigu, beras dan tapioka sebanyak 15 % (b/b dari berat tepung ketan dan pasta buah merah. Dodol yang dihasilkan dilakukan pengamatan sifat fisikokimia dan ting- kat penerimaan panelis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dodol formula terbaik berdasarkan sifat organoleptik dan fisikokimia adalah dodol dengan penambahan tapioka. Dodol tersebut memiliki sifat organoleptik dengan skor kesukaan warna agak suka (5,40, rasa agak suka (5,05, aroma suka (6,05 dan tekstur agak suka (5,70, sifat fisik kekerasan dan kelengketan masing-masing 951,43 dan 216,68 gf, serta kekenyalan 0,35 %,  juga memiliki sifat kimiadengan mengandung air dan total padatan masing-masing 37,86 % dan 62,14 % dengan tingkat ketersediaan air (a 0,83 dan kandungan β-karoten 1,02 ppm.

  5. Pengaruh Penambahan Karbon terhadap Sifat Mekanik dan Konduktivitas Listrik Komposit Karbon/Epoksi sebagai Pelat Bipolar Polimer Elektrolit Membran Sel Bahan Bakar (Polymer Exchange Membran(PEMFC

    Ara Gradiniar Rizkyta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel bahan bakar merupakan sel elektrokimia yang mampu mengkonversi bahan bakar menjadi energi listrik. Lebih dari 70% dari total berat dan 60%  biaya dalam  fuel cell berupa pelat bipolar. Maka dibutuhkan pemilihan bahan yang sesuai untuk mereduksi berat, volume dan biaya  pada sel bahan bakar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh karbon terhadap sifat mekanik dan konduktivitas listrik komposit karbon/epoksi. Matriks yang digunakan adalah epoksi dengan hardener poliamino amid dengan  rasio pencampuran 20 dan 80% poliamino amid. Filler yang digunakan adalah karbon dengan kadar karbon 20, 40, 60 dan 80%.  Bahan campuran dimatangkan dalam furnace pada temperatur 50, 100, 150, 200, 240oC selama satu jam. Pengujian yang dilakukan yaitu FT-IR, tarik, SEM, TGA dan konduktivitas listrik. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan penambahan karbon  dapat meningkatkan Modulus Young tetapi menurunkan sifat tarik dan elongasi. Kekuatan tarik epoksi tertinggi adalah 61 MPa, sedangkan pada 20% karbon 18,9 MPa. Stabilitas thermal meningkat dengan penambahan karbon, data 60% karbon menunjukkan  berat sisa pada 800⁰ C senilai 63%. Penambahan karbon juga dapat menaikkan konduktivitas listrik. Data tertinggi diperoleh pada komposisi 80% karbon yaitu 424,8 S.Cm-1

  6. Karakterisasi stem cell pulpa gigi sulung dengan modifikasi enzim tripsin (The characterization of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth using trypsin enzym

    Tri Wijayanti Puspitasari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, treatment in dentistry, using tissue regeneration that based on the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, grows rapidly. For several reason, the isolated and cultured SHED is difficult to be applied in Indonesia, therefore the modification is needed. This difficulties were caused by the pulp anatomy, the heterogeneous populations in the pulp chamber and the limitations of tools and materials at the laboratory. Purpose: This research was aimed to examine that the modifications of isolation and culture technique of SHEDs for characterization by using the marker of CD105. Methods: The research was experimental laboratory with the cross sectional design. The samples were the human exfoliated deciduous teeth from the children patients of Pediatric Dentistry Department of Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital which matched the criteria. Dental pulps were isolated and cultured by using the modifications of Trypsin enzymes. Results: The healthy SHEDs could be produced from the modifications of isolation and culture and positively shown the expression of marker CD105 which were indicated by the fluorencent microscope. Conclusion: SHED which isolated and cultured by using the modified techniques, positively characterized by using marker CD105.Latar Belakang: Pengobatan kedokteran gigi berkembang dengan pesat terutama di bidang regenerasi jaringan berbasis Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED. Di Indonesia, isolasi dan kultur SHED sulit sehingga perlu dilakukan modifikasi. Kendala ini muncul karena jaringan pulpa yang kecil, heterogen dan keterbatasan alat dan bahan di laboratorium. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti modifikasi pada cara isolasi dan kultur SHED untuk karakterisasi menggunakan maker CD105. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan cross sectional. Sampel penelitian adalah gigi sulung dari pasien anak di Klinik Kedokteran Gigi Anak

  7. Observation, Isolation and Characterization of Microalgal Red Tide Agent Dinoflagellates Prorocentrum sp. (Pengamatan, Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Mikroalga Red Tide dari Dinoflagellata Prorocentrum sp

    Dwi Susilaningsih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spesies Dinophyte mempunyai habitat dari kutub, perairan tropis, tetapi semakin berlimpah di perairan tropis atau hangat. Dinophyte diduga sebagai penyebab terjadinya "red tide" sehingga nampak berwarna kuning kemerahan di laut ketikan malam hari disebabkan aktivitas bioluminescence.Penelitian ini menggunakan Dinophyte yang diisolasi dari pantai dan sampel air yang diperoleh dari di Prefektur Iwate, Jepang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui taksonomi yang menyebabkan blooming. Spesies ini memiliki karakter yang spesifik bernbentuk oval (panjang 20-30 μm dan lebar 1-20 μm, kloroplas berwarna kuning, nukleus yang besar, dua flagel yang berbeda, yang salah satunya disebut flagellum transfer, tidak memiliki selaput tengah yang, ornament sel yang indah "theca"dengan tulang belakang. Berdasarkan hasil squensing pada 18 S rDNA, Dinophyte mempunyai kesamaan dengan strain Prorocentrum MBIC11147 (100%, Di masa yang akan datang penelitian Procentrum sp. bisa menggunakan sebagai model squensing, perilaku pasang mikroalga. Kata kunci: alga, Dinophyte, karakterisasi, isolation, Prorocentrum, red tide Dinophyte species inhabit from polar, temperate to tropical waters, but tend to be more abundant in tropical or warm waters. The Dinophytes is suspected as one of the genera causing red tide in the sea with their yellow-redish colour that make the sea glows in the night because of their bioluminescence activity. In this work, the Dinophyte was isolated from offshore, and water sample collected in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Purposes of the studies were for understanding the taxonomic features in particular of the dinophytes that usually occur in blooming areas. The species has specific characters, such as oval shape ( 20-30 μm long and 1-20 μm wide, yellow chloroplast, large nucleus, possesses two different flagellas which one of them is specific called transfer flagellum, no middle furrow and beautiful ornament cell covering (theca with spine

  8. Penelitian sifat sifat fisika sol plastik

    Susilowati

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of plastic soles especially flexible soles and spons soles for footwear (shoes, sandals, etc are very important. This physical properties are : tensile strength; elongation at break; tensile stress at 100%; hardness; density; tear resistance; permanen set; abrasion resistance and flexing. The type of plastic material used for flexible and spons plastic soles, as recorded by infrared spectrophotometry analysis indicate that most of them are made by PVC. Physical test result shown that plastics soles can be graded into three categories in comparation with the specification of the IIS (Indonesian Industial Standard number SII 1103 – 84.

  9. KARAKTERISASI DAN AKTIVITAS KATALITIK BERBAGAI VARIASI KOMPOSISI KATALIS Ni DAN ZnBr2 DALAM Γ-Al2O3 UNTUK ISOMERISASI DAN HIDROGENASI (R-(+-SITRONELAL

    ED Iftitah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh sifat dan karakter berbagai variasi komposisi katalis Ni dan ZnBr2 yang terimpregnasi dalam γ-Al2O3 terhadap aktivitas dan selektivitasnya untuk reaksi isomerisasi dan hidrogenasi (R-(+-Sitronelal telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, terdapat tiga jenis variasi komposisi Ni dan ZnBr2 dalam γ-Al2O3, yaitu: A1=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (3:2, A2=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (1:1 dan A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3. Katalis dikarakterisasi menggunakan X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, dan SEM-EELS. Luas area permukaan spesifik dan porositasnya ditentukan berdasarkan adsorption-desorption gas nitrogen pada 77 K. Distribusi dan volume pori ditentukan dengan desorption isotherm pada P/Po ≥ 0,3. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara karakter dan sifat katalis dengan aktivitas katalitiknya terhadap produk isomerisasi dan hidrogenasi (R-(+-Sitronelal. Uji aktivitas dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor mini dengan 0,5 g katalis dan 3 mL (R-(+-Sitronelal menggunakan atmosfir gas N2 dan/atau H2 dalam waktu 5 dan 24 jam masing-masing pada suhu 90 dan 120 °C. Komposisi katalis, pemilihan jenis atmosfir gas dan suhu sangat berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas dan selektivitas pembentukan produk isomerisasi dan hidrogenasi. Konversi (R-(+-Sitronelal tertinggi ditunjukkan oleh katalis A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3 dengan kondisi reaksi selama 5 jam (4 jam N2 + 1 jam H2 pada suhu 90 °C dan 24 jam (4 jam N2 + 20 jam H2 pada suhu 120 °C. The influence of catalyst properties and characteristics of Ni and ZnBr2 catalysts impregnated in γ-Al2O3 on the activity and selectivity of (R-(+-Citronellal isomerisation and hydrogenation has been done. In this study, there were three sets of Ni and ZnBr2 in γ-Al2O3 with various composition, they were A1=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (3:2, A2=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (1:1, A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and SEM

  10. PENGARUH VARIASI PUTARAN CETAKAN, INOKULAN TI-B PADA CENTRIFUGAL CASTING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK DAN STRUKTUR MIKRO PADUAN ALUMINIUM A356.0

    Eko Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paduan alumunium  A-356.0 merupakan  salah satu bahan material yang cocok untuk bahan baku pembuatan velg racing (cast wheel mobil maupun sepeda motor. Karena memiliki beberapa kelebihan seperti: ringan, tahan korosi dan warnanya menarik, namun memiliki kekurangnan yaitu sifat mekanisnya belum memenuhi syarat. proses pembuatannya  menggunakan proses Vertical Centrifugal Casting (VCC dengan penambahan inokulan Al-Ti-B sebagai unsur penghalus butir, inokulan Al-Ti-B akan dicampurkan kedalam 8 kg cairan aluminium dengan komposisi variasi campuran 0, 6, 9, dan 12 gram untuk selanjutnya dituangkan ke dalam cetakan dengan 2 variasi putaran yaitu 450 dan 850 rpm. Selanjutnya hasil dari pengecoran centrifugal casting diuji secara mekanis menggunakan pengujian standar yaitu; uji kekerasan, uji tarik dan struktur mikro nya mengunakan standar ASTM. Hasil pengujian di peroleh nilai kekerasan dan kekuatan tarik  yang paling tinggi pada spesimen A3 dan B3 yaitu 64.73 BHN dan 67.81 BHN, 182.18 Mpa  dan 188.28 Mpa. Titanium  yang  dikombinasikan  dengan  Boron  atau  Carbon  merupakan  unsur  paduan Al-Si  yang  berfungsi  untuk  menghaluskan butiran  (grain  refiner Hal  inilah  yang mempengaruhi  adanya  perubahan  sifat mekanik  dan  struktur  mikro  tersebut.  Dengan semakin  halus  butiran,  maka  penjalaran dislokasinya  akan  semakin  sulit,  sehingga mempunyai ketahanan yang lebih besar, karena diperlukan  energi  yang  lebih  besar  untuk merusak  butiran  yang  halus  tersebut. adanya gaya sentrifugal (CF selama proses penuangan kedalam cetakan. Logam cair akan dilempar oleh gaya sentrifugal sehingga menimbulkan tekanan pada setiap layer, hal ini juga menjelaskan bahwa .produk yang dibuat dengan menggunakan metode ini bebas cacat porosity, sisi terluar dari produk sentrifugal akan memiliki nilai kekerasan yang tinggi dibandingkan dengan sisi tengah produk, sifat mekanisnya juga akan memiliki nilai yang

  11. PENGARUH VARIASI PUTARAN CETAKAN DAN PENAMBAHAN INOKULAN Ti-B PADA CENTRIFUGAL CASTING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK DAN STRUKTUR MIKRO PADUAN ALUMINIUM A356.0

    Eko Nugroho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan industri pengecoran global hingga lokal sampai saat ini tumbuh dengan sangat pesat. Salah satu produk yang banyak dicari konsumen adalah velg, part pada roda sepeda motor. Tetapi sayangnya velg lokal sering dikeluhkan memiliki kualitas lebih rendah dari pabrikan. Paduan alumunium  A-356.0 merupakan  salah satu bahan material yang cocok untuk bahan baku pembuatan velg racing (cast wheel mobil maupun sepeda motor. Karena memiliki beberapa kelebihan seperti: ringan, tahan korosi dan warnanya menarik, namun memiliki kekurangnan yaitu sifat mekanisnya belum memenuhi syarat. proses pembuatannya  menggunakan proses Vertical Centrifugal Casting (VCC dengan penambahan inokulan Al-Ti-B sebagai unsur penghalus butir, inokulan Al-Ti-B akan dicampurkan kedalam 8 kg cairan aluminium dengan komposisi variasi campuran 0, 6, 9, dan 12 gram untuk selanjutnya dituangkan ke dalam cetakan dengan 2 variasi putaran yaitu 450 dan 850 rpm. Selanjutnya hasil dari pengecoran centrifugal casting diuji secara mekanis menggunakan pengujian standar yaitu; uji kekerasan, uji tarik dan struktur mikro nya mengunakan standar ASTM. Hasil pengujian di proleh nilai kekerasan dan kekuatan tarik  yang paling tinggi pada spesimen A3 dan B3 yaitu 64.73 BHN dan 67.81 BHN, 182.18 Mpa  dan 188.28 Mpa. Titanium  yang  dikombinasikan  dengan  Boron  atau  Carbon  merupakan  unsur  paduan Al-Si  yang  berfungsi  untuk  menghaluskan butiran  (grain  refiner Hal  inilah  yang mempengaruhi  adanya  perubahan  sifat mekanik  dan  struktur  mikro  tersebut.  Dengan semakin  halus  butiran,  maka  penjalaran dislokasinya  akan  semakin  sulit,  sehingga mempunyai ketahanan yang lebih besar, karena diperlukan  energi  yang  lebih  besar  untuk merusak  butiran  yang  halus  tersebut. adanya gaya sentrifugal (CF selama proses penuangan kedalam cetakan. Logam cair akan dilempar oleh gaya sentrifugal sehingga menimbulkan tekanan pada setiap

  12. Perbaikan Sifat Laju Transmisi Uap Air dan Antibakteri Edible Film dengan Menggunakan Minyak Sawit dan Jeruk Kunci

    Budi Santoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to improve water vapor transmission rate and antibacterial properties of edible film by using red palm oil and Citrus mitis. The research design was factorial completely randomized design with three replications. There were three studies: the addition of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil concentration, and pH value at the concentration 0, 1.5, and 3 (% w/v; 0, 1.5, and 3 (% v/v; and 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The results showed that interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and palm oil had significant effected on thickness, percentage of elongation and solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Characteristic of edible film was produced thickness 0.15 to 0.28 mm, percentage of elongation 23.33 to 87.78%, solubility 33.9 to 49.16%, water vapor transmission rate 3.43 to 8.52 g.m-2.d-1, and inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus 0.2 to 8.2 mm. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk memperbaiki laju transmisi uap air dan sifat antibakteri edible film dengan menggunakan minyak sawit dan jeruk kunci. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas konsentrasi ekstrak gambir; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% b/v, konsentrasi minyak sawit; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% v/v, dan pH (3, 4, 5, dan 6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi ekstrak gambir, minyak sawit, dan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan minyak sawit berpengaruh nyata terhadap ketebalan, persen pemanjangan, dan kelarutan edible film. Interaksi minyak sawit dengan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film

  13. PENGARUH SIFAT FISIK TANAH PADA KONDUKTIVITAS HIDROLIK JENUH DI 5 PENGGUNAAN LAHAN (STUDI KASUS DI KELURAHAN SUMBERSARI MALANG Effect of Soil Physical Properties on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in The 5 Land Use (A Case Study in Sumbersari Malang

    Elsa Rosyidah

    2013-11-01

    physical properties, SHC, water movement in soil, infiltration   ABSTRAK Pergerakan air dalam tanah jenuh akan mempengaruhi limpasan dan infiltrasi pada suatu daerah, sedangkan proses pergerakan air dalam tanah dipengaruhi oleh sifat-sifat fisik tanah. Perubahan penggunaan lahan sangat mempengaruhi sifat-sifat fisik tanah. Perubahan penggunaan lahan dan perbedaan sifatsifat dasar tanah yang meliputi alih fungsi lahan yang semula ada vegetasi menjadi lahan yang tak ada atau minim vegetasi mengakibatkan laju infiltrasi dan perkolasi pada tanah menjadi berubah dan memungkinkan terjadinya proses infiltrasi yang cukup besar, menyebabkan semakin berkurangnya daerah resapan air hujan secara langsung dan penurunan ketersediaan air tanah. Pengukuran pergerakan air dalam tanah kondisi jenuh atau Konduktivitas Hidrolik Jenuh tanah (KHJ sangat penting karena KHJ berperan dalam penentuan limpasan air, infiltrasi, dan perkolasi. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui besarnya nilai konduktivitas hidrolik jenuh tanah di berbagai penggunaan lahan dengan menggunakan metode constant head dan sifat fisik tanah meliputi tekstur tanah, berat isi, berat jenis, dan porositas di 5 penggunaan lahan pada 3 kedalaman tanah yang berbeda. Penelitian dilaksanakan di area Kelurahan Sumbersari pada bulan Desember 2008 hingga bulan Oktober 2009. Penelitian pengaruh sifat fisik tanah terhadap KHJ dengan menggunakan metode constant head pada 5 penggunaan lahan yaitu pemukiman penduduk (T1, lapangan (T2, kebun tomat (T3, semak belukar (T4, sawah irigasi (T5 pada 3 kedalaman yang berbeda yaitu 0-15 cm (K1, 15-30 cm (K2, dan 30-45 cm (K3. Sifat fisik tanah yang dianalisis antara lain tekstur tanah, berat isi, berat jenis, porositas, dan kadar air tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai KHJ tertinggi pada seluruh titik lokasi adalah lokasi sawah irigasi dengan kedalaman 30-45 cm. Faktor utama yang mempengaruhi nilai KHJ adalah nilai berat isi. Sifat-sifat fisik tanah yang mempengaruhi nilai KHJ

  14. Cost-optimized climate stabilisation (OPTIKS)

    Leimbach, Marian; Bauer, Nico; Baumstark, Lavinia; Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyses the implications of suggestions for the design of post-2012 climate policy regimes on the basis of model simulations. The focus of the analysis, the determination of regional mitigation costs and the technological development in the energy sector, also considers the feedbacks of investment and trade decisions of the regions that are linked by different global markets for emission permits, goods and resources. The analysed policy regimes are primarily differentiated by their allocation of emission rights. Moreover, they represent alternative designs of an international cap and trade system that is geared to meet the 2 C climate target. The present study analyses ambitious climate protection scenarios that require drastic reduction policies (reductions of 60%-80% globally until 2050). Immediate and multilateral action is needed in such scenarios. Given the rather small variance of mitigation costs in major regions like UCA, Europe, MEA and China, a policy regime should be chosen that provides high incentives to join an international agreement for the remaining regions. From this perspective either the C and C scenario (incentive for Russia) is preferable or the multi-stage approach (incentive for Africa and India). (orig.)

  15. STUDY JARINGAN FIBER-OPTIK dan SONET

    Syarif, Syafruddin; Katu, Umar; Suyuti, Saidah

    2006-01-01

    Optical Fiber communication system is a communication system using fiber optic as a transmission media. This communication system is able to transmit information in high capacity and high fidelity. Fiber optic consist of cylinder glass, the inside part of the cylinder is called core surrounded a cladding. The outside part of this cylinder made by elastic plastic called coating. ?? Based on the bias index and the waves mode in light propagation, optic fiber can be elassified into...

  16. Sifat Fisik Pati Ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr. Termodifikasi dan Penambahan Gum Xanthan untuk Rerotian (Physical Characteristics of Modified Canna edulis Kerr. Starch and Gum Xanthan for Bakeries

    Parwiyanti Parwiyanti

    2016-12-01

    dengan uji BNJ (α = 0,05. Parameter yang diamati swelling power (SP, indeks kelarutan dalam air (IKA, indeks absobsi air (IAA, derajat pengembangan (DP, dan densitas kamba (DK pati ganyong termodifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modifikasi pati ganyong dengan kombinasi perlakuan suhu dan waktu HMT serta konsentrasi GX menghasilkan pati termodifikasi dengan sifat fisik yang berbeda nyata antar perlakuan maupun pati alaminya.  Modifikasi pati ganyong dengan HMT pada suhu 80 °C, waktu 8 jam, kadar air pati 15 % dan konsentrasi gum xanthan 1 % dapat menghasilkan pati ganyong yang sifat fisiknya mendekati tepung terigu kadar protein sedang dan berbeda dengan pati ganyong alami. Sifat fisik pati ganyong termodifikasi tersebut adalah SP 16,90 ± 0,48 g/g, IKA 10,28 ± 0,25 %, IAA 112,58 ± 0,38 %, DP 0,94 ± 0,11 mL/g, dan DK 0,73 ± 0,026 g/mL. Kata kunci: Pati ganyong; gum xanthan; HMT; modifikasi; sifat fisik

  17. PROFIL GELATINISASI BEBERAPA FORMULASI TEPUNG-TEPUNGAN UNTUK PENDUGAAN SIFAT PEMASAKAN (GELATINISATION PROFILE OF SEVERAL FLOUR FORMULATIONS FOR ESTIMATING COOKING BEHAVIOUR

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-06-01

    garam dan protein putih telur merupakan formulasi dasar yang banyak dijumpai pada makanan tradisional Indonesia. Komposisi amilopektin-amilosa yang berbeda serta adanya interaksi bahan di dalam formula sangat menentukan sifat pemasakan untuk mendapatkan karakteristik tekstur yang diinginkan. Untuk mempelajari interaksi beberapa jenis tepung dengan air, protein putih telur dan garam serta pengaruhnya terhadap sifat pemasakan makanan semi-solid. Ada empat formulasi untuk setiap jenis tepung (beras, beras ketan, terigu dan tapioka, yakni: (1 air : tepung = 25 : 3 g; (2 air : tepung : garam =  25 : 3 : 0,28 g; (3 air : tepung : protein putih telur = 25 : 3 : 0,3 g; dan (4 air, tepung, garam, protein putih telur = 25 : 3 : 0,28 : 0,3 g. Tepung-tepungan dianalisis kandungan proksimat, distribusi ukuran partikel dan komposisi amilosa-amilopektinnya. Sifat pemasakan diuji dengan menggunakan Rapid Visco Analizer (RVA untuk menentukan viskositas, suhu dan waktu puncak terjadinya gelatinisasi. Tepung beras, beras ketan, terigu dan tapioka memiliki sifat gelatinisasi berbeda yang berhubungan dengan struktur pati dan komposisi amilosa-amilopektin. Tepung terigu memiliki viskositas puncak yang paling rendah, sementara tepung tapioka tertinggi. Adanya garam akan menunda waktu terjadinya gelatinisasi. Protein putih telur meningkatkan viskositas puncak, dan adanya garam dan protein putih telur secara bersamaan meningkatkan viskositas puncak dan menyebabkan viskositas puncak ini terjadi dengan lebih cepat. Dalam pengolahan pangan, tepung tapioka dapat digunakan untuk memberi kekentalan pada waktu pemasakan yang singkat, tetapi kurang dapat memberikan kekentalan yang cukup pada produk yang dingin. Tepung beras memerlukan waktu pemasakan yang cukup lama untuk memberikan kekentalan yang baik pada produk, tetapi kekentalan ini dapat bertahan baik pada suhu yang dingin. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(1: 13-22] Kata kunci: tepung, garam, protein, gelatinisasi, viskositas

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian Margarin terhadap Sifat Fisiko Kimiawi dan Sensoris Sosis Ayam Petelur Afkir (The Effect of Margarine Application on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Culled Hens Layer Sausages

    Hendronoto Arnoldus Walewengko Lengkey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research was aimed to determine the effect of margarine application on the physicochemical and sensory properties of culled layer hens sausages. In addition to utilizing the culled layer hens meat as a source of animal protein, as well as to diversify food, so that the resulting product can be accepted by consumers. This study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments unidirectional pattern with margarine giving addition 0.0 %; 2.5 %; 5.0 % and 7.5 % with four replications. The data obtained were statistically tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA, if there is a noticeable difference, then it continued to Duncan's multiple range test. The analysis showed that the water content, fat content, and pH sausage has significant effect, but the protein content was not significantly between the sausages were not given margarine (P-1 and the sausages are given margarine (P-2, P-3 and P-4. The sausage produced will increase the protein content, fat content, and pH with increasing percentage of margarine given, otherwise the moisture content will decrease. Based on sensory testing (appearance, color, flavor, texture and total acceptance, culled layer hens sausage can be accepted by consumers. Sausages were given margarine value ranges between 7.0 to 8.4 (just like - really like and were not given margarine has lower value ranging from 5.2 to 6.9 (neutral - just like.   ABSTRAK Penelitian mengenai pengaruh pemberian margarin terhadap sifat fisiko kimiawi dan sensoris sosis ayam petelur afkir adalah untuk mengetahui penambahan margarin terhadap kualitas sosis ayam petelur afkir, selain itu untuk memanfaatkan daging ayam petelur afkir sebagai sumber protein hewani, dan untuk melakukan penganekaragaman pangan, sehingga produk yang dihasilkan dapat diterima oleh konsumen. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap pola searah dengan empat perlakuan pemberian margarin 0,0 %; 2,5 %; 5

  19. Pengaruh Kecepatan Pengadukan dan Kehalusan Gambir Serta Variasi Komposisi Terhadap Beberapa Sifat Fisika dalam Pembuatan Tinta Cetak

    Hendri Muchtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ink is a very important element that determines the quality of a printout. One of the potential natural materials that can be used as a raw material for making printing ink is gambier.The objective of this study was to observe the effect of stirring speed and particle size on some physical properties in the printing ink. The ink manufacturing was done in 2 phases, namely the manufacture of color pigment and ink formulation. Pigment ink was made by cleaning the gambier through dilution with hot water, filtration, and precipitation of fitrat. Furthermore the gambier was mashed with particle size variation 40, 60, 80 mesh. The adding saturated FeCl3 compounds in ethanol into the extract gambier slowly with stirring speed 250, 500, 750 rpm for 4 hours. The color of the pigment, viscosity, and the particle size was tested by using the PSA method (particle size analyzer. Manufacture of ink formula with additives propylene glycol 7.5; 10; 12.5 mL and polyethylene glycol 0.1; 0.3; and 0.5 mL for every 30 ml of extract gambier in ethanol. Best pigment was obtained from the use of gambier 60 mesh powder, stirring speed 250 rpm, the smallest pigment particle was 47.54 nm. The best ink formula was using propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 12.5 mL and 0.5 mL. The characteristics of ink were black colored ink with a density 0.9633 at a temperature of 28-30°C, viscosity 0.9 cP, and surface tension 0.2539 N/m.ABSTRAK Tinta merupakan unsur yang sangat penting menentukan kualitas hasil cetakan. Salah satu bahan alam potensial yang dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan tinta cetak adalah gambir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh kecepatan pengadukan dan kehalusan bahan baku gambir terhadap beberapa sifat fisika dalam pembuatan tinta cetak. Pembuatan tinta dilakukan 2 tahap yaitu pembuatan pigmen dan formula tinta. Pigmen tinta dibuat dengan cara membersihkan  gambir melalui pelarutan dengan air panas, penyaringan, dan pengendapan

  20. Teori Kepemimpinan Sifat

    Marianti, Maria Merry

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals. There are three groups of Leadership theories: trait theories, behavioral theories, and contingency theories. Trait theories of leadership differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. This paper focuses on trait theories of leadership. This theory is based on characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to pr...

  1. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Ralstonia syzygii

    Yanuar Danaatmadja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia syzygii is one of important pathogens of cloves. This study was aimed at obtaining pure culture of R. syzygi from diseased plant tissue samples. The acterium was isolated from infected clove plantations in Ungaran, Central Java. It had the ability to make clove seedlings show symptoms and then die 41 days after inoculation. The reisolated bacterium also showed its ability to kill clove seedlings after 17 days. The bacterium is gram negative, able to ultilize glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, and glycerol, able to hydrolyze starch, grow well at 27oC, able to catalyze and release water and oxygen from hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2 and aerobically.   Ralstonia syzygii merupakan salah satu patogen penting pada tanaman cengkeh. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapakan isolat murni R syzygii dari jaringan tanaman terinfeksi. Bakteri diisolasi dari pertanaman cengkeh sakit yang berasal dari daerah Ungaran, Jawa Tengah. Bakteri menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menyebabkan bibit tanaman cangkeh sakit dan kemudian mati 41 hsi. Bakteri hasil reisolasi juga menunjukkan kemampuannya menyebabkan sakit dan kematian pada bibit tanaman cengkeh setelah 17 hsi. Bakteri yang diperoleh bersifat gram negatif, mampu memanfaatkan glukosa, sukrosa, maltosa, manitol, sorbitol, dulsitol, dan gliserol, mampu menghidrolisis pati, tumbuh baik pada suhu 27o C, mampu mengkatalisis dan melepaskan air dan oksigen dari hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 dan bersifat aerob.

  2. PENGARUH VARIASI SUHU POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT ANNEALING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIS MATERIAL BAJA EMS-45 DENGAN METODE PENGELASAN SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW

    Rusiyanto Rusiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan Untuk mengetahui nilai kekerasan Vickers material Baja EMS-45 sebelum proses pengelasan dan setelah dilakukan proses pengelasan tanpa post weld heat treatment annealing, Untuk mengetahui berapakah suhu optimal post weld heat treatment annealing untuk material baja EMS-45 dengan variasi suhu yang digunakan 350 o C, 550 o C, dan 750 C. Untuk mengetahui struktur mikro dari material baja EMS-45 akibat variasi suhu post weld heat treatment annealing pada proses pengelasan dengan menggunakan metode pengelasan shielded metal arc welding. Bahan atau material dasar yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Baja EMS-45 dengan ketebalan pelat 10 mm, lebar pelat 20 mm dan panjang 100 mm. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian nilai kekerasan tertinggi setelah proses pengelasan terletak pada daerah Logam Las. Pengelasan non PWHT memiliki nilai kekerasan paling tinggi setelah proses pengelasan yaitu sebesar 183,2 VHN. Suhu optimal Post Weld Heat Treatment Annealing untuk material baja EMS-45 adalah pada suhu 750 C. Karena pada PWHT pada suhu tersebut mengalami penurunan kekerasan yang besar yaitu sebesar 127,2 VHN, sehingga material baja EMS-45 dapat memperbaiki sifat mampu mesinnya. Struktur mikro dari material baja EMS-45 sebelum proses pengelasan berupa grafit serpih, perlit dan ferit, setelah dilakukan proses pengelasan mempunyai struktur mikro berupa matrik ferit dan grafit pada daerah logam las, matrik perlit kasar dan grafit serpih pada daerah HAZ dan struktur perlit, grafit serpih dan ferit pada daerah logam induk o o

  3. Pengaruh Penambahan Ni, Cu, dan Al dan Waktu Milling pada Mechanical Alloying Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi dan Desorpsi Mg sebagai Material Penyimpan Hidrogen

    Febrian Budi Pratama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mg merupakan salah satu material yang digunakan sebagai material penyimpan hidrogen dengan membentuk MgH2. Sifat absorpsi dan desorpsi hidrogen dari suatu metal hidrida salah satunya tergantung  pada bahan, unsur penambah, dan metode pembuatannya. Pada penelitian kali ini Mg sebagai material penyimpan hidrogen dihasilkan melalui metode mechanical alloying dengan unsur penambah Ni, Cu, dan Al dan variasi waktu milling 10, 20, 30 jam. Selanjutnya sampel dilakukan pengujian SEM, XRD, DSC, dan Uji hidrogenisasi. Dari data uji diperoleh bahwa meningkatnya waktu milling menurunkan ukuran partikel sehingga meningkatkan wt% hidrogen terabsorb dan menurunkan temperatur onset desorpsi. Namun efek aglomerasi dan coldwelding yang berlebih pada proses mechanical alloying mengakibatkan ukuran partikel menjadi lebih besar. Unsur pemadu Al dan Cu berfungsi sebagai katalis, sedangkan Ni berfungsi sebagai pemadu yang ikut bereaksi dengan hidrogen. Mg10wt%Al dengan waktu milling 20 jam mempunyai nilai weight percent terbaik H2 yaitu 0.38% dalam temperatur hidrogenisasi 2500C, tekanan 3 atm, dan waktu tahan 1 jam. Sedangkan Mg10wt%Al dengan waktu milling 30 jam memiliki temperatur onset paling rendah yaitu 341.490C Kata Kunci— Absorpsi, Desorpsi, Material Penyimpan Hidrogen, Mechanical Alloying, Mg

  4. PENGARUH BERBAGAI KECAMBAH KACANG-KACANGAN LOKAL SEBAGAI BAHAN DASAR MEAT ANALOG TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK (TEKSTUR, KESUKAAN DAN RASIO ARGININ/LISIN

    Bayu Kanetro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the best of local legume sprout as raw material of meat analog, based on its texture, sensory (preference properties, and the ratio of arginine/lysine, compared to meat analog from soybean. Meat analogs were made of protein of local legumes sprout, which were velvet beans, cowpeas, and winged beans that had been germinated for 48, 36 and 24 hr respectively. The protein of velvet beans, cowpeas, and winged beans sprout for meat analog production were extracted at pH 9 and precipitated at pH 4, 5, and 5 respectively. Hence their products were analyzed the texture, the sensory properties (the hedonic scales of color, texture, odor, taste, and overall, and the ratio of arginine/lysine. The characteristics of meat analog from the legumes sprout were compared to meat analog from soybean for determination of the best legume sprout as raw material of meat analog. The result of this research showed the properties of meat analog from winged bean and cowpeas sprouts were better than velvet beans sprout. The meat analog from soybean was still better than meat analog from the local legumes sprout, especially its texture. The arginine content, that was known as  hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic component,  of meat analog from cowpeas sprout was lower than meat analog from soybean, but its ratio of arginie/lysine was not signifi cantly different. While the ratio of arginine/lysine of meat analog from the other legumes sprout were lower than meat analog from soybean. Therefore the meat analog from cowpeas sprout was chosen as the best product and was potential as functional food especially for reducing blood cholesterol. Keywords: Meat analog, sprout, local legumes, arginine/lysine ratio   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jenis kecambah kacang-kacangan lokal terbaik sebagai bahan baku kedelai berdasarkan tekstur, sifat sensoris, dan rasio arginin/lisin dibandingkan meat analog dari biji

  5. Sifat Mekanika Bambu Petung Laminasi

    Nor Intang Setyo H.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laminated bamboo is a kind of engineered structure to improve mechanical properties of bamboo. It is done in order to meet the need of building materials to the building structure. Laminated bamboo are constructed by gluing a slice bamboo, so it has its advantages can be made in any size and a more uniform mechanical properties of natural bamboo. Mechanical properties is required for structural analysis. Good modeling in structural analysis and numerical properties must be supported by valid mechanical properties. ASTM D143 explains the procedure in getting the mechanical properties of wood . This study refers to ASTM D143 to get laminated bamboo mechanical properties of the material are then arranged in a linear elastic lamina mulitilayer Orthotropic . Proficiency level parameter values for bamboo laminate is Young's Modulus ( E , EL = 11 840 MPa ; ER = 511.14 MPa ; ET = 814.39 MPa , Poisson ratio νLR = 0.179 ; νLT = 0.229 ; νRT = 0.231 , and Modulus Slide (G , MPa GLR = 2.6112 ; GLT = 1.0435 ; GRT = 1.0435.

  6. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe

    Mustanir Mustanir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidrida logam berbasis MgH2 dengan sisipan 1 wt% katalis Fe telah berhasil disintesis dengan teknik ball milling. Hasil proses miling selama 80 jam menunjukkan bahwa ukuran butir material telah membentuk struktur nanokristal. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh profil difraksi sinar-X dimana terjadi pelebaran puncakpuncak difraksinya dengan meningkatnya waktu miling. Hasil uji absorpsi secara gravimetrik diketahui bahwa MgH2 berkatalis 1 wt% Fe mampu menyerap hydrogen sebesar 5,5 wt% dalam waktu ~20 menit pada temperatur 300 oC. Hasil ini sekaligus memperlihatkan bahwa sejumlah kecil katalis Fe bekerja secara baik dalam memperbaiki sifat absorpsi material penyimpan hydrogen berbasis Mg.(Metal hydrides are of great interest as hydrogen storage media especially for automotive application. Hydrides of magnesium and magnesium alloys are particularly attractive as they combine potentially high hydrogen storage capacities, 7.6 wt%. But, unfortunately, the sorption properties are poor. For example, conventional hydrogenation of magnesium requires prolonged treatment at temperatures of 300 oC and above. Here, we report the absorption properties of MgH2 catalyzed with a small amount of Fe element (1wt% under argon atmosphere prepared by ball milling in 80 hours. As the results, it showed the influence of milling time on the absortion kinetics of material which could absorp hydrogen in amount 5.5 within 20 minutes at 300 oC. It is obvious that longer milling time and small amount of catalyst could improve the sorption properties of Mg-based hydrides. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 13rd November 2009, Revised: 25th December 2009, Accepted: 31st December 2009][How to Cite: M. Mustanir, Z. Jalil. (2009. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 69

  7. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pengontrol Frekuensi Getaran Menggunakan Serat Optik

    -, Firmansyah; -, Harmadi

    2015-01-01

    A vibration frequency control system using optical fiber has been designed. Optical fiber sensor system is used to measure vibration frequency by utilizing the output voltage change in the resulting by photodetector. The output voltage occurs due to change distance of optical fiber with membrane magnet speaker as a source of vibration. The design of the control system consists of a source of light from the laser, optical fiber FD 620-10, photodetector OPT 101, UNO Arduino microcontroller to p...

  8. Rancang Buat Sensor Kekeruhan Air Berbasis Serat Optik Plastik

    Irwan, Indawani

    2017-01-01

    It has been the research concerning about turbidity sensor based on plastic optical fiber is used to measure degree of turbidity water. Turbidity sensor based on plastic optical fiber have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. This sensor was made with different types of lenghts and configuration. Turbidity sensor was made, dippeded into a turbidity water samples. The results showed us that output voltage is not comprabel with turbidity sample concentra...

  9. Wolfram Sendromlu Hastalarda Optik Koherans Tomografi Bulguları

    Bengü Ekinci Köktekir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Materials and Methods: Four patients who fulfilled the criteria for Wolfram syndrome were recruited to the study. In all patients, OCT was performed with Stratus OCT (OCT-3, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc. Germany. The fast retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and fast macular thickness protocols were used to measure the RNFL and macular thickness, respectively. The fast optic disc protocol was used to determine the cup-to-disc ratios of the optic disc. All patients were examined with VEP (Retimax, CSO Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Results: In eight eyes of four patients (3 male and 1 female with a mean age of 18.5±2.08 years (range 16-21 years, RNFL, macular thickness, and cup-to-disc ratios were determined. The mean RNFL was 42.2±5.6 µm (range 34.1-49.5 µm, while the mean macular thickness and cup-to-disc ratios were 145±15 µm (range 125-160 µm and 0.79±0.07 (range 0.7-0.92, respectively. There was a moderate negative correlation between VEP latencies and macular and RNFL thicknesses (Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.23 and -0.34, respectively. Conclusions: RNFL loss and secondary optical atrophy are severe complications that may affect the visual acuity in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Retinal changes in these patients may be quantified and can be observed using OCT. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 212-5

  10. PERBAIKAN SIFAT MEKANIK DAN LAJU TRANSMISI UAP AIR EDIBLE FILM DARI PATI GANYONG TERMODIFIKASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN LILIN LEBAH DAN SURFAKTAN Improving the Mechanical and Water Vapour Transmission Rate Properties of Edible Film from Modified Ganyong Starc

    Budi Santoso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Edible film from ganyong starch without and with modification were incorporated by CMC and lecithin as surfactants. Edible film were characterized with respect to water vapor transmission rate and mechanical properties. Incorporation of CMC 2 % and lecithin 1 % as surfactants decreased water vapor transmission rate. Puncture strength decreased but still fulfill Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS 1975 min 50 gf.  Elongation of edible film increased and not fulfill JIS 1975 min 70 %.   Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lecithin, modification, starch, surfactants   ABSTRAK Edible film pati ganyong sebelum dan setelah dimodifikasi ditambahkan surfaktan CMC dan lesitin. Karakteristik edible film yang diamati adalah laju transmisi uap air dan sifat mekanik (kuat tekan dan persen pemanjangan. Penambahan CMC dengan konsentrasi 2 % dan lesitin 1 % menurunkan laju transmisi uap air edible film pati ganyong. Kuat tekan edible film pati ganyong mengalami penurunan, namun masih memenuhi standar JIS 1975 minimal 50gf. Nilai persen pemanjangan edible film pati ganyong meningkat tetapi belum memenuhi standar JIS 1975. Kata kunci: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lesitin, modifikasi, pati, surfaktan

  11. Optimalisasi Konduktivitas Ionik Elektrolit Polimer Berbasis Komposit Kitosan-Zirkonia/Litium Perklorat dengan Penambahan Gliserol

    Evi Yulianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Untuk meningkatkan nilai konduktivitas ionik elektrolit polimer, telah dilakukan modifikasi terhadap sistem komposit kitosan-ZrO2/LiClO4 dengan menambahkan gliserol sebagai plasticizer. Pembuatan lembaran elektrolit polimer dilakukan dengan metode casting, setelah seluruh komponen dicampur secara bertahap dan diaduk dengan pengaduk magnet. Penambahan plasticizer dilakukan dengan berbagai komposisi yaitu antara 0% (g/g sampai dengan 80% (b/b. Elektrolit polimer kemudian dikarakterisasi meliputi struktur mikro dengan difraksi  sinar-X (XRD, sifat mekanik dengan uji tarik menggunakan UTM, spektrometer impedansi (LCR-meter dan pengukuran jumlah transferensi ion. Hasil karakterisasi dengan XRD dan uji sifat mekanik menunjukkan bahwa elektrolit polimer menjadi semakin amorf dan elastis dengan penambahan plasticizer. Penambahan plasticizer yang optimal adalah sebanyak 60% (b/b dimana pada komposisi tersebut masing-masing diperoleh bilangan transferensi ion tertinggi 0,85 dengan nilai konduktivitas ionik 3,52 x 10-4 S/cm.

  12. SIFAT PROOKSIDATIF FORTIFIKAN NaFeEDTA, DENGAN KECAP KEDELAI MANIS SEBAGAI MAKANAN PEMBAWA, DALAM SISTEM BIOLOGIS (TIKUS Oxidative Effect of NaFeEDTA Fortificant in Sweet Soy Sauce as Fortification Vehicle, on Biological System (Rats

    Sri Naruki Naruki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In vivo study about the effect of NaFeEDTA fortificant in sweet soy sauce on TBARS value of plasma and liver, as well as on histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach of Sprague Dawley rats was conducted. The oxida- tive properties were determined using hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. During 42 days of repletion periode, iron-depleted rats were fed iron-free diet. NaFeEDTA was ingested in varied dosage, i.e. from 0.175 to 1.4 mg Fe/day for each rat. Sweet soy sauce H O (0.2 mL/day was used as fortification vehicle and H O (0.2 mL/day as a control.2 2FeSO .7H O fortificant (0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle was used as reference standard. At the end of the reple-4 2 2tion period, TBARS value of either plasma or liver was analized. The histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach were also evaluated. The data showed that NaFeEDTA fortificant in sweet soy sauce had no effect on TBARS value of plasma, but it resulted in increased TBARS value of liver. The histopathologic data showed that NaFeEDTA intake up to 0.35 mg Fe/day did not result in histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach, as well. ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang pengaruh dosis fortifikan NaFeEDTA dalam kecap kedelai manis terhadap angka TBARS plasma dan hati, serta perubahan histopatologik organ hati, usus, dan lambung telah dilakukan pada tikus Sprague Dawley. Evaluasi sifat prooksidatif zat besi dari NaFeEDTA dilakukan dengan metoda deplesi-replesi hemoglobin. Selama peri- ode replesi, tikus yang sebelumnya dibuat anemia, diberi diet basal bebas Fe dan minuman H O. NaFeEDTA diberikan sebagai sumber zat besi, dengan dosis bervariasi, yaitu dari 0,175 sampai dengan 1,40 mg Fe/ekor/hari. Kecap kedelai manis atau H O digunakan sebagai pembawa fortifikan. Fortifikan standar FeSO .7H O (0,35 mg Fe/ekor/hari dalam2 4 2H O digunakan sebagai pembanding. Periode replesi dilakukan selama 42 hari. Pada akhir periode replesi dilakukananalisa angka TBARS

  13. SIFAT FISIOKIMIA DAN AROMA EKSTRAK VANILI

    Dwi Setyaningsih

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of vanilla beans from dried vanilla to vanilla extract would give added value to vanilla products. Aroma and taste in vanilla extract depend on variety of plants, cultivation methods, and curing process. Indonesian vanilla extract tend to give woody and phenolic aroma because it was harvested too early and it did not cure perfectly. This study was to identify the physicochemical and aroma characteristics of vanilla extracts from importer, exporter, and vanilla extracts from the newest experiment from our laboratory. There were seven samples, three from importers (Tahiti grade I, Tahiti grade II, Virginia Dare, two from Indonesian Vanilla exporters (Djasula Wangi, Cobra, and two from our laboratory (G11, 57. The physicochemical characteristics which were analyzed were vanillin content, ash, soluble ash, alkalinity of soluble ash, alkalinity of total ash, total acidity, and lead number, all compared with the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA standard. Sensory analysis used aroma description test consist of qualitative descriptive test (in-depth interview and focus group methods and quantitative descriptive analysis. The result showed that the laboratory's sample from modified curing process (G11 followed the FDA standard in physicochemical characters, but the aroma description was not as strong as the aroma of vanilla extract from exporters, namely Cobra with creamy, sweet, and vanilla aroma; and vanilla extract from importer, namely Virginia with smoky and spicy aroma

  14. SIFAT MEKANIS BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper

    Fengky S. Yoresta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan nilai kekakuan dan kekuatan lentur maksimum bambu betung (Dendrocalamus asper dengan posisi kulit bambu yang berbeda, serta untuk menentukan nilai kekuatan tarik sejajar serat bambu betung. Kekakuan, kekuatan lentur maksimum, dan kekuatan tarik sejajar serat berturut-turut dinyatakan dalam MOE (modulus of elastcity, MOR (modulus of rupture, dan σtr// (maximum tensile strength. Bambu betung yang berumur +­ 4 tahun digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sepuluh spesimen uji masing-masing digunakan untuk pengujian lentur dengan posisi kulit bambu di serat atas/daerah tekan, di serat bawah/daerah tarik, dan pengujian tarik sejajar serat. Pengujian dilaboratorium dilakukan berdasarkan ASTM D143-05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa posisi kulit bambu mempengaruhi nilai MOE dan MOR. Bambu dengan posisi kulit di serat atas/daerah tekan cenderung memiliki nilai MOE dan MOR lebih tinggi dibandingkan bambu dengan posisi kulit di serat bawah/daerah tarik. Bambu dengan posisi kulit di serat atas memiliki nilai MOE = 62118,90 kg/cm2dan MOR = 826,36 kg/cm2, sedangkan bambu dengan posisi kulit di serat bawah memiliki nilai MOE = 51563,20 kg/cm2dan MOR = 633,38 kg/cm2. Kekuatan tarik sejajar serat bambu diperoleh sebesar 2309,00 kg/cm2. Kata Kunci: Kekakuan, Kekuatan Lentur, MOE, MOR, Kekuatan Tarik

  15. Sifat filler kayu keruing terhadap vulkanisat karet

    Herminiwati Herminiwati

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the properties of keruing wood filler in their application on vulacanized rubber of shoes soles. To know its suitability for rubber goods filler, the properties of keruing wood filler was investigated by comparing with carbon black N330. Keruing wood filler were made by carbonization process at temperature 450oC for one hour and activation process with NaCl 4% for twenty four hours, followed by pyrolisis at temperature 500oC for one hour. Filler were milled and sieved by 400 mesh siefter. The standard compound formula was prepared base on ASTM D 3192 with various filler level of keruing wood filler, carbon black N330 either separately formulated of combination. The research showed that using keruing wood filler in the amount of 30-70 phr could meet 75% the requirements of SNI. 12-0172-1987 : Canvas shoes for general purpose, where as carbon black N330 in the amount of 30-70 phr could meet 87,5% the requirements of SNI. 12-0172-1987. Combination of keruing wood filler and carbon black showed that keruing wood filler could substitute 25-57 phr of carbon black.

  16. Pengaruh Frit Gelas Terhadap Karakteristik Keramik Film Tebal FeTiO3 dari Mineral Yarosit untuk Aplikasi Termistor NTC

    Yus Rama Denny

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan Dan Karakterisasi Keramik Film Tebal Berbasis FeTiO3 Dari Mineral Yarosit Untuk Aplikasi Termistor NTC. Telah dilakukan studi pembuatan dan karakterisasi termistor NTC dari bahan mineral yarosit. Bahan mineral yarosit dari alam dimurnikan dengan larutan HCl, diendapkan dengan menggunakan NH4OH dan dipanaskan pada suhu kalsinasi 700oC selama 2 jam. Pembuatan termistor NTC dilakukan dengan mecampurkan serbuk yarosit hasil pemurnian dan pengendapan dengan TiO2. Pasta termistor FeTiO3 dicetak dipermukaan alumina substrat dengan metode screen printing, kemudian dilakukan pemanasan pada suhu 500oC selama 1 jam diruangan udara dilanjutkan disinter pada suhu 1100oC selama 1 jam diruangan hidrogen. Sifat listrik keramik film tebal hasil sinter diukur pada berbagai suhu. Struktur kristal dievaluasi dengan difraksi sinar x (XRD, dan struktur mikro dievaluasi dengan menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Data analisis XRD memperlihatkan bahwa seluruh keramik film tebal berstruktur heksagonal (Illiminite. Data struktur mikro dan sifat listrik memperlihatkan bahwa termistor dari yarosit memenuhi kebutuhan pasar.

  17. PEMBUATAN DAN KAJIAN SIFAT-SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA, MEKANIKAL, DAN FUNGSIONAL EDIBLE FILM DARI KITOSAN UDANG WINDU

    Irwan Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop bioplastic as primary packaging or edible film of chitosan biopolymer derived from tiger prawn shells (Penaeus monodon, and to perform physicochemical and mechanical characteristics. An evaluation of the physicochemical properties of plastic films made from chitosan, by modifying the order of the different treatment processes, namely: a DPMA (deproteination, demineralization, deacetylation, b DMKA (demineralization, decoloration, and deacetylation has conducted. The results of scanning FT-IR of the product shows that chitosan has identical spectrum compare of standard compound. Chitosan product from tiger prawn shells was the used as raw material for the manufacture of bioplastics. Experiments variable on the manufacture of edible film is a study of the effect of the use of different plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol and carboxylmethylcelullose (CMC additives to the physicochemical, mechanical characteristics, and edible film functional. The results showed that all the edible film produced has a clear coat with a thickness between 0.05 to 0.3 mm. Meanwhile, the film density is highest at the DPMA + chitosan edible film sorbitol + CMC with a value of 1.7300 g/cm3. The use of plasticizer sorbitol provides great tensile strength but not too elastic, compared to the glycerol, while an increase in the average CMC can increase tensile strength and %Elongation. The use of different plasticizers and additives CMC does not significantly affect its functional properties, where the value of WVTR (water vapor transmission rate is relatively the same on both types of edible films, ranging from 3.2409 to 4.8858 g /hr.m2.

  18. Penelitian pengaruh penambahan karet reclaim terhadap sifat- sifat kuat tarik, kemuluran dan volume terkikis kompon karet

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Reprocessed of wastevulcanized rubber products, known as reclaim rubber, is used as a filler in rubber soles. Uncorrect usage of reclaim rubber in rubber sole manufacturing can decrease the product performance such as as tensile streangth, elongation break and abrasion resistance. In this experiment, by comparison of 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 parts of reclaim rubber to the 100 part of natural rubber (RSS sow that tensile strength decreased to 174.138, 160.118, 140.574, 134.092, and 449,60, 437.20, 426.00, 403.80 and 396.60% nrespectively, whereas abrasion resistance decreased to 0,2491, 0,4781, 0,5267, 0.7909, and mm3 / kgm respectively.

  19. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI BAKTERI DENITRIFIKASI SEBAGAI AGEN BIOREMEDIASI NITROGEN ANORGANIK

    Khairul Syahputra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Denitrifikasi merupakan salah satu proses utama yang mengurangi kandungan senyawa nitrogen anorganik di lingkungan. Proses ini dapat digunakan untuk mengatasi kelebihan senyawa nitrogen anorganik yang tinggi di kolam budidaya perikanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi isolat bakteri denitrifikasi sebagai agen bioremediasi senyawa nitrogen anorganik. Sebanyak 21 isolat bakteri pereduksi nitrat berhasil diisolasi dari medium pengkayaan dengan konsentrasi nitrat 100 µM dan 1500 µM. Sebanyak 6 isolat merupakan kelompok bakteri denitrifikasi (fermentatif negatif dan 15 isolat termasuk kelompok bakteri fermentatif. Berdasarkan hasil seleksi didapatkan isolat HNF5 dan LNF mempunyai kemampuan reduksi nitrat yang tinggi. Aktivitas reduksi nitrat terjadi dari awal inkubasi, di mana aktivitas paling cepat terjadi pada fase eksponensial pertumbuhan bakteri. Isolat HNF5 dan LNF memiliki kecepatan maksimum reduksi nitrat (Vmaks 0,17 mM.h-1 dan 0,16 mM.h-1 dengan nilai konstanta Michaelis-Menten (Km 0,40 mM dan 0,28 mM. Identifikasi dengan sekuen 16S-rRNA memperlihatkan bahwa isolat HNF5 dan LNF mempunyai kemiripan dengan Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  20. KARAKTERISASI PEKTIN DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN LIMBAH KULIT PISANG MENGGUNAKAN METODE EKSTRAKSI

    Abubakar Tuhuloula

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Banana is a fruit that is often consumed by humans, either directly after the fruit riped or processed into other foods. On the island of Borneo, banana plants are mostly found in South Kalimantan. Discarded banana peels usually only become a waste, but there is pectin content as much as 22.4% in the banana. In this research, the extraction of pectin with a banana peels ingredients that aims to determine the types of bananas that contain lots of pectin, the influence of variations time extraction in the amount of pectin produced and the type of solvent that produces maximum pectin. The experiments were conducted using two types of bananas, the banana peel of Ambons and Kepok dried and extracted using solvent extraction with a temperature of 80 ° C. Variation extraction time are 1; 1.5 and 2 hours, the solvent are HCl and H2SO4 0.05 N. Extracted product added with ethanol to precipitate formed, then its filtered and dried in the oven at a temperature of 40 ° C for 8 hours. In this research, the product being analysis of equivalent weight, grade metocsil, galacturonate levels and the degree of esterification. The results showed that the combination of time and the type of solvent to generate a lot of pectin levels, both for banana Ambon and banana Kepok, was extracted for 2 hours using HCl solvent which is content of 14.90% for bananas Ambon and 10.96% for bananas Kepok .The pectin that produced has an equivalent weight of 666.67 to 793.65; low metoksil grade of 3.53% -4.34%; with galacturonate levels about 45.06% -48.05%, including low ester pectin with a degree of esterification 43.61 % -49.23% and included a high ester pectin with a degree of esterification of 51.28% -52.09%

  1. KARAKTERISASI DAN SKRINING FITOKIMIA DAUN SINGKIL (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd

    Risa Supriningrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, singkil leaves are used as uric acid medicine. Preliminary research data on the characterization of simplicia and singkil leaf extract (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd have not been reported. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristics of simplicia and young and old leaf extracts and their chemical content. The simplisia extraction was done by maceration using 70% ethanol solvent. The research stages are starting from sampling, plant determination, simplisia making, maceration extraction, characteristic examination and phytochemical screening. Result of characterization of simplicia, macroscopic of singkil leaves have green color, tip of tapered leaf, root of blunt leaf, rompang, jagged leaf edge, round and round leaves shape, pinnate leaf bone, thin leaf meat, leaf length 10.9 to 15 cm. Leaf width 6.3 to 9.6 cm. Microscopic observations found fragments of stodata type identifiers of diasitik, parasitic, spiral vein formation, hair cover, glandular trichomes. Water content of young leaves 8%, 5.5% old leaves, 3% water soluble sari content, 1.5% old leaves, 2% ethanol soluble sugary leaves, 1.5% leaflets, young leaf ash content 4,86%, old leaf of 7.01%, ash content of young leaf acid 2,20% and old leaf 3,14%. Moisture content of young leaves 17,5%, 17% old leaves, 0% water soluble leaf extract, 1% old leaf, soluble ethanol extract 0,5%, old leaf 4%, young leaf ash content 38, 5%, 11.6% old leaves, ash content of young leaf acids 1.51%, old leaves 2.33%. Secondary metabolites of simplicia and extracts are known to contain flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids / terpenoids.

  2. Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Polianilina Doping Asam Klorida dengan Metode Interfasial

    Iman Rahayu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in nanostructured conducting polymers is caused by expanding area of their practical application. Conducting polymers can be used in new electronic devices (transistors, displays, sensors, energy storage and memory cells, materials for shielding electromagnetic irradiation, inhibition of corrosion, membrane constructing, catalysis and medicine. The studies of polyaniline (PANI and other conducting polymers have shown that they possess semiconducting properties. Due to its high stability and unique complex of properties, PANI was the first among conducting polymers to be used in practice as an electrode material for batteries, as a corrosion inhibitor and detecting material for sensors. PANI without dopant material possesses controlled conductivity 10-10 S∙cm-1. PANI was synthesized by the interfacial method by oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS as an oxidant in an immiscible organic/aqueous biphasic system, with hydrochloric acid as dopant. An organic phase contained aniline dissolved in toluene, while the oxidant was dissolved in acid. The produced PANIs have conductivities in the range 0.03-0.07 S.cm−1. Their nanofiber morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Molecular structure of synthesized PANIs was investigated by FTIR Spectroscopy. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3143

  3. Karakterisasi kulit kayu tingi (Ceriops tagal sebagai bahan penyamak nabati

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tingi (Ceriops tagal bark was highly potential as tanning materials due to high tannin concentration. The aim of the study was to determine the characterization of properties of tanning material made from tingi bark, including the tannin levels, the non-tannin levels, the tannin type, the absorption level of the solution and the FTIR spectrum analysis. The method used in this research was countercurrent system in the extraction process, feed solution preparation process, the thickening process, powder formation process conducted with the aid of Rotavapor- 151 Standard, and testing. The results showed that the tingi bark contains tannin level 70.91% and non-tannin levels 10.63%. Tannins from tingi bark were classified as procyanidin condensed tannins type and the absorption values obtained maximum value at wavelength 490 nm. The FTIR spectral data indicated that tingi tannins contained hydroxyl group (ⱱ O-H; ⱱ N-H in the area (3467.418-3057.025 cm-1, aromatic group (ⱱ C-H in the area of 2875,733 cm-1, ⱱ C=O (ester group in tanned material in the area (1747.442-1612.422 cm-1, ⱱ-OH; R-COO-in the area of 1444.626 cm-1 and ⱱ(SO42 -; R-SO3; R-SO3H in the area (1112.823-1062.729 cm-1.

  4. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI JAMUR LIGNINOLITIK SERTA PERBANDINGAN KEMAMPUANNYA DALAM BIODELIGNIFIKASI

    Putri Elvira Valencia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can survive in various environments on different media including wood. Lignin in timber is hard to degrade efficiently because of its polymer form, and only a few of it can be hydrolyzed because of its composite and complex structure. Ligninolytic fungi produce an extracellular enzyme to withstand to toxic or mutagenic chemicals exposure and known to degrade different types of pollutant compounds. Lignin decomposers were also known to play a significant role in the pulping process of paper mills, used in waste treatment such as textile and hydrocarbon wastes. This study was conducted to obtain fungal isolates that have de-lignification capability and to compare the ability of fungal isolates to degrade lignin. The research isolated samples from rotten wood and soil using selective lignin medium with tannic acid as sole C source. This study characterized the isolates by its morphology and identified using the Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungi book by Bessey (1950 as a reference. This study compared the ligninolytic capability by measuring the transparent zone formed on selective lignin media. This research found 14 isolates of fungi and all of them had a ligninolytic capability. Aspergillus niger isolate has the highest ligninolytic capability by producing 6.45 cm clear zone diameter on the 7th day. Aureobasidium sp has the smallest clear zone diameter of 1.9 cm within the same period.

  5. Ekstraksi dan karakterisasi minyak dari kulit ikan patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Nurjanah .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is playing an important role in aquaculture production; it is one of the primary commodities of inlandfisheries industry. Catfish meat has a yield of 49% and resulted in 51% of waste products. Thus catfish waste product has potency as source of fish oil which riches of omega-3. The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitable extaction method to obtain the high quality of fish oil from catfish skin. Based on the oxidative quality analysis data obtained extraction temperature of 60°C gives the best quality of fish oil with parameters such as peroxide value, free fatty acid, p-anisidine value, acid value and total oxidation of 38 meq/kg, 0.45%, 107,5 meq/kg, 895 mg KOH/kg and 187.5, respectively. The best yield was 18.75% which was obtained at extraction temperature of 75 °C. It was concluded that best extraction at 60°C, for 30 minutes, with solvent and sample ratio 1:1.

  6. Isolasi, Karakterisasi dan Potensi Bakteri Aerob sebagai Pendegradasi Limbah Organik

    Zahidah, Dinda; Shovitri, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi bakteri aerob yang mampu mendegradasi amilum, protein dan selulosa. Penelitian ini berhasil memurnikan dan mengkarakterisasi isolat bakteri C5 yang cenderung masuk ke genus Bacillus. Berdasarkan uji kualitatif amilolitik, selulolitik dan proteolitik, diketahui bahwa isolat C5 memiliki indeks amilolitik (IA) sebesar 0.93, indeks selulolitik (IS) sebesar 1.95 dan indeks proteolitik (IP) sebesar 1.39

  7. Identifikasi dan Karakterisasi Isolat Rhizobacteri Osmotoleran dari Merapi

    Agung Astuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobacteri Merapi isolates have been detected, and MA, MB, and MD isolates could withstand osmotic stress up to >2.75 M NaCl. MD isolate was stronger in dissolving phospate than MA and MB isolates, but MA and MB isolates had much stronger nitrification capability and could perform ammonification than MD isolate. This research studied about Rhizobacteri Merapi isolates as identification, as well as their characterization. The results show that there is a difference in colonial characteristic of four Rhizobacteri Merapi isolates where MB and MC isolates (white circular-entire shape, except for MA isolate (curled-white with undulate edge and MC isolate (ramose-yellow with filamentous edge and also that MD isolate have the largest diameter (1,5 mm. Cell characteristics, however, were the same, gram-negative and were rod shaped, except for MD isolate (coccus. All showed aerob and fermentative characteristics, although MD isolate was able to very strongly hydrolyze starchs. The growth type is fast growing which reach log phase for after 48 hours and then the number of colony decrease.

  8. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Kertas Dari Daun Nanas dan Eceng Gondok

    Ayunda, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    Research on the production and characterization of paper made from a mixture of pineapple leaf and water hyacinth has been done. The research was conducted using semi-chemical, aiming to obtain an alternative raw material for paper and find out the optimum composition of the mixture of pulp pineapple leaf and water hyacinth. Variations of the mixture is 100:0%, 80:20%, 60:40%, 40:60%, 20:80%, 0:100%. Pineapple lef and water hyacinth cooked using a 1,5% solution of NaOH, at a temperature of 10...

  9. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  10. PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI KITIN DARI KULIT UDANG PUTIH (Litophenaeus vannamei

    Mardiyah Kurniasih

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polysaccharides produced by many living organisms; it is usually found as a component of crustacean shells. In this paper, Chitin have been isolated from white shrimp (Litophenaeus vannamei. The preparation of chitin using chemical products to deproteinize and demineralize the source material. Characterization included determination of water, ash, fat and protein degree; moreover chitin powder characterize with FTIR and XRD spectroscopy. The result showed that process efficiency of chitin from white shrimp (Litophenaeus vannamei was 20.95%, with degree of water, ash, fat and protein were 5.39, 2.66, 1.54 and 36.16%, respectively.

  11. KARAKTERISASI DAN KLASIFIKASI TANAH ULTISOL DI KECAMATAN INDRAJAYA KABUPATEN PIDIE

    Sri Handayani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available  This study aims to examine the characteristics of Ultisol soil and produce a system of naming Ultisol soil according to the USDA Land Taxonomy system in Indrajaya District, Pidie District. This research will be carried out in the villages of Gle Gapui, Tuha Suwiek and Masjid Suwiek Indrajaya sub-districts from June to November 2015. This study uses descriptive-quantitative method, which consists of the following stages: (1 Preparation, ie collecting secondary data such as climate data, maps etc. Then prepare the tools and materials for the field survey and establish the ground pedon (2 Field activities, including observation of soil profile, soil sampling, laboratory analysis. Subsequently classified the land based on the USDA Land Taxonomy SystemProfile Gle Gapui climber determinant (horate Bt textured clay where there is increasing clay so it is included into the horizontal horizon. Content weight value is inversely proportional to permeability and porosity. The soil reaction is directly proportional to the saturation of base which is equally low. The content of C- organic, P is available and N total is low. Moderate Cation Exchange Capacity, exchangeable acids (H and Al are high.The classification of Ultisol soil in the location of the Glealing Glean profile is Typic Hapludult, berliat, blend, isohipertermik.Keywords: characteristic, classification, ultisol soil,

  12. Design, Aufbau, Test und Integration der Empfänger-Optik des Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory

    Brasse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Als Interstellares Medium (ISM) werden die Gas- und Staubwolken bezeichnet, die sich innerhalb einer Galaxie zwischen den Sternen befinden. Im ISM findet die Sternentstehung und -entwicklung in einer Galaxie statt. Es trägt damit zur Evolution einer Galaxie bei. Das “Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory“ (STO) ist ein ballongestütztes Observatorium gewesen, dessen Aufgabe in der großflächigen Kartierung von ionisiertem Kohlenstoff, C+, und ionisiertem Stickstoff, N+, im ISM der Milchstraße ...

  13. kernenergie.de changes face; kernenergie.de in neuer Optik

    Geisler, Maja [Informationskreis KernEnergie, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit

    2009-08-15

    The portals of the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (DAtF) and of the Informationskreis KernEnergie (IK) changed face effective June 24, 2009. On-line appearance was in need of modernization after the last relaunches and the additional new industry dialog portal, ''Zeit fuer Energieverantwortung.'' The starting page of the industry portal, which receives a high level of attention as indicated by 130,000 monthly hits, was streamlined in its structure. The design was modernized and made clearer. Depending on the depth of information wanted, users are guided by the new structure to the required level of detailed technical information. Up to 200,000 monthly hits are confirming the popularity and importance of this information portal. The main pages can be found under these Web addresses: www.kernenergie.de, www.kernfragen.de, www.kernenergie.de/energieverantwortung. (orig.)

  14. Pemodelan Tapis Fabry-perot pada Serat Optik dengan Menggunakan Fiber Bragg Grating

    Pramuliawati, Septi; ', Saktioto; ', Defrianto

    2015-01-01

    Fabry-perot filter was successfully developed by a uniform Fiber Bragg Grating in fiber optic. A characterization of Bragg Grating was analyzed by using computational model with second-order of Transfer Matrix Method based on Coupled Mode Theory. The reflectivity, length of grating, and bandwidth were parametrics to determine the performance of single Bragg Grating. The transmission spectrum showed the longer grating is designed, the larger the reflectivity was produced, so that the transmiss...

  15. Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg

    Anon.

    2012-10-15

    The former Unilever skyscraper in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was retrofitted completely. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early 1960ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically. This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''.

  16. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi dan Teknologi Pengolahan pada Gabah dan Beras

    Santosa, Susilo

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  17. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi Dan Teknologi Pengolahan Pada Gabah Dan Beras

    Santosa, Susilo

    1982-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  18. Analisis Sifat Mekanik Material Komposit Dari Serat Sabut Kelapa

    Oroh, Jonathan; Sappu, Frans P; Lumintang, Romels Cresano

    2012-01-01

    This research uses coco fiber having straight fiber orientation. Different volume fraction with alkali (NaOH) treatment for two hours and without treatment have applied in this work. This composite was manufactured by molding where Polyester BQTN 157 was used as matrix. Bending test was performed based on ASTM D 6110 standard. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimum bending strength of coco fiber composite for volume fraction of 0 % fiber and 100% resin, 10% fiber and 90% resin, 20%...

  19. Pengaruh variasi rasio HAF/SRF terhadap sifat vulkanisat NBR

    Ihda Novia Indrajati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the effect of HAF/SRF black ratio and the loading of sulfur on vulcanization characteristic, swelling behaviour and compression set of NBR vulcanizates. The ratio of HAF/SRF were 0/70; 10/60; 20/50; 30/40; 35/35; 40/30; 50/20 and 70/0 phr, respectively. The observation of this research consist of curing characteristic, morphology property and swelling equilibrium. Curing characteristic was determined from cure rate index (CRI, vulcanizates morphology was studied by SEM and swelling equilibrium was conducted by immersion test using benzene. The data were analyzed qualitatively to see the respond of the variable on physical properties. The curing characteristic of double filler vulcanizates was higher than those with single filler. Solvent uptake for double filler present in between to those with HAF or SRF. All of vulcanizates indicate the anomalous mass tranfer, with n>0,5 and constant k showed the same trend. The intrinsic diffusivity (D*, sorption and permeation coefficient showed similar trend and the maximum was obtained by the ratio HAF/SRF 0/70.

  20. SIFAT FISIS, MEKANIS SERTA KEAWETAN BATANG KELAPA HIBRIDA

    Istie Sekartining Rahayu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wood industry in Indonesia suffers from lack of wooden raw material because of the demand is greater than the supply. In order to solve this problem, we need to enhance the use of wood by optimalizing the use of wooden raw material wich has a great potensial, but not well used, for example hybride coconut wood. The purpose of this research were to determine physical, mechanical and chemical properties of hybride coconut wood and its vertically and horizontally variation in order to optimalize the use of hybride coconut wood. This research used three hybride coconut steems, the 6 cm disks were extracted from each stem at 1, 4, 7, and 10 m heights. The analyze of vascular bundle and parenchyma consisted of covered area per cm2 and their chemical composition. Hybride coconut wood had a low specific gravity because vascular bundle covered area was lower than parenchyma per cm2 and low wood substance portion. Low specific gravity caused low mechanical properties. Hight moisture content (specially fresh one was cause by sugar and starch extractives which had high hygroscopic ability. These extractives content also caused it to be easily attacked by wood destroying factors. Parenchyma covered area per cm2 caused high sugar and starch content. Height and depth factors were visible influence at almost all basic properties of vascular bundle and parenchyma at different level.

  1. Kepemimpinan Pendidikan: Tinjauan terhadap Teori Sifat dan Tingkah-laku

    Muflihin, Muh. Hizbul

    2015-01-01

    The substance of education is learning activity. The key of education successfulness is correlation and interaction between teacher and headmaster as top level leader at school. The ability or competence of school leader (headmaster) to develop teacher spirit or other employee is depending on character and ways shown to them. Its mean that good manner and how to treat other team-member has significant effect to his success to implement leadership at school. Education leader, at every level—he...

  2. Kepemimpinan Pendidikan: Tinjauan Terhadap Teori Sifat Dan Tingkah-laku

    Muflihin, Muh. Hizbul

    2008-01-01

    The substance of education is learning activity. The key of education successfulness is correlation and interaction between teacher and headmaster as top level leader at school. The ability or competence of school leader (headmaster) to develop teacher spirit or other employee is depending on character and ways shown to them. Its mean that good manner and how to treat other team-member has significant effect to his success to implement leadership at school. Education leader, at every level—he...

  3. SIFAT HIPOKOLESTEREMIK MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT, MINYAK KEDELAI DAN TEMPE

    Mien KMS Mahmud

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida darah merupakan salah satu indikator yang dapat digunakan untuk mendiagnosa kemungkinan adanya gangguan jantung atherosklerosis. Kadar lipida darah mempunyai korelasi yang tinggi dengan jenis lemak atau minyak yang dikonsumsi setiap hari, karena komposisi asam lemak pada setiap jenis minyak berbeda. Tempe telah lama digemari masyarakat Indonesia dan telah diketahui bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Penelitian yang dilaporkan melalui makalah ini bertujuan mempelajari peluang kejadian penyakit atherosklerosis pada pada kelinci dengan pola konsumsi minyak makan asal kelapa sawit, minyak kedelai, minyak asal lemak babi atau minyak babi dicampur tempe. Kelinci percobaan dewasa yang sehat dikelompokkan berdasarkan kadar hemoglobin darah antara 8.2-13.6 g/dl menjadi lima kelompok percobaan. Satu kelompok sebagai kontrol diberi ronsum standar terdiri dari pelet, kangkung dan ubi merah secara adlibitum. Empat kelompok lainnya, disamping ransum standar juga diberi 2 ml minyak babi atau minyak kedelai atau minyak kelapa sawit atau minyak babi yang ditambahkan 5 gram tempe bubuk, sehari. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kadar kolesterol total,  LDL, HDL dan trigliserido darah. Dilakukan pula pemeriksaan histopatologi pada jaringan pembuluh darah jantung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak babi menyebabkan kenaikan kadar kolesterol total, LDL, HDL dan trigliserida didalam darah sebanyak masing-masing berturut-tuut 60%, 89%, 52% dan 42%. Minyak kelapa sawit menaikan kadar kolesterol total 15%, menurunkan kadar LDL 21%, menaikan kadar HDL 24% dan menurunkan kadar trigliserida 14%. Minyak kedelai menurunkan kolesterol total sebanyak 10%, LDL 30%, trigliserida 24% seraya menaikan kadar HDL sebanyak 3%. Penambahan tempe ke dalam minyak babi dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol total 10%, LDL 44%, trigliserida 28% dan memelihara kadar HDL lebih tinggi dari sebelum perlakuan. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi menunjukkan bahwa pemberian berbagai jenis minyak seperti disebut di atas secara terus menerus menimbulkan kelainan pada pembuluh darah utama (aorta, yaitu terjadi infiltrasi lemak pada tunika intima dan media. Kelainan tersebut sangat parah pada kelompok yang diberi minyak babi. Penambahan tempe memberi banyak perbaikan pada kelainan pembuluh darah tersebut.

  4. SIFAT DASAR DAN POTENSI KEGUNAAN KAYU JABON MERAH

    Mody Lempang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to examine basic properties (anatomical structure, chemical, physical and mechanical of jabon merah wood (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil taken from natural forest in Luwu Timur District South Sulawesi Province. Potential uses of wood were determined by considering those properties and wood uses which the local inhabitants have currently employed. Results revealed that jabon merah heartwood is yellowish rather tend to red in colour and not clearly distinct from the sapwood, texture is rather fine and even, grain is straight and sometimes rather interlocked, wood surface is rather glossy, rather smooth to smooth in touch, and moderate in hardness. Fiber is remarkably long with very thin wall thickness. High in cellulose and extractive, moderate in lignin and low in pentose content. Moderate in specific gravity (0.48, very low in shrinkage and classified in wood strength class III. Potential uses are for light construction material under roof, cheap furniture, handicraft, measuring and drawing instruments, pencil, box and stick of matches, toothpick, spoon and handles of ice cream, moulding, wood composites, pulp and paper, pallet, packing box and concrete forms.Keywords: Anatomical, chemical, mechanical, uses of wood, jabon merah

  5. ANALISIS SIFAT DASAR KAYU HASIL HUTAN TANAMAN RAKYAT

    I Kentut Pandit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research done based on the fact that the log from natural forest could not fullfil the need of domestic forest industry. Annual available cut from natural forest in the year 2007 was only 9.1 million m3 while forest industry domestic country in the year 2005 reached 44.5 million m3. Raw material crisis was the most problem facing by domestic forest industry and the solution could be come soon as posible. The establishment of social plantation forest is one of the government program to solved the lack of forest industry raw materials. The species for social plantation forest are available more than enough. Previous research done in the year 2009 shown taht most of HTR log was small diameter, short sortimen, heart wood presentation of juvenile wood was very high. The result of research shown that the basic characteristics of three species of HTR namely: Jabon, sengon and pulai have a good colour (bright, moderate texture, fibre is slim to interlocked, have no decoratif form, bulk density low. The characteristic of 6 species HTR was: variation in colour, good texture until moderate, fibre direct until interlocked, the wood have beautiful decoration, moderate bulk density. Basic of characteristic of wood is very important in affacting the quality of the products. An effort to increase the quality of HTR wood should be done so that the use of HTR product becaming important to suggest the developing of creative industry

  6. Peran Sifat Personalitas (Personality Traits) dalam Mendorong Minat Berwirausaha Mahasiswa

    Darmanto, Susetyo

    2012-01-01

    The increasing of unemployment due to unequalize between growth of people and job vacancies is a serious problem for developing countries such as Indonesia. Entrepreneurship should be supported as the solution to decrease unemployment. Factually, graduated of University contributed highest Indonesian unemployment due to their preference to work at formal sectors than become an entrepreneur. Personality traits (consist of need for achievement, locus of control, risk propensity) as a backgroun...

  7. Pengaruh Variasi Kadar Zn Dan Temperatur Hydrotermal Terhadap Struktur Dan Nilai Konduktivitas Elektrik Material Graphene

    Lita Nur Azizah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene adalah bentuk 2D dari karbon dengan sifat-sifat unggul yang menarik untuk dikembangkan. Permasalahan yang kemudian muncul adalah proses sintesis massal yang masih menjadi kendala. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis material graphene secara kimiawi dengan menggunakan reduktor zinc dan metode hydrothermal dan menganalisa pengaruh varaiasi penambahan massa sebesar 0,8 gram, 1,6 gram, dan 2,4 gram zinc serta variasi temperatur hydrthermal 160ᵒC, 180ᵒC, 200ᵒC. Proses karakterisasi material graphene dilakukan dengan pengujian Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Uji Iodine number, dan Four Point Probe digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai konduktivitas elektrik material. Morfologi dari graphene yang dihasilkan berbentuk lembaran-lembaran transparan dan disertai dengan kerutan pada permukaannya. Nilai konduktivitas elektrik terbesar dihasilkan dari variasi panambahan serbuk zinc sebesar 0,8 gram dan temperatur hydrothermal sebesar 200ᵒC dengan nilai sebesar 0,10281 S/cm dan bilangan iodine 11384,64.

  8. Pengaruh Dispersi Terhadap Kecepatan Data Komunikasi Optik Menggunakan Pengkodean Return To Zero (RZ Dan Non Return To Zero (NRZ

    Anggun Fitrian Isnawati

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic has characteristics for optical transmission system. One of optical characteristics is pulse broadening, known as dispersion. The dispersion is a condition where pulse in output side is larger than pulse in input side. It means that pulse broadening had happened. In the communication system, it’s known as inter symbol interference (ISI. Effect of Inter symbol interference increasing the error bit or BER value. In optical communication system, dispersion is most influence to the data rate that fiber can support. Besides, bandwidth, information capacity, transmission distance, wavelength and fiber type can also influenced by the dispersion.

  9. Christoph Scheiner and the optics of the eye. (German Title: Christoph Scheiner und die Optik des Auges)

    Daxecker, Franz

    Some of Scheiner's discoveries and experiments are taken from the books «Oculus», (Innsbruck 1619) and «Rosa Ursina sive Sol» (Rome 1626-1630): determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the visual nerve, increase in the curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, anatomy of the eye, light reaction of the pupil, contraction of the pupil during accommodation, Scheiner's test (double images caused by ametropia), stenopeic effect, crossing rays in the eye, aperture, description of the cataract treatment, refractive indices of various parts of the eye, eye model, visual pivot angle of the eye, proof of crossing rays on the retina, comparison of the camera obscura and the optics of the eye.

  10. PENGGUNAAN TEKNIK KEAMANAN PADA JARINGAN SERAT OPTIK DENGAN METODE ANTI-JAMMING DAN STEGANOGRAFI MENGGUNAKAN MODUL OPTISYSTEM

    Mia Rosmiati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Serat optic merupakan media transmisi yang dapat menghantarkan informasi dalam bentuk cahaya. digunakannya cahaya sebagai media penghantaran informasi membuat media ini dapat menghantarkan informasi dengan kapasitas besar dalam waktu yang sangat singkat. Sehingga saat ini serat optic banyak digunakan dalam Telekomunikasi. jaringan serat optic ini harus disertai dengan teknik keamanan yang handal dalam proses transmisi informasinya, karena jika terjadi  penyerangan  dalam jaringan yang serat optic maka data yang akan diterima oleh receiver akan jauh berbeda dengan data yang dikirim transmitter. Sehingga hal ini sangat fatal jika informasi yang dikirimkan memiliki tingkat kerahasiaan yang sangat  tinggi seperti informasi keamanan Negara. Adapun metode yang dapat digunakan dalam pengamanan jaringan serat optic adalah metode steganography dan metode anti-jamming. Dari percobaan yang telah dilakukan terlihat bahwa teknik steganography memiliki tingkat kehandalan yang lebih baik jika dibandingkan dengan metode anti-jamming dengan  nilai BER untuk metode steganography adalah 1.91219e-077.

  11. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI PROTEASE ALKALIN DARI ISOLAT BAKTERI LIMBAH TERNAK DI EXFARM FAKULTAS PETERNAKAN UNSOED

    Zusfahair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease is one of the widely used enzymes for the industry. The potential resource of microorganism that produced protease is milk cow waste. In this research, isolation and characterization has been done toward isolated protease from milk cow waste of the Exfarm’s Animal Husbandry Faculty at University of Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto. The research used experiment method and the parameters observed were the genus of bacteria which produce protease and the activity of protease. The characterizations of protease were determination of optimum pH and temperature, the influence of metal ions, EDTA, surfactant, and commercial detergent toward enzyme activity, and also the study of enzyme stability. The results from the research showed that the isolated bacteria from the Exfarm’s of Animal Husbandry Faculty of UNSOED, which produced protease was Salmonella sp. Characterization of isolated Salmonella sp. from 45% ammonium sulphate fraction indicated that the optimum temperature was 50 ºC, optimum pH was 8, the enzyme was activated by Ca2+ dan Mg2+ ion, whereas it was inhibited by Zn2+, Cu2+ ions and EDTA. The addition of Tween-80 with the concentration of 0.2% and 0.4% increased protease activity, however the addition of Tween-80 with concentration higher than 0.6% decreased the protease activity. Enzyme protease from isolated Salmonella sp. was relatively stable with the addition of commercial detergent such as Attack, Surf, and Bukrim.

  12. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM B-GLUKOSIDASE VANILI [Characterization of B-glukosidase Enzyme from Vanilla Bean

    Dwi setyaningsih 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian natural vanilla is know for having a unigue woody, smooky, and phenolic flavor. Development of the aroma and flavor vanilla was formed by the action of a hydrolytic enzyme B-glucosidase on glucovanillin. The objective of this research was to characterize vanilla B-glucosidase. The vanilla B-glucosidase activity was increased by detergent. The enzyme was found as heat labile. Scalding should be conducted at 400C for 2-3 minutes. The result from B-glucosidase activity in each part of vanilla and microscopic analisis of vanilla bean slice showed that the highest B-glucosidase activity and vanillin concentrations were found in the seed funicles and placental tissue the of vanilla bean. The activity of vanilla B-glucosidase was optimum at pH 6,0, and temperature of 400C, found as and activation energy was 5,78 kcal/mole. After 44 minutes incubation time at 400C. The activity was reduced down to 10%. The apparent of moleculer weight was 100-400 kDa according to gel setration (Sephacryl S-300 analysis.

  13. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI ANTIMICROBIAL FILM DARI PATI SINGKONG DAN EKSTRAK KEDELAI SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGEMAS MAKANAN

    Shobirotu Salamah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu upaya yang dilakukan untuk mengatasi pencemaran lingkungan oleh bahan pengemas plastik adalah dengan pengembangan biodegradable plastic ramah lingkungan. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan produk kemasan makanan yang dapat diuraikan. Salah satunya adalah memberi antimikroba pada edible film. Antimicrobial film tersebut diuji karakterisasinya secara fisik dan mekanik menggunakan alat FS/SPAG 01/2650 dan diuji efektifitas antimikrobanya. Didapat kadar air tertinggi pada edible film kontrol yaitu 15,83 %. Densitas dengan penambahan ekstrak kayu manis 1,5% memiliki nilai yang lebih tertinggi yaitu 1,1 gr/ml. Nilai Modulus young atau tingkat elastisitas film tertinggi yaitu pada edible film penambahan ekstrak bawang putih 1% sebesar 2,872 Mpa. Nilai Tensile strength atau nilai kuat tarik suatu film tertinggi yaitu 3,808 N/mm diperoleh pada penambahan ekstrak kayu manis 1,5% dan Nilai Extention at Maximum atau nilai pemanjangan film tertinggi yaitu 6,880 mm pada penambahan ekstrak kayu manis 1,5%. Sedangkan pengujian daya hambat terhadap Escherichia coli dilakukan menggunakan metode sumuran. Diameter zona bening terbesar yaitu pada penambahan ekstrak bawang putih 1,5%.

  14. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI JAMUR PENDEGRADASI ZAT PEWARNA TEKSTIL (Isolation and Characterization of dye-degrading Fungi

    Erni Martani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Industri tekstil tidak saja menghasilkan sandang yang merupakan kebutuhan primer manusia, tetapi juga mengeluarkan limbah yang berpotensi sebagai penyebab pencemaran lingkungan. Komponen utama limbah industri ini adalah berbagai jenis zat pewarna tekstil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat-isolat jamur yang mampu mendegradasi beberapa jenis zat pewarna tekstil. Isolasi dilakukan menggunakan metode surface plating di atas medium Potato Dextrose Agar, dan seleksi kemampuan degradasi pewarna berdasarkan atas toleransi terhadap konsentrasi zat pewarna, serta besar dan kecepatan dekolorisasi beberapa jenis zat pewarna. Sebagai parameter awal digunakan enam zat pewarna tekstil. Isolat-isolat unggul kemudian diidentifikasi awal berdasar atas morfologi mikroskopis terhadap miseliumnya. Dalam penelitian ini juga digunakan beberapa kultur murni jamur pembusuk putih sebagai pembanding. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan limbah cair dan padat beberapa industri tekstil dan industri pulp & paper, tanah gambut dari Kalimantan Tengah dan Riau, tanah sekitar Tempat Pembuangan Sampah Akhir, serta tanah seresah hutan. Dari berbagai sumber tersebut diperoleh 101 isolat jamur. Uji dekolorisasi kualitatif terhadap 6 zat pewarna menghasilkan 6 isolat unggul yang mampu mendekolorisasi lebih dari tiga jenis pewarna dengan kecepatan relatif tinggi. Masing-masing isolat unggul memiliki spesifikasi dalam daya dekolorisasi terhadap ke 6 jenis pewarna. Identifikasi awal terhadap isolat unggul menunjukkan bahwa mereka berasal dari genus Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium dan Stachybotrys. Sedangkan uji terhadap kultur jamur pembusuk putih sebagai pembanding menghasilkan 2 kultur unggul, yaitu: Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus. Secara umum kemampuan dekolorisasi isolat-isolat jamur kebanyakan masih di bawah kemampuan kedua kultur murni tersebut, namun beberapa isolat justru memiliki kemampuan lebih tinggi dibandingkan kultur pembanding. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate textile dye degrading fungi from many kinds of sample. Isolation was done using surface plating method on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. Degradation ability was measured based on dye decolorization of agar medium. The selection of isolates was based on ability to decolorize some types of dye, rate of decolorization, and tolerance to dye concentration, respectively. Six kinds dye, namely Basic fuchsin, Crystal violet, Direct blue, Methylene blue, Rhodamine B, and Safranine were used in this study. Six species of lignin degrading white rot fungi were used as positive controls. More than 100 fungal strains could be isolated from waste water and solid wastes of textile and pulp & paper industries, peat soils from Central Kalimantan and Riau, and forest soil. Examination on dye decolorization resulted in 6 selected isolates (coded as JKNT-1, JKSC-1, KRMS 5, TPA-4, TPA-10, and JYGC-1; and 2 species of lignin degrading white rot fungi, namely Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus. Decolorization of dye was depended on the fungal species and type of dye, i.e. one species decolorized some dyes but not the others. Methylene Blue was decolorized more readily than other dyes. In general, dye decolorization activity of fungal isolates was lower than the lignin degrading fungi. Microscopic examination indicated that the isolates of JKNT 1 and KRMS-5 were come from the genus Penicillium, the genus of JKSC-1 was Stachybotrys, the TPA-4 and JYGC-1 were Cladosporium, and TPA-10 isolate was included in genus of Aspergillus.

  15. Karakterisasi Erwinia Chrysanthemi Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Bakteri Pada Daun Lidah Buaya (Aloe Vera)

    SUPRIADI,; IBRAHIM, NILDAR; TARYONO,

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics o/Envinia chysanthemi causing bacterial soft rot ofAloe (Aloe VeraJThe bacterial sot rot of aloe, caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi, was first identified in Caibbean Island in 1992. In early 2001, similar symptoms were found on the aloe plants grown in Semplak, Bogor, West Java. Based on its symptom and progressively spread, especially on the leaf and basal stem, it appeared that the disease was serious and therefore threatened the current development of die plants. This study wa...

  16. Produksi, isolasi dan karakterisasi enzim dekstranase dari Arthrobacter sp. B7

    Afaf Baktir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dextranase enzyme has been purified and characterized from Arthrobacter sp. B7. This enzyme was purified from the culture supernatant of Arthrobacter sp. B7 by procedure of native PAGE. The molecular size of the enzyme was estimated 72,5 kDa by SDSPAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this enzyme determined using Edman degradation techniques were APVTADVGNLHT. SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE analysis revealed that the enzyme molecule consisted of one sub-unit.

  17. KARAKTERISASI ENAM VARIETAS BUNCIS (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BERDASARKAN PANDUAN PENGUJIAN INDIVIDUAL

    Vina Eka Aristya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a plant that has the potential for mainstream consumers, have a large enough market opportunity and a source of vegetable protein. “Perancis” varieties are local Central Java bean varieties are widely grown in the Bandungan area. “Perancis” varieties not currently provide enough characters clear and complete. Test objectives were (1 to characterize the “Perancis” varieties in order to have a complete character information varieties and (2 to determine distinctness, uniformity and stability of the “Perancis” varieties compared with varieties Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 using guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctness, uniformity and stability reference beans. Implemented on the Garden Seed Testing Bandungan Horticulture, Central Java with an altitude of 560-800 meters above sea level the place. Materials testing consists of six varieties of beans are “Perancis” varieties and the varieties used for comparison Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072. This research used a randomized block design six varieties of beans are planted side by side on three experimental plots as replications. Parameters observed include 49 characters corresponding guidelines bean plants are divided into the plant character, leaves character, flower character, pods character and seed character. Test results based guidelines, “Perancis” varieties showed eight unique characters compared to varieties of Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 ie. plant height, leaf color, leaf rugosity, long (including beak pods, the degree of the pods curvature, the shape of distal part (excluding beak pods, length of beak pods and curvature of beak pods and “Perancis” varieties have uniformity and stability.

  18. Karakterisasi Sensor Gas Lpg (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Dari Bahan Komposit Semikonduktor Tio2(cuo)

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; -, Elvaswer

    2015-01-01

    The Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG's) sensor in the form of composite has been characterized. The steps of manufacturing processes are the mixing of materials, calcinations at 500ºC for 4 hours, blended, compacted and sintered at 700ºC for 4 hours. The sensor was tested at room temperature through current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics, sensitivity, and conductivity. Based on measurement I-V characteristic it's known that sample with 10% addition of CuO have sensitivity of 10 at 10 volt vol...

  19. Lama Penyimpanan, Karakterisasi Fisiologi, dan Viabilitas Bakteri Endofit Bacillus sp. dalam Formula Tepung

    Diana putri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can be formulated to retain its ability as disease control agents. Three of endophytic bacteria which had the capability to suppress infection of Meloidogyne sp, and to enhance pepper growth were gained from the previous study. This research was aimed to evaluate the influence of storage time on the viability of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. AA2, Bacillus sp. MER and MSJ, and to study its physiological charaterization during storage. The formulation evaluated in this study was : formulation 1 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and brown sugar 1.5 g, formulation 2 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and 1.5 g white sugar, formulation 3 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, and 1.5 gwhite sugar and formulation 4 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, 3 mL molasses, 1 gbentonite, 0.75 g calcium carbonate, and 1 g dextrose. The results of the bacterial characterization showed that Bacillus sp AA2 and Bacillus sp MER belongs to Gram positive, produced lipase and protease enzyme, as well as  IAA hormone. N2 fixation is only existed in Bacillussp. AA2 and MSJ isolate. The highest viability was shown on MSJ isolate with 2.5×106 cfu mL-1. in the fourth formulation, whereas Bacillus sp. AA2 and Bacillus sp. MER viability was 1.9×106 cfu mL-1. and 1.2×106 cfu mL-1. , respectively. 

  20. Identifikasi dan Karakterisasi Sumber Daya Genetik Buah-Buahan Lokal di Kabupaten Badung

    I GEDE SUDARMIKA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification and Characterization of Genetic Resources of Local Fruits inBadung Regency. Local fruit are all species of fruits developed and cultivated in Bali,while the local fruit products are all productsderived from fruit plants that are still fresh orthat have been processed. This study aimed to identify the species of genetic resources oflocal fruits in Badung Regency, profiling the genetic resources concerning the morphologicalcharacters, usebility, production, superior fruit, harvest fruit, and geographic distribution mapsof genetic resources. The research was done in all Districts in Badung regency, Province ofBali, namely Petang, Mengwi, Abiansemal, North Kuta, Kuta and South Kuta. Conductedfrom February to September 2015. The research consisted of collecting secondarydata,collecting primary data, surveying genetic resources and species distribution, determiningmorphological characters, determining the superior fruit, and compiling geographical maps.The research found 34 species and 51 sub-species of local fruits in six districts. Based on thevalue of Location Quotient Badung Regency has eight superior fruits commodied that areavocado, durian, guava, jackfruit, pineapple, banana, sapodilla, and watermelon.

  1. Karakterisasi dan Stabilitas Fisik Mikroemulsi Tipe A/M Dengan Berbagai Fase Minyak

    Endang Wahyu Fitriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of formulation, characterization and physical stability of the microemulsion of water-in-oil type. On the microemulsion, VCO, palm oil, olive oil and soybean oil were used as oil phase, aqua demineralisata used as the aqueous phase, a combination of Span® 80 and Tween® 80 as a surfactant and propanol as cosurfactant. Each formula was made three times replication and determined the physical characteristics including organoleptic observations, measurements of density, droplet, viscosity, flow properties, and pH. Determination of physical characteristics was done at the beginning of the microemulsion formed and after 5 weeks storage at room temperature. The physical stability test including the centrifugation test at 10,000 rpm for 30 minutes, the freeze-thaw test for 6 cycles, and heating stability with the oven temperature of 60ºC, 70ºC, 80ºC, 90ºC and 100ºC for 5 hours were done. The data were analyzed using t-Test and one-way ANOVA. Based on the characteristic and physical stability tests, it showed that microemulsion with VCO, palm oil and soybean oil had better physical characteristics and stability compared to the microemulsion with olive oil.

  2. Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Grafena dengan Metode Reduksi Grafit Oksida Menggunakan Pereduksi Zn

    Yudha Taufantri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a thin material, has a hexagonal two-dimentional lattice and is considered as an interesting material for adsorption process. Nowadays, graphene has been known as a potential material for diverse application, such as adsorbent. In this study graphene was synthesized from graphite. Furthermore, graphene was applied for adsorption of dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT. Graphene was synthesized by Hummer’s method using hydrothermal and reduced by Zn. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD methods. The results of the XRD showed graphene structure in the 2θ, appeared at 23.9369 with interlayer spacing was about 3.71763 Å, compared with graphite oxide structure in the 2θ appeared at 11.2055 with interlayer spacing was about 7.89649 Å. The results of SEM analysis showed graphene has one layer with planar hexagonal structure and seems transparent whose single layer and multi layers. The graphene adsorption was analyzed by using the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results indicated the surface area of graphene was shown as 46.8563 m2/g. The amount of DDT adsorbed by graphene during 15 minutes was 7.5859 mg/g. This adsorption mechanism of DDT and graphene might be due to π-π and hydrogen interactions.   Keywords: Adsorption, dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT, graphena. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v2i1.2233

  3. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI PROMOTER β-ACTIN DARI IKAN KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis

    Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2016-11-01

    Promoter as gene expression regulator is one of the factors affecting the successful of transgenesis. Isolation and characterization of β -actin promoter (ktBA from humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis towards generation of autotransgenic grouper have been conducted.  β -actin promoter has high activity in muscle. Sequence of ktBA promoter was isolated by using degenerate PCR method. Sequencing was performed using ABI PRISM 3100 machine. Analysis of sequences was conducted using BLAST, GENETYX version 7 and TFBind softwares. DNA fragment of PCR amplification product digested from the vector cloning was then ligated with pEGFPN1 to generate pktBA-GFP construct. The construct was microinjected into one-cell stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos to test the ktBA promoter activity. EGFP gene expression was observed by fluorescence microscope. The result of sequence analysis showed that the length of DNA fragment obtained is about 1.6 kb and containing the evolutionary conserved sequences of transcription factor for β -actin promoter including CCAAT, CArG and TATA boxes. Furthermore, ktBA sequence in pktBA-EGFP construct could drove GFP expression in muscle of zebrafish embryos injected with the construct. The results suggested that PCR amplification product is the regulator sequence of humpback grouper β -actin gene. Autotransgenic grouper can be then produced by changing GFP gene fragment of pktBA-EGFP construct with genes from grouper encoding important traits in aquaculture.

  4. EKSTRAKSI DAN KARAKTERISASI PEKTIN DARI BELIMBING WULUH (Averrhoa bilimbi,L

    Sri Roikah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan ekstraksi pektin dari belimbing wuluhdengan variasi suhu ekstraksi 60 dan 100°C, serta variasi waktu ekstraksi 30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu dan waktu ekstraksi terbaik. Proses ekstraksi dengan metode refluks menggunakan air destilatyang telah ditambahkan dengan asam klorida. Proses selanjutnya adalah pengendapkan,pencucian dan pengeringan. Pektin yang dihasilkan dianalisis kemudian pektin terbaik dipilih menggunakan perhitungan metode Bayes. Kondisi ekstraksi pektin terbaik adalah pada suhu 100°C dengan waktu ekstraksi 30 menit dengan karakteristik sebagai beerikut: rendemen 0,38%, kadar abu 2,92%, kadar air 25,40%, berat ekivalen 650,77%, kadar metoksil 5,01%, kadar galakturonat 55,51%, derajat esterifikasi 51,25% dan viskositas 22cP. Pektin hasil ekstraksi terbaik telah memenuhi standarInternational Pectin Producers Assosiation (IPPA. Pektin terbaik memiliki warna coklat yang lebih gelap dibandingkan dengan pektin komersial. Hasil analisis FT-IR menunjukkan pektin terbaik dan pektin komersial keduanya mengandung gugus fungsi O-H, C-H alifatik, C=O, CH3, dan C-O.

  5. Karakterisasi Sumberdaya Kambing Lokal Khas Kejobong di Kabupaten Purbalingga Propinsi Jawa-Tengah

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of local goat of kejobong at local government of purbalingga, central java ABSTRACT. The purposes of this study were to identify the quantitative morphogenitical characteristics (external body dimensions and qualitative characteristics (coat-colour, the population size, its distribution and diversity of morphogenitical characteristics, the population status in term of conservation, and to find out the model of conservation. The target of this study were goat-husbandry of local goat at Kejobong (13 villages Local Government of Purbalingga, Central Java, Purbalingga Regency. Livestock On-Farm Trials (LOFT by simple random sampling was implemented in this study. Sample sizes were determinate by Nomogram Harry King, and were involved of 931 head of local goat of Kejobong. Descriptive (qualitative and quantitative analyses, variance analyses by General Linear Model (GLM procedure of SPSS, analysis of the population status according to the Global Data Bank for Farm Animal Genetic Resources for Domestic Animal Diversity of FAO were applied. This study revealed that: (1 based on the size of external body dimensions, the Kejobong local goat appears the termediate between Kacang and Peranakan Etawah goats; (2 Based on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics, the Kejobong local goat assumed as a crossbreed-goat resulted from crossing between Kacang and Peranakan Etawah breeds. Dominant black and total black coat colour were predominants 74.45 and 56.49 percent among their population, respectively; (3 The Kejobong local goats were founded in all regions (13 villages with the total populations about 15.317 heads. There was highly diversity in term of the characteristic of external body dimensions. This finding force to conduct the in-breed selection in order to improve their productivity; (4 Based on the Global Data Bank for Farm Animal Genetic Resources, the population status of local goat at Kecamatan Subdistric (15.317 heads and the total population of black coat (8.623 heads were classified into Not at Risk category. Board of Agriculture National Research Council (1993 classify that the population status into rare if the size of population ranges from 5.000 until 10.000 heads, it is imply that the total population of black coat goat (8.623 heads include in rare category; (5 The policy of livestock conservation consists of the in-situ and ex-situ methods. In the level of implementation of the sustainability conservation, there were some aspects could be take into account such as agreement between government (political will and coordination, community (group farmer, empowering capital and marketing, and universities.

  6. SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KEMIRI SUNAN (Reutealis trisperma DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI KATALIS NAOH

    Holilah -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintesis biodiesel dari minyak Kemiri Sunan (Reutealis trisperma (RTO menggunakan NaOH sebagai katalis dengan variasi konsentrasi katalis yaitu 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 dan 2,0 wt% telah diteliti. Minyak kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma adalah bahan baku yang menarik untuk produksi biodiesel. Biodiesel disintesis dengan dua tahap reaksi yaitu esterifikasi menggunakan katalis H2SO4 dan transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan katalis NaOH. Dalam penelitian ini, diteliti pengaruh konsentrasi katalis terhadap produk biodisel serta dan karakteristiknya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi katalis dari 0,5-1,0 wt%, selanjutnya dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi katalis dari 1,5-2,0 wt% membuat yield menurun. Yield optimum dicapai pada 84,7%. FAME (fatty  acid  methyl  ester diperoleh dengan konsentrasi katalis 1 wt% pada kondisi reaksi 65°C, waktu reaksi 1 jam dan rasio metanol minyak 1:2 (wt/wt. Karakteristik biodiesel diamati dengan uji standart bahan bakar dan hasilnya dibandingkan dengan standart ASTM D6751-02. Karakteristik biodiesel yang disintesis dengan konsentrasi katalis NaOH 1% adalah angka asam (0,55 mg KOH/g, densitas (0,90 gr/cm3, viskositas pada 40°C (9,2 cSt, angka setana (54,5 dan residu karbon (0,24 wt%/wt. This research was investigated bio diesel synthesis of Reutealis trisperma oil (RTO by using NaOH as a catalist with variation of catalyst concentration as follow 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2,0 wt% . Reutealis trisperma oil is an attractive raw material for  bio diesel production. It was produced by two steps of reactions, they are esterification by using H2SO4 catalyst and transesterification by using NaOH catalyst. This study examined the effect of catalyst concentration on the yield of biodiesel and their selected properties. The result showed, that the bio diesel yield  with catalyst concentration increasing from 0,5-1,0 wt%, increased, while increasing the concentration from 1,5-2,0 wt% makes the yield decreased. The optimum yield was obtained in 84,71%, and fatty  acid  methyl  ester (FAME  was  obtained  with catalyst  concentration  1,0 wt% when the reaction condition was at 65°C and  time reaction was 1 hour  and  methanol to oil ratio was 1:2 (wt/wt. Bio diesel characteristic was evaluated  by standard fuel test and the result was compared to ASTM D6751-02 standard.  Synthesized Bio diesel characteristic with NaOH catalyst concentration of 1% resulted from acid number (0,55 mg KOH/g, density (0,90 gr/cm3, viscosity at 40°C (9,2 cSt, cetane number (54,5 and carbon residue (0,24 wt%/wt.

  7. Karakterisasi Fraksi Aktif Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Etanol Biji Kemangi (Ocimum Basilicum L.

    Dede Sukandar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of antioxidant compounds from the seeds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. has been done. Extraction is done by maceration method using ethanol solvent, fractionation by TLC and column chromatography, antioxidants test using DPPH method, and characterization of antioxidant compound using GCMS. Ethanol extract and results of fractionation ethanol extract of basil seeds using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol-water extracts show that n-butanol extract has the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values ​​of 41.90 ppm. Results of column chromatography n-butanol extract using n-hexane : ethyl acetate (1:9 as mobile phase yielded 5 fractions with fraction 4 (F4 isolate has dominant stain of active antioxidants after being sprayed DPPH reagent, it had IC50 values ​​of 39,70 ppm and total phenolic content of 0,003 mg/g. Isolate F4 suspected contains two active compounds as antioxidant which is terpenoid and phenolic compound group, namely squalene and 1,4-di-tert-buthyl-phenol identified by GCMS.DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3598

  8. KARAKTERISASI DAN JARAK KEMIRIPAN UWI (Dioscorea alata L. BERDASARKAN PENANDA MORFOLOGI UMBI

    Trimanto Trimanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea alata L. is a potential local crop for supporting food security program in Indonesia.  Inventory and characterization of yam have been conducted in scattered population at Nganjuk region - East Java.  The research was aimed to identify the characteristic of Nganjuk’s yam, based on the tuber morphology and to determine its similarity distance value.  The characterisation were analyzed using interval similarity function, based on NTSys DICE coefficient programme. The result showed that 22 accession numbers which comprises of 13 variants of yam were found in Nganjuk region. The same variants of yams indicated by their close similarity distance although they were originated from different areas.

  9. Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Kolagen Larut Asam dari Kulit Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kulit ikan nila dapat diolah menjadi kolagen yang dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah kulit ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan konsentrasi asam terhadap karakteristik kolagen yang dihasilkan. Ekstraksi kolagen dilakukan melalui perendaman dalam asam asetat dengan dua variasi konsentrasi yaitu 0,5 dan 1,5 M. Parameter yang diamati yaitu gugus fungsi, komposisi asam amino, suhu denaturasi, dan kemampuan mengembang kolagen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan asam asetat 0,5 M memiliki komposisi asam amino dan suhu denaturasi yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan asam asetat 1,5 M. Namun demikian, kolagen pada perlakuan asam asetat 1,5 M ternyata memiliki kemampuan mengembang lebih cepat (15 menit dibandingkan perlakuan asam asetat 0,5 M (60 menit. Sementara itu, spektra FTIR menunjukkan kolagen yang diperoleh dari kedua perlakuan memiliki karakteristik yang sama. Berdasarkan karakteristik kolagen yang diperoleh dengan dua perlakuan ekstraksi, perlakuan asam asetat 0,5 M menunjukkan hasil yang lebih baik dibanding 1,5 M.

  10. Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Kolagen dari Kulit Ikan Nila Hitam (Oreochromis niloticus

    A. B. Naro Putra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kulit ikan nila hitam (Oreochromis niloticus dapat diekstraksi menjadi kolagen dan turunannya sebagai salah alternatif peningkatan nilai tambah limbah industri perikanan. Ekstraksi kolagen dari sampel kulit ikan nila hitam menggunakan asam asetat (metode asam dan dipresipitasi dengan larutan garam dapur (NaCl 0,9 M. Untuk meningkatkan optimasi isolasi kolagen (berdasarkan jumlah rendemen, kulit ikan nila hitam diekstraksi dengan 3 perlakuan konsentrasi asam asetat, masing-masing: 0,25 M; 0,50 M; dan 0,75 M pada selang waktu 16 dan 48 jam. Dari hasil pengujian diketahui bahwa perlakuan interaksi konsentrasi asam asetat dan waktu ekstraksi tidak berpengaruh nyata (p>0,05 terhadap pembentukan rendemen kolagen pada tingkat signifikansi 95%. Perlakuan asam asetat 0,75 M pada selang waktu 16 jam menghasilkan rendemen terbesar (5,96%, dengan suhu denaturasi kolagen mencapai 35,75 oC; serta komposisi asam amino: glisin 5395,82 ppm (52,99%, alanin 2979,15 ppm (22,08%, dan asam glutamat 1684,42 ppm (7,45%. Berdasarkan analisis SDS-PAGE, diketahui bahwa kolagen dari sampel kulit ikan nila hitam mengandung ikatan rantai- dan rantai- sebagai kolagen tipe-I.

  11. Karakterisasi dan uji aktivitas Bacillus spp. sebagai agensia pengendalian hayati penyakit lincat pada tembakau Temanggung

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lincat disease of tobacco causing severe losses of the product. Control of the disease with any available measure unlikely giving enough control. A number of Bacillus spp. isolates could suppressed the growth of pathogen in vitro and suppressed the development of lincat disease in the field. This article report the charactheristics of six isolates of Bacillus spp. (Ba-4, Ba-22, Ba-24, Ba-30, Ba-33, dan Ba-41. These isolates proven could suppressed lincat disease in the field. Characterization of the isolates include the morphological, physiological characteristics, and pathogenicity against tobacco plant. The results indicated that the bacterial isolates were belong to the genus Bacillus with the following charactheristics. The bacteria were rod shapes, forming endospore, Gram positive, fermentative, positive reaction in katalase, oksidase, and Voges Proskaeur tests. Negative results were obtained for Methyl Red test, hydrolysis of starch, gelatine, and casein. The present isolates could use citrate and several carbohydrates as carbon sources. Reduce nitrate to nitrite. The isolates could grow in the medium with high osmotic pressure, i.e. could grow in the medium with 7% NaCl. The present isolates grew well in the medium with pH of 4.5 €“10 and could grow in the temperature range of 10 €“50 °C. According to pathogenicity test, the present isolates were not belong to the plant pathogenic bacteria. The present isolates could suppressed the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro, and could reduce the egg number of Meloidogyne incognita. According to the physiological charactheristics tested, it seem that isolates of Ba-4, Ba-24, Ba-30, dan Ba-33, and Ba-41 having similar charactheristics with Bacillus cereus. The Ba-22 isolate, however, having similar characteristics with B. licheniformis.

  12. Karakterisasi Kincir Air Sudu Melengkung pada Variasi Sudut Air Masuk (?1 dan Sudut Kelengkungan Sudu (?

    Anak Agung Adhi Suryawan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bali memiliki banyak sumber energi aliran air  sungai atau saluran irigasi yang mempunyai debit aliran relatif kecil pada head yang rendah, dengan demikian Hydropower dapat memberikan solusi praktis terhadap masalah konservasi energi dan masalah lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini didesain model kincir sudu melengkung ke belakang (back curve vanes skala laboratorium, mengikuti kaidah-kaidah desain turbin air, dengan metode satu busur lingkaran, sehingga pengusaha bengkel nanti dapat membuat sudu kincir air dari potongan pipa besi. Data-data yang  diamati adalah : kapasitas aliran (Qa, head  (Ha, putaran kincir (n,  pada setiap variasi beban, sudut  aliran air masuk sudu,  dan sudut kelengkungan sudu dengan demikian menjadi jelas karakteristik dari kincir air. Empat sudu yang diuji memiliki sudut kelengkungan sudu (? yang berbeda yaitu 10o, 20o, 30o dan 40o, sudut air masuk (?1 yaitu 2/5 ?, 3/5 ?, 4/5 ? dan 5/5 ?. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa unjuk kerja sudu lengkung ke belakang dengan besarnya sudut aliran air masuk sudu (?1 yang sesuai/sama dengan sudut kelengkungan sudu (? akan menghasilkan unjuk kerja yang paling baik. Empat sudu yang diuji pada konstan dan variasi kapasitas maka   sudut kelengkungan sudu (? = 20o menunjukkan hasil terbaik. Semakin kecil sudut kelengkungan sudu maka unjuk kerja akan semakin baik dalam batas toleransi atas meningkatnya kerugian gesekan/hidrolis dari fluida kerja yang terjadi. Bali has many sources of river water streams or irrigation channels that have relatively small flow discharge at low head, thus Hydropower can provide practical solutions to energy conservation and environmental issues. In this research, the model is designed for the back curve vanes of laboratory scale, following the rules of water turbine design, with the method of one circular arc, so that the workshop entrepreneur can make the waterwheel from the iron pipe binder. The observed data are: flow capacity (Qa, head (Ha, rotation (n, at each load variation, angle of the water entering the blade, and the angle of the blade curvature thus becomes clear the characteristic of the waterwheel. Four tested blades have different angle of curvature (? that is 10o, 20o, 30o and 40o, the inlet angle (?1 is 2/5 ?, 3/5 ?, 4/5 ? and 5/5 ?. The results showed that the performance of the back end curve with the angle of the water flow in the blade corresponding to the angle of curvature of the blade (? will produce the best performance. Four blades tested at constant and capacity variation then angle curvature angle (? = 20o shows best result. The smaller the angle of the blade curvature, the better the performance within the tolerance limit of the increased friction / hydraulic losses of the working fluid that occurs.

  13. BAKTERI PROBIOTIK DALAM BUDIDAYA UDANG: SELEKSI, MEKANISME AKSI, KARAKTERISASI, DAN APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI AGEN BIOKONTROL

    Widanarni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial disease attack occurs at the hatchery stage, which is considered to be the most serious threat, and often results in mass mortality of shrimp larvae by vibrosis which is that caused by a luminous bacterium identified as Vibrio harveyi. This research was carried out to obtain local isolates of probiotic bacteria that were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi and effectively apply it as a biocontrol of vibriosis in shrimp cultures. The research was carried out as follows: (1 In vitro and in vivo selection of probiotic bacteria candidates, (2 Study of the action mechanism and characterization of the selected pro biotic bacteria, (3 Study on application of the selected probiotic bacteria as a biocontrol agent in shrimp cultures. Results of in vitro and in vivo selection provided the best three isolates, which were 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua. The survival rate of shrimp larvae which were not only inoculated by V. harveyi but also with 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua probiotic bacteria were 88.33, 83.33, and 81.67% respectively; where as the positive control treatment (merely inoculated with V. harveyi gave a 41.67% survival rate and the negative control (without bacterial addition was 68.33%. Studies using a rifampicin resistant marker (RfR demonstrated that the number of V. harveyi MR5339 RfR cells in treatments without probiotic addition were higher than the treatment with the probiotic bacteria, in dead larvae, living larvae, as well as in the culture media. Partial sequencing of the I6S-rRNA gene showed that the I Ub isolate was similar to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, whereas the SKT -b and Ua isolates were similar to Vibrio alginolyticus. Selected probiotic bacteria could be applied directly to shrimp larva culture media, or orally through enrichment of both natural and artificial food

  14. Karakterisasi Kemasan Kertas Aktif dengan Penambahan Oleoresin Ampas Destilasi Sereh Dapur (Cymbopogon citratus

    Lia Umi Khasanah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the effect of lemongrass distillation dregs oleoresin concentration (0 %, 2 %, 4 %, and 6 % b/b on the active paper packaging characteristics (sensory, water content, thickness, tensile strength, fold endurance and antimicrobial activity, to determine the functional groups of the control and selected active paper packaging, to determine the effect of days of storage (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 day on the control and selected active paper packaging characteristics (tensile strength, and fold endurance, and to determine antimicrobial activity of the control and selected active paper packaging during 20 days storage. The result showed that the concentration of lemongrass distillation dregs oleoresin significantly affected the color, overall, tensile strength, fold endurance, and antimicrobial activity while did not significantly affected the flavor, texture, water content, and thickness of the active paper packaging. The addition of lemongrass distillation dregs oleoresin increased the water content, thickness, microbial activity, while decreased the panelists preference, tensile strength and fold endurance of the active paper packaging. The spectrum of functional groups of the active paper packaging showed the presence of chitosan, cellulose, tween 80, and lemongrass oleoresin. The storage days had no significant effect on tensile strength and fold endurance of the control and selected active paper packaging. The control and selected active paper packaging were significantly different at each 5 days storage. However the 20 day of storage showed no significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of the control and selected active paper packaging.   ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi oleoresin ampas destilasi sereh dapur (0 %, 2 %, 4 %, dan 6 % b/b terhadap karakteristik kemasan kertas aktif (analisis sensoris, kadar air, ketebalan, ketahanan tarik, ketahanan lipat, dan aktifitas antimikroba, mengetahui gugus fungsi kemasan kertas aktif kontrol dan konsentrasi oleoresin ampas destilasi sereh dapur terpilih, mengetahui pengaruh waktu penyimpanan (0, 5, 10, 15, dan 20 hari terhadap karakteristik kemasan kertas aktif kontrol dan konsentrasi oleoresin ampas destilasi sereh dapur terpilih (uji ketahanan lipat dan ketahanan tarik, dan mengetahui aktivitas antimikroba kemasan kertas aktif kontrol dan konsentrasi oleoresin ampas destilasi sereh dapur terpilih sebelum dan setelah penyimpanan selama 20 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi oleoresin berpengaruh nyata terhadap warna, overall (penerimaan keseluruhan, ketahanan tarik, ketahanan lipat, dan aktivitas antimikroba tetapi berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap aroma, tekstur, kadar air, dan ketebalan kemasan kertas aktif. Penambahan oleoresin ampas destilasi sereh dapur meningkatkan kadar air, ketebalan, dan aktivitas antimikroba serta menurunkan ketahanan tarik, ketahanan lipat, dan penerimaan panelis. Kemasan kertas aktif mengandung gugus fungsi selulosa, kitosan, dan tween 80 serta pada kemasan kertas aktif penambahan oleoresin konsentrasi 2 % terdapat gugus fungsi oleoresin sereh dapur. Waktu penyimpanan tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap ketahanan tarik dan ketahanan lipat kemasan kertas aktif kontrol dan konsentrasi terpilih. Kemasan kertas aktif kontrol dengan kemasan kertas aktif penambahan oleoresin konsentrasi 2 % berbeda nyata di setiap 5 hari penyimpanan. Namun, penyimpanan selama 20 hari tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap aktivitas antimikroba kemasan kertas aktif kontrol dan konsentrasi terpilih.

  15. Isolasi dan karakterisasi bakteri berpotensi probiotik pada ikan kembung (Rastrelliger sp.

    Yuni Dewi Safrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics bacteria are beneficial microbes to improve microbial balance in the digestive tract. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of potential probiotic bacteria in mackerel fish (Rastrelliger sp.. The research was done from April to August 2012 at Laboratory of Microbiology Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. Isolation and characterization used dilution and scratches quadrant methods. The result showed that there were five potential isolates of probiotic bacteria varied morphological colony and cell. The isolate have circular form (100%, entire margin (80%, flat (60%, cream color (40%, gram positive bacteria (80%, coccus shape (100% and non motile (60%. Keywords: Probiotics,

  16. KARAKTERISASI DAN EVALUASI POPULASI ABALON Haliotis squamata SECARA MOLEKULER, MORFOMETRIK, DAN BIOLOGI

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu komoditas penting gastropoda laut. Tingginya permintaan abalon ini mengakibatkan menipisnya stok di alam. Oleh karena itu, upaya keberhasilan budidaya abalon perlu didukung oleh jenis unggul. Indikasi awal suatu jenis unggul dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis potensi genetik yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan analisis gen 16S rRNA, karakter morfolologi, dan biologi dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan metode kajian pustaka. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan keragaman inter populasi Haliotis squamata mendeteksi adanya tujuh haplotipe yang terbagi dalam dua kelompok. Penyertaan H. diversicolor sebagai outgroup dalam pengujian memperlihatkan bahwa populasi H. squamata dari Pulau Bali dan beberapa lokasi di Pulau Jawa berada dalam satu kelompok yang terpisah dengan outgroup. Hasil ini kongruen dengan analisis morfometrik terdapat perkembangan pertumbuhan cangkang yang asimetri pada populasi Banten. Pertumbuhan asimetri merupakan indikasi spesifik untuk populasi Banten atau merupakan gejala abnormalitas yang dapat diakibatkan oleh faktor penurunan kualitas genetik atau lingkungan. Karakter biologi terlihat proporsi daging dan gonad berbeda pada populasi Banten dengan indikasi adanya pertumbuhan asimetri. Rasio gonad dan daging populasi Banyuwangi berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan populasi lainnya. Abalone is arguably one of the highly valued and sought-after marine gastropods. However, the over-exploitation of this species has exhausted its wild stock. To overcome this challenge, the culture technique and management of this species must be established and continually improved. One of the ways is through producing superior broodstocks. An initial assessment of a genetically superior broodstock can be done using the potential genetic analysis. This recent research employed the analysis to study the species’ 16S rRNA gene. To complement the study, the morphometric and biological characteristics of the species were analyzed descriptively with the aid of scientific literature. The results showed that the interpopulation diversity of Haliotis squamata was detected by the presence of seven haplotypes divided into two groups. The inclusion of H. diversicolor as an outgroup within the test showed that the populations of abalone in Bali and several other sites in Java were genetically separated from the outgroup. This finding can be backed up with the result of the morphometric analysis where there was asymmetric shell growth in Banten abalone population. This asymmetric growth is considered as a symptom of abnormality caused by genetic or environmental degradation factors. The biological characteristics showed the different ratios of meat and gonad in the Banten population due to the asymmetric growth. Banyuwangi population was significantly different (P<0.05 from other populations in terms of meat and gonad ratios.

  17. Pembuatan Dan Karakterisasi Kertas Dari Campuran Serat Jambul Nanas Dan Serat Jerami Padi

    Mufridayati

    2015-01-01

    The Research for making and characterization of paper has been made by using crested pineapple and straw fiber. The study was conducted to determine the optimum mixture of crested pineapple fiber and straw fiber composition that varied to 100%:0%, 80%:20%, 60%:40%, 40%:60%, 20%:80%, 0%:100%. Dried crested pineapple cooked by using 1,5 % NaOH with 225 gr in 100 0C. Dried rice straw was cooked with by using 1,5 % NaOH in 100 0C. Then , the pulp was dried under the sun. The pulp was washed and w...

  18. KARAKTERISASI BAKTERI POTENSIAL PENDEGRADASI OLI BEKAS PADA TANAH BENGKEL DI KOTA PADANG

    Yuni Ahda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to locate and determine the morphological and biochemical characteristics of the bacteria that could potentially degrade the used lubricant oil in the workshops in Padang. The research was conducted March to October 2016. The bacteria obtained from the workshop is cultured on selective media MSM and transferred to LB medium to obtain pure isolates. Morphological and biochemical characterization indicate three types of bacteria that live in workshop’s soil contaminated used lubricant oil, namely Bacillus sp1, sp2 and Alcaligenes Bacillus sp

  19. PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI ZEOLIT DARI ABU LAYANG BATUBARA SECARA ALKALI HIDROTERMAL

    Jumaeri Jumaeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparasi zeolit dari abu layang batubara PLTU Suralaya secara alkali hidrotermal telah dilakukan. Preparasi dilakukan terhadap abu layang yang telah direfluks dengan HCl 1M dan tanpa refluks. Larutan NaOH dengan konsentrasi tertentu ( 1 ; 2 dan 3 M dicampur dengan abu layang batu bara dengan rasio 10 ml larutan tiap 1 gram abu layang, ke dalam tabung Teflon 100 ml dalam suatu autoclave stainless-steel. Autoclave kemudian dipanaskan pada temperature 80-16 oC selama tiga hari. Zeolit sintesis yang dihasilkan selanjutnya diuji secara kualitatif dengan menggunakan Spektroskopi Inframerah, dan Difraksi Sinar-X. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivasi abu layang dengan proses alkali hidrotermal dapat menghasilkan material yang mempunyai struktur mirip zeolit (zeolit-like. Produk hidrotermal terdiri dari campuran zeolit (Zeolit P, Zeolit Y serta kristal sodalit dan mullit. Pada temperatur 160 oC, diperoleh zeolit dengan kristalinitas lebih tinggi dari pada 100 oC, baik melalui refluks atau tanpa refluks. Karakteristik zeolit yang terbentuk sangat ditentukan oleh kondisi proses, yang meliputi konsentrasi NaOH, waktu, dan temperatur.

  20. Karakterisasi Mutu Kimiawi, Mikrobiologi Dan Sensori Sari Buah Campuran Nanas Dan Semangka

    Yusmarini Yusmarini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Chemical, Microbiological And Sensory Characteristics Of Mixed Pineapple And Watermelon Juice ABSTRACT. Fruit juice is widely known as beverage that rich of vitamins. The aims of this study were to determine the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of pineapple juice mixed with watermelon juice and to find the best treatment. Research was conducted experimentally using a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results showed that increasing watermelon juice will increase the moisture content and pH value, on the other hand will decrease total dissolved solids and vitamin C. Overall sensory panelists liked the mix of pineapple juice and watermelon juice, but in terms of vitamin C the best treatment was pineapple juice and watermelon juice with the ratio of 1.75: 0.25 which have sour taste.

  1. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Tinta Serbuk Printer Berbahan Baku Arang Aktif dari Limbah Padat Pengolahan Gambir

    Yudo Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the utilization of tannins and catechins of gambier has been done a lot. There is no research report however that examines the utilization of gambier processing solid waste. The objective of the research was to utilize the solid waste of gambier processing as a raw material of printer toner. The research was done through pyrolysis process of solid waste with temperature variation 400, 500, 600oC and time variation 30, 60 minutes. The highest carbon content was obtained 42% with 400oC temperature and 60 minutes. The pyrolysis process of the gambier solid waste was further carried out at the optimum temperature and time. The charcoal was activated with H3PO4 at concentrations 0; 5; and 10% for 24 hours, cooled and washed to remove residual of H3PO4, then drying in the oven at temperature 115oC for 24 hours. Size reduction process used a ball milling for 2 hours with speed 500 rpm. Fixed carbon content was obtained between 43-51%. The results of morphological testing by scanning electron microscope showed that the produced carbon powder had not a uniform size yet. The average particle size was between 5-10 µm with polydispersity index 0.9. The most mineral elements of carbon powder analysis using XRF were Ca, Mg, K, Si, Fe, and P. Testing of print quality based on ISO/IEC 19752:2004 using laser jet printers had not provided optimal results yet.ABSTRAKPenelitian pemanfaatan tanin dan katekin gambir telah banyak dilakukan. Namun, belum dilaporkan penelitian yang mengkaji pemanfaatan limbah padat pengolahan gambir. Tujuan penelitian adalah memanfaatkan limbah padat pengolahan gambir sebagai bahan baku pembuatan tinta serbuk printer. Penelitian dilakukan melalui proses pirolisis limbah padat dengan variasi suhu 400, 500, 600oC dan variasi waktu 30, 60 menit. Kadar karbon terikat tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 42% dengan suhu pirolisis 400oC selama 60 menit. Proses pirolisis limbah padat gambir selanjutnya dilakukan pada suhu dan waktu optimal tersebut. Arang aktif dilakukan aktifasi menggunakan aktifator H3PO4 pada konsentrasi 0, 5 dan 10% selama 24 jam, kemudian didinginkan dan dicuci untuk menghilangkan sisa H3PO4, dan selanjutnya dikeringkan dalam oven pada suhu 115 oC selama 24 jam. Proses penghalusan menggunakan ball milling selama 2 jam dengan kecepatan 500 rpm. Hasil pengujian kadar karbon terikat berkisar antara 43-51%. Hasil pengujian morfologi dengan alat Scanning Electron Microscope memperlihatkan serbuk karbon yang dihasilkan belum mempunyai ukuran seragam. Ukuran partikel serbuk rata-rata 5-10 µm dengan indek polidispersitas sebesar 0,9. Kandungan unsur mineral yang terbanyak dari hasil analisis serbuk karbon adalah unsur Ca, Mg, K, Si, Fe, dan P. Uji coba kualitas cetak berdasarkan ISO/IEC 19752:2004 menggunakan printer laser belum memberikan hasil yang optimal.

  2. Karakterisasi Arang dan Gas-gas Hasil Pirolisis Limbah Kelapa Sawit

    Muhammad Raju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunch (EFB and shell of oil palm are potential sources of bioenergy because they contain lignocellulose (cellulose, hemycellulose and lignin which can be converted to bio-oil (liquid, char, or combustible gases by pyrolysis process. Operating temperature of the pyrolysis process will influence the composition of the liquid, char and gases, as well as its characteristics. The objective of this study is to characterize the pyrolysis product of both empty fruit bunch and shell as affected by the pyrolysis temperature. The experiment was conducted by using a lab scale pyrolysis reactor, specially designed with controlable temperature. The temperature of the pyrolysis process was controled at 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C level, and the product was measured and analysed. The result showed that pyrolysis of shell produced char, liquid and gases at the range of 34.99 - 63.78%, 22.76 - 43.28% and 13.47 - 21.73%, in mass fraction respectively. While pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch produced char, liquid and gases at the range of 30.66 - 64.7%, 16.25 - 29.16% and 18.98 - 44.49%, in mass fraction respectively. Increasing temperature resulted in increasing calorific value of the pyrolysis char from shell and empty fruit bunch in range of 25.64 – 29.60 kJ/g and 24.50 – 27.86 kJ/g, respectively. However, the calorific value of pyrolysis gases was decreasing with the increasing temperature in range of 12.18 kJ/g – 20.05 kJ/g and 11.98 kJ/g – 15.94 kJ/g, respectively. The gas calorific value did not account H2 gas, which might be the cause of the phenomenon. Shell pyrolysis temperature increasing caused the increasing of CO concentration in range 2.86% - 18.42% while the CH4 concentration increased at 400°C level afterwards decreased at higher temperature level in range of 0.89% - 2.84%. The increasing of EFB pyrolysis temperature increased CO dan CH4 concentration in range 3.8% - 15.74% and 0.29% - 0.76%, respectively.

  3. Karakterisasi parameter model prediksi untuk eleviasi dari perangkap kemiskinan melalui intervensi kebijakan fiskal

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a model of poverty eleviation in the buffer zone of National Park through the optimization of the impact of the fuel subsidiary reallocation (BLT, statrted from April to October 2013 in three villages which representent ethnic culture in Lampung, Java, and the mixture of both, selecting 50 poor households (RTM who received BLT (direct cash assistance in 2005. In-depth interview was conducted to capture the economy performance of each household. Qualitative probability model was applied to the response variable (Yi that were scored 1 for those have been exited from the poverty and scored 0 if not yet. The predictor variables used (Xij including: fuel prices (Rp/liter, total of BLT (Rp, demographics (age, sex, family head education, as well as the number of dependents, the value of productive assets (Rp million/household, revenue from damar resin, and other sources (Rp million/household, access to public services, the distance to the border of BBSNP, the availlability of PNPM (national project of community empowermnent that scored 1 if any and 0 if not, the performance of social capital and the extention program conveyed. The Minitab Version 16 was employed for exzamining the goodness to the model and the significancy of the parameters pursued at the level of 5% and 10%. The conclusions were the exit capability against poverty were significantly affected by: fuel prices, the ammount of the BLT, the exisistency of PNPM, gender & education of household, number of dependents, the distance to central districts, the presence of electricity, the power of social capital, land ownership of both damar agroforest and paddy field acreages, the owner of productive assets such as ruminants. Accordingly, there were no culturetribe significantly affected by the existing from of poverty, which means that the poverty in this region was more structural cause than that of the cultural one.

  4. Karakterisasi Keragaman Genetik Populasi Jabon Putih Menggunakan Penanda Random Amplified Polymorphism Dna

    Nurtjahtjaningsih, ILG; Qiptiyah, Maryatul; Yudohartono, Tri Pamungkas; Widyatmoko, AYPBC; Rimbawanto, Anto

    2014-01-01

    Anthocepalus cadamba (white jabon) has high economical value for furniture. White jabon forests severely degraded due to intensive exploitation and land conversion. Genetic diversity is one of important consideration to design conservation and improvement strategies. Aim of this study was to access the genetic diversity values within and among population of white jabon. Leaf samples of white jabon were collected from conservation plots originated from West Lombok, Sumbawa, South Sumatera and ...

  5. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar fitase termofilik dari bakteri kawah Ijen Banyuwangi, isolat AP-17

    Aline Puspita Kusumadjaja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude thermophilic phytase was produced by isolate AP-17 that has been isolated from Ijen Crater Banyuwangi. Based on Gram test, isolate AP-17 was gram positive spore forming rod shape bacteria so that it was identified as Bacillus sp. AP-17. Crude thermophilic phytase isolated from Bacillus sp. AP-17 had the optimum temperature at 75 ° C with activity of 0.1413 U/ml, and its optimum pH was at pH 6 with activity of 0.0875 U/ml. The enzyme was stable when heated at 75 ° C for three hours and still had 90% activity when it was exposed at pH 5 €“8, optimum temperature, for one hour.

  6. Karakterisasi Klon Rekombinan pGEMT-Rv1984c Sebagai Antigen untuk Imunodiagnostik Tuberkulosis Laten

    Baharaeni, Wa Ode

    2017-01-01

    The research about "Characterization of Recombinant Clones pGEMT-Rv1984c as Antigen for Latent Tuberculosis Immunodiagnostic" has been done. Rv1984c gene is the gene that is owned by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and encodes a protein formation CFP21 which serve as antigen candidate for latent tuberculosis immunodiagnostic through gene cloning. The result of transformation of gene cloning still has the possibility of failure of the process of transformation and ligation, so we need a character...

  7. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI BAKTERI TANAH SAWAH DI DESA SUKAWALI DAN DESA BELIMBING, KABUPATEN TANGERANG

    Arief Pambudi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penggunaan pupuk kimia secara berlebih dapat menyebabkan kerusakan tanah dan menyebabkan ekosistem yang ada didalamnya terganggu. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR adalah bakteri yang hidup di daerah rizosfer tanaman yang dapat berperan sebagai biofertilizer, biostimulan dan bioprotektan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh dan mengetahui karakteristik bakteri tanah yang berasal dari dua area persawahan, lokasi pertama di Desa Sukawali (TGR 1 dan lokasi kedua di Desa Belimbing (TGR 2, Kabupaten Tangerang. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel tanah, kemudian sampel dikultur dalam media agar nutrien dengan pengenceran bertingkat. Total bakteri dihitung dan isolat yang diperoleh diuji kemampuan dan karakternya dalam menambat nitrogen (BPN, melarutkan fosfat (BPF, menghasilkan indole acetic acid (IAA, menghasilkan Hidrogen Cyanide (HCN, aktivitas katalase, jenis Gram dan karakter motilitas. Total bakteri yang dapat tumbuh dari kedua lokasi sebanyak 2,4x106 CFU/g dan 1,8x106 CFU/g. Kedua lokasi diperoleh total 45 isolat dengan seluruhnya positif BPN, 42 isolat positif BPF, 24 isolat menghasilkan IAA, 27 isolat menghasilkan HCN, 43 isolat katalase positif, 39 isolat Gram positif, 6 isolat Gram negatif, serta 41 isolat motil. Berdasarkan uji yang dilakukan, terdapat 16 isolat yang berpotensi sebagai pupuk hayati.  Abstract Excessive use of chemical fertilizer may cause soil damage and disturb the ecosystem. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a consortium bacteria that live in plant rhizosphere which acts as biofertilizer, biostimulant, and bioprotectant. The objective of this research is to isolate and investigate the characteristics of soil bacteria originating from two rice fields in Sukawali Village (TGR 1 and Belimbing Village (TGR 2, Tangerang Regency. The research was conducted by collecting soil samples and then culturing the bacteria onto nutrient agar medium with serial dilution. The total bacteria were calculated and the isolates obtained were examined for their ability and characteristics on nitrogen-fixation, phosphate solubilization, IAA production, HCN production, catalase activity, Gram assay, and motility. The total plate count from both TGR 1 and TGR 2 were 2.4x106 CFU/g and 1.8x106 CFU/g, respectively. From these locations 45 isolates obtained were positive nitrogen-fixer, 42 isolates were phosphate solubilizer, 24 isolates were IAA producer, 27 isolates were HCN producer, 43 isolates were catalase positive, 39 isolates were Gram-positive, 6 isolates were Gram-negative, and 41 isolates were motile. On the whole results, it was concluded that there were 16 isolates that could potential as biofertilizer. 

  8. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN BIJI KAKAO KERING DAN BAHAN ALAT SANGRAI TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN PROFIL SENYAWA VOLATIL KAKAO SANGRAI SERTA SIFAT SENSORIS COKELAT BATANG YANG DIHASILKAN

    Yulius Gae Lada

    2015-02-01

    menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium, besi dan tanah liat menghasilkan profil senyawa volatil yang berbeda. Dari kromatogram SPME-GC-MS diketahui bahwa alat sangrai dari tanah liat menghasilkan kelompok senyawa dan total luas area yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan alat sangrai dari alumunium dan besi. Cokelat batang yang dihasilkan melalui perendaman dan disangrai menggunakan alat sangrai dari tanah liat adalah yang paling disukai oleh panelis. Kata kunci: Perendaman, bahan alat sangrai, biji kakao sangrai, profil senyawa volatil, cokelat batang

  9. PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN REALISTIK UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA KELAS V PADA MATA PELAJARAN MATEMATIKA POKOK BAHASAN SIFAT-SIFAT BANGUN RUANG

    Mashudi Mashudi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi rendahnya hasil belajar siswa pada ranah kognitif mata pelajaran matematika. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan skor rata-rata ujian dan pretest yang tidak memenuhi nilai Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM. Rendahnya hasil belajar siswa tidak terlepas dari minimnya keterlibatan siswa selama proses pembelajaran. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada upaya peningkatan prestasi belajar siswa pada ranah kognitif melalui penerapan pendekatan Realistic Mathematic Education (RME. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan gambaran mengenai peningkatan prestasi belajar siswa pada ranah kognitif sebagai hasil penerapan RME. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran matematika realistik. Pada penelitian ini, metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa-siswi kelas V SDN Kiarapandak 01 Kec. Sukajaya Kab. Bogor yang berjumlah 25 orang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui angket, jurnal siswa, tes, dan lembar observasi. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diperoleh bahwa hasil belajar siswa pada ranah kognitif secara umum mengalami peningkatan setelah diterapkannya pendekatan RME. Pada siklus I skor rata-rata gain ternormalisasi pada pretest dan akhir siklus I skor rata-rata siswa termasuk kategori rendah. Sementara pada siklus II skor rata-rata siswa gain ternormalisasi pada siklus I dan akhir siklus II  skor rata-rata siswa termasuk kategori tinggi. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar siswa pada aspek kognitif mengalami peningkatan setelah diterapkannya pendekatan RME. Kata kunci : pembelajaran matematika realistik, hasil belajar.  Abstract. This research is motivated lack of student learning outcomes in the cognitive domain of mathematics. This is demonstrated by the average score of the test and pretest that do not meet the value of Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM. Low student learning outcomes can not be separated from the lack of involvement of students during the learning process. This study focused on efforts to increase student achievement in the cognitive approach through the implementation of Realistic Mathematic Education (RME. The purpose of this study is to get an idea of the increase in student achievement in the cognitive domain as a result of the application of RME. In addition, this study also aimed to get an overview of students' attitudes toward learning mathematics realistic. In this study, the research method used is the Classroom Action Research; Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK. Subjects in this study were students of class V SDN Kiarapandak 01 Sukajaya District Bogor City totaling 25 people. Data collected through questionnaires, student journals, tests, and observation sheet. Based on the results of the study, found that student learning outcomes in the cognitive domain in general has increased after the implementation of RME approach. In the first cycle the average score of students gain is normalized on pretests and the end of the first cycle of the average score of students included a lower category. While on the second cycle the average score of students gain is normalized in the first cycle and the end of the average score of students included a high category. This shows that student learning outcomes on cognitive aspects increased after the implementation of RME approach. Key word: Realistic Mathematic Education (RME, learning outcomes.

  10. Analisis Hasil Sintesis Serbuk TiO2 / ZnO sebagai Lapisan Elektroda untuk Aplikasi Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Lilis Retnaningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan sintesis antara serbuk partikel nano TiO2 dan serbuk partikel nano ZnO menjadi pasta yang akan diaplikasikan sebagai elektroda pada dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Elektroda pada DSSC ini bekerja berdasarkan adsorbsi foton oleh pewarna, elektron yang tereksitasi ditransfer ke TiO2/ZnO yang mempunyai perbandingan berbeda. Dimensi material partikel nano TiO2/ZnO sebagai elektroda sangat penting untuk menghasilkan efisiensi yang lebih tinggi pada DSSC. Sifat ini sangat dipengaruh oleh metoda pabrikasi elektroda TiO2/ZnO dan parameternya. Pada penelitian ini digunakan metoda doctor blade untuk pabrikasi DSSC dan larutan dyes (Z907 sebagai zat pewarna. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pencampuran serbuk TiO2 dan serbuk ZnO sebagai elektroda. Teknik pembuatan pasta TiO2/ZnO sebagai elektroda sangat penting untuk menghasilkan efisiensi tinggi pada DSSC. Teknik ini sangat terkait dengan material TiO2/ZnO, metoda pabrikasi, dan parameter pengukurannya. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas hasil karakterisasi XRD pada kedua serbuk TiO2 dan ZnO, hasil SEM pada pencampuran kedua material, hasil pengujian IPCE serta hasil pengukuran effisiensi pada pengujian I - V.

  11. Pengaruh Penambahan Aditif Bi2O3 Terhadap Karakteristik Barium Heksaferit Hasil Sintesis dengan Metode Sol-Gel

    Siti Wardiyati Siswoyo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan sintesis barium heksaferit (BaFe12O19 secara sol-gel menggunakan prekursor barium nitrat [Ba(NO32], besi nitrat [Fe(NO33] dan asam sitrat (C6H8O7 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan BaFe12O19 fasa tunggal berukuran nano dengan koersivitas magnetik tinggi. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan penambahan aditif Bi2O3 dengan berbagai variasi persentase berat terhadap BaFe12O19 dari 0,5% sampai dengan 2%. Karakterisasi BaFe12O19 hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan  menggunakan alat X-ray diffraction (XRD untuk analisis  fasa, Fourier Transmission Infra Red (FTIR untuk mengetahui tipe ikatan yang terjadi, Scanning Electron Microscope dan Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS untuk analisis struktur dan persentase atom, dan Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM untuk mengetahui sifat magnetik yaitu koersivitas dan saturasi magnetik. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh BaFe12O19 fasa tunggal dengan ukuran partikel sekitar 105 nm - 130 nm, saturasi magnetik 57,86 emu/g dan koersivitas magnetik sebesar 0,38 T. 

  12. Aplikasi Magnet Berpengikat (Bonded NdFeB untuk S-band Circulator pada Rentang Frekuensi 2,00-4,00 GHz

    Tony Kristiantoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulator merupakan perangkat elektronik yang memiliki fungsi penting pada suatu sistem pemancar dan penerima gelombang frekuensi radio (RF, di mana magnet permanen dapat berfungsi sebagai pengarah gelombang (waveguide. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggantikan magnet permanen barium ferit (BaFe12O19 yang umumnya digunakan pada circulator dengan magnet permanen berpengikat (bonded neodymium besi boron (NdFeB. Bahan baku yang digunakan adalah serbuk NdFeB crashed ribbon dengan menggunakan metode pengepresan green-compact yang divariasikan pada tekanan 25, 50, 75, dan 100 kg.cm-2 dan dilanjutkan proses pemanasan pada temperatur 200 C selama 60 menit. Karakterisasi sifat magnet dilakukan dengan Permagraph, diperoleh nilai intrinsik optimum dari sampel 100 kg.cm-2 , induksi remanen (Br = 5,37 kG, koersifitas (HcJ = 4,74 kOe, produk energi maksimum (BHmax = 2,39 MGOe, dan densitas (ρ = 4,89 gr.cm-3 . Hasil pengukuran kuat medan permukaan (B dengan Gauss-meter menunjukkan nilai 800 G. Magnet dengan karakteristik optimum diterapkan pada circulator kemudian dikarakterisasi dengan Vector Network Analyzer dan menghasilkan voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR = 1,354, isolasi = -17,165 dB dan kerugian penyisipan = -0,200 dB pada titik kerja 3,00 GHz, sehingga magnet berpengikat (bonded NdFeB ini dapat diterapkan pada S-band circulator yang bekerja pada rentang frekuensi 2,00-4,00 GHz.

  13. Sintesis Bahan Dasar Tibial Tray Berbasis HDPE Yang Diperkuat Dengan Iradiasi Gamma

    Sulistioso Giat S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tibial tray yang sudah komersil dibuat dari Polimer Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE tetapi harganya sangat mahal. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini digunakan polimer High Density Polyethylene (HDPE untuk pembuatan tibial tray karena harganya yang lebih murah dan memiliki kemiripan sifat dengan UHMWPE. HDPE dibuat dengan dua metode, yaitu metode hot press dan pemanasan tanpa tekanan (PTT. UHMWPE dengan metode hot press digunakan sebagai pembanding. Metode hot press dilakukan pada suhu 180 °C dan diberi tekanan sebesar 200 kg/cm2. Sedangkan metode pemanasan tanpa tekanan (PTT dilakukan di dalam oven pada suhu 180°C. Film tipis UHMWPE dan sampel HDPE yang dihasilkan dari kedua metode tersebut, kemudian diiradiasi sinar gamma dengan variasi dosis 0, 100, 200, 300 dan 500 kGy. Karakterisasi mencakup analisis morfologi dengan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, uji kekerasan, kekuatan tarik, dan derajat kristalinitas. Semakin tinggi dosis radiasi, maka kekerasan dan derajat kristalinitas semakin meningkat, tetapi kekuatan tarik semakin menurun. Dosis radiasi untuk sampel HDPE yang optimum , adalah 100 kGy untuk HDPE yang dibuat dengan metoda hot press, pada kondisi ini HDPE mempunyai kekuatan mekanik mendekati nilai kekuatan mekanik UHMWPE, sedangkan HDPE yang dibuat dengan metode PTT kekuatan mekaniknya masih dibawah kekuatan mekanik HDPE yang dibuat dengan metoda hot press 

  14. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  15. Optics of the CuGaSe{sub 2} solar cell for highly efficient tandem concepts; Optik der CuGaSe{sub 2}-Solarzelle fuer hocheffiziente Tandemkonzepte

    Schmid, Martina

    2010-01-25

    A principle aim of solar cell research lies in optimizing the exploitation of the incident solar light. Yet, for single junction solar cells there exists an efficiency limit as described by Shockley and Queisser. The only concept realized so far to overcome this threshold is - apart from concentration - the multijunction solar cell. However, any kind of multijunction design poses new challenges: The upper wide-gap solar cell (top cell) needs to show efficient light absorption in the short-wavelength region. At the same time sufficient transmission for long-wavelength light is required which then needs to be absorbed effectively by the low-gap bottom cell. In tandem solar cells a proper light management in top and bottom solar cell is of great importance. This work focuses on chalcopyrite-based tandem solar cells. For the wide-bandgap IR-transparent ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell an optical model has been established. Starting from modeling each of the individual layers building the stack the optical behavior of the complete thin film system of the top cell could be described. Carefully selected layer combinations and comparison of experimental and calculated data allowed for the attribution of transmission losses to the distinct material properties. Defects in the absorber are of crucial importance but also free carrier absorption in the window and in the transparent back contact contribute significantly to optical losses. The quantification of the losses was achieved by calculating the effects of reduced top cell transmission on the photo current of a simplified bottom cell. An extension of the optical model allowed to calculate the effective absorption in the individual layers and to determine reflection losses at the interfaces. From these results an optimized top cell stack was derived which is characterized by A) simulation of the monolithic integration, B) reduced layer thicknesses wherever possible from the electrical point of view, C) addition of an antireflection coating and D) optimization of layer thicknesses with respect to antireflection behavior for the long-wavelength light. The optimized stack promises an increase in sub-gap transparency of the top cell from 60 to 80 % considering realistic material properties. Monolithically connecting a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} based bottom cell for simulating the chalcopyrite tandem, the fundamental requirement of current match for top and bottom cell was investigated. Suitable CuGaSe{sub 2}/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} tandem combinations are identified and potential efficiencies calculated. They predict a maximum achievable tandem efficiency of 26 % in the case of realistic materials. Furthermore first experimental realizations of the optimized top cell stack were carried out. Their optical properties coincide with the model. Also measured and modeled photo current densities in a mechanically connected Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} bottom cell shaded by various CuGaSe{sub 2} top cell stacks are in agreement within an error range of 5 %. A highest efficiency of 6.3 % was measured for the shaded bottom cell. However, for fundamental improvement of the chalcopyrite tandem performance novel concepts are required. Prospects of integrating nanoparticles as mediators of plasmonic absorption enhancement are given. Theoretical and experimental background is provided to integrate plasmonic effects in the thin film multilayer modeling. Conclusions about the most suitable size and the best position of the nanoparticles within the stack of the ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell could be derived: for a 200 nm thick absorber the integration of silver nanoparticles with radii over 50 nm deposited at the interface SnO{sub 2}:F - glass promises an absorption enhancement of 28 %.

  16. Determination Of Refractive Index And Reflectivity Of Thin Layer With Optical Absorption Method; PENENTUAN INDEKS BIAS DAN REFLEKTIVITAS LAPISAN TIPIS DENGAN METODA SERAPAN OPTIK

    Hariyanto, Sigit; Budianto, Anwar; Subarkah,; Atmono, Trimarji [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    . The refractive index and reflectivity of ASi:H and Si Ox thin layer have been observed by optical absorption methods. Measurement has been done after the preparation of optical system which consists of a halogen lamp light source, monochromator, sample and light detector. The Monochromator output showed that measured halogen lamp spectrum light is between 470 nm -750 nm. The maximum voltage of halogen lamp is 220 Volt, the output light increases in intensity while the wave length increases. The inclination of intensity decrease at the wave length of 725 nm. The result of the calculation of refractive index varies in accordance with the wave length. The average refractive index of ASi:H is nf a = 1.753. The total reflectivity of air-thin layer-substrate is Rt a = 0.315. The refractive index of Si Ox sample is nf b2.182 and the total reflectivity is Rt b=O,514.

  17. ANALISIS KESULITAN PEMAHAMAN KONSEP ALAT OPTIK PADA SISWA KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMP NEGERI 3 METRO TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013

    Fitriani .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research to know form of difficulties were experienced by students looked form cognitive domain and questionsettlement stage. The subject of this research was student of grade VIIIc of junior high school 3 Metro academic year 2012/2013 the total of 33 students. Data capture technique used essay test. Data analysis was done by qualitative by identification, tabulation, describtion, and interpretationsteep. Base on analysis can be knowed that the most dominant difficulties were looked from question settlement stage that was operated stage the rules or the laws as much as 73%. Students difficulties were looked from coqtinive domain in ability stage such as knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis. Difficulties in cognitive domain the most dominant wasexperienced by students are in analysis ability stage as much as 91%. To overcome the difficulties, the teacher is adviced in order that learning the most important to physic concept are felt difficult, that are aplication stage and analysis. 

  18. Digital udvikling

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2015-01-01

    En blog om design, materialitet og bøger i krydsfeltet mellem digitale udfordringer og en kulturel optik.......En blog om design, materialitet og bøger i krydsfeltet mellem digitale udfordringer og en kulturel optik....

  19. Pengaruh Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan terhadap Sifat Biofisik Tanah dan Kapasitas Infiltrasi di Kota Malang

    Sugeng Utaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use management causes the changes of the function of the land in the city. The change of the function of uncultivated land to be cultivated land has a potential to change soil biophysical characteristic, and at the same time, it decreases the absorption of soil water. This research aims: (1 to study the influence of the landuse change towards soil biophysical characteristics, (2 to study the correlation between soil biophysical characteristics and infiltration capacity, and (3 to study the influence of the landuse change towards the infiltration capacity. The landuse change is studied by comparing the ongoing mapping documents. Soil biophysical characteristics consist of root biomass, number of worms, soil organic matter (SOM, and porosity. The root biomass is obtained by root density, the number of worms is identified with monolith and hand sorting method, the SOM is identified with fraction analysis, and the porosity is identified with cylinder and pignometer method. The water absorption is measured with the plot experiment. The influence of the landuse towards soil biophysical traits is analyzed T-test and the influence of landuse change towards infiltration capacity is analyzed correlatively. This research gains the results that: (1 the landuse change causes the change of soil biophysical traits, too, and the soil biophysical traits change causes, furthermore, the declining of the land capability in absorbing water, and (2 the amount of the infiltration capacity is caused by soil biophysical traits, mostly by root biomass, number of worms, and the SOM, and (3 the landuse change causes the declining of infiltration capacity.

  20. PENGARUH MEDIUM PERENDAM TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK, MORFOLOGI, DAN KINERJA MEMBRAN NATA DE COCO

    Senny Widyaningsih

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nata de coco is bacterial cellulose which is produced by Acetobacter xylinum in fermentation process of coconut water. Based on its properties, nata de coco can be used as a membrane. Soaking medium in purification of nata de coco gel can influence structure, morphology, and performance of nata de coco membrane. First medium was NaOCl 0.05% and NaOH 5%, Second medium was ultrasonic. Third medium was NaOH 1% and CH3COOH 1%. Mechanical property were analysized based on its tensile strength. Morphology of membrane was analysized using SEM. Performance of membrane was determined based on its permeability. The result showed that nata de coco membrane which had the best value on mechanical properties, morphology, and performance was membrane in third medium.

  1. Sifat Fisik Pakan Kaya Serat dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Ransum pada Kambing

    N.A. Sigit

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous feeds vary in their physical properties. The experiment aimed to clarify the effect of physical properties of fibrous component in rations on feed intake and nutrient digestibility in goats. Rations were composed of 50% fibrous feed and 50% concentrate. The fibrous feed as treatments were as follows: napier grass (RG, rice straw (JP, cocoa pod (KC, mixed rice straw and coffee husk (JK, mixed napier grass, rice straw, coffee husk, and cocoa pod (CP. Rations were offered to four groups of 20 Etawah-grade goats weighing of 13.50±2.14 kg in a randomized block design. Physical properties of the fibrous components of ration and faeces, nutrients intake and digestibility and daily life weight gain were evaluated. Analysis of variance and correlation were applied to analyze data. Dry matter intake varied from 298-440 g/day. Goats offered KC ration had the highest intake. Low feed intake was associated with the low density of the fibrous component. Dietary fat digestibility decreased when the fibrous feed component had low capacity of oil adsorption. Young goats had life weight gain of 50-136 g/day, TDN requirement for maintenance and 50 g daily gain of 63.4 g and 131 g TDN, respectively. The results indicated that physical properties of fibrous component in the rations influenced dry matter intake and nutrients digestibility in growing goats.

  2. Perbaikan Sifat Reologi Visco-Elastic Aspal dengan Penambahan Asbuton Murni Menggunakan Parameter Complex Shear Modulus

    Eva Wahyu Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of crude oil will increase the price of petroleum asphalt. Indonesia has imported asphalt to meet the need for the annually road construction and maintenance. One solution to improving the rheological properties of bitumen is by adding the harder bitumen or other chemical compound to reduce dependence to petroleum asphalt. In Indonesia there is a source of natural asphalt in Buton Island, Sulawesi with huge amount of deposit that potentially could improve the rheological properties of Pen 60/70 Petroleum Asphalt. In order to obtain a better understanding on the contribution of Asbuton to the improvement of performance on rheological properties, this research used 19 variations of Asbuton and pen 60/70 petroleum bitumen. This variation is then subjected to the basic rheology test and the mechanistic test using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The conclusion of basic rheological performance is obtained that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petroleum bitumen will increase hardness of bitumen. Conclusion on mechanistic rheological performance is that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petrol bitumen will increase Performance Grade (PG and Complex Shear Modulus (G*. The results from the analysis of Master Curve and Black Diagram, it is shown that the increasing proportion of bitumen Asbuton will decrease the phase angle (δ but its temperature susceptibility is worse.

  3. Pengaruh bahan pengisi serat kaca terhadap sifat fisik dan kristalinitas polipaduan PC/ABS

    Dwi Wahini Nurhajati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effects of the addition of glass fibers on the physical and crystallinity properties of PC/ABS polyblends. The ratio of PC/ABS used in this research was 75/25, while the addition of glass fibers ranged from 0; 5; 10; to 15 phr (based on the weight of PC/ABS. Polyblends of PC/ABS/glass fibers were prepared in a twin screw extruder. The test results showed that density and tensile strength of PC/ABS polyblends increased with an increase in the glass fiber content. The presence of glass fibers decreased MFI and impact strength of these PC/ABS polyblends. The functional groups were determined by the fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometer while crystallinity was examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD.

  4. Analisis Pengaruh Ukuran Pori Terhadap Sifat Listrik Karbon Aktif Dari Limbah Tandan Sawit Pada Prototipe Baterai

    Handoyo Margi Waluyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prototype batteries was succesfully made by using activated carbon. This research aimed to examine the effect of pore size on the electrical properties of activated carbon which is used as a battery-making material. Activated carbon is synthesized using H3PO4 activator with concentration variations (mass/volume of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The carbonization was carried out at 400 °C for 1 hour, while activation at 700 °C for 1 hour. The result showed, the pore size effect on the electrical properties of the activated carbon in the battery prototype, especially for the capacitance and internal resistance of the material which has a correlation of 90% and 90.2%, respectively. The sample with 25% H3PO4 has the best pore size of 5.43μm. As the pore size of the activated carbon increases, it has caused increased capacitance and decreased internal resistance of the material. With the pore size of 5.43μm, the capacitance is 5.88mF/g and the internal resistance of the material is 662.02Ω.

  5. Karakteristik Sifat Tarik Dan Mode Patahan Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength of composites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood, bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0.5% KMnO4...

  6. SIFAT, KEPRIBADIAN, TUJUAN HIDUP MAHASISWA, DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN PERSEPSI TENTANG PERGAULAN LAWAN JENIS

    Monika Yuliantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization that develops in line with development of science and technology such as film, soap opera, and music do not only give positive influence but also have brought negative influence for Indonesian people who still extremely hold norms especially religion norm. The aimed of this research was to analyze the perception about interaction of opposite gender of college students. This research used cross sectional study design. The research was done in Bogor Agricultural University (IPB Bogor. Respondents of this research were 146 students of undergraduate of 2nd and 3rd grade in the year 2008, consist of 43 men and 103 women. Almost all of respondents had conservative perception about interaction of opposite gender. The study found significant correlation between: (1 respondents perception about interaction of opposite gender with type of gender, cumulative achievement index, trait and personality, (2 interaction of opposite gender respondents’ behaviour with type of gender, trait and personality, monthly pocket money, and respondents’ perception about interaction of opposite gender. Multiple regression analysis showed that type of gender and trait and personality variables had significant effect on perception of interaction of opposite gender.

  7. Analisis Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Yogurt Yang Menggunakan Starter Lactobacillus bulgaricus Dengan Persentase Yang Berbeda

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT.  A study of pyisical properties and quality of yogurt with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter has been doon. Objectives of this study is to know how many percent starter of L. bulgaricus in yogurt to decrease suscepetibility to syneresis and to increase quality of yogurt. Yogurt was analyzed for susceptibility to syineresis, titratable acidity and content of crude protein and crude fat. Syinerisis of yogurt was evaluated according to centrifugal methods of Halwarkar and Kalab. The result of the study showed that yogurt with 2.5-10 % L. bulgaricus as a starter are not have any effect of susceptibility to synerisis and content of crude fat, but centripuged at 250-1000 rpm. Had significantly different (<0.01 on susceptibility to synerisis. On the other hand the increasing of centrifuge rotation, increase susceptibility to synerisis. The starter of 5-10% L. bulgaricus used in yogurt able to increase titratable acidity and content of crude protein. The yogurt prepared by 10% L. bulgaricus had the highest score (3.88% of crude protein, although there is no significant differences with yogurt using 7.5% L. bulgaricus.

  8. Karakteristik sifat mekanik, ketahanan api dan pembakaran, dan morfologi nanokomposit campuran PVC dan LDPE

    Arum Yuniari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of addition of low density polyethylene (LDPE and flame retardant on mechanical properties, resistant to fire and burning and morphology from the mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, LDPE, flame retardant, and nanoprecipitated calcium carbonate (NPCC as filler. The materials were mixed in laboplastomill at 215 ºC, torque speed 50 rpm, for 10 minutes. Nanocomposite was prepared by PVC/LDPE variations of 100/15; 100/20; 100/25; and 100/30 phr and flame retardant variations of 30 and 35 phr. The results showed that the hihger of LDPE in nanocomposite increased the hardness and impact resistance, however, it decreased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and density. Addition of flame retardant to the nanocomposites showed good resistance to fire and burning, and optimum mechanical properties were found in using of 35 phr flame retardant.The morphology of the nanocomposite, were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM confirmed that homogeneous mixture of LDPE dispersed in the PVC matrix.

  9. Pemetaan Kinerja Relatif Kepemimpian Kepala Daerah terhadap Sifat Kepemimpinan Rasulullah SAW

    Rakhmat Ceha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model of performance measurement (mapping is based on the four leadership qualities of Prophet Muhammad SAW, they are shiddig, talbligh, amanah and fathanah. The case study used is the implementation of the leadership of the three head region Municipality (kabupaten of West Java province. Assessment process begins with identifying the variables or criteria along with unit size of each trait Prophet. Furthermore, the survey was conducted in the target study, the city of A, B, and C. For mapping, use the concept of calculation developed by a team of Technology Atlas Project-Unitet Nation and eventually can be calculated Leadership Index (IK for each of the leadership in their respective regions. IK illustrates the relative levels of leadership according to the views of the community, whether it is in compliance with the nature of leadership that ha according to the views of the community s been exemplified by the Rasulullah.

  10. SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA, DAN FUNGSIONAL DAMAR [Brief Review on: Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Dammar

    Noryawati Mulyono1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dammar is one of Indonesian forestry products which is abundant. It has unique physical, chemical and functional properties. The important physical properties of dammar include its solubility in some organic solvents, softening temperature, viscosity and its absorbance. The important chemical properties reviewed here include its properties as resin, composition of terpenoid compounds present in dammar, and essential oil yielded from distillation of fresh dammar. Physical and chemical properties of dammar need to be studied further in order to optimize its functional properties. So far, dammar is widely used as weighting agent and source of essential oil. However, now, some species of dammar are being explored and developed for sal flour, fat source, triacylglycerol substituent for cocoa butter and wood preservatives.

  11. Hubungan Sifat Kimia Tanah Terhadap Produksi Salak Sidimpuan (Salacca sumatrana) di Tapanuli Selatan

    Siregar, Mastiagom; Rahmawaty; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemical soil correlation for Salacca sumatrana at Tapanuli Selatan district is superior comudity National. This study aimed to correlation of attitude of ground to ward the production of Salacca sumatrana. There were six subdistrict at thirty samples by purposive sampling method.The result of showed that soil chamical of the ground which influence toward the production of Salacca sumatrana in Kdd. The manure element of grund in the result location is lower existed to improve the production o...

  12. Pengaruh Penambahan Sodium Lauril Sulfat (Sls) Sebagai Surfaktan Terhadap Sifat Fisik Dan Uji Disolusi Tablet Ketoprofen

    Pratama, Adithya Wahyu; Siswanto, Agus; Suparman, Suparman

    2012-01-01

    Ketoprofen (acid 2-(3-benzoilfenil) propanoat) was derivated of propionat acid which has analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory with poor solubillity in water. This research allowed to increase the dissolution rate of ketoprofen tablets and effect on the physical characteristic by adding sodium lauril sulfat as surfactant. Sodium lauryl sulfat is a surfactant that can be used to improve wetting and dissolution rate. This study was done with make four formula of ketoprofen tablets by d...

  13. PENGARUH FORTIFIKASI NANOPARTIKEL KALSIUM LAKTAT KERABANG TELUR TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN FISIK BAKSO AYAM

    Agus Hadi Prayitno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to analysis the effect of nanoparticle eggshell calcium lactate fortification on chemical and physical properties of chicken meatballs. The materials were chicken meat, filler, spices, salt, eggshell calcium and nanoparticle calcium lactate. Fortification level of eggshell calcium and nanoparticle calcium lactate on making meatballs was 0.3% of the total meatball dough. Each treatment consisted of five replications. The data of chemical and physical properties of meatballs were analyzed statistically using variance analysis. The differences between means were tested by Duncan's new Multiple Ranges Test. The meatball fortified with eggshell calcium showed lower moisture content 67.92%, and showed higher fat content 6.92% and ash 2.56% than those of nanoparticle eggshell calcium lactate. The meatballs fortified with eggshell calcium had higher pH value 7.34 and water-holding capacity 58.53% and more firmness than those of fortified with eggshell calcium lactate. (Keywords: Chemical and physical properties, Chicken meatballs, Eggshell, Fortification, Nanoparticle calcium lactate

  14. PENGARUH FOTOOKSIDASI UV-C TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN BAKING EXPANSION PATI SAGU (Metroxylon sago

    Eduard Fransisco Tethool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Native Sago starch is difficult to used in industry because of the limitations of its phisycochemical properties. The aim of this research was to studied effect of UV-C photo-oxidation on  physicochemical properties and baking expansion of sago starch. Five slurries ratio (starch : water ratio: 1:2; 1:4; 1:6; 1:8; and 1:10 were oxidized with UV-C irradiation for 20 minutes, and then compared with native sago starch. The results showed that UV-C photo-oxidation increasing amylose content and paste viscosity, but decreasing swelling power and solubility, and carbonyl and carboxyl content. Used of UV-C as a photooxidator effective to increasing baking expansion characteristic, and the best slurry ratio was 1:6, which has 6.97 ml/g specific volume or 33.7% increased from native sago starch (5.22 ml/g

  15. Penelitian pengaruh asam sulfat terhadap sifat fisika kekerasan atasan sepatu kerja PVC

    Kusumo Retno Winahyu

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Research of hardness aspect of PVC boot upper treated by sulfuric acid to detect influence of sulfuric acid to hardness upper on PVC boot upper. The method of the research has been done by immersing samples in sulfuric acid solution 30 % (v/v for 24 hours. After immersing samples examined connected with hardness physical property. The result of the research shown that hardness physical property become decreasing until 16,08 % has error standard 5,48. It is still agree with SNI 12 – 1848-1990. Sepatu bot dari PVC.

  16. STUDI SIFAT FISIK BIJI KECAPI (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. f. Merr DAN PENYIMPANANNYA DALAM SUHU KAMAR

    Popi Aprilianti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Santol fruit (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. f. Merr. is one of the most important fruit trees in Meliaceae. It possesses seeds with sticky white aril that cannot be stored for a long term because of its characteristic as recalcitrant seeds. The aim of this research was to study the storage period of the santol seeds in the room temperature. Measurements were conducted on seed characteristics such as weight, length, seed thickness, water content, seed viability, and germination rate. The result shows that santol seed can be stored maximum for 40 days. Between 30-40 days the seed can still germinate but the seedling is in normal strong and normal weak category. Based on water content measurement and viability observation, santol seed can be grouped as recalcitrant.

  17. Pengaruh Fermentasi Bakteri Asam Laktat Terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung Gadung Modifikasi (Dioscorea hispida)

    R. Haryo Bimo Setiarto; Nunuk Widhyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea hispida) is one of the tubers belonging to the family dioscoreaceae. Yam tubers not only have high content of carbohydrate, but also contain some toxic compounds such as: cyanogenic glycosides, alkaloids dioscorin, dehydrodioscorin, saponin and sapogenin. Fermentation of yam tubers can affected for physicochemical and amylography characteristics of modified yam flour and reduced toxic compounds. This study was aimed to determine effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation...

  18. Analisis Sifat Mekanik Komposit Serat Sabut Kelapa sebagai Material Alternatif Pengganti Kayu untuk Pembuatan Kapal Tradisional

    ', Aguswandi '; Badri, Muftil '; ', Yohanes '

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been difficult to get the wood as a material to construct the traditional ships. Alternatively, the wood can be substituted by composite materials such as the composite of coco fiber. The coco fiber composites have potential to construct a fishing boat. In this research produced the composite plates and investigation of their value of tensile strength and flexural strength. The composite composition was used 70% polyester and 30% coco fiber. Production of the composite plates...

  19. Pengaruh Penggunaan Nr dan Nbr dengan Bahan Pengisi Silika terhadap Sifat Fisika Kompon Rol Karet Cpo

    Prasetya, Hari Adi

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to obtain the influence of natural rubber NR, synthetic rubber NBR and alumunium silikat (AISiO₃) as a filler, its physical properties and also to find out rubber compound the best for rubber mixture with variation of NR : NBR 50, 70 : 30, 90 : 10 hr and variation of aluminium silikat (ASiO₂) 45 phr, 50 phr, 55 phr. The result showed that the addition of rubber NR : NBR ratio and alumunium silikat (ASiO₂) had significant effect on the hardness, tensile strength, abration re...

  20. Penelitian pengaruh campuran karet alam dan karet nitril kompon sol sepatu terhadap sifat swelling

    Sofyan Karani

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find the quality of oil resistant soles indicated by swelling test in Benzol. The compound is made of natural rubber (RSS and synthetic rubber (NBR the part of which vary from 45/55; 50/50; 55/45. The result of the test indicates that the sole compound of RSS 45 part and NBR 55 part gives the best oil resistant.

  1. Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena

    Norma Arisanti Kinasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers possess different vulcanization characteristics. Selection of the vulcanization system and temperature affects the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber (NR and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR. In the present work, the effect of vulcanization temperature (150, 160, 170 and 180oC on the mechanical properties of NR and NBR vulcanizates was studied. The effect of different vulcanization system (semi efficient, efficient and sulfur donor was studied in NR blends, while the effect of different acrylonitrile content (26, 28 and 33 wt % was studied in NBR blends. The NBR curing characteristics and mechanical properties data showed that vulcanization at low temperature (150oC was suitable for low acrylonitrile-NBR, whereas that at high temperature (170oC was suitable for high acrylonitrile-NBR. In addition, the semi efficient system at low temperature vulcanization (150oC was suitable for natural rubber.

  2. Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena

    Norma Arisanti Kinasih; Muhammad Irfan Fathurrohman; Dadang Suparto

    2015-01-01

    Natural and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers possess different vulcanization characteristics. Selection of the vulcanization system and temperature affects the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber (NR) and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR). In the present work, the effect of vulcanization temperature (150, 160, 170 and 180oC) on the mechanical properties of NR and NBR vulcanizates was studied. The effect of different vulcanization system (semi efficient, efficient and sulfur d...

  3. Modifikasi Zeolit Dengan Tembaga (Cu) Dan Uji Sifat Katalitiknya Pada Reaksi Esterifikasi

    Arjek, Orien Claudia Handayani; Fatimah, Is

    2017-01-01

    Zeolite modification with Cu has been conducted. Material modification is done by impregnating Cu through a zeolite powder reflux process with CuSO4.5H2O solution so that theoretical Cu concentration is 5% followed by oxidation and reduction of solids. Material characterization was performed by x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and acidity testing of Cu/Zeolite catalyst.The results showed that the crystallinity level of Cu/Zeolite did not change significantl...

  4. Perbedaan jenis bahan penyamak terhadap sifat fisik kulit katak bull frog

    Mochtar Lutfie

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The Obyective of this research is to study the effects of various tanning agents on the qualities of leather made from Bull Frog skin. Fifteen pieces of wet salted Bull Frog from Malang were tanned with several tanning agents, wich are mineral (10% Chromosal B, vegetable (10% Mimosa extract and synthetic tensile strengths and elongations. Its turned out that vegetable tanning agent gave the higest tensile strength (279,62 kg/cm2, while mineral tanning agent gave the lowest one (183.04 kg/cm2. It showed that the type of tanning agent used significantly effects the tensile strength of the leather produced (p ≤ 0.005. On the other hand, mineral tanning agent gave the higest elongation (105.20%. While vegetable tanning agent gave the lowest one (91.20%. This result implied that the type of tanning agent used has a significant effect on the elongation (p ≤ 0.01.

  5. Pengaruh Kombinasi Fly Ash dan Bottom Ash sebagai Bahan Substitusi pada Campuran Beton terhadap Sifat Mekanis

    Yahya, Tengku Tantoni; Kurniawandy, Alex; Djauhari, Zulfikar

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash were waste that generated from the power plant burning coal process. Fly ash and bottom ash has the potential to be developed as a basic ingredient in concrete composites. This research aimed to obtain the properties of fresh concrete and hard concrete of the combined effect of fly ash and bottom ash as a substitute ingredient in composite concrete. This research has examined the influence of a combination of waste fly ash and bottom ash to the compressive strength of a...

  6. Potensi Tepung Wortel (Daucus carrota L. dalam Meningkatkan Sifat Antioksidan dan Fisikokimia Sweet Cream Butter.

    Rebeka Patricia Sianturi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of addition powder carrot as antioxidant agent to antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The method used was experiment laboratory. The materials used were sweet cream butter and carrot powder and the treatments were the addition of carrot powder 0% (A, 2% (B, 4% (C, and 6% (D then analyzed about antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the basic design of Block Randomized Design (BRD and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT if there was a significantly different. Finding suggested an effect of the addition carrot powder could improve the quality (up to 42.55% of sweet cream butter which is 6% of carrot powder give the best treatment.

  7. PENELITIAN SIFAT FISIS DAN MEKANIS BAJA KARBON RENDAH AKIBAT PENGARUH PROSES PENGARBONAN DARI ARANG KAYU JATI

    Masyrukan Masyrukan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, proses pengarbonan (carburising yang dilakukan adalah dengan menambahkan kandungan unsur karbon (C ke dalam permukaan baja. Sumber karbon diperoleh dari arang kayu jati yang telah ditumbuk halus. Temperatur yang digunakan selama proses pengarbonan adalah 900°C, dengan variasi waktu penahanannya 2 jam,  4 jam, dan 6 jam. Setelah itu didinginkan dengan air (quench. Pembuatan benda uji dilakukan untuk mendapatkan sampel dan supaya memudahkan dalam pelaksanaan penelitian.  Pengujian yang dilakukan adalah pengujian struktur mikro, pengujian kekerasan dan pengujian impact.Pengujian kekerasan yang telah dilakukan terhadap material pengarbonan menghasilkan distribusi kekerasan dari permukaan menuju inti, untuk masing-masing waktu penahanan yang berbeda. Untuk waktu penahanan 2 jam mulai HVN 257,5 Kg/mm²  sampai 205,3 Kg/mm² menuju inti ; 4 jam mulai HVN 273,1 Kg/mm² sampai 204,4 Kg/mm² menuju inti ; 6 jam mulai HVN 274,6 Kg/mm²  sampai 204,4 Kg/mm² menuju inti.Hasil pengamatan foto struktur mikro melalui microscope olympus photomicrographic system dihasilkan foto struktur mikro untuk raw material dan carburising sama terdapat ferit dan perlit,  untuk yang dikarburising struktur mikronya,  yaitu ferit  dan perlit.  Semakin lama proses karburising,  semakin banyak pula kandungan perlitnya yang mengakibatkan semakin tingginya tingkat kekerasan. Hasil pengujian impak menunjukkan rata-rata harga impak untuk spesimen raw material = 0,350 J/mm2, waktu penahanan 2 jam = 1,013 J/mm2 , spesimen waktu penahanan 4 jam = 0,600 J/mm2, spesimen waktu penahanan 6 jam = 1,590 J/mm2.

  8. Sifat Fisiko-Kimia Dendeng Daging Giling terkait Cara Pencucian (Leaching dan Jenis Daging yang Berbeda

    Suharyanto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is a typical Indonesian jerked meat commonly made from sliced or ground beef with 2 mm thickness. This research was conducted to study the effect of kind of meat and leaching method on pH, toughness, protein, fat content and peroxide value (PV of ground jerked meat. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized factorial design with three replications. The first factor was three levels of leaching methods (no washing, washed in 1.5 x 1.5 x1.5 cm size and washed minced meat. The second factor was kind of meat namely horse meat, lamb and beef. The results indicated that neither interaction effect between leaching and kind of meat nor effect of leaching were significant on all characteristics observed. Kind of meat influenced significantly on the pH, toughness, fat content and PV of dendeng (P<0.01.

  9. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK DAN KANDUNGAN TOTAL FENOL MINUMAN REMPAH TRADISONAL (MINUMAN SECANG

    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secang drink is an Indonesian traditional drink, especially from Yogyakarta and Central Jawa, that is made from secang wood (Caesalpinia sappan L which gives red color like wine.  Except secang wood in secang drink, there are also other spices, such as ginger, clove, lemongras, cinnamon bark, cardamon, and nutmeg.  The active component of spices mostly from phenolic compound, including brazilin dan brazilein (secang wood, zingiberen, gingerol, dan shogaol (ginger, eugenol (clove, geraniol, citronellal, citronellol, lemonene (lemongrass, sineol dan sinamaldehida (cinnamon bark, cineol dan pinen (kapulaga, myristicin dan safrol (nutmeg.  This research objectives were to investigate the effect of various types of phenols in the spices of the organoleptic properties and phenol total content of secang drink. The treatments were the formulation of secang drink, secang wood (F1, secang wood and red ginger (F2, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass (F3, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove (F4, secang wood, red ginger, lemongress, clove, cinnamon bark (F5, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove, cinnamon bark, cardamon (F6, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove, cinnamon bark, cardamon, nutmeg (F7.  The formulation of secang drink were 1 liter water, 5 stalk secang wood (1 cm, 100 gram red ginger, 2 clove, 2 lemongrass, 2 stalk cinnamon bark (1 cm, 2 cardamon, 1/3 nutmeg, 100 gram sugar, 1 tablespoon.  Based on the average value of the panelist's favorite degree on color, aroma, flavor, and overall appearance of the most high secang drinks in a row is the formulation 1 (3,4, formulation 2 (3.0, formulation 2 (2.8 , and the formulation of 2, 4, 5, and 6 (2.8. There were differences between the treatment of color and aroma, but nots between the treatment of taste and overall appearance.  The formulation 1 of secang drinks contained the lowest total phenol (117.989 mg/L and the  formulation 7 of secang drinks contained the highest total phenol (186.055 mg/L. There was not any difference between the treatment of total phenol content of secang drinks.

  10. SIFAT SENSORY DAN FUNGSIONAL BERAS ANALOG DARI CAMPURAN ONGGOK TERFERMENTASI DAN KETAN HITAM

    Siti Nurdjanah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot variety of products can be used for rice substitute as a staple food. One of them is analog rice processed from onggok (solid waste from tapioca production formulated mixed with black waxy rice (BWR.  Onggok has poor quality when applied on food products, therefore  natural fermentation and addition of BWR can be used as an alternative to improve it. The objective of this research was to find out the proportion of  onggok and BWR in  producing analog rice that has the best organoleptic and contains functional food. This research was conducted within a complete randomized block design with a single factor and four replications. The single factor was the formulation of onggok and BWR consisted of 6 levels: 100:0 (F0, 90:10 (F1, 80:20 (F2, 70:30 (F3, 60:40 (F4, 50:50 (F5  The results showed that the best formulation was found on F3 (70% onggok and 30% BWR. The best analog rice had the characteristics of purple, a mild BWR  aroma, and  slightly  liked in overall acceptance of raw sample. The cooked rice had the characteristics of black-purple in color, mild BWR  in aroma, slightly chewy in texture,  mild BWR in taste, and slightly liked in overall acceptance. The  moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents were 3.0%, 0.9%, 1.4%, 6.2%, and 86.3% . The conversion of rice to glucose as hidrolyzed using α amylase was 12.4%, and total phenolic content was 14,5 mg/g. Keywords: analog rice, black  waxy rice, onggok, total phenolic

  11. Pertimbangan Sifat Mekanik Pelepah Sawit Terhadap Proses Pengomposan Sebagai Acuan Desain Mesin Pencacah

    Ramayanty Bulan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical properties of palm frond are very important factor for the development of palm oil waste utilization technology. The objective of this research was to determine mechanical properties of palm frond Frond for Chopper Machine Designing. The research of composting conduct with two composting factor combination, namely: composting starter composition (i.e. Bokashi, vermi-compost and natural composting and piece of frond dimension (2 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm. Sample was obtained from 5 years and 20 years palm oil trees. The average length of palm frond was 675.89 cm, average leaflet length at the palm frond base was 103.89 cm and average leaflet length at palm frond tip was 23.83 cm. Maximum compression strength at the 20 years-palm frond base was 8134.62 N and at the 5 years-palm midrib base was 4893.52 N. Maximum force requirement for cutting palm leaf was 67.67 N. The composting process indicates that Bokashi starter composition gives higher percentage of mass reduction on all variant of piece of frond dimension. Smaller piece of frond (2 cm enable the composting process quicker and had a better result. Statistical analysis reveals that combination of composting factors have significant effect on C/N ratio but insignificant on NPK content.

  12. PENGUJIAN NETRALISASI SIFAT REAKTIF BUMBU DALAM GARAM BERYODIUM DENGAN BAHAN TAMBAHAN MAKANAN

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available THE NEUTRALIZE EXAMINATION OF THE SPICES REACTIVITY IN THE IODIZED SALT BY THE ADDITIVE OF THE FOOD ADDITIVES.Background: The potassiumiodate of the iodized salt in the mixture with some spices is bind in the form of the compounds, which are not available for the determination of the iodine by the chemical method. This is due to the reactivity of susbtances contained inspices, such as capsaicin in the chilli, and piperine in the paprika, which are responsible for the spiciness of the spices. Although ithasn't been studied, the configuration of the potassiumiodate in the spices is probably also not available for the human consumption. Where as the supplementation of iodized salt to recover the iodine deficiency is effective. The food additives mostly are the chemical substances, which have properties to keep or increase the quality of food.Objectives: The study was performed to investigate the effect of food additives to the reactivity of spices to the potassiumiodate of iodized salt.Material and Methods: The food additive was added to the iodized salt, and then mixed with the spice. Dissolved by the water incertain volume, filtered, and then determined the potassiumiodate content of the filtrate by the Yodometric method. The potassiumiodate content of the filtrate was compared with the potassiumiodate content of the salt. The result of percent comparisonis the recovery of potassiumiodate when mixed with food additive and spice. The recovery of potassiumiodate was done for the different potassiumiodate content of iodized salt. The study was using CaCO3, KH2P04, MgS04, Na2C03, NaHP04, K-citrate, benzoat acid, dan Na-benzoat as food additives, and the red chilli, hot chilli, pepper and coriander.Results: The reactivity of the pepper and coriander to the potassiumiodate of the iodized salt could be netralized by the addition of CaCO3, KH2P04, MgS04, Na2CO3, NaHP04, K-citrate, benzoic acid, dan Na-benzoic. But for the red chilli and hot chilli were not allof them, these were for CaC03 K-citrate, and benzoic acid. It was shown by the value of recovery of potassiumiodate contents of the iodized salt. The netralization properties of food addives were increased by the increasing of the potassiumiodate content of the iodized salt.Conclusions: The addition of some food additives into the iodized salt is able to prevent the iodate content of the salt from there activity of subtances in the spice. The addition of food additives also can pick up moisture of salt resulting preventation of the salt particles clumping together and so keep the product free flowing.Keywords: potassiumiodate, spices, iodized salt

  13. PENGUJIAN NETRALISASI SIFAT REAKTIF BUMBU DALAM GARAM BERYODIUM DENGAN BAHAN TAMBAHAN MAKANAN

    Suryana Purawisastra; Mien Karmini

    2012-01-01

    THE NEUTRALIZE EXAMINATION OF THE SPICES REACTIVITY IN THE IODIZED SALT BY THE ADDITIVE OF THE FOOD ADDITIVES.Background: The potassiumiodate of the iodized salt in the mixture with some spices is bind in the form of the compounds, which are not available for the determination of the iodine by the chemical method. This is due to the reactivity of susbtances contained inspices, such as capsaicin in the chilli, and piperine in the paprika, which are responsible for the spiciness of the spices. ...

  14. SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA GELATIN KULIT IKAN BELUT DAN LELE PADA KEADAAN SEGAR DAN KERING

    Hafni Rahmawati

    2016-06-01

    The first stage of the research was raw material preparation (fresh and dry fish skin soaked in aquadest for 4 hours. Fish skin extracted using 0,05 M acetic acid for 10 hours, washed in water and then extracted using aquadest at 80OC for 2 hours to get gelatin liquid, the liquid was filtrated. Filtrat was dried in cabinet dryer at 55OC for  48 hours to get gelatin layers, and then blended to get gelatin granule. The results were showing viscosity of gelatin from dry fish skin as same as from fresh fish skin, gel strength and melting point of gelatin from dry fish skin was higher than from fresh fish skin. Influence of fish skin drying was increase turbidity and color of gelatin. The best gelatin was ekstracted from dry skin swamp ell with viscosity 6,65 cps, gel strength 206,30 Bloom, melting point 22,33OC. Gelatin from fresh skin swamp ell was the best turbidity 1,65 ntu and color (L = 41,87, a = 8,90, b = 27,27.

  15. Pengaruh penggunaan bahan pewarna alam dari ekstrak kayu terhadap sifat fisis kulit ikan kakap merah

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to identify the effect of some natural dye of wood extract to the physical properties (tensile strength, elongation and rub fastness resistance of kakap (Lutjanidae fish skin leather. Fifteen pieces of dry preserved kakap fish skin were used in this research, and tanned using syntan and alum. The dyeing process was done using natural dyes of wood extract of Caesalpinia sappan L, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ, Maclura cochinensis, and Ceriops tagal. The result of research indicated that the kind of applied natural dyes were not affect the physical properties of Kakap fish skins. The fish skins dyed using the such natural dyes was able be utilised as material in leather goods manufacturing. One of the five types of natural dye used in this research, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ wood extract produced the best dyed leather having good tensile strength, elongation/flexibility and the colour fastness. The tensile strength was 213,15 kg/cm2, flexibility 56% and colour fastness with wet white cloth 3/4 (grey scale value and with dry white cloth 4/5 (grey scale value, respectively

  16. Pengaruh sulfur terhadap sifat fisika campuran pale crepe dan SBR untuk karet tahan panas

    Arum Yuniari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur plays an important role in the rubber vulcanization process especially in the formation of crosslinks. Heat resistant rubber made from mixing pale crepe and SBR requires the right amount of sulfur as crosslinking agent. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the addition of sulfur on the changes in physical properties before and after aging. Heat resistant rubber was made with variation of pale crepe/SBR: 80/20; 70/30; 60/40; 50/50 phr and sulfur variation of 1; 1.5 phr. The results showed that sulfur was influential in the crosslinks formation. The addition of 1 phr sulfur gave higher physical properties of the vulcanized with 1.5 phr sulfur. The changes of physical properties after aging process of the vulcanized with sulfur 1 phr was lower than the vulcanized with sulfur 1.5 phr. Vulcanized pale crepe/SBR (70/30 with 1 phr sulfur could be applied as heat-resistant rubber products.

  17. Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat tegangan putus, perpanjangan putus dan ketahanan sobek kompon sol karet

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the processes steps for producing rubber sole is vulcanization process. This process is carried out by using pressed moulding methods in which rubber compound was heated and pressed in the mould of rubber sole at certain time and temperature. The aim of this research is to know the influence of the temperature used for vulcanization for the tensile strength, elongation and tearing strength properties of the rubber sole compound. Temperature vulcanization used for the research was varied at 1400C, 1500C, 1600C and 1700C. The results shows that vulcanization at 1400C, give the highest properties in tensile strength, elongation and tearing strength, those are : 113,70 kg/cm2; 326,60 % and 107,00 kg/cm2respectively. Increasing temperature vulcanization cause decreasing those physical properties.

  18. Penelitian pengaruh campuran carbon black dan china clay terhadap sifat tegangan putus dan kekerasan karet vulkanisat

    Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been done a research of the influence of mixed carbon black and hardness properties on the vulcanization of rubber. It has been made with additive of carbon black and china clay mixed, in total variation. The result is seen that total variation of carbon black and china clay not influence to tensile strength, but their interacton can do it. The hardness of vulcanization of rubber will be influence by total variation of carbon black china clay anad their interaction.

  19. PENGAMALAN KUALITAS SIFAT PRIBADI KEPIMPINAN TRADISIONAL BAGI KEPALA DAERAH DALAM MEWUJUDKAN KESEJAHTERAAN RAKYAT

    Abu Samah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to comprehend personal characters in Indonesia’s traditional leadership and its correlation with the regional leadership. This study uses descriptive analyses method by library research. The result shows that the regional leaders have low quality of personal characters that may lead to the failure to fulfill community’s welfare. Therefore the regional leaders have to implement the personal characters of Indonesia’s traditional leaders along with the Regional Governance Law No. 12 2008, revised by Law No. 23 2014 in order to increase the people’s income, improve education, guarantee health facilities and housing, as well as reduce poverty and unemployment rate in the region. Keywords: regional leaders, Kampar regency, community welfare, personal characters

  20. Perbandingan Sifat Fisik Beton Yang Menggunakan Semen Portland Pozzolan Dan Semen Portland Tipe I

    Yusnita, Heni

    2011-01-01

    The research about concrete by using the Portland pozzolan cement and Portland cement type I has been done with the variation of submersion time is 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test is done for physics of the concrete. The sample is made from the ingredients 1 cement : 2 sand : 3 pebble. The result of the researching shows that the used of the Portland pozzolan cement can raise the impact of the concrete as much as 9,15% from concrete which uses the Portland cement type I. Orther side for the ...

  1. Sifat Fisik dan Organoleptik Yogurt Drink Susu Kambing dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.

    Jeki Mediantari Wahyu Wibawanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this studies were to determine the physical properties of viscosity and organoleptic of yogurt drink with the suplementation of mangosteen peel extract. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD of the factorial pattern. The first factor was the difference of mangosteen peel extract level (0%, 3% and 6% v / v, while the second factor was the storage time of yogurt (0, 1, and 2 weeks with 3 replications. The results showed that the supplementation of mangosteen peel extract on yogurt drink gave significant effect (p <0.05 on viscosity, color and sensory analysis (viscosity and texture. Yogurt drink was recommendation with mangosteen peel extract 3% (74.65cp, lightness (L 79.89, redness (a* 0.14 yellowness (b* 2.32, sensory analysis of viscosity with score 2.84 (moderate viscosity, organoleptics of color 3.52 (white yelowness and texture test with score 2.12 (moderate smooth. It can be concluded that the addition of mangosteen peel extract can improve the quality of physical, color, organoleptik yogurt drink. The use of mangosteen peel extract will increase the economic value and product diversification.

  2. PENGARUH JENIS KEDELAI DAN JUMLAH AIR TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, ORGANOLEPTIK DAN KIMIA SUSU KEDELAI

    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean milk,  a highly nutritious drink especially in protein content, is made ​​from soybean.  Some of the benefits of soybean milk are relatively low price , suitable to be consumed by people with lactose intolerant and for people with diabetes mellitus, favored by children, and easy to manufacture.  Soybean milk quality is determined by the type of soybeans and the amount of water used to dilute.  The research objective was to determine the influence of the type of soybeans (Edamame var. Ryoko, Import, and Local var. Willis and the amount of water (8, 10, 12 parts on physical, sensory, and chemical characteristic of soybean milk.  The study was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replicatations, and replication used as a group.  The data were analyzed using analysis of variance to determine various error estimators and further tested using Duncan's test find whether there is a difference between treatments.  The result showed that viscosity of soybean milk did not influence by the type of soybean but it is influenced by the amount of water. The interaction between the type of soybeans and the amount of water did not affect the organoleptic properties (color, aroma, and taste of soybean milk. Keywords: milk, soybean, sensory properties, water dilution.

  3. Karakteristik Beberapa Sifat Fisik, Kimia, dan Biologi Tanah pada Sistem Pertanian Organik

    Margolang, Rizky Dharmawan

    2016-01-01

    This research was carried out in an organic garden Environmental Education Center (PPLH) Bohorok in the Village District of Bohorok Fight Weigh Langkat. This study was conducted in November 2013 - April 2014. The purpose of the study to determine the characteristics of some of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil in organic farming systems. The study was conducted by survey method by evaluating the nature of the soil in agricultural areas based on time implementation of o...

  4. Karakteristik Beberapa Sifat Fisik, Kimia, Dan Biologi Tanah Pada Sistem Pertanian Organik

    Rizky Dharmawan Margolang,, Rizky Dharmawan Margolang; Jamilah, Jamila; Sembiring, Mariani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study to determine the characteristis of some of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil in organic farming systems. The study was held about 6 month from November 2013 to April 2014 in Bioenvironment Education Center of Organic Farming Bahorok in Timbang Lawan village, Bahorok, at Langkat district for observe the characteristic of some physical, chemical, and biological characteristic of soil in organic farming system. This research was conducted with sur...

  5. Pengaruh Substitusi Tepung Pisang pada Pembuatan Brownies terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Penerimaan Organoleptik

    Sifia Silfia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca L is a banana which is usually consumed after being processed first. The banana flesh has a high solid content so that it is very suitable to be made banana flour. Banana flour is obtained from banana fruit flesh through a process of drying and milling. The benefits of banana flours will make it more durable, easier in packing and transportation, more practical for diversifying processed products, to provide added value of banana, and to create business opportunities for the rural agroindustry development. Thus the study was conducted to compare the banana flour with wheat flour. The concentration of banana flour used were 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% (control. Products were then analyzed for the crude fiber content, water content, protein, and organoleptic tests were done for taste, aroma, and texture. The results showed that the banana browniez provide the optimum result in treatment when 75% of banana flour was used resulting crude fiber content 1.88%, water content 38.01%, protein content 12.9%, texture, taste and aroma were preferred by the panelists.ABSTRAKPisang kepok (Musa paradisiacal L merupakan pisang yang biasanya dikonsumsi setelah diolah terlebih dahulu. Daging buahnya memiliki kandungan padatan yang cukup tinggi sehingga sangat cocok untuk dijadikan tepung pisang. Tepung pisang diperoleh dari dagingbuah pisang melalui proses pengeringan dan penggilingan. Manfaat diolah menjadi tepung pisang adalah agar lebih tahan lama, lebih mudah dalam pengemasan dan pengangkutan, lebih praktis untuk diversifikasi produk olahan, memberikan nilai tambah buah pisang, dan menciptakan peluang usaha pengembangan agroindustri pedesaan dan mengurangipenggunaan pemakaian terigu. Penelitian pembuatan brownies pisang dilakukan dengan perlakuan perbandingan tepung pisang dengan tepung terigu. Persentasi tepung pisang yang digunakan adalah 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, dan kontrol. Produk kemudian dianalisis kadar serat kasar, air, protein, dan uji organoleptik terhadap rasa, aroma, dan tekstur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembuatan brownies pisang memberikan hasil yang optimal pada perlakuan penggunaan tepung pisang 75% dengan kadar serat kasar 1.88%, kadar air 38.01%, protein 12.09%, tekstur, rasa, dan aroma disukai panelis.

  6. SIFAT FISIK DAN ORGANOLEPTIK MI BASAH DARI PATI SAGU DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK DAUN KELOR (Moringa oleifera

    Nida El Husna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sago starch as local food rich in carbohydrates and crude extract of moringa leaves that rich in protein have potential to be developed as a raw material for wet noodle. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of percentage of moringa leaf extract (5%, 10%, 15% and the filtering process of extracts (with and without screening on the physical and sensory properties of wet noodle. This study was conducted using completely randomized design consisted of two factors with three replications. Analysis of wet noodles includes of cooking time, cooking loss, water absorption, percentage of breaking noodles, sensory (hedonic test of color, aroma, taste, and texture. The results showed that the higher of percentage of moringa leaves extract increased the cooking time, cooking loss, and percentage of breaking noodles. Moringa leaf extract with the screening process decreased the cooking time and breaking percentage of noodles. The best treatment was obtained from the addition of moringa leaves extract of 5 % and with the filtering process of extracts.

  7. Sifat Kepribadian Sebagai Pemoderasi Hubungan Stres Kerja Dan Perilaku Disfungsional Audit

    Rustiarini, Ni Wayan

    2014-01-01

    Auditor personality trait is an interesting topic in accounting field because this research is still rarely on accounting profession in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of work stress and dysfunctional audit behavior, with a focus on personality trait role: the big five personality and locus of control. The respondents for this study are auditors who work on public accounting firms in Bali. Moderated regressions analysis test used to examine seven hypotheses ...

  8. SIFAT KEPRIBADIAN SEBAGAI PEMODERASI HUBUNGAN STRES KERJA DAN PERILAKU DISFUNGSIONAL AUDIT

    Ni Wayan Rustiarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditor personality trait is an interesting topic in accounting field because this research is still rarely on accounting profession in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of work stress and dysfunctional audit behavior, with a focus on personality trait role: the big five personality and locus of control. The respondents for this study are auditors who work on public accounting firms in Bali. Moderated regressions analysis test used to examine seven hypotheses are formulated. The results showed that job stress have positive effects on dysfunctional audit behavior. Moreover it was determined that one of the personality trait, openness to experience, along with internal and external locus of control, have significant effect on the relation between job stress and dysfunctional audit behavior, but other personality traits such as conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism do not have significant effect on the relation between job stress and dysfunctional audit behavior. This indicates that auditor personality is important to reduce the likelihood of dysfunctional audit behaviors.

  9. SIFAT KEPRIBADIAN SEBAGAI PEMODERASI HUBUNGAN STRES KERJA DAN PERILAKU DISFUNGSIONAL AUDIT

    Ni Wayan Rustiarini

    2014-01-01

    Auditor personality trait is an interesting topic in accounting field because this research is still rarely on accounting profession in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of work stress and dysfunctional audit behavior, with a focus on personality trait role: the big five personality and locus of control. The respondents for this study are auditors who work on public accounting firms in Bali. Moderated regressions analysis test used to examine seven hypotheses ...

  10. Pembuatan minyak kelapa secara enzimatis dengan memanfaatkan kulit buah dan biji pepaya serta analisis sifat fisikokimianya

    Yunita Susanti; Purwanto Purwanto; Yuliana Kristiani Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic process using papain is an efficient and less expensive method for producing coconut oil. This research was conductedto produce coconut oil which meet quality requirement from Cocos Nucifera L using ripe fruit peel and seed of papaya (Carica PapayaL) as enzyme sources. The coconut oil was prepared by mixing of coconut milk and juice of papaya ripe fruit peel and/or seed; and thenthe oils produced and incubated for 24 hours. The physicochemical properties of the coconut oil were dete...

  11. Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja Sektoral Menurut Sifat Produksi Sektor Ekonomi di Bali

    Mutiara, Citra Chintia; Bendesa, I K G

    2016-01-01

    The increase of tertiary sector GDP and the decline of primary sector GDP indicate that there was a shift of economic structure from primary to tertiary. The contribution to GDP and the proportion of workforce of Agriculture Sector has decreased but its productivity is increasing. This condition indicates there is over supply of labor in the Agriculture Sector. The first object of this study is to analyze the nature of the production sector of the economy of Bali today, labor intensive or cap...

  12. Pengaruh penggunaan karbon hitam bervariasi terhadap sifat fisika sol karet sepatu kanvas untuk umum

    Hadi Musthofa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this research is to know the influence carbon black to the physical properties rubber sol of canvas shoes for general. Vulcanized rubber makes from rubber smoked sheet as row material naphthenic oil, ZnO, stearic acid, carbon black, AoSP, MBT, MBTS, TMT and sulphur. Raw material rubber and ingredient were compounded in two roll mill and formed to slab by hydraulic press at temperatur 1500 C and pressure 150 kg/cm2. The result of this research indicated that unsignificant different of treatment.

  13. Studi Pembuatan dan Karakteristik Sifat Mekanik dan Hidrofobisitas Bioplastik dari Pati Sorgum

    Yuli Darni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the utilization of sorghum starch and chitosan as basic material for preparation of biodegradble plastic. The optimum conditions for the formation of biodegradble plastic and the effect of starch-chitosan formulation on mechanical properties of the biodegradable plastic were studied. The experiments were conducted by varying concentration sorbitol as plasticizer (i.e. 20%, 25%, 30%, and 40% dry weight, ratio starch to chitosan (i.e. 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1, 10:0 g/g and at ranging gelatinuous temperature of 65-95oC. The results showed that the optimum conditions were obtained at starch:chitosan mass comparison of 7:3 and sorbitol concentration of 20%. The mechanical properties of the biodegradable plastic produced at gelatinuous temperature of 95oC were: tensile strength of 6,9711 Mpa, elongation percentage of 16,48, modulus young of 42,48 Mpa, and water resistance of 36,825%. Keywords: bioplastic, chitosan, plasticizer, sorgum, sorbitol

  14. PENGARUH JENIS KEMASAN DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI DAN ORGANOLEPTIK PERMEN KARAMEL SUSU KAMBING

    Susilawati Suslawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caramel candy is a kind of toffee classified into  soft candies, and  processed using milk and sugar as the main ingredients. One way to prevent food spoilage is to use suitable packaging as well as storage system. This study was aimed to determine the effects of  packaging materials and storage time until 28 days at room temperature  and their interaction effects on the the chemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties , and its accordance with SNI 3457.2 caramel candy standard. The study was conducted in two groups of factors and arranged in Complete Randomized Design with three replications. The first factor was the type of packaging (P consisted of polyethylene plastic (P1, aluminum foil (P2, and oil paper packaging (P3. The second factor was the duration of storage (L consisted of 0 days (L1, 7 days (L2, 14 days (L3, 21 days (L4, and 28 days (L5.  The homogenity and additivity  of  the data were tested using Barlett  and Tuckey tests, continued using ANOVA ,  and then further tested using  comparison and orthogonal polynomials at of 1% or 5% level of significance.  The results showed the samples wrapped in aluminum foil  and stored for 28 days at room temperature, was found to be the best type of packaging. The criteria of the best goat’s milk caramel candies were:  water content of 5,81% w/w, ash content of 0,95% w/w, reducing sugar content 2,26% w/w, total molds and yeasts 0,49x102 colonies/gram, a total microbial of 2,83 colonies/gram, and the color, texture, taste, and aroma were brown, soft, sweet, and neutral. these criteria met the SNI 3547.2 (2008 quality standard for  caramel candies.

  15. Teorema Titik Tetap Pada Ruang Quasi Metrik Terasing Tanpa Menggunakan Sifat Kekontinuan Fungsi

    Malahayati Malahayati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dislocated quasi metric spaces is spaces with distance function that only satisfies two conditions from four conditions of distance function in metric spaces. Every metric spaces is dislocated quasi metric spaces, but the convers not satifies, so the characters that satisfies in metric spaces may not satisfies in dislocated quasi metric spaces.  This paper is to recite fixed point theorems without continuity of any mapping in dislocated quasi metric spaces, also gives an example using the theorems that has recited

  16. Pengaruh Degasser Dan Grain Refiner Terhadap Sifat Mekanik Paduan Al-Si Produk Cor

    Yohanes, Glenn; Djamil, Sofyan

    2008-01-01

    Paduan aluminium banyak digunakan pada industri otomotif, seperti pada pembuatan velg dan komponen-komponen mesin. Studi pengaruh degasser dan grain refiner terhadap kekuatan tarik, kekuatan luluh, elongasi dan kekerasan, pada proses peleburan dibandingkan dengan atau tanpa menggunakan degasser dan grain refiner. Benda uji didapat dengan melebur blok mesin Mitsubishi L.300, menggunakan tungku listrik dan proses cor sistem cetakan terbuka. Hasil penelitian, meliputi kekuatan tarik, luluh, elon...

  17. Pengaruh Degasser dan Grain Refiner terhadap Sifat Mekanik Paduan Al-Si Produk Cor

    Yohanes, Glenn; Djamil, Sofyan

    2009-01-01

    Paduan aluminium banyak digunakan pada industri otomotif, seperti pada pembuatan velg dan komponen-komponen mesin. Studi pengaruh degasser dan grain refiner terhadap kekuatan tarik, kekuatan luluh, elongasi dan kekerasan, pada proses peleburan dibandingkan dengan atau tanpa menggunakan degasser dan grain refiner. Benda uji didapat dengan melebur blok mesin Mitsubishi L.300, menggunakan tungku listrik dan proses cor sistem cetakan terbuka. Hasil penelitian, meliputi kekuatan tarik, luluh, elon...

  18. Pengaruh pemlastis nabati terhadap sifat elastomer termoplastik berbasis campuran karet alam/poli propilena

    Dwi Wahini Nurhajati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable plasticizer is a plasticizer that is derived from renewable raw materials, that are used as an alternative to petroleum-based plasticizer. The purpose of this research was to compare the effect of the vegetable and plasticizer with petroleum plasticizers on the mechanical properties of (Thermoplastic Elastomer TPE. Vegetable plasticizer used in this study is a modified castor oil. Natural rubber/polypropylene (KA/PP based TPE was made in an internal mixer at a temperature of 180ºC with a variousvarious ratio KA/PP ratio and type of plasticizer. In general, modified castor oil as a plasticizer has a more positive effect on the mechanical properties of TPE in various ratios of KA/PP, is mainly related to improvement of properties of tensile strength, elongation at break and flexing resistance 100 kcs. The best formula of TPE is a TPE that is composed of KA/PP 60/40 using modified castor oil. XRD results showed that TPE is dominated by amorphous phase.

  19. Eksplorasi dan Karakterisasi Tanaman Genjer (Limnocharis flava (L. Buch di Kabupaten Pangandaran Berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi dan Agronomi

    Liberty Chaidir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genjer merupakan tanaman yang tumbuh liar di area persawahan, rawa, atau sungai yang keberadaannya sering dianggap sebagai gulma. Tanaman genjer memiliki banyak manfaat, diantaranya sebagai bahan penyerap logam berat dalam tanah dan sebagai obat yang memiliki banyak kandungan gizi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi karakter morfologi dan karakter agronomi untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan tanaman genjer antar daerah di Kabupaten Pangandaran. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Pangandaran pada Mei sampai Oktober 2015. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode eksplorasi purposive sampling pada 77 aksesi genjer yang diambil dari Kabupaten Pangandaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat keragaman fenotipik yang luas pada karakter morfologi ujung daun, warna batang, tekstur daun, warna daun, panjang lekukan bawah daun, warna kelopak bunga dan warna bunga. Karakter agronomi yang mempunyai keragaman yang luas ialah tinggi tanaman, jumlah batang per rumpun, panjang daun, lebar daun, jumlah daun, jumlah bunga dan diameter batang. Tanaman genjer di Kabupaten Pangandaran memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan rentang jarak Euclidian 0,48 sampai 10,17. Aksesi yang memiliki hubungan kekerabatan paling jauh yaitu Ciakar (001 dengan jarak Euclidian 10,17, sedangkan yang memiliki hubungan kekerabatan paling dekat yaitu Cikalong (003 dan Cikalong (004 dengan jarak Euclidian 0,48. Genjer or Yellow velvetleaf is a plant that grows wild in lowland area, swamp or river which existence is considered as a weed. Genjer has a lot of benefits, such as material absorbent for heavy metals in the soil and medicine that has a lot of nutrition. This study aimed to determine the variety of morphological and agronomic characters of Genjer in Pangandaran Regency and to determine the genetic relationship of genjer between regions in Pangandaran. The research was conducted in the Pangandaran Regency on May to October 2015. The method used purposive sampling exploration method in 77 accession genjer collected from Pangandaran Regency. The results showed there were extensively phenotypic variation in tip of leaf, stem color, leaf texture, leaf color, length curve of bottom leaf, petal color and flower color. While agronomic characters for plant height, stem amount, leaf length, leaf width, leaf amount, flower amount and diameter of the stem had wide variation. Relationship between genjer in Pangandaran Regency had Euclidean distance with a range of 0.48 to 10.17. The accession which had the farthest distance was Ciakar (001 with Euclidean distance of 10.17, while those with the closest relationship were Cikalong (003 and Cikalong (004 with Euclidean distance of 0.48.

  20. Isolasi, Identifikasi, Karakterisasi, dan Uji Antibiofilm Derivat Asam Galat dari Kulit Batang Sterculia quadrifida R.Br

    Rollando Rollando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br is used empirically by residents of Timor island to treat hepatitis, typhoid, ulcers, and to restore stamina. Information of active compound contained in the bark of faloak specifically unpublished. This study aims to determine the active compound contained in faloak bark that can be used as antibiofilm. The extraction was performed by soxletation method, the isolation was performed by gradient isolation method, the elusidation was performed by merging information from NMR and LC-MS spectra analysis. The biofilm inhibition activity test was performed by microdilution method formed on flat bottom flexible microplate U-bottom PVC 96 wells with staining using 1% crystal violet. The isolation process obtained 3 gallic acid derivatives, named isolate 1, isolate 2, and isolate 3. Test of inhibition of biofilm formation showed isolate 1 has IC50 of 46,87 µg/mL, isolate 2 has IC50 of 45,87 µg/mL, and isolate 3 has IC50 42,65 µg/mL.The biofilm test results showed that isolates 1-3 had high biofilm inhibition potency.

  1. KARAKTERISASI RASA GURIH PADA BEBERAPA PRODUK PANGAN (Characterisation of ‘Gurih’ Taste of Several Food Products

    Lula Nadia

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion, ‘gurih’ taste could be found mainly in meat, peanut, and cheese. ‘Gurih’ taste intensity was influenced by several food ingredients. The presence of ‘gurih’ taste was easy to be recognized in food models and the addition of fat in the model make ‘gurih’ taste probably has different taste  from umami.

  2. Penapisan dan Karakterisasi Protease dari Bakteri Termo-Asidofilik P5-A dari Sumber Air Panas Tambarana

    Dewi Seswita Zilda

    2008-12-01

    (ekstrak kasar bekerja optimal pada pH 6 dan suhu 500C. Aktivitas enzim dipacu oleh adanya ion Ca2+ dan Fe2+ (sebagai garam klorida;1mM, sedangkan Co2+, Zn2+, dan EDTA dalam konsentrasi yang sama menghambat aktivitas enzim tersebut. Enzim protease P5-a tahan terhadap deterjen (SDS 1%, Triton X-100 (5%, dan PMSF (1 dan 5 mM, menunjukkan bahwa enzim protease tersebut kemungkinan termasuk ke dalam protease logam.

  3. Karakterisasi Molekuler Ikan Gurami Soang (Osphronemus goramy Lac. berbeda uuran menggunakan Pcr-Rflp Gen Sitokrom C Oksidase 1

    Siti Nur Azizah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gourami (Osprhronemus goramy Lac. is a  freshwater fish that is  widely cultivated in Indonesia, particularly by fish farmer in Java. Soang strain has a faster growth rate than other strains. However, the fry that derived from a single cohort (generated from a single spawning shows various sizes even in the same age because they have different growth rate. Differences in growth rate may occur due to differences in metabolic capabilities especially cellular respiration. Different rate of respiration can be assumed to be due to differences in the genetic component, especially on their cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (CO1. Therefore this study aimed to determine whether there are differences in PCR-RFLP marker CO1 gene among different sizes of gourami soang strain from the same cohort so that can be used to analyze genetic diversity. This study used survey method by applying purposive random sampling. Four restriction enzymes were used  during the  research. Molecular characters were defined descriptively based on the appearance of restriction fragment on agarose gel. The result showed that soang strain which used in this study had monomorphics allele on their CO1-HindIII. PstI, BamHI, and EcoRI, could not cut the PCR products and results no RFLP markers. So that genetic variation in the used CO1 gene fragment could not be detected using HindIII, Pst1, BamH1 and EcoR1 enzymes. The three different sizes of soang strain had similar alleles or homozygous, meaning that heterozigocity value was 0 (zero. Therefore, the CO1 gene in this study could not be used as molecular character to differentiate different sizes of gourami soang strain from the same cohort.

  4. Produksi dan Karakterisasi Antibodi Monoklonal Anti-Cysticercus cellulosae (PRODUCTION AND CHRACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST CYSTICERCUS CELLULOSAE

    Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to make a monoclonal antibody against- Cysticercus cellulosae and itscharacterization. Samples antigen prepared from T. solium larvae (C. cellulosae was then used to immunizeBalb/c. The immune response of mice assessed by ELISA test, then the lymphocytes of mice used for theproduction of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb. Origin lymphocytes of mice that produce antibodies againstC. cellulosae antigen, fused with myeloma cells (NS1. Results fusion of two cells produces hybrid cellscalled hybridomas; cells are then screened by ELISA test. Hybridoma cells that produce only MoAb, usedto produce large quantities in vitro. Characterization of MoAb against-C.cellulosae was tested by usingELISA and Western blotting. Mice were immunized with C.cellulosae antigen showed an immune responseproducing antibodies to C.cellulosae. Based on the results of fusion, produced a total of 51 hybridoma cellclones and after being screened, only three clones of hybridoma cells that produced MoAb against–C.cellulosae. MoAb produced, named after the hole where the growth of the ELISA micro plate, the BE6,BE7, and EE9. Characteristics of this MoAb capable of tracking cellulosae of fluid larvae and recognizeantigen protein bands with molecular weight 78kDa.

  5. KARAKTERISASI SPEKTRUM UNSUR Cu UNTUK MENGHITUNG INTENSITAS EMISI ATOM FUNGSI WAKTU TUNDA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE LASER INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY (LIBS

    Wulansari Efrilinda Diah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS is a spectroscopic method is highly reliable for atomic spectrochemical analysis both qualitatively and quantitatively. To achieve this, be aware of the detection parameters, one of which is a function of the atom emission intensity of detection delay time. In this study, plasma is generated by focusing the Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm, 7 ns on the surface of solid Cu sample with 99.99% purity level at 1 atm pressure air environment. Plasma emission spectrometer was arrested by elements of Cu + HR 2500 with specifications: (wavelength range 200-870 nm, resolution 0.1 nm (FWHM, 7 detector CCDs with a combined 14.336 pixels with variation detection delay time 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 microseconds after the plasma formation and the energy varies the 60-160mJ. The data showed that the value of the Cu atom emission intensity 521.8 nm of the most highly visible on detection delay time decreased to 0.5 microseconds and detection delay time 2 microseconds. Based on these data it can be concluded that the characterization of the elements Cu to calculate the intensity was in the range of 100-140 mJ laser energy and time delay detection of 0.5 microseconds.

  6. SINTESIS MEMBRAN NATA ALOE VERA-ETILENDIAMIN DAN KARAKTERISASINYA

    EB Susatyo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Serat yang terkandung di dalam nata Aloe vera adalah selulosa sehingga dapat digunakan dalam sintesis membran. Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sintesis membran nata Aloe vera-etilendiamin (nata-en menggunakan sistem vakum cair. Proses preparasi membran berlangsung melalui tiga tahap, yaitu preparasi nata Aloe vera, aktivasi menggunakan asam sulfat, dan modifikasi dengan menggunakan etilendiamin. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mempelajari teknik dalam sintesis membran nata-en kemudian melakukan karakterisasi untuk mengetahui karakter strukturnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku yang berbeda dalam hal sifat mekanik dan strukturnya. Membran nata murni memiliki sifat mekanik yang kuat, nata teraktivasi cenderung rapuh, sedangkan nata-en bersifat liat. Spektra infra merah dari ketiga tipe membran (nata murni, nata teraktivasi, dan nata-en secara umum tidak mengalami perubahan yang signifikan, hanya terjadi pergeseran panjang gelombang dari masing-masing membran. Berdasarkan spektra infra merah dapat diketahui bahwa masing-masing membran mempunyai gugus hidroksil, tetapi serapannya semakin melebar untuk setiap membran. Gugus alkil dan karboksil juga masih tampak, namun pada membran nata teraktivasi serapannya berkurang, sedangkan pada membran nata-en muncul puncak baru yang menunjukkan adanya gugus amin. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa telah terjadi ikatan antara nata dengan etilendiamin. Fibers contained in nata Aloe vera is cellulose that can be used in the synthesis of membrane. The research has done on the synthesis of nata Aloe vera-ethylenediamine (nata-en membrane by using liquid vacuum system. Membrane preparation process consisted of three stages, they are nata Aloe vera preparation, activation using sulfuric acid, and membrane modification by using ethylenediamine. The purpose of research is to study the technique of nata-en membrane synthesis then to perform the characterization to determine the character of their structure.The results

  7. ANALISIS FRAKSI-FRAKSI KURVA ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR DARI TEPUNG ROSELA DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MUTU PRODUK [Analysis of Moisture Sorption Isotherm Fraction of Roselle Powder and Its Effect on Products the Quality Characteristics

    Rita Hayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the fractions of moisture sorption isotherm curve and the critical water content of roselle powder and its effect on the product quality during storage. Roselle flowers were harvested at 25 days after flowering and sun dried (30ºC for 3 days. The result showed that the moisture sorption isotherm curve of the roselle powder was sigmoid. The critical transition points among the three fractions of the bound water in the roselle flour were first at moisture content (Mp and water activity (ap of 7.97% dry basis (db and 0.23 respectively, and second at Ms 21.1% db water content and water activity (as of 0.65%. Roselle powder samples were stored for 20 days at three relative humidity (RH fractions represented by RH 22% (moisture content at 7.2% db, RH 57 % (20.5% db and 84 % (54.2% db. The samples stored in the first fraction was stable in texture, colour and appearance, while the sample in the secondary bound water fraction (21.1% db, changed in colour into darker red. The sample stored in the tertiary bound water fraction (54.2% db changed into brown colour with musty smell and mouldy after 15 days.

  8. ANALISIS KADAR AIR DAN AKTIFITAS AIR KRITIKAL PRODUK SATA DARI MALAYSIA DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA SIFAT-SIFAT PRODUK DAN UMUR SIMPANNYA [Analysis of Critical Moisture and Water Activity of Malaysian Sata and Its Implication to Product Characteristics and Shelf Life

    Rita Hayati1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical moisture and water activity of Sata. a Malaysian traditional food made of fish and young coconut meats, were analyzed for the first and second critical points of transition among the primary, secondary and tertiary bound water fractions in the Sata. It was found out that the first critical points of moisture content and water activity were M, of 5.09 % db (4.73 % wb and ar of 0.44 respectively. The second critical points were water content M5 of 19.38 % db(15.2 % wb and water activity as of 79 % respectively. The upper limit of he tertiary bound water (Mt was 75.3 % db (43.0 % wb. Sate sample in the primary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content at 5.0 % rib / 4.73 % wb, was stable in color and appearance, but slightly rancid due to molecular mobility of the liquid oil content The sample in the secondary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content of 15.0% db / 13.0% wb, has a color change to darker brown: and in the tertiary bound water fraction (represented by moisture of 30.5 % db / 23.4 % wb, mold growth appeared on the 10th day storage. The characteristics of the Malaysian Sate indicated an intermediate moisture food (IMF with water content of 37.5% wb, water activity of 0.9 and limited shelf tile to, few days at room temperature.

  9. Pengaruh berbagai jenis penyamakan dan tipe finish terhadap morfologi, sifat organoleptis dan mekanis kulit biawak (Varanus salvator

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanus salvator skin is exotic leather because it has a unique grain. Therefore, the original grain of the animal needs to be maintained in the finishing process so that its performances look likes natural. This research aimed to study the effect of tanning materials (vegetable and chrome and the type of finish (natural, aniline, semi-aniline and two tone on morphology, organoleptic and mechanical properties of lizard skin. The materials used in this study were dry preserved lizard skins. The research varied on the types of tanning (vegetable and chrome and the type of finish (natural, aniline, semi-aniline and two tone each by varying the finishing materials (casein and protein binders. The tests were conducted on the observation of the structure using photomicrographs, rub fastness, adhesion of finish strength, tensile strength, elongation at break and organoleptic. The results showed that the best result was vegetable tanned lizard skin using natural finish with casein and met the requirements of SNI 06-4362-1996, lizard skin for shoe upper. This gave dry and wet rub fastness of 5 and 5 respectively; dry and wet adhesion of finish strength of 650 and 100 g/cm respectively; tensile strength of 207.43 kg/cm2; elongation at break of 37.52% and organoleptic value of panelists observations of 87.9 (good.

  10. PENGARUH RADIASI SINAR GAMMA COBALT-60 TERHADAP SIFAT MORFOLOGI DAN AGRONOMI KETIGA VARIETAS JAGUNG (ZEA MAYS L.

    Makhziah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutation is one of the ways to improve genetic variation in plant breeding so the target traits were more easily obtained. Grains of three varieties of maize (Bisma, Madura local, and Gumarang were treated with gamma 60cobalt irradiation doses (0, 100, 200, and 300 Gy before sowing then planted in a split plot randomized block design with three replication, to be evaluated for their morphology and agronomic traits. The Main plot was cultivars and sub plot was gamma radiation rates. There was no interaction between gamma rates and cultivars of maize, but increasing of gamma rates caused decreasing of some traits. Some traits such as plant height and leaves number were decreased significantly when gamma rate increased 100 to 300 Gy as well yield components such as grain weight and grain number per ear. Gamma 200 caused produce more ears than other rates. Bisma exhibited greater performance than Madura and Gumarang both of morphology and agronomic traits.

  11. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF INSTANT PUMPKIN JAVANESE NOODLE GRAVY [Sifat Fisikokimia Saus Bubuk Mi Jawa Instan dari Labu Kering

    Yusnita Hamzah*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the physical and chemical characteristics of pumpkin Javanese noodle gravy prepared in powder form. The finished product is categorized as an instant product as it only needs to be rehydrated with warm water (60°C before consumption. Five gravy formulations were developed with the incorporation of two types of flour (tapioca and corn flours as the thickening agent. Physical characteristics including colour and swelling properties of the final products were evaluated. For chemical analysis, ash, moisture, protein, crude fiber, fat and carbohydrate compositions were also determined. For physical analysis, all formulations showed similar colour appearance of the gravy powder including lightness (L, redness (a* and yellowness (b*. Pertaining swelling properties of the dried gravy, the water absorption index (WAI values were low (2.0–3.0g/g, while the water solubility index (WSI were moderate (33.0–50.0% when evaluated at both hot (85°C and cold (25°C water. In termn of chemical compositions, carbohydrate and fat content increased and decreased, respectively with the addition of tapioca and corn flours. The moisture content of the instant gravy increased with the increased of corn flour addition. There were differences in fiber and ash content in all formulations, but no specific trend was observed. Finally, protein content remained the same in all formulations. This current finding provided information of the gravy powder produced. Further analysis on the characteristics of the rehydrated pumpkin Javanese noodle gravy will provide a more complete picture of the finished product.

  12. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF INSTANT PUMPKIN JAVANESE NOODLE GRAVY [Sifat Fisikokimia Saus Bubuk Mi Jawa Instan dari Labu Kering

    Yusnita Hamzah*; Ng Kim Yee

    2012-01-01

    This research was carried out to study the physical and chemical characteristics of pumpkin Javanese noodle gravy prepared in powder form. The finished product is categorized as an instant product as it only needs to be rehydrated with warm water (60°C) before consumption. Five gravy formulations were developed with the incorporation of two types of flour (tapioca and corn flours) as the thickening agent. Physical characteristics including colour and swelling properties of the final products ...

  13. FORMULASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita maxima DAN TERIGU TERHADAP DERAJAT PENGEMBANGAN ADONAN DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ROTI MANIS

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the formulation of pumpkin flour and wheat flour for producing the best of dough improvement and organoleptic properties of sweet bread. The research was carried out in a complete randomized block design, single factor with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The 8 formulations of pumpkin flour and wheat flour  were: (F consisted of F1 (0:100, F2 (5:95, F3 (10:90, F4 (15:85, F5 (20:80, F6 (25:75, F7 (30:70, and F8 (35:65. The results showed that F3 was the best formulation to produce sweet bread with a dough improvement  2.51% and organoleptic with score of color 4.07 (yellow, texture 3.43 (somewhat soft, taste 3.50 (sweet, flavor 3.00 (somewhat typical pumpkin, and overall acceptance 3.70  (like. The sweet bread of F3 contained moisture 18.90%, ash 1.18%, fat 8.63%, protein 9.47%, crude fiber 3.11%, and carbohydrate (by difference 58.71%. Keywords:  Cucurbita maxima, pumpkin flour, sweet bread, wheat flour

  14. ASPEK PROSES DIAGENESIS TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK BATUPASIR FORMASI KEREK, DAERAH KALIPUTIH DAN SEKITARNYA, KECAMATAN SINGOROJO, KABUPATEN KENDAL, JAWA TENGAH

    Vanny Hertanto Vahyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary rock is formed and associated with the diagenesis processes, as all the physical, chemical, andbiological changes in the characteristics of a sediment accumulation from the time the grains are deposited untilthey are metamorphosed. This process is profoundly influence the characteristic of sedimentary rock, including thetexture, internal structure, mineral composition, cementation type, and pore space. Hence, it is important to knowor learn the stage of sandstone diagenesis, especially in the Kerek Formation to mark the correlation betweendiagenesis and physical properties of sandstone.The purpose of this research is to identify the stage of diagenetic processes, diagenetic environment, the type ofcementation, and the relationship between diagenetic stage and physical properties of sandstone. The methods usedin this research are survey method and data analysis method. The survey method includes the making of crosssectionalmeasured stratigraphy and data analysis method includes petrographic and scanning electron microscopy(SEM.The sedimentary structures found in the carbonate sandstones are burrows, convolute ripple lamination, gradedbedding, parallel lamination, cross lamination, current ripple lamination; which are features of turbidity deposition(Bouma sequence. Based on the petrography analysis results for sample P 01 and P 02 showed compaction,cementation, dissolution, and bioturbation, with a porosity value of 1 %. Sample P 03 showed compaction,cementation, dissolution, and bioturbation, with a porosity value of 7 %. Sample P 04 showed compaction,cementation, and dissolution, with a porosity value of 1 %. Sample P 06 showed compaction, cementation,dissolution and replacement, with a porosity value of 5 %. Sample P 07 showed compaction, and cementation, witha porosity value of 30 %. The Lithology type in the research area was Calcarenite with dominant shell fragment,the lithology names are Packed biomicrite (Folks, 1959; in Nichols, 2009, and Packstone (Dunham, 1962; inNichols, 2009. Carbonate sandstones predominantly feldspar and quartz minerals and the lihtology names areCarbonate quartz wackes (Pettijhon, 1975; in Nichols, 2009, and Carbonate feldspathic arenite (Pettijhon, 1975;in Nichols, 2009. There are three minerals type of cement showed in carbonate sandstones which are calcite,chlorite and pyrite cements.The results of this research indicate that the diagenesis stages of carbonate sandstones showed cementation,dissolution, replacement, bioturbation, and compaction processes, and the more stages of diagenesis that occurs incarbonate sandstones will result in reduced porosity and progressively up at for formation stratigraphy excelsiorsediment rock assess its porosity is equal to 1%, 5%, 7% and 15% respectively. The type of cement minerals in thecarbonate sandstone influence porosity, especially in carbonate sandstone which there are chlorite cement that havesmall porosity value of 1%, 5% and 7%. The environment of diagenesis in carbonate sandstones that is phreatic andburial experienced of eogenesis process, mesogenesis process and telogenesis process.

  15. AKSEPTABILITAS DAN SIFAT DAGING ITIK AFKIR YANG DILAKUKAN CURING MENGGUNAKAN EKSTRAK KURKUMIN KUNYIT UNTUK MENGHAMBAT OKSIDASI LEMAK SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

    Sri Hartati Candra Dewi

    2015-02-01

    asam lemak dan angka peroksida penyimpanan beku selama 8 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daging itik afkir yang paling akseptabel adalah daging itik dengan curing menggunakan 0,3% ekstrak kunyit dengan lama curing selama 10 menit. Penambahan ekstrak kurkumin kunyit pada daging itik afkir mampu menghambat peroksidasi asam lemak sekitar 39,55% pada penyimpanan beku selama lima minggu. Kadar air dan lemak menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata. Namun asam lemak bebas mengalami kenaikan yang signifikan sampai minggu ke 5. Angka peroksida meningkat sampai minggu kelima sebesar 39,55 m.eq, kemudian menurun. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa akseptabilitas terbaik menggunakan ekstrak kurkumin 0,3% dengan lama curing 10 menit, pada penyimpanan beku selama 8 minggu. Kata kunci:Daging itik afkir, antioksidan kurkumin, akseptabilitas dan kualitas daging

  16. Penelitian pengaruh variasi bahan pelunak naphtenic oil terhadap sifat fisis tegangan putus dan perpanjangan putus kompon karet untuk alas sapi

    Luciawati Sunarjo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know influence of plasticizer naphtenic oil to the physical properties of tensile strength and elongation at break of rubber compound for cowmats. It makes from Rubber Smoke Sheet (RSS and Styrene Butadiene Rubber 1502 (SBR as raw material with addition ingredients are Calcium Carbonate, FEF black, Stearic Acid, Zinc Oxide, Plasticizer Naphtenic Oil, Paraffine Wax, TMT, CBS, AOSP and Sulphur as Vulcanizing agent. Rubber compound for cowmats, formed to slab by hydraulic press at 1500C and 150 Kg/cm2. Than tested tensile strength and elongation at break. The result of this research indicated that platicizer naphtenic oil (x and tensile strength have regression equation as Y1 = 24.168 – 0.634 X (r = 0.87, while naphtenic oil and elongation at break have regression equation as Y2 = 236.32 + 21 X (r = 0.88.

  17. Pengaruh Ameliorasi Terak Baja Dan Pengaturan Tinggi Muka Air Tanah Terhadap Sifat Biologi Gambut Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

    Muharis, Satria

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in peat Oil Palm Plantation PTPN IV Kebun Panai Jaya province of North Sumatra and in cooperation with the Oil Palm Research Center (PPKS). The purpose of this study do sustainable peatland management by utilizing steel waste as fertilizer (ameliorant) and setting the ground water level. Giving ameliorant aims to increase levels of nutrients in the soil, while the management of groundwater levels to prevent subsidence in the peat. With the addition of ameliorant and s...

  18. PENGARUH JENIS PENGEMAS TERHADAP RETENSI KAROTEN, SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA GULA KELAPA YANG DIPERKAYA MINYAK SAWIT MERAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

    Vicencius Prihananto

    2015-10-01

    hingga penyimpanan selama 2 bulan, kadar air produk pada semua perlakuan masih dalam kisaran standar SNI-013743-1995 (< 10 %, yaitu antara 8,55 % - 9,94 %. Kata kunci: Minyak sawit merah, retensi karoten, gula kelapa, penyimpanan, pengemas

  19. PENGARUH LAJU PENDINGINAN, SUHU, DAN LAMA KRISTALISASI PADA PROFIL TRIASILGLISEROL DAN SIFAT PELELEHAN PRODUK FRAKSIONASI MINYAK KELAPA

    Mursalin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fractionation will produce a fraction of olein and stearin with different composition of high melting and low melting as well the distribution of triacylglycerol (TAG in the form of trisaturated (St3, disaturated (St2U and monosaturated (StU2. This research aimed to study the effect of critical cooling rate and crystallization temperature on the composition and profile of TAG changes as well the melting properties of the fractionated coconut oil products. Coconut oilwas heated at 70°C then cooledat differentcooling rate to reach various crystalization temperatures. The oil was then stirred at 15rpm and allowed to crystallize at different period of time, and finally fractionated by vacuum filtration using Whatman #40 paper. Fractionation temperatures were the same as crystalization temperatures. The results showed that the critical cooling rate was proportional to the solid-like to liquid-like ratio, the content of St3 and SFC profile of olein fraction but inversely proportional to the content of St2U and StU2 TAG. Interval crystallization temperature between 21.30 and 21.73 °C produced the S/L ratio, the content of St3 TAG and SFC profiles of olein fractions lower and the content of St2U and StU2 TAG higher than the temperature interval below or above it. Coconut oil fractionation more effective in higher crystallization temperature or lower critical cooling rate. In these cooling treatments, St3 TAG which has high melting pointwould be concentrated at stearin fraction, while St2U and StU2 TAG and MCTwould be at olein fraction. Therefore, it will increase melting properties of stearin fraction and decrease olein fraction.

  20. Ketahanan N-pentana Dan Sifat Mekanis Vulkanisat Karet Perapat Dari Campuran Karet Alam/akrilonitril-butadiena Dengan Kompatibiliser

    Kinasih, Norma Arisanti; Fathurrohman, Muhammad Irfan

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of the compatibility of natural rubber (NR)/acrilonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) blend on rubber seal vulcanizate has been done by the addition of chloroprene rubber (CR) or epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as compatibilizer. Rubber seal compound was made of NR and NBR blend (BN) with CR (BCR), and ENR with epoxy content of 10% (BENR10), 20% (BENR20), 30% (BENR30), 40% (BENR40), and 50% (BENR50). The composition in each formula was homogenized, with comparison of NR:NBR at 40:6...

  1. Deteksi Gen Penyandi Sifat Resistensi Metisilin, Penisilin dan Tetrasiklin pada Isolat Staphylococcus aureus Asal Susu Mastitis Subklinis Sapi Perah

    Fatkhanuddin Aziz

    2017-02-01

    species specific gene of S. aureus and the gene encoding methicillin, penicillin and tetracycline were confirmed by PCR method. The results showed 11 isolates representing of Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA could be identified, wherein 5 isolates were harboring both of penicillin and tetracycline resistant genes respectively.

  2. Substitusi Labu Kuning (Cucurbita Moschata Dan Tepung Beras Terhadap Peningkatan Nilai Gizi, ?-Karoten Dan Sifat Sensoris Kue Ombus-Ombus

    Agus Duniaji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the effect of pumpkin and rice flour ratio to Nutrition Value and ?-carotene content of ombus-ombus cake. This research using randomized block design with 5 treatment of substitution of pumkin and flour rice: 0% pumpkin: 100% rice flour, 20% pumpkin: 80% rice flour, 30% pumpkin: 70% rice flour, 40% pumpkin:60% rice flour, 50% pumpkin: 50% rice flour. Those treatment repeated 3 times. Data obtained analyzed with anova, treatment with significant different tested by Duncan test. The results of the research showed that substitution of pumpkin and rice flour gave different effect on water content, ash content protein content, fat content, carbohydrate content, ?-carotene, colour, taste, aroma, and overall acceptance. substitution 50% of pumpkin and 50% rice flour gave the nutrition value of ombus-ombus cake with water 48.70%, ash 6.16%, protein 4.44%, fat 0.18%, carbohydrates 41.58 %, and  ?-carotene 6.31%, while sensories evaluation such as color 4,3 (yellow, flavor 4,4 (like, aroma 4,2 (typical pumpkin and overall acceptance 4,8 (really like by the panelists.

  3. ANALISIS ARAH DAN PERLAKUAN SERAT TAPIS SERTA RASIO EPOXY HARDENER TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS DAN MEKANIS KOMPOSIT TAPIS/EPOXY

    Putu Lokantara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tapis kelapa (Coconut filter as natural fiber, in this time its resources very copius but no longer be exploited and thrown off hand as waste though in fact its used for other material dissimilar inovatif and high economic valuable that is as one of natural fiber alternative to be composite. The objective of this research is to investigate the behavior changing of physical and mechanical properties of composite tapis kelapa as reinforcement and epoxy 7120 with hardener Versamid 140 as matrix. The fiber is treated with the chemical NaOH and KMnO4 with percentage 0.5%, 1%, and 2% in weight, respectively. The ratio of epoxy and hardener is 7:3 and 6:4, and fiber orientation 0o, 45o, dan 90o. For testing of the speciment in tensile test with ASTM standard D3039 and three point bending test with ASTM standard D790. The result of this research obtained that fiber treatment with KMnO4 give the better effect to machine properties compared to NaOH. Variation of percentage 0.5%, 1%, and 2% NaOH and KMnO4 give the effect in fiber surface which higher percentage make the cleaner of surface, decrease of wax contain, and roughness of fiber surface so that stronger of linkage of fiber and matrix and increase of tensile strength, bending strength, and bending modulus of the composite. The highest tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and bending strength are 70.23 MPa, 446.24 GPa and 97.81 MPa respectively reached at composite with ratio epoxy/hardener 7:3; by 2% KMnO4 and fiber orientation 45o. While the highest modulus of elasticity is 385.48 GPa reached at composite with the ratio epoxy/hardener 6:4; 2% KMnO4 and fiber orientation 90o. Keywords: Tensile Strength, bending strength, ratio of epoxy/hardener, NaOH, KMnO4

  4. Penentuan Waktu dan Suhu Pengeringan Optimal Terhadap Sifat Fisik Bahan Pengisi Bubur Kampiun Instan Menggunakan Pengering Vakum

    Yulia Helmi Diza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research to improve the quality of kampiun instant porridge had been done with the treatment temperature and time of drying using a vacuum drying. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal drying temperature and time in the filler manufacture of instant kampiun porridge consisted of instant rice porridge, instant mung beans, black rice porridge and banana instant. To the obtained products were tested the physics test which covered yield, moisture content, density kamba, water absorption capacity, and rehydration time. The results of analysis from various treatments showed that the optimum treatment for instant rice porridge was drying temperature 60oC for 6 hours, for instant mung beans was drying temperature 60oC for 6 hours, for instant banana was drying temperature of 50oC for 6 hours, and for black sticky rice porridge was drying temperature 60oC for 6 hours.ABSTRAKPenelitian peningkatan mutu bubur kampiun instan telah dilakukan dengan perlakuan suhu dan waktu pengeringan menggunakan alat pengeringan vakum. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menentukan suhu dan waktu pengeringan optimal dalam pembuatan bahan pengisi bubur kampiun instan, yang terdiri dari bubur beras instan, kacang hijau instan, bubur ketan hitam instan dan pisang instan. Terhadap produk yang dihasilkan dilakukan uji fisika meliputi rendemen, kadar air, densitas kamba, kapasitas penyerapan air, dan waktu rehidrasi. Hasil analisis terhadap berbagai perlakuan menunjukkan perlakuan optimal untuk bubur beras instan adalah suhu pengeringan 60oC selama 6 jam, untuk kacang hijau instan adalah suhu pengeringan 60oC selama 6 jam, untuk pisang instan adalah suhu pengeringan 50oC selama 6 jam dan untuk bubur ketan hitam instan adalah suhu pengeringan 60oC selama 6 jam.

  5. Efek Waktu Wet Milling dan Suhu Annealing Terhadap Sifat Fisis, Mikrostruktur dan Magnet dari Flakes NdFeB

    Sipahutar, Wahyu Solafide

    2015-01-01

    Had made research manufacture NdFeB magnets of flakes of wet milling process using a ball mill to the physic properties, microstructure, and magnetic properties with variations milling time is 16 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours. Powder result of mechanical milling using a ball mill and then analyzed the resulting particle size by using PSA and XRD. Then do the manufacture of test samples in the form of pellets by compaction process through print isotropy. Having obtained a sample of pelle...

  6. Identifikasi Sifat dan Distribusi Sel Endokrin Ghrelin di Lambung Tikus (Rattus Norvegicus: Studi Immunohis-Tokimia pada Kondisi Obesitas

    Teguh Budipitojo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of major nutritional problems in the world. Obesity is very dangerous, especially when concentrated in the abdomen, because it is closely linked to various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, which can to causing death. This study aims to identify the nature and distribution of ghrelin on gastric endocrine cells in the obese rat (Rattus norvegicus by using immunohistochemical techniques. The results will strengthen the understanding of the role and function of ghrelin as an alternative therapeutic target on obesity. The research used gastric tissues of ten obese and control rats which were stained with avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method of immunohistochemistry. The results showed the existence of two types of ghrelin-producing cells (open and closed types on the gastric mucosa of control rats, and only one type of ghrelin producing cells (open type in obese rats. The intensity of ghrelin immunoreactive positive cells was detected weak in obese rats, but very strong in control rats. Ghrelin endocrine cells mainly distributed in the basal part of the gastric mucosa of the fundus parts, with a very small number in obese rats, but highly abundant in control rats. This study confirmed the decrease of the ghrelin synthesis and secretion in obese rat (Rattus norvegicus at the cellular level. The decrease of ghrelin synthesis is characterized by a reduction on the number of ghrelin producing cells, the disappearance of the close type of ghrelin producing cells, and the low activity of protein synthesis in the ghrelin producing cells. Ghrelin endocrine cells distributed mainly in the basal part of the gastric mucosa, especially in the fundus parts.

  7. Reologi, sifat aging, termal, dan swelling dari campuran EPDM/NR dengan bahan pengisi carbon black N220

    Arum Yuniari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blends of EPDM and NR are immiscible in nature and incompatible. Introducing maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer into the blends was expected to produce compatible blends with balanced mechanical properties. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of EPDM/NR ratio on the rheological, aging, thermal and swelling properties of the blends. The variation of EPDM/NR ratio were 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 40/60 phr. The blends were mixed using two roll mill. The results showed that the addition of NR affects the maximum torque, scorch time, and optimum vulcanization time. In the blends, EPDM plays an important role in improving aging, swelling, thermal properties.

  8. Analisis sifat fisika pemanfaatan pati tandan kosong sawit dan limbah plastik LDPE sebagai bahan pembuatan plastik biodegradabel

    Tengku Rachmi Hidayani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to overcome the issue of plastic packaging waste that accumulates in nature because synthetic polymers cannot be easily unraveled by bacteria. Biodegradable plastics were produced by mixing waste of plastics of the low density polyethylene (LDPE with starch of empty palm fruit bunches, modified with the addition of maleic anhydride as a crosslinking agent. To produce biodegradable plastics, different compositions of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm fruit bunch, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide were used, namely (90: 10: 1: 1, (80: 20: 1: 1, (70: 30: 1: 1, and (60: 40: 1: 1. Research stages consisted of extraction of starch from palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB; preparation of biodegradable plastic powder with the reflux method and xylene solvents; and making of biodegradable plastics using the press molding method. Based on the results of characterization, it was revealed that the optimum condition was generated by biodegradable plastics with the composition of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm bunches, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide was equal to 60: 40: 1: 1, which generated the tensile strength value of 6.9410 N/m2, the elongation at break of 3.1875%, the the melting point temperature of 103oC, and the decomposition temperature of 384oC. Besides, the thermal gravimetric test generated a residue of 12.6% and results of the analysis on morphological properties suggested that the starch distributed evenly.

  9. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Teh Hijau (Camellia sinesis L. dalam Sediaan Krim terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Aktivitas Antibakteri

    Naniek Widyaningrum

    2012-12-01

    Design and Method: In this study, green tea leaf extract condensed obtained by maceration using 50% ethanol solution. Cream formula that is made in five concentration ethanolic extract of green tea leaves 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9% use a modified formula antiacne cream. Cream tested physical properties include homogenity, percent separation, dispersive power and adhesion. During the antibacterial activity was also tested. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney test with a level of 95%. Results: The preparation cream ethanolic leaf green tea extract at various concentrations have good homogenity and not separate, the greater concentration of cream ethanolic extract of green tea leaves get smaller power and energy dispersive adhesion, whereas the inhibitory against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is getting biger. Conclusion: Cream ethanolic extract of green tea leaves that are comparable with the positive control (Ristra acne creaming the physical properties and the antibacterial activity at a concentration of 7% (Sains Medika, 4(2:147-156.

  10. PEMANFAATAN LEGUM COVER CROP UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI SIFAT KIMIA TANAH PADA LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG EMAS DI KABUPATEN SIJUNJUNG

    Giska Oktabriana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sijunjung is one of the regencies in West Sumatra, which has reserves of gold mines. Gold mining in Sijunjung usually done illegally conducted dialiran river and spread the paddy rice is traditionally owned by the community. Problems encountered on mined land is that low productivity due to less good is the chemical properties of the soil it self like acid soil, N-total, P-available, cation exchange capacity (CEC and the content of bases (K, Ca, Mg and Na is low and Al dissolved in the soil is very high. One way you can do to fix it is by the use of Legume Cover Crop (LCC which is able to live on land that is damaged and is useful to protect the soil from erosion damage and is able to produce large amounts of organic matter. The purpose of this research is to improve the chemical properties of the gold mined land and to determine the type of Legume Cover Crop (LCC are good at improving the chemical nature of the gold mined lands. This research was conducted in Nagari Koto subdistrict Pala Outer Seven Sijunjung for 3 months and continued with the analysis in the Laboratory of Soil Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University. The design used in this study is a randomized block design (RAK with 5 treatments and 3 replications, treatment plant use LCC where, A = Control (without LCC,B =Mucuna conchinchinensis, C = Calopogonium mucunoide, D =Centrocema pubescen, E = Mucuna bracteata. Data analysis using Anova table 5% if F count is count more than F table 5% and a further test HSD 5%. From the research results can be concluded that the use of LCC M. conchinchinensisable to improve soil chemical properties in the gold mining land in Sijunjung.

  11. KAJIAN SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN FISIOLOGI TERHADAP BEBERAPA TINGKAT KEMATANGAN BUAH RAMBUTAN VARIETAS SI MACAN DI KABUPATEN GUNUNG KIDUL YOGYAKARTA

    Siti Nurhayati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine theee effect of physical, chemical and physiological characteristic of several stages maturity of rambutan cultivar Simacan in Wonosari, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. This experimental research was conducted from March to May 2004 used a single factorial Randomized Complete Design (RCD, consisted of six levels, i.e.: A (Rambutan fruit with red stages of maturity, B (Rambutan fruit with yellowness red stages of  maturity, C (Rambutan fruit with yellow  stages of  maturity,  D (Rambutan fruit with greennes  yellow stages of  maturity, E (Rambutan fruit with green  stages of  maturity.  The treatment was done in three replications. The research result showed that (i According to the physical characteristics (weight of whole fruit, fruit flesh and flesh thickness, rambutan in red stages of maturity (84,340%, the highest sugar content was in the red stages of maturity (86,20%, the highest vitamin C content was in the red stages of maturity (29,151% and the highest total solution soluble was in the yellow stages of maturity (15,104% (iii. According to the physiological characteristics, the highest respiration rate was in the greenness yellow fruits stage of maturity ( 0,0495%. Based on the research, it is better for  farmers to harvest rambutan Simacan once they are in red stage. In this stage the rambutan will have its highest sugar, and vitamin C contents.

  12. Penelitian penerapan sol karet sepatu kanvas untuk olah raga pada industri ditinjau dari sifat ketahanan kikis dan kekerasannya

    Any Setyaningsih

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Appied research rubber sole for canvas shoes sport of industry have observed of properties abrasion resistance and hardness with perform research on the process to shape sole in industry with variation time of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 minutes and pressure of 145, 150, 155 kg/cm2 on temperature 150’C on the result 15 variation soles, until of result properties abrasion resistance = 0.1410 mm3/kgm and hardness = 70 shore A to shape with variation pressure 150 kg/cm2, time 6 minute and temperature 150’C ti fill means SNI 0171-1987 A : Canvas Shoes with Rubber Sole for Sport.

  13. Pengaruh Panjang Serat Terhadap Nilai Koefisien Absorpsi Suara dan Sifat Mekanik Komposit Serat Ampas Tebu dengan Matriks Gipsum

    Stefanus Laga Suban

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat material komposit gipsum berpenguat serat alam untuk bahan penyerap suara. Permasalahan yang dikaji adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan panjang serat pada komposit ampas tebu bermatrik  gipsum terhadap nilai koefisien absorpsi suara (α, kekuatan tekan, dan kekuatan lenturnya. Panjang serat yang digunakan adalah 10mm, 30mm, dan 50mm  dengan fraksi volum 30% serat : 70% gipsum. Tujuannya untuk mendapatkan hubungan nilai koefisien absorpsi suara, kuat lentur, dan kuat tekan dengan panjang serat yang diberikan serta aplikasinya dalam material bahan penyerap suara yang memenuhi standar ISO 11654. Metode pembuatan spesimen komposit yang digunakan adalah hand lay up. Metode pengujian berdasarkan standart ASTM E1050 untuk pengujian koefisien absorpsi suara, ASTM D790 untuk pengujian kuat lentur, dan ASTM D695 untuk pengujian kuat tekan. Dari hasil pengujian didapatkan nilai koefisien absorpsi suara memenuhi standar ISO 11654 dengan nilai koefisien α lebih besar dari 0,15. Nilai kuat lentur terbaik ialah pada panjang serat 30mm sebesar 1,952 MPa. Nilai kuat tekan terbaik ialah pada panjang serat 50mm sebesar 2,005 MPa

  14. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PATI GARUT HASIL MODIFIKASI HIDROKSIPROPILASI DAN TAUT SILANG [Functional Properties of Hydroxypropylated and Crosslinked Arrowroot Starch

    Rijanti Rahaju Maulani1*

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual-modified arrowroot starch using hydroxypropylation and cross-linking methods was carried out to overcome the deficiency in of native arrowroot starches for food processing application. The modification applied the combination concentration of propylene oxide (8, 10, and 12% and ratio of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP:sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP (1%:4%, 2%:5%, and 3%:6%. The resulting dual-modified arrowroot starches had lower gelatinization temperature (68.45–70.00ºC than that of native arrowroot starch (72.85ºC. The modified arrowroot starches also had a higher peak viscosity (>5500 cp than that of native arrowroot starch (4209 cP. Breakdown and setback viscosity of modified arrowroot starch was higher values than the native. At acidic pH, the viscosity decreased at different levels of temperature changes as compared to that of normal pH. Modified starch made with 8% propylene oxide and ratio of STMP: STPP 2%:5% and 3%:6%; as well as that made with 10% propylene oxide and 1% STMP:4% STPP had the lowest syneresis tendency. Decrease in the paste clarity occured with increasing concentration of STMP:STPP. The sedimentation volume of the modified starch was higher (29.17-35.83% than that of native starch (28.08%, except for those made with 1% STMP: 4% STPP at concentration of propylene oxide 8% and 12%. The gel strength increased (61.77-78.97 gf at 8% propylene oxide, but decreased (66.50-47.77 gf at higher concentrations.

  15. FORTIFIKASI JAGUNG MANIS DAN KACANG HIJAU TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK SUSU JAGUNG MANIS KACANG HIJAU

    Sri Setyani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn-mung bean milk can be used to helping increasing the nutrition status of the society . This research was aimed to find the formulation of sweet corn and mung bean that produce sweet corn-mung bean milk with the best physical, chemical and sensory characteristics and is accepted by consument. The experiment was arranged in a completely block randomized design (CBRD withy one factor and three replications. The treatments were five  formulations of sweet corn and  mung bean , they were 3:1 (F1, 2:1 (F2, 1:1 (F3, 1:2 (F4, and 1:3 (F5 (w/w. The data were analysed using analysis of variance, and then continued with 1 % and 5 % Least Significant Different Test. The determinination of the water addition that produced mung bean-sweet corn milk that is compliance with the total solid in SNI (11.5 % was done in the preliminary research. The preliminary research result showed that mung bean sweet corn milk has total solid of 15-19% for all of formulations, while the best favorable milk was  milk with the formulation: water that is at 1:10. The result of the main research showed that the stabilityobjectively, protein content, and organoleptic characteristic were not significanly different among sweet corn and mung bean formulations, but the stability visually, the viscosity, soluble total solid and fat content were significanltly different among sweet corn and mung bean formulation. According to the SNI (soluble total solid, protein and fat contents are the formulation that have met the soy milk quality standard, but the best formulation was found in  F2, with the protein content of 3,183% , fat content of 3,667%, and the most favourable formulation was  F2 formulation with 1, 893 score. The result of amino acid analysis on the best mung bean-sweet corn milk showed that five types of essential amino acid (threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine have not met the amino acid standard yet by FAO (1973. In conclusion, the combination of sweet corn and mung bean become mung bean sweet corn milk has not overcome the lack of lysine on corn and methionine on mung bean yet. Keywords : ,Amino acid,  sweet corn, mung bean

  16. Evaluasi Sifat Biologi Tanah Tanaman Kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) di Beberapa Kecamatan di Kabupaten Mandailing Natal

    Matondang, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the agricultural commodities that has a sufficiently high economic value. Mandailaing Natal is the one of the coffee-producing areas in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate the biological properties of the soil, among others organic carbon, total nitrogen, total soil respiration and total soil microorganisms to the production of coffee. This study conducted using survey method. Samples were taken at random method deliberately based on deployment coffee plants from various ...

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Vermikompos dan Biochar Jerami Padi terhadap Sifat Biologi Tanah dan Kapasitas Menyimpan Air pada Tanah Ultisol

    Ramadhan, Azhari

    2016-01-01

    Soil biology and soil water holding capacity is an important aspect in determining the health of the soil. Giving vermicompost and paddy straw biochar can affect the biological properties of the soil and ultisol soil water holding capacity. This study aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost and paddy straw biochar on biological properties of the soil and the ultisol water holding capacity. The research was conducted in the laboratory. This research used randomized block design with one ...

  18. Pengaruh Pelapisan Kitosan terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Tomat Segar (Lycopersicum pyriforme pada Berbagai Tingkat Kematangan

    Melly Novita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit undergoes many physicochemical changes after harvest caused by the process of metabolism. The method used to inhibit the metabolic processes in tomatoes can be overcome by controlled atmosphere storage. However, this method requires a high cost. Therefore there is another method that is more practical and economical to imitate the mechanism of the controlled atmosphere is by the use of coating materials (coating. Coating material must be able to form a barrier layer of the loss of water content and can maintain fruit quality and does not pollute the environment. Chitosan is a natural alternative as a coating material that is non-toxic and safe for health. This study aimed to observe the effect of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of fresh tomatoes at different maturity levels. The study design used was completely randomized design (CRD factorial with two factors. The factor I was the maturity stages which consisted of 3 (three levels : K1 = full green (0-10% red skin, K2 = light red (30-60% red skin, K3 = ripe ( > 70% red skin. Factor II is storage duration which consisted of 5 (five level : P1 = 0 day, P2 = 5 days, P3 = 10 days, P4 = 15 days, P5 = 20 days, with 2 (two replications. The analysis conducted on tomatoes were weight loss, solusble solids concentration, total acid, and vitamin C. The results showed that the tomatoes were coated chitosan could inhibit weight loss, soluble solids concentration, total acid, and vitamin C than untreated tomatoes (control. Chitosan coating with a concentration of 1% and a long soaking for 10 minutes on the tomatoes with the maturity stages of 0-10% skin red and 30-60% skin red could maintain in good condition for 20 days of storage. But the tomatoes with the maturity stage > 70% red skin only able to survive 10 days of storage.

  19. Studi pengaruh umur dan tinggi batang terhadap struktur serat sifat fisik morfologi dan kimia batang bambu apus Gigantochloa Apus Kurz

    Hery Purnobasuki

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic and anatomical study of Gigantochloa apus was carried out to know the fiber structure, morphological, physical, and chemical properties on various age and part of culm height. The research was done by ex post facto design and the data was analyzed by observational description. For anatomical observation, materials were processed using paraffin, PEG, and wood method and maceration for fiber structure. The result showed that inter-nodus amount, diameter, and wall thickness was increase in older culm. Fiber length was 3.8 mm in average, and older culms have longer fiber than the young ones and within the same culm, the lower part had longer fibers than the upper part. The fresh density (0.97-1.17 g/ml and the oven dry density (0.57-0.79 g/ml of this bamboo, it was higher for the older culm than younger culm. Liquor sorption (in NaOH 5% solution into bamboo chips was fairly good. The sorption into the young bamboo was faster and better than into older bamboo. Young bamboo culms contain more water than older culms and the top part within the same culm contain litte water than lower part. The total cellulose in young bamboo culm was higher than the older (64%-54%, but the lignin on the contrary in lower (14%-28%. At the bottom part, the lignin was higher than the upper prt. The ash content was high (1.6%-4.5% and its fluctuated based on age and the height part of culm.

  20. Identifikasi Ras Fisiologis Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Berdasarkan Sifat Kompatibel Secara Vegetatif dan Pembentukan Bahan Volatil

    Arif Wibowo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Race characterization of F. oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith Snyd. & Hans. by determining disease reaction is difficult because the result may be biased due to the variability of growing condition. This study is aimed to identify physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in banana plantation in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta by examining the relation of the fungal pathogen isolates. The identification of physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs. The research was conducted in The Laboratory of Mycology Faculty of Agriculture GMU on March to November 2000. Observation of heterokarion formed by the mutant of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense on selective medium was carried out in order to identify the compatibility of two different fungal isolates. Nitrate non utilizing (nit mutants obtained without mutagen were used as the label. Nit mutant obtained from the same wild type isolates could form heterokarion on minimal agar medium containing NaNO3 as nitrogen source. Eleven isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense have been isolated from several cultivars of banana. Vegetative compatibility tests showed that of 11 eleven isolates, there were six different group VCGs where four of them formed volatile compound in rice medium whereas two of them did not. Key words: Fusarium wilt, F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs

  1. Identifikasi Ras Fisiologis Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense Berdasarkan Sifat Kompatibel secara Vegetatif dan Pembentukan Bahan Volatil

    Wibowo, Arif; Suryanti, Suryanti; Sumardiyono, Christanti

    2002-01-01

    Race characterization of F. oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyd. & Hans. by determining disease reaction is difficult because the result may be biased due to the variability of growing condition. This study is aimed to identify physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in banana plantation in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta by examining the relation of the fungal pathogen isolates. The identification of physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was b...

  2. Potensi minuman bubuk kedelai (var. Galunggung sebagai minuman fungsional: sifat fisikokimia, efek hipoglikemik dan hipokolesterolemik serta status antioksidan

    Setyaningrum Aviriani

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: Powdered soybean (var. Galunggung beverage has the potential to be developed as functional drink with several health claims, i.e. reduce glucose and cholesterol levels, and improve antioxidant status.

  3. Pengaruh serbuk serat batang pisang sebagai filler terhadap sifat mekanis dari komposit PVC– CaCO3

    Supraptiningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of research was to study the effect to the mechanical properties of banana fiber as a filler of PVC-calcium carbonate composite. Banana stem powder was made from banana stem which was grounded and soaked in 15 % NaOH for 24 hours to remove the lignin, dried and screened to 200 mesh, PVC-calcium carbonate composite was made using a Two Roll Mill at o temperature of 50 C, for 10 minutes and 50 rpm. The composition of PVC and additiveswere not varied, while the variations made on banana fiber, ie 0, 10; 20, 30, and 40 phr (per hundred resin. The observation showed the mechanical properties of PVC- calcium carbonate 2 composite has value of weight per unit area between 4.55 to 5.90 kg/m , bulk densities from 1.503 3 2 to 1.999 g/cm , tensile strength from 67.56 to 79.03 kg/cm , hardness 55.00 to 66.66 shore D, 2 water absorption from 0.960 to 3.322 %, flexibility test from 118.99 to 165.09 kg/cm , flash point 0.032 0.075 inc / sec, water density was good (not drop happened and the ability of sawed and nailed was good (no defected/cracked. When the test results of PVC-calcium carbonate composite with banana fiber compared with SNI 15-0233-1989 Mutu dan Cara Uji Lembaran Serat Semen, indicates that

  4. The tropospheric aerosol at mid-latitudes - microphysics, optics, and climate forcing illustrated by the LACE 98 field study; Das troposphaerische Aerosol in mittleren Breiten - Mikrophysik, Optik und Klimaantrieb am Beispiel der Feldstudie LACE 98

    Fiebig, M.

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the column closure of optical aerosol parameters as part of the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (LACE 98). The optical aerosol parameters were calculated from microphysical aerosol parameters which were measured height resolved from tropopause to boundary layer and compared with the direct measurement of the respective property (closure). The closure allows the validation of the measured aerosol properties and the inversion of aerosol properties which are not measurable directly. The radiative forcings of the measured aerosol columns are estimated. The measured, quality assured microphysical aerosol properties are parameterized and tabulated as input data for models. The successful closure of the aerosol column's optical depth validates the measured particle size distributions, whereas the successful closure of the backscatter coefficient validates the assumptions made on the aerosol chemical composition and serves to deduce its state of mixture, the latter point exemplified using a 7 day old forest fire aerosol. The local, instantaneous radiative forcing of the measured continental particle columns are estimated to lie between -33 W/m{sup 2} for continental and -6 W/m{sup 2} for marine air masses for a solar zenith angle of 56 . (orig.) [German] Als Teil des Lindenberger Aerosol Charakterisierungsexperimentes (LACE 98) behandelt diese Arbeit die Saeulenschliessung optischer Aerosolparameter. Diese wurden aus den von Tropopause bis Grenzschicht hoehenaufgeloest gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften berechnet, um sie mit den am gleichen Ort direkt gemessenen optischen Aerosolparametern zu vergleichen (Schliessung). Es wird gezeigt, dass die Schliessung die Qualitaetssicherung der gemessenen Aerosoleigenschaften und die Invertierung direkt nicht messbarer Aerosoleigenschaften ermoeglicht. Die Strahlungsantriebe der vermessenen Aerosolsaeulen werden abgeschaetzt. Die qualitaetsgesicherten gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften werden als Eingabedaten fuer Modelle parameterisiert und tabelliert. Die erfolgreiche Schliessung der optischen Dicke der Aerosolsaeule validiert die gemessenen Partikelgroessenverteilungen, die erfolgreiche Schliessung der Rueckstreukoeffizienten validiert die Annahmen zur chemischen Aerosolzusammensetzung und dient zur Invertierung seines Mischungszustands, letzteres vorgefuehrt an einem 7 Tage gealterten Waldbrandaerosol. Die lokalen, instantanen Strahlungsantriebe der gemessenen kontinentalen Partikelsaeulen liegen zwischen -33 W/m{sup 2} fuer kontinentale und -6 W/m{sup 2} fuer marine Luftmassen bei einem solaren Zenithwinkel von 56 . (orig.)

  5. KARAKTERISASI BIJI DAN PROTEIN KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet SEBAGAI SUMBER PROTEIN [Characterization of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Seed and Its Protein

    Andrew S R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to characterize the physiochemical properties of hyacinth beans as new protein source. The result of research showed that hyacinth beans are oval shaped and orange and yellow coloured. The edible part of hyacinth beans is 83.2 ± 1.1 % of dry seed; in which the carbohydrate is 67.9 ± 1.1 %; protein: 17.1 ± 1.5 % and fat: 1.1 ± 0.4 %. According to their solubility, the protein fractions were found as albumin: 18.22 %; globuli : 55.15 % and glutelin : 26.13 %, whereas prolamin was not detected. Further analyis showed that, the globulin is consisted of globulin 7S (3.50% and globulin 11S (0.67 %. The hyacinth beans are potential to be used for protein source.

  6. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Dedin FR1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The Maillard reaction is complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small. Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Oils were oxidized at 110 oC and determined by the rancimat method and TBA value. The high molecular compounds (MW ≥100 kDa of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index 2.43. Characteristic UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and IR spectra indicated –OH...O groups of β-diketon or combinated C=R=R groups.

  7. KARAKTERISASI DAUN MIANA (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. Bth. DAN BUAH SIRIH (Piper betle L. SECARA FISIKO KIMIA DARI RAMUAN LOKAL ANTIMALARIA DAERAH SULAWESI UTARA

    Vivi Lisdawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains are an increasing problem in endemic areas and are partly responsible for the worsening malaria situation around the world. New cheap and efftctive compounds active in combination with available drug in the field, such as indegenous traditional medicine, are urgently needed. The aim of this work was to characterize the simplitia and extracts of an indegenous traditional medicine which usually used in North Sulawesi. Since this indigenous traditional medicine has been largely used and well-tolerated in humans, secondary metabolites derivatives of the plants could be in the near future associated with already available drugs in order to delay the spread of P. falciparum resistance. Non polar, semi polar and polar extracts of P. scutellarioides folium and P. bette fruit are prepared of each plants part obtained, then evaluated by using chromatography and densitometry methods following identification.   Keywords: P. falciparum, antimalarial activity, P. scutellarioides folium, P. betle fruit, secondary metabolites

  8. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun dari Dua Varietas Sirih (Piper betle L.) Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus mutans Penyebab Karies Gigi

    Sitorus, Sulastri

    2010-01-01

    Leaf of betle (Piper betle L) has beeen used traditionally as medicine, for example as mouthwash, prevent caries and wound curing. This betle have many varieties which was differented by it colour, form and taste. Part of betle are different from colour, form, taste. Part of betle are red betle, Malay betel, black betel, silver betle, forest betle and prawn, but some people more used to sirih Melayu. It happened because almost people do not recordnice varieties of Piper betle. This observat...

  9. Karakterisasi Morfometrik dan Jarak Genetik Rumpun-Rumpun Kelinci di Jawa Barat (MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DISTANCE OF RABBIT BREEDS IN WEST JAVA

    Rudi Dedi Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess morphometric characteristics, breeds relationship andvariables that distinguished among breeds of rabbits raised in West Java. This research used 419 rabbitsconsisted of Angora (AG, Dutch (DT, Flemish Giant (FG, Lop (LP, Netherland Dwarf (ND, Composite(PX, Rex (RX, Satin (ST, Reza (XA and New Zealand White (ZW. Head length (PK, head width (LK, earlength (PTL, ear width (LTL, chest width (LD, chest depth (DD, chest circumference (LKD, body length(PB , hips width (LP, length of the scapula bone (PS, humerus length (PH, radius-ulna length (PRU,femur length (PF and tibia length (PT were observed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance,discriminant and canonical analysis using SAS program ver. 9.1.3 and MEGA5 program to get theconstruction of phenogram tree. FG and ST rabbits were generally larger in size and shape than the otherrabbits breeds, while ND rabbit had the smallest morphological size than other rabbits breeds, except forLK, LD and DD. Results of discriminant analysis showed that LP, RX, ND and XA had a high similarityvalue, otherwise DT, FG, ST, PX, AG and ZW had no the value. The closest genetic distance matrix valueindicated by PX-ZW breeds (1,53 and the farthest genetic distance indicated by FG-ND breeds (6,62.Phenogram tree construction showed that the breeds rabbits divided into five clusters, namely cluster ND,DT; ST clusters; FG cluster; cluster LP, PX, ZW and cluster AG, XA, RX. Phenotypic size that had stronginfluence on the differentiation of rabbit breeds were PTL, LTL, PRU, PH and PF on the canonical 1 alsoPT and PS on canonical 2.

  10. Phenotypic and Serotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Subclinical Mastitis Cattle (KARAKTERISASI SECARA FENOTIPE DAN SEROTIPE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS YANG BERASAL DARI MASTITIS SUBKLINIK PADA SAPI

    Siti Gusti Ningrum

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is known as a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cattle. In the presentstudy, 104 isolates of Staphylococcus originated from subclinical mastitis cattle characterized for thephenotypic properties and the presence of Staphylococcal protein A (Spa. Some bacteria were resistancesagainst several antibiotics were also studied, such as erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cefepime,nitrofurantoin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. About 78% of the isolated were moderatelysensitive to nitrofurantoin, while 89% were highly resistant to cefepime and ciprofloxacin. Using thevarious mammals’ sera, seven isolates out of 104 revealed the presence of Spa.

  11. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCILAGE FROM LEAVES OF Pereskia bleo (ROSE CACTUS [Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Getah Daun Kaktus Mawar (Pereskia bleo

    Nor Hayati Ibrahim*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (rose cactus is a type of tropical herbs which has long been used for its medicinal benefits among Malays and is also known to contain complex polysaccharide called mucilage. In this study, mucilage from leaves of rose cactus was extracted by using distilled water or 0.14 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution at three different temperatures (i.e. 50°C, 70°C or 90°C. There was a significant (p<0.05 interaction effect between type of medium used and temperature on yield of mucilage. Extraction using 0.14 M NaOH solution at 70°C provided the highest yield (2.55% of mucilage as compared to other extraction conditions. The mucilage extracted with 0.14 M NaOH solution at 70°C was further characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and compared with arabic gum. The crude protein, moisture and ash content of the mucilage were 4.81%, 13.59% and 28.67% respectively. It possessed appreciable amount of elements such as calcium (48.96 mg/g sample, and potassium (15.58 mg/g sample. The pH value of the mucilage was 10.89 (alkaline and it exhibited a clear thixotropic flow behavior with acceptable emulsion capacity (7.08% and stability (7.31% at 1% concentration. The colour of the mucilage and water holding capacity (WHC was L*= 68.81, and 461.87 % respectively. These findings suggest that rose cactus mucilage could be an interesting functional food ingredient as it originated from a well-known medicinal plant though further study should be done in order to fully understand its potential as one of alternative food hydrocolloids.

  12. Studi Numerik Karakterisasi Aliran 3 Dimensi Multifase (Gas-Solid) Pada Gravity Settling Chamber Dengan Variasi Kecepatan Inlet Dan Diameter Partikel Pada Aliran Dilute Phase

    Isa’i, Adi Mochammad; Widodo, Wawan Aries

    2013-01-01

    Kegiatan pemilahan pada aktivitas produksi merupakan salah satu kegiatan yang banyak dilakukan pada dunia industri. Penggunaan gravity settling chamber merupakan teknologi pemilahan partikel yang paling sedehana dan murah. Maka dalam perancangan suatu gravity settling chamber perlu diketahui parameter yang mempengaruhi kinerja dari alat tersebut. Analisa karakteristik aliran pada gravity settling chamber dilakukan dengan metode simulasi numerik menggunakan persamaan Eularian-Lagrangian. Sebu...

  13. Studi Numerik Karakterisasi Aliran 3 Dimensi Multifase (Gas-Solid) Pada Gravity Settling Chamber Dengan Variasi Kecepatan Inlet Dan Diameter Partikel Pada Aliran Dilute Phase

    Adi Mochammad Isa’i; Wawan Aries Widodo

    2013-01-01

    Kegiatan  pemilahan pada aktivitas produksi merupakan salah satu kegiatan yang banyak dilakukan pada dunia industri. Penggunaan gravity settling chamber merupakan teknologi pemilahan partikel yang paling sedehana dan murah. Maka dalam perancangan suatu gravity settling chamber perlu diketahui parameter yang mempengaruhi kinerja dari alat tersebut. Analisa karakteristik aliran pada gravity settling chamber dilakukan dengan metode simulasi numerik menggunakan persamaan Eularian-Lagrangian. Sebu...

  14. Studi Numerik Karakterisasi Aliran 3 Dimensi Multifase (Gas-Solid Pada Gravity Settling Chamber Dengan Variasi Kecepatan Inlet Dan Diameter Partikel Pada Aliran Dilute Phase

    Adi Mochammad Isa’i

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan  pemilahan pada aktivitas produksi merupakan salah satu kegiatan yang banyak dilakukan pada dunia industri. Penggunaan gravity settling chamber merupakan teknologi pemilahan partikel yang paling sedehana dan murah. Maka dalam perancangan suatu gravity settling chamber perlu diketahui parameter yang mempengaruhi kinerja dari alat tersebut. Analisa karakteristik aliran pada gravity settling chamber dilakukan dengan metode simulasi numerik menggunakan persamaan Eularian-Lagrangian. Sebuah aliran multifase udara  dan partikel abu terbang batu bara (fly ashberdiameter 100 μm mengalir melalui sebuah  gravity settling chamber dengan variasi diameter hidrolis saluran inlet sebesar 1/3 1/5 dan 1/7  kali dari diameter hidrolis  ruang pengendap dengan laju kapasitas aliran yang sama . Selain divariasikan kecepatan inlet aliran, juga dilakukan variasi distribusi diameter dengan ukuran partikel kurang dari 50 μm, ukuran 50 -100 μm dan ukuran 100-200 μm.  Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah semakin kecil ukuran diameter partikel maka akan efisiensi partikel yang ditangkap oleh gravity settling chamber semakin rendah. Ukuran partikel tidak berpengaruh terhadap posisi jatuh dari partikel tersebut. Semakin besar kecepatan inlet tidak memiliki hubungan dengan efisiensi penangkapan partikel. Pressure drop yang terjadi akan semakin besar sebanding dengan rasio perbandingan diameter hidrolis inlet dan ruang pengendapan, serta jumlah dan posisi secondary flow berperan signifikan pada efisiensi penangkapan partikel.

  15. KARAKTERISASI KIMIA, FISIKOKIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK JAM DAN JELLY JONJOT LABU KUNING (Cucurbita maxima [Chemical, Physicochemical and Sensory Characterization of Jam and Jelly Made from Pumpkin Strands (Cucurbita maxima

    Murdijati Gardjito1

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the contents of pectin,carotene and sugars of the pumpkin strands, and to evaluate the effects of sugar addition and pH on the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of jam and jelly made from pumpkin strands. The preparation of jam and jelly were conducted with sugar addition of 55%, 60%, and 65% and pH values of 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4. The products were analyzed for moisture, sugar,carotene, and soluble solid, and were evaluated for firmness and sensory properties.The results showed that the moisture content of jelly was between 26.36 - 35.27% and that of the jam between 39.53 - 45.67%. Beta-carotene of jelly was between 241.79 - 404.42 RE/100g (db and that of jam was between 235.58 - 487.51 RE/100g (db. The decreasing of pH and increasing of sugar addition tended to increase the content of reducing sugars and soluble solid of the products. Jelly could be made from pumpkin strands by addition of 55% or 60% sugar, and the firmness increased by decreasing of pH value. There were no significance differences between the treatments for color, flavor and overall preference score. The addition of 60% sugar and pH of 3.2 was the best condition for making jam and jelly from pumpkin strands.

  16. KARAKTERISASI KITIN DEASETILASE TERMOSTABIL ISOLAT BAKTERI ASAL PANCURAN TUJUH, BATURADEN, JAWA TENGAH [Characterization of Thermostable Chitin Deacetylase from Bacteria Strain Pancuran Tujuh, Baturaden, Center of Java

    Deuxianto Hendarsyah3

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitin deacetylase is the enzymes that has important role in converting chitin to chitosan. In nature, chitin is the second most abundant natural biopolymer after cellulose. Generally, chitin easily obtained from outer shell of crustaceans, arthropods, and also detectable on cell wall of some type of fungal (Zygomycetes. The chitin deacetylase was isolated from Bacillus sp PT2-3. It was found that the highest specific activity was attained at pH 8 60°C. The addition of 5 mM Zn2+ and 5 mM Mn2+ increased the specific activity of the enzyme, 4.39% and 7.8%, respectively, and the increase was only 2.19% when the addition was 2 mM Mn2+. On the contrary the addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ decrease the specific activity 46.83%, 41.22% and 47.32%, respectively. The enzyme activity was relatively stable at 60°C for 60 minutes, while lengthen the time to 90 minutes, decreased the activity 15.05 %, and the decrease was 26.13% at temperature of 70°C for 180 minutes.

  17. ISOLASI, KARAKTERISASI, DAN IDENTIFIKASI MIKOFLORA DARI RIZOSFER TANAH PERTANIAN TEBU (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. SEBAGAI BAHAN AJAR KINGDOM FUNGI UNTUK SISWA KELAS X SMA

    Yesy Maulina Nadhifah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural area, particularly in the rhizosfer area there are various species of mold which lives mainly in the soil. The students have known molds which live in nature but they have not recognized mold which lives in the soil. It is required to develop a teaching material in the form of module which is created based on a research result. The results of this study were; (1 it has been discovered 7 species of mold, which are Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium camemberti, Aspergillus ochraceus, dan Penicillium citrinum, (2 the most dominant mold species was Trichoderma harzianum with the total number 1,8 x 104 cfu for every gram soil sample, and (3 there has been arranged of the learning module about fungi kingdom for students in high school level. Tanah pertanian, khususnya di daerah rizosfer, merupakan habitat dari berbagai spesies kapang yang hidup di dalamnya. Para siswa telah mengenal kapang yang tumbuh di alam tetapi mereka belum mengenal kapang yang hidup di dalam tanah pertanian. Perlu dikembangkan sebuah bahan ajar berupa modul yang dibuat berdasarkan hasil penelitian. Hasil penelitian ini, meliputi (1 ditemukan 7 spesies kapang, yaitu Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium camemberti, Aspergillus ochraceus, dan Penicillium citrinum, (2 spesies kapang yang paling dominan adalah Trichoderma harzianum dengan total jumlah 1,8 x 104 cfu/g sampel tanah, dan (3 telah tersusun bahan ajar Biologi berupa modul Kingdom Fungi para siswa SMA.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA

    Muharam Saepulloh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RTPCRresults showed that the 69 (11.74% samples were positive to BVDV. Further molecularcharacterization was conducted only with 17 PCR positive samples. The results indicated the 17 IndonesianBVD virus isolates were belonging to the genotype-1 of BVDV (BVDV-1 based on sequence analysis anda phylogenetic relationship between Indonesian BVDV isolates and BVDV in the world. This finding is thefirst report of BVD-1 circulated in Indonesian cattle.

  19. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  20. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT EDIBLE FILM BUAH KOLANG-KALING (Arenge Pinnata DAN LILIN LEBAH (Beeswax [Characterization of Composite Edible Film Derived from Palm Fruit (Arenge pinnata and Beeswax

    Budi Santoso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study of the characteristics of edible film after addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The research used of Factorial Block Randomized Design with two treatments and each treatment was replicated three times. The first treatment was concentrations of the kolang-kaling (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, and the second treatment was concentrations of the beeswax (0%, 0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%. The parameters were water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The result showed that the addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax significantly afected the water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The thickness increased with the increasing concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The water vapor transmission rate, tensile strength, and elongation percentage were decreased. The tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate of edible film were 0,342 Kgf cm-2, 52,5%, 0,025 mm and 53,439 gm-2hari-1 respectively. The best treatment was achived by using concentration of kolang-kaling at 5% and concentration of beeswax at 1,5%.

  1. EKSTRAKSI DAN KARAKTERISASI PARSIAL EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM KATEPSIN DARI IKAN PATIN [Extraction and Partial Characterization of Crude Enzymes Cathepsin from Catfish

    Muhammad Zakiyul Fikri*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of protein by enzymatic process will lead to changes in odor, texture, and appearance of fish. The enzymes that play a role in the enzymatic process is primarily proteolytic enzymes. Cathepsin is one of the proteolytic enzymes found in animal tissue that hydrolyzes peptide bonds of proteins. This study aims to extract the cathepsin, characterize the crude extract derived from catfish. The stages of this research consist of the extraction and characterization of the cathepsin from catfish. Result of the extraction was crude extract of cathepsin with activity of 0.278 U/mL. The enzyme had optimum temperature of 50°C, pH 6 and substrate concentration of 2%. The activity of the cathepsin was inhibited by metal ions of Fe3+, Cu2+, Ca2+, but increased by metal ions of Mg2+.

  2. UKURAN PARTIKEL DAN KONFORMASI KRISTAL ZEOLIT-A HASIL SINTESIS DENGAN PENAMBAHAN TETRAPROPILAMMONIUM HIDROKSIDA (TPAOH

    Nurul - Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PARTICLE SIZE AND CRYSTAL CONFORMATION OF SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITE-A WITH TETRAPROPYLAMMONIUM HYDROXIDE (TPAOH ADDITION. The aims of this research is to study the effect of tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH concentration in the synthesis of zeolite A to its physical characteristics such as crystallinity, crystal conformation and average crystal size. The zeolite A was synthesized with composition 3.165 Na2O : 1.000 Al2O3 : 1.926 SiO2 : 128 H2O : x TPAOH where x was 0; 0.0385; 0.0577; 0.0770; 0.1540 and 4.1602. The zeolite was crystalized under hydrothermal condition in a stainless steel autoclave at 100°C for 5 hours. The resulting crystal was washed with distilled water until pH 8 and then dried in an oven at 80oC for 24 hours. FT-IR and XRD analysis results show that the synthesized zeolite A at x = 4.1602 has the lowest crystallinity. It is estimated due to the mass of TPAOH was four times higger than the mass of zeolite framework components (Si and Al. SEM and PSD (Particle Size Distribution analysis results show that TPAOH concentration affected the crystal conformation and the average size of zeolite A particles. The formation of chained crystal conformation was caused by the electrostatic interactions between TPA+ and negatively charge of zeolite framework. In addition, the particel size of the synthesized zeolite A at x = 0.1540 was 2.024 µm which was smaller than the particel size of the synthesized zeolite A without TPAOH, which was 3.534 µm. Keywords: average size of particles; crystal conformation; TPAOH; zeolite A Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi TPAOH (Tetrapropilamonium hidroksida dalam sintesis zeolit A terhadap sifat fisikanya yang meliputi kekristalan, konformasi kristal dan ukuran rata-rata kristal yang terbentuk. Pada penelitian   ini   zeolit A   disintesis    dengan komposisi 3,165 Na2O : 1 Al2O3 : 1,926 SiO2 :128 H2O: x TPAOH. Konsentrasi TPAOH divariasikan dengan

  3. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  4. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 77, May - June 1985.

    1986-09-01

    CTC) ATPLB Acta physica polonica . Series A CFJOBOQu Fruehjahrsschule Optik: Beitraege zur Optik und Quantenelektronik CICHRIRS International...PMAMA Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika (CTC) PRTEA Pribory i tekhnika eksperirnenta (CTC) PSSAB Physica status solidi (A). Applied Research (GDR) PSSBB... Physica status solidi (B). Basic Research (GDR) PZTFD Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki. Pis’ma (CTC) RAELA Radiotekhnika i elektronika (journal, Moskva

  5. Screening Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Pada Fungi Laut Emericella Nidulans

    Irah Namirah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Investigation bioactive secondary metabolite previously, Research Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology found anticancer properties to Emericella nidulans marine fungi strain MFW39 isolated from ascidia Aplidium longithorax collected from Wakatobi Marine National Park. Emestrin was a compound with an ETP (epipolithiodioxopiperazine group that found in Emericella nidulans marine fungi have cytotoxicity properties. Emestrin show cytotoxic activity to breast cancer cell line [T47D], cancer cervic cell line [HeLa], colon cancer cell line [WiDr] and liver cancer cell line (HepG2. The aim of the research to investigated other derivative of emestrin compound. The screening with UPLC (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography mass analysis q-TOF/MS (quadrupole-Time of Flight/Mass spectra positif mode (ES+.. Monoisotopic ion Derivative compound of emestrin that detected from (ES+ UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS spectrum are emestrin B, emestrin C. Another compound that detected are cytochalasin B dan C.Keywords: Emericella nidulans, Emestrin, Emestrin derivative, UPLC- q-TOF/MS spectrum Abstrak: Pada penelitian pencarian metabolit sekunder bioaktif sebelumnya, Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan menemukan fungi Emericella nidulans strain MFW39 yang diisolasi dari ascidia Aplidium longithorax dari Taman Nasional Laut Wakatobi, Sulawesi tenggara memiliki aktivitas sitotoksik terhadap beberapa sel kanker, diantaranya sel turunan kanker payudara (T47D, liver (HepG2, kanker usus (C28 dan serviks (HeLa. Senyawa yang berkontribusi terhadap sifat sitotoksik adalah senyawa emestrin yang memiliki gugus ETP (epipolithiodioxopiperazine. Hasil isolasi dan karakterisasi senyawa bioaktif yang ditemukan pada fungi Emericella nidulans strain MFW39 adalah senyawa emestrin. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari derivat senyawa emestrin lain. Proses screening dilakukan dengan mencari puncak monoisotopik senyawa

  6. TINJAUAN ASPEK PAJAK PENGHASILAN ATAS TRANSAKSI INSTRUMEN KEUANGAN DERIVATIF SWAP

    Yenni Mangoting

    2003-01-01

    transaksi pertukaran sifat bunga, dengan satu pihak setuju untuk membayar kepada pihak lain dengan jumlah pembayaran yang telah disetujui bersama. Sedangkan currency swap merupakan transaksi pertukaran mata uang dengan denominasi yang berbeda. Karakterisasi penghasilan merupakan permasalahan yang timbul dalam transaksi Swap. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa fiskus mengklasifikasikan penghasilan dari transaksi Swap sebagai penghasilan bunga, padahal transaksi Swap bukan transaksi pinjam meminjam. Kata kunci: swap, interest rate swap dan currency swap.

  7. ANALISIS SIFAT TARIK DAN IMPAK KOMPOSIT SERAT RAMI DENGAN PERLAKUAN ALKALI DALAM WAKTU 2,4,6 DAN 8 JAM BERMATRIK POLIESTER

    Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikatan interfacal bonding pada komposit serat alam sangat tergantung dari kekasaran permukaan serat. Permukaan serat dapat ditingkatkan daya ikatan permukaannya dengan cara mencelupkan pada larutan alkali. Pencelupan ini akan mengurangi lapisan lignin yang mengurangi kekuatan ikat pada permukaan serat. Pada penelitian ini proses yang digunakan adalah perlakuan alkali terhadap permukaan serat dengan  cara merendam serat rami selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam. Larutah alkali yang digunakan adalah larutan NaOH dengan konsentrasi 10% pada pelarut air. Serat rami   Boehmeria nivea (L Goud direndam pada larutan NaOH selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam perendaman, untuk menghilangkan zat ligninnya agar kekuatan ikatan permukaan bisa diperbaiki.  Pengujian yang dilakukan adalah pengujian tarik dan pengujian impak. Hasil yang didapat adalah kekuatan tarik terbesar didapat pada perendaman 8 jam yaitu sebesar 41,9 MPa. Modulus young terbesar didapat pada perendaman 2 jam, yaitu 2743,15 Mpa, dan kekuatan impak terbesar adalah 0,0725 Joule/mm2 terjadi pada perendaman 4 jam   Kata kunci : komposit serat, kekuatan tarik, kekuatan impak, perendaman alkali

  8. FABRIKASI FERROGEL BERBAHAN DASAR NANOPARTIKEL MAGNETIT (Fe3O4 DARI HASIL SINTESIS PASIR BESI PANTAI UTARA JAWA DAN SIFAT MAGNETO-ELASTISITASNYA

    Retno Rahmawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron sand is one of natural materials that has been widely explored and so far is  only used  as building materials. This research provides solutions to increase the economic values of iron sand, by preparing ferrogel from iron sand. The purpose of this research is to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles-based-ferrogel from  synthetic  Fe3O4   prepared  from  iron  sand.  The  iron  sand  was obtained from north coast of Central Java. The preparation of synthetic Fe3O4 produced nanoparticles having a size of 82,42 – 110,9 nm . The characterization using XRD indicated that Fe2O4 content in the iron sand was 30%, and increased to 76% in the synthetic materials. In addition, the synthetic materials has additional phase of Al0.95  Ga0.05.  The ferrogel was prepared by mixing the synthetic materials with PVA (Polyphinyl alcohol. The ferrogel was characterized for its magnetoelasticity properties so that it can be used for artificial muscles. The results of magneto-elasticity ferrogel characterization showed that the higher the concentration of Fe3O4 filler in PVA matrix, the higher the deviation and elongation. However, the impurity of Al0.95 Ga0.05 in the ferrogel seemed to cause its magnetoelasticity to be less than optimum.

  9. Sifat Fisik Daging Sapi, Kerbau dan Domba pada Lama Postmortem yang Berbeda (Physical Characteristics of Beef, Buffalo and Lamb Meat on Different Postmortem Periods

    Komariah (Komariah

    2012-02-01

    buffalo meat and lamb. The mean shear force of beef (6.73±0.16 kg/cm2 and buffalo meat (6.53±0.38 kg/cm2 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than lamb (5.24±0.93 kg/cm2. (Key words: Physical characteristic, Postmortem, Beef, Buffalo, and Lamb meat

  10. Sifat Fisik Daging Sapi, Kerbau dan Domba pada Lama Postmortem yang Berbeda (Physical Characteristics of Beef, Buffalo and Lamb Meat on Different Postmortem Periods)

    Komariah (Komariah); Sri Rahayu; Sarjito (Sarjito)

    2012-01-01

    Physical characteristic of meat is very important in processing since it will determine the quality and type of processing being made. Meat characteristics of each livestock may different, but it is thought to be the same. Society in general assess the characteristics of buffalo and lamb meat with reference to the  characteristics of beef, so that the processing of meat into processed meat products often have different outcomes. The aim of the experiment was to study the physical character...

  11. Sifat Kimia Tanah Dan Kesesuaian Lahan Pada Masing-masing Tipologi Lahan Rawa Lebak Untuk Budidaya Tanaman Padi, Kasus Di Desa Tanjung Elai, Ogan Komering Ilir

    Waluyo, Waluyo; Djamhari, Sudaryanto

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted in the village of Tanjung Alai, District of Padang Sira Island Komering Ogan Ilir district of South Sumatra with an area of 100 ha. This study aims to determine the soil chemical properties and suitability of land in each valley swamp land typology. Result interpretation and field observation and analysis of soil samples, the soil in the study area can be categorized as follows: 1) Typic Haplosaprists; saprik, shallow, drainage is blocked, flat pH 4.6, covering 13.5 hectare...

  12. SIFAT KIMIA TANAH DAN KESESUAIAN LAHAN PADA MASING-MASING TIPOLOGI LAHAN RAWA LEBAK UNTUK BUDIDAYA TANAMAN PADI, KASUS DI DESA TANJUNG ELAI, OGAN KOMERING ILIR

    Waluyo, Waluyo; Djamhari, Sudaryanto

    2013-01-01

    Research conducted in the village of Tanjung Alai, District of Padang Sira Island Komering Ogan Ilir district of South Sumatra with an area of 100 ha. This study aims to determine the soil chemical properties and suitability of land in each valley swamp land typology. Result interpretation and field observation and analysis of soil samples, the soil in the study area can be categorized as follows: 1) Typic Haplosaprists; saprik, shallow, drainage is blocked, flat pH 4.6, covering 13.5 hectare...

  13. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

    Asri Widyasanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experimental method with descriptive analysis. The treatments in this study were A =concentrations of VCO 100 %, B = concentrations of VCO 80 % and castor oil 20 %, C = concentrations of VCO 50 % and castor oil 50 %, D = concentrations of VCO 20 % and castor oil 80 %, and E = concentrations of castor oil 100 %,  from 200 gram soap base. The parameter observed for liquid soap included chemical properties, physical properties of soap, and organoleptic test. The result shows that all treatments complies the requirement SNI 06-4085-1996. The formula of liquid soap with treatment B was revealed as the best product with 0.01 % of total alkali content, pH value of 9.16 , specific gravity 1.06, and total plate count 5colonies/g. This technology process of natural liquid soap production with the VCO and castor oil could be develop and apply in industrial scale.

  14. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil) dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil) terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

    Asri Widyasanti; Shayana Junita; Sarifah Nurjanah

    2017-01-01

    VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experiment...

  15. Sifat fisika dan analisis gugus fungsi karet seal o-ring dari bahan termoplastik elastomer nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR dan polyvinyl chloride (PVC

    Arum Yuniari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the physical properties and functional groups on O-ring rubber seals made of thermoplastic elastomers blend NBR and PVC. Composition of the NBR / PVC were successively varied : 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30 and 65/35 phr. Mixing process between NBR/PVC with additive used a two roll mill within a temperature of 60º - 80 ºC, the vulcanization process used a hydraulic press at a temperature of 170 oC and pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physical properties were evaluated including tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, before and after aging, hardness after immersion in isooctane and swelling while analysis of functional groups was also carried out by method of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR. The result of the best vulcanized was characterized by tensile strength 188.93 kg/cm2, the change of tensile strength after aging 2.50%, elongation at break of 400%, the change of elongation at break after aging was 12.5%, hardness 75 shore A, the change of hardness after aging 0%, the change of hardness after immersion in isooctane 1.3%, swelling 0.8% and functional group of vulcanisate was indicated by new peak (OH at wave band of 3468 cm-1. Those formula met the requirements of the technical specifications of ASTM D 2000 seal O-ring.

  16. Pengaruh mimosa pada penyamakan kulit jaket domba samak nabati menggunakan sistem C-RFP, ditinjau dari sifat organoleptis, fisis, dan morfologi kulit

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of mimosa, to manufacture environmentally friendly leather for jacket by using the C-RFP system (C=Conditioning, R=Rapid, F=Fass (drum, P=Powder, on physical, organoleptic, and morphology properties of leather. It was also to obtain a formula for vegetable tanning with C-RFP system. Pickled skins are conditioned (pre-tanning using Sodotan TSN and Sodotan APR, and then Sodotan TSN was chosen due to it meets the requirements of SNI leather for jacket (SNI 4593:2011. Then, pickled skins were tanned with mimosa and applied C-RFP system or rapid tanning without water added. Mimosa, used in this research, were 15%, 20%, and 25% and fatliquor were 12.5%, 15%, and 17.5%. Furthermore, The leather were finished into an environmentally friendly leather for jackets, and then tested for physical and organoleptic properties based on the SNI 4593:2011 as well as leather morphology (SEM. The physical test result shows that for mimosa 15%, 20% and 25%, and for fatliquor 15% and 17.5% are fullfill the SNI.

  17. SIFAT FISIK MINYAK SAWIT KASAR DAN KORELASINYA DENGAN ATRIBUT MUTU [Physical Properties of Crude Palm Oil and Their Correlations to the Quality Attributes

    Nur Wulandari1,2*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producer and exporter of crude palm oil (CPO in the world. Process engineering applications of CPO during handling, transporting, and processing, need baseline data related to CPO’s physical properties. This research was aimed to obtain baseline data about physical properties of CPO and to study the correlation between CPO’s quality attributes to their physical property parameters. Study on physical property and quality of CPO was conducted to five CPO samples from different CPO’s producers. Those samples had variations on physical property parameters and quality attributes. Some physical property parameters of CPO were depended on the temperature of measurements. CPO samples showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour at 25°C with various flow behaviour index (n and concistency index (K, other wise at 55°C all CPO samples showed Newtonian behaviour.There were good correlations between quality attributes of CPO to their physical property parameters at 25°C, including correlations between free fatty acid contents of CPO and the temperatures of crystallization, as well as between iodine values and the rheological properties of CPO.

  18. Sifat Tahan Luntur dan Intensitas Warna Kain Sutera Dengan Pewarna Alam Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb Pada Kondisi Pencelupan dan Jenis Fiksator Yang Berbeda

    Failisnur Failisnur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb contains tannin compounds that can be used as a dye for textile products. Tannins are complex compounds in plant tissues when reacted with certain metal ions will form a specific colour. Result of strength and colour direction depend on dyeing condition and kind of fixator in fixation process. Purpose of the research to decide a right of dyeing condition and kind of fixator which were desired in order to produce colour variation, colour strength value, and a good colour fastness. The dyeing was conducted in hot condition (60-70ºC in room temperature (27-30ºC with fixator Al2(SO43, CaO,, and FeSO4. Result of the research was found a colour direction that was variative enough on silk fabrics started from yellow, golden yellow, brownish red, brown, moss green until blackish green. The optimum condition was obtained in hot dyeing (60-70ºC, kind of fixator CaO that produced intensity and higher darkness colour (K/S value as high as 19.174 and colour fastness of washing 40oC, bright light and heat pressure was good and very good (4-5.ABSTRAK Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb mengandung senyawa tanin yang dapat digunakan sebagai pewarna pada produk tekstil. Tanin merupakan senyawa komplek pada jaringan tumbuhan yang bila direaksikan dengan ion-ion logam tertentu akan membentuk warna yang spesifik. Intensitas dan arah warna kain yang dihasilkan sangat ditentukan oleh kondisi saat pencelupan dan jenis fiksator pada proses fiksasi. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menentukan kondisi pencelupan yang tepat dan pemilihan jenis fiksator yang diinginkan dalam menghasilkan variasi warna, nilai intensitas dan ketahanan luntur warna yang baik. Pencelupan dilakukan dalam suasana panas (60-70ºC dan pada suhu kamar (27-30ºC, dengan pembangkit warna (fiksator Al2(SO43 (tawas, CaO(kapur tohor dan FeSO4 (tunjung.  Hasil penelitian didapatkan arah warna yang cukup variatif pada kain sutera mulai dari kuning, kuning keemasan, merah kecoklatan, coklat, hijau lumut sampai hijau kehitaman.  Kondisi optimum diperoleh pada pencelupan panas (60-70ºC, jenis fiksator CaO yang menghasilkan intensitas dan ketuaan warna lebih tinggi (nilai K/S sebesar 19,174 dan ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian 40ºC, sinar terang hari dan penekanan panas bernilai baik sampai sangat baik (4-5.

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Jerami Dan Pupuk Sp-36 Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Terhadap Perubahan Sifat Kimia Serta Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi (Oriza Sativa L.)

    Bhakari, Herlina Eka; Fauzi, Fauzi; Hanum, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of rice straw compost and the application ofphosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils, rice growth andproduction (Oryza sativa L). This research was conducted in greenhouse agricultural departments,Universities Northen Sumatera, Medan. This study used a randomized block design factorial, with2 factors : factor 1 : rice straw compost treatment (J) wich consist of : J0 = 0 ton ha-1(0 g straw/pot); J1 =...

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Jerami Dan Pupuk Sp-36 Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Terhadap Perubahan Sifat Kimia Serta Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi (Oryza Sativa L.)

    Bhakari, Herlina Eka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of rice straw compost and the application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils, rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L). This study used a randomized block design factorial, with 2 factors : factor 1 : rice straw compost treatment (J) wich consist of : J0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0 g straw/pot) ; J1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g straw/pot); J2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g straw /pot); J3 = 30 ton ha-1 ...

  1. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dan Pupuk Sp-36

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni; Fauzi, Fauzi; Purba, Marpaung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of empty palm oil bunch compost (EPOBC) andthe application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils,rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L.). This study used a randomized block design factorial,with 2 factors: factor 1: compost EPOBC treatment (B) which consist of: B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0g EPOBC/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g EPOBC/pot); B2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g EPOBC/pot);B3 = 30 ton ha-1 (120 g EPOB...

  2. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oryiza sativa L.) Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit dan Pupuk SP-36

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to compost give effect empty palm bunch studies and fertilizer SP-36 to improve chemistry characteristic, growing and rice production (Oryza sativa L.) in acidic sulfate soil. This research was conducted in greenhouse agricultural departments, universities northern Sumatra, Medan. This study used a randomized block design (RAK) factorial, with 2 factors: factor 1: compost TKS treatment factor (B) are : B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0 g TKS/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g TKS/pot); B2 = 20...

  3. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI CaCl2 DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK KERIPIK PISANG MULI (Musa paradisiaca L. DENGAN PENGGORENGAN VAKUM (VACUUM FRYING

    Fibra Nurainy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ripe muli banana is very sensitive to high temperatures, therefore this type banana cannot be fried at normal atmosphere pressur. Therefore , a frying process at low temperature and low pressureis needed. The objective of this research was to determine the best CaCl2 concentration, soaking time, and the interaction between  them in producing the best muli banana cracker using vacuum frying. The factorial experiment was arranged  in a complete randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was the CaCl2 (K concentration and the second factor was soaking time (T. The CaCl2 concentration consisted of three levels: 1% (K1, 2% (K2, and 3% (K3. The soaking times were 10 minutes (T1, 20 minutes (T2, and 30 minutes (T3. Weight of each sample processed was 2 kg. The sensory evaluation data homogeneity  and additivity were  tested using Bartlet  and Tuckey tests.  Then the data were analyzed using ANOVA, and further analyzed using honest significant difference with significant level of 5%. The best organoleptic properties of vacuum fried muli banana cracker was found on the treatment of  1% CaCl2 soaked for10 minutes (K1L1 with characteristics of typical banana aroma, yellow brownish color, sweet and a little bit sour taste, no after taste, and crunchy. The overall acceptance was favorable. Keywords: CaCl2, cracker, crunchiness, muli banana, vacuum frying

  4. PENGUJIAN SIFAT PREBIOTIK DAN SINBIOTIK PRODUK OLAHAN UBI JALAR SECARA IN VIVO [In Vivo Evaluation of Prebiotic and Synbiotic Properties of Processed Sweet Potato Products

    Lilis Nuraida1,2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to investigate the prebiotic and synbiotic properties of sweet potato products (combined with L. casei subsp Rhamnosus for probiotic in increasing the number of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and suppressing the number of E. coli and the occurrence of Salmonella in vivo. Some previous study showed that sweet potato is a potent source of prebiotic. The sweet potato products evaluated were sweet potato flakes (SPF and sweet potato ice cream mix. The in vivo assay used male rat strain Sprague-Dawley. Total microbes, LAB, E. coli and Salmonella in fecal were analyzed before, during and after feeding period. Feeding with SPF as prebiotic, L. casei subsp Rhamnosus as probiotic, and combination of both as synbiotic for ten days were able to increase the number of LAB (0.4-1.1 log CFU/g and suppress the number of E. coli in rat feces (1.5-1.7 log CFU/g. All of the treatment did not affect the occurrence of Salmonella in rat feces. The treatment of sweet potato ice cream mix as prebiotics and the combination of sweet potato ice cream mix and L. casei subsp. Rhamnosus as synbiotic for ten days did not effect the number of LAB and E. coli in rat feces.

  5. SIFAT HIPOGLISEMIK PAKAN TINGGI PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA MODEL DIABEIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Hypoglicemic Property of a High-Protein Soybean Based Feed in Model alloxan Induced Diabetic

    C. Retnaningsih 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglicemic properties of soybean protein were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty eight mature male Sprague Dawley (SD rats (250-300g were used and divided into four groups of seven rats. They were: 1 Placebo Standars (PS; 2 Alloxan Injection Standard (AS; 3 Alloxan injection soybean protein 250% (APK 250 dan 4 Alloxen injection soybean protein 100% (APK 100. One group was injected with aquabidest (Placebo and three group were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intramuscular injection.Placebo-Standard (PS and Alloxan injection Standar (AS groups were fed standard diet whereas APK 250 100 were fed soybean protein deit for 42 days. Concentration of serum glucose was determined before incention (0day and 1, 2, 143, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after injection.The result showed that alloxan injection increased the level of serum glucose. Bioassay experiment demonstrated that diet on high conceration of soybean protein (250% decreased the level of serum glucose from 351,44 mg/dl to 230,62 mg/dl (34,37% while soy protein 100% descreased the level of serum glucose.

  6. PENERIMAAN PANELIS DAN SIFAT KIMIAWI EMULSI LABU KUNING DAN FRAKSI OLEIN SAWIT [Pannelists Acceptance and Chemical Properties of Pumpkin and Palm Olein Fraction Emulsion

    Anton Rahmadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce functional food products with the main ingredient of pumpkin and olein fraction of red palm oil (OF-RPO. This research was conducted in two stages. The first was to analyze consumer acceptance where a Completely Randomized Design was used with one factor. The factor was the composition of pumpkin and OF-RPO levelled as follow: 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, and 0:100 (v/v. In the second stage, analyses of carotenoids using HPLC, FFA, pH, vitamin C, and peroxide values were carried out on selected formula (mixture of pumpkin and OF-RPO, formula with 100 mL of pumpkin, formula with 100 mL of OF-RPO, and negative control (without pumpkin and OF-RPO, before and after the storage period of two months, except for HPLC analysis. The best formula based on acceptance test was a composition of 90 mL pumpkin and 10 mL OF-RPO was further diluted 1:4 (v/v. Characteristics of the product were sweet, sour, not bitter, not grassy, and not rancid. The emulsion product contains trans-β-carotene at 141.65±0.47 mg/L, equivalent to 237 UI activity of vitamin A/mL. The content of trans-β-carotene was found at the highest (341.83 mg/L from the pumpkin juice, while the OF-RPO had the lowest trans-β-carotene content (41.2 mg/L. Product was acidic with a pH of 3.6±0.1 and with vitamin C content of 13.2±1.2 mg/100 g of product. Acidity and vitamin C levels tended to remain stable during the storage period for two months. Peroxide value of the emulsion product was at 0.8 mEq oxygen/kg. The FFAs were in the range of 1.59 to 1.73% and they also did not change significantly after storage for two months.

  7. PENERIMAAN PANELIS DAN SIFAT KIMIAWI EMULSI LABU KUNING DAN FRAKSI OLEIN SAWIT [Pannelists Acceptance and Chemical Properties of Pumpkin and Palm Olein Fraction Emulsion

    Anton Rahmadi; Yuliadini Puspita; Sukmiyati Agustin; Miftakhur Rohmah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to produce functional food products with the main ingredient of pumpkin and olein fraction of red palm oil (OF-RPO). This research was conducted in two stages. The first was to analyze consumer acceptance where a Completely Randomized Design was used with one factor. The factor was the composition of pumpkin and OF-RPO levelled as follow: 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, and 0:100 (v/v). In the second stage, analyses of carotenoids using HPLC, FFA, pH, vitamin C, and peroxid...

  8. Perbandingan Berat Lahir, Persentase Jenis Kelamin Anak dan Sifat Prolifik Induk Kambing Peranakan Etawah pada Paritas Pertama dan Kedua di Kota Metro

    Muhammad Dima Iqbal Hamdani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of research was to compare birth weight, sex of kids, prolificacy of does between the first and second parity of Ettawa grade goat at Metro City to select replacement stock that was prolific and high at birth weight. Survey method was used in this research to observe birth weight of male and female kid, percentage of male and female kid, percentage of does foals single kid and twin, litter size between the first and second parity. Survey was conducted by observation recording of 80 he...

  9. Sifat Biologi Tanah Mineral Masam Dystrudepts Di Areal Piringan Kelapa Sawit Yang Diaplikasi Mulsa Organik Mucuna Bracteata Di Lahan Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Riau

    Zahara, Fitri; ', wawan; ', Wardati

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research to determine the soil biological properties on the acidic mineral soil Dystrudepts in the area of disc palm oil applied of organic mulch Mucuna bracteata in the experimental garden of Agriculture Faculty, Riau University. Analysis of the soil biological was conducted in the Soil Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Riau University, in October 2014 to February 2015. Application of mulch organic M. bracteata used purposive random sampling method which consisting of...

  10. PENGUJIAN SIFAT FISIS-MEKANIS DAN NONDESTRUKTIF METODE GELOMBANG SUARA PAPAN WOL SEMEN BERKERAPATAN SEDANG-TINGGI BAMBU BETUNG (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER

    Lina Karlinasari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cement board is a composite wood product has advantages such as fire resistance, termite, water resistant, and has good sound insulation properties. Bamboo is suitable material that can be used as a raw material of cement board. The objectove of this study was to determine the physical-mechanical properties of wool cement boards from betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper in various densities. Mechanical testing included nondestructive testing performed using the sound waves velocity method (stress wave velocity. The material used was particles of wool/ excelsior dimensions. The adhesive used was Portland cement type I by the ratio of bamboo: cement: water 1:2:1. Target board densities were 0.5 g/cm3; 0.8 g/cm3; and 1.0 g/cm3. The results showed the higher density of the board the higher mechanical properties of boards. The difference density cement board was more influential on mechanical properties (MOE, MOR, SW board compared with those physical properties. Nondestrcutive testing using sound waves velocity method can be used to predict mechanical bending properties of wool cement board of betung bamboo as indicated by the close relationship between the parameter estimators (dynamic MOE and static testing value (MOE and MOR.

  11. Evaluasi Sifat Ovisidal dan Nimfasidal Insektisida Buprofezin 100 g/l terhadap Telur dan Nimfa Wereng Coklat, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae

    BAEHAKI SUHERLAN EFFENDI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of ovicidal and nymphcidal properties of buprofezin 100 g/linsecticide to eggs and nymphs of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae. Research was carried out in screen house ofSukamandi, Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR in the wet season of 2013. Theresearch used randomized block design with 5 doses levels insecticide treatment of buprofezin100 g/l and four replications. The buprofezin treatments were 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1500ml/ha compared with control without insecticide. The objective of the research to evaluate ofovicidal and nymphcidal of buprofezin to brown planthopper (BPH. The results showed thatthe ovicidal properties of buprofezin 100 g/l with a range doses of treatments to BPH eggsthat application at 5 days after inoculation with eggs remains in the plant tissue were 39,79-94,88%. The raising ovicidal of buprofezin were 74,84-99,5% that applied at 9 days afterinoculation with eggs remains in the plant tissue. In the other hand the ovicidal properties ofbuprofezin decreased dramatically were 20-48% that applied at 5 days after inoculation andthen BPH eggs removed from plant tissue (dissected at 9 days after inoculation. The higherovicidal properties of buprofezin is better in the plant tissue than in the dissected eggs treated,because buprofezin working on eggs in plant tissue as a systemic insecticide. The dissectedBPH eggs of rice treated to show the normal eggs shape and no eggs contracted. Theunhatched eggs of buprofezin treatments were milk white due to insecticide effect, sometranslucent color with a red dot as a fertile eggs or without a red dot as unfertile eggs.Buprofezin was the excellent nymphcidal insecticide with the value of the efficacy to BPHnymphs were very high about 87,44 -100% for a range doses treatments. Buprofezin did notresurgence effect, moreover this insecticides still have ovicidal and nimphcidal properties as abasic to reduce offspring of brown planthopper.

  12. Evaluasi Sifat Ovisidal dan Nimfasidal Insektisida Buprofezin 100 g/l terhadap Telur dan Nimfa Wereng Coklat, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    BAEHAKI SUHERLAN EFFENDI; EKO HARI ISWANTO; AMIR HAMZAH

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of ovicidal and nymphcidal properties of buprofezin 100 g/linsecticide to eggs and nymphs of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Stal.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Research was carried out in screen house ofSukamandi, Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR) in the wet season of 2013. Theresearch used randomized block design with 5 doses levels insecticide treatment of buprofezin100 g/l and four replications. The buprofezin treatments were 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1500ml/ha compa...

  13. Pengaruh sistem vulkanisasi konvensional (CV dan semi efisien (SEV terhadap sifat aging dan termal vulkanisat campuran karet alam dan karet butil

    Arum Yuniari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of CV and SEV curing systems on aging and thermal properties of natural rubber and butyl rubber blends. The mixing of rubber and rubber chemicals using two roll-mills and the vulcanization process was carried out by the hydraulic press at 160° C and 150 kg/cm2. The research design used two variations; first, the CV curing system (accelerator/sulfur (1.0/2.5 phr and SEV curing system (accelerator/sulfur (2.1/1.5 phr, second, the ratio of natural rubber/butyl: 100/0; 95/5; 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30; 65/35; 60/40 and 55/45 phr. The parameter observed were tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness before and after aging and thermal properties, e.g.TG/DTA and DSC. The results showed that CV curing systems provided tensile, elongation at break properties gave higher quality and better aging properties. TG/DTA analysis of vulcanizates processed with CV curing systems provided slightly better thermal stability than of the SEV curing system.

  14. UJI SIFAT PROBIOTIK BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT SEBAGAI KANDIDAT BAHAN PANGAN FUNGSIONAL [Probiotic Characteristics of laactic acid Bacteria as Candidate for Functional Food

    Ida Susanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to be useful as a healt adjunct and are commonly added to food as delivery mechanism. As a probiotic, lactic acid bacteria should have the ability to survive in the digestion process such as resistance towards acidic pH, varieties of bile salt concentrations and enteric pathogan. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from various sources. Twenty isolated of lactic acid bacteria selected for their resistancy toeards acidic pH (pH 2.5, 0.3% bile salt and their antagonistic activity against enteric pathogan (Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The result showed that most of all strauns had good resistance to acidic pH and there were no significant difference among theme (p>0.05. More over, all strains showed tolerance to 0,3% bile salt concentration (varietis among isolates were significant p>0.05. All strains showed inhibition activity against enteric pathogan bacteria, this was estimated from the size of the diameter of the inhibition zones. (The inhibition were significantly different among them (p>0,05. The best five stains that fulfilled these properties L casei FNCC262, L. acidophilus FNCC116, KL-3 isolate, Da-1 isolate, and Db-2 isolate. These strains could be used as probiotics in further and applications.

  15. Beberapa sifat fisika kimia tanah yang berpengaruh terhadap model kecepatan infiltrasi pada tegakan mahoni jabon dan trembesi di Kebun Raya Purwodadi

    Agung Sri Darmayanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Purwodadi Botanical Gardens in three areas covered by the dominant vegetation Mahoni(Swietenia macrophylla, Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba and trembesi (Samanea saman in January to May 2012. The purpose of thisstudy was to obtain a model infi ltration rate (cm/h that was infl ued by physical and chemical properties of the soil that exist under thevegetation. Physical and chemicalparameters of soil chemical properties is observed macropore (%, organic matter (%, percentage ofthe fraction silt (%, sand(%, and clay(%, and bulk density (BD (g/cm3. The six factors are thought to differ indirectly because of thespecifi cation and morphology of the dominant plant species shelter. Data infi ltration was collected by using the ring infi ltrometer, whilemacroporosity tested with metylen blue method, the properties of the other physical chemical factortested by laboratory of Departmentof Soil, Brawijaya University. The model derived from the analysis of the regression equation using SPSS software version 17.0. Thestudy produced three different models of infi ltration rate on each plot different, they were Y = - 15,8 + 17,3 X1 - 1,09 X2 + 1,53 X3 +0,001 X4 - 21,3 X6 (Mahoni's plot;Y = - 108 + 53,0 X1 - 0,68 X2 + 5,27 X3 - 0,470 X4 + 59,7 X6 (Jabon's plot; Y = - 20,1 + 17,4X1 - 1,06 X2 + 1,57 X3 + 0,082 X4 - 21,6 X6 (Trembesi's plot. Y= Infi ltration rate (cm/h, X1= macropore (%, X2= organic matter(%, percentage of the fraction silt (% (X3, sand (% (X4, and X6= bulk density (g/cm3. In the equation not found factor X5 (clayfraction helped form a model because of multicollinearity analysis obtained by assuming that the clay fraction still contains a linearrelationship (correlated with other variables.

  16. SIFAT KIMIA SELAI BUAH NAGA, KOMPOSISI MIKROFLORA DAN PROFIL SCFA FESES RELAWAN [Chemical Properties of Drugon Fruit Jam, Microflora Composition and SCFA Profile of Human Volunteer Faecal

    Nurhayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit contains oligosaccharides, Including prebiotic ingredients, that are namely raffinose, stachyose, and fructo-oligosaccharides. The heat treatment process like jam producing can affect the functional properties of a food material. The aim of the research wereto know the effect of jam processing on chemical properties, and their prebiotic properties. Evaluation of the prebiotic properties was conducted by in vivo method i.e. probiotic and enterobacteria population of volunteers faecal (microflora composition, prebiotic index (PI value and Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA profile. The result showed that the processing of dragon fruit into jams decreased water content, β-sianin and dissolved particles but increased the Insoluble Indigestible Fraction (IIF. The PI value of dragon fruit jam were 1.70 for white dragon jam and 1.18 for red dragon fruit. The jam processing decreased PI value up to 0.49 (red dragon fruit jam and 0.54 (white dragon fruit jam. The fresh dragon fruit and the jam produced short chain fatty acid (SCFA i.e. acetic and propionic acid. It can be concluded that prebiotic properties of white dragon fruit better than red dragon fruit.

  17. KAJIAN SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK HIDROLISAT TEMPE HASIL HIDROLISIS PROTEASE [Study on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of tempeh hydrolysate produced by protease

    Bambang Herry

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of tempeh hydrolysate produced by protease were studied. The tempeh hydrolysate had different properties comparing with those of the unhydrolyzed tempeh powder. Hydrolysis of the tempeh protein could lower the antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the TBA value increased significantly when the tempeh was hydrolyzed by protease. This process also promoted Maillard reaction, resulting in a more brown color than that of the unhydrolyzed tempeh powder. Moreover, the tempeh hydrolysate had a better protein solubility, and a higher index of umami taste by organoleptic evaluation.

  18. Pengaruh Mimosa Pada Penyamakan Kulit Jaket Domba Samak Nabati Menggunakan Sistem C-RFP, Ditinjau Dari Sifat Organoleptis, Fisis, Dan Morfologi Kulit

    Sutyasmi, Sri; Widowati, Titik Purwati; Setyadewi, Noor Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of mimosa, to manufacture environmentally friendly leather for jacket by using the C-RFP system (C=Conditioning, R=Rapid, F=Fass (drum), P=Powder), on physical, organoleptic, and morphology properties of leather. It was also to obtain a formula for vegetable tanning with C-RFP system. Pickled skins are conditioned (pre-tanning) using Sodotan TSN and Sodotan APR, and then Sodotan TSN was chosen due to it meets the requirements of...

  19. Pengaruh mimosa pada penyamakan kulit jaket domba samak nabati menggunakan sistem C-RFP, ditinjau dari sifat organoleptis, fisis, dan morfologi kulit

    Sri Sutyasmi; Titik Purwati Widowati; Noor Maryam Setyadewi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of mimosa, to manufacture environmentally friendly leather for jacket by using the C-RFP system (C=Conditioning, R=Rapid, F=Fass (drum), P=Powder), on physical, organoleptic, and morphology properties of leather. It was also to obtain a formula for vegetable tanning with C-RFP system. Pickled skins are conditioned (pre-tanning) using Sodotan TSN and Sodotan APR, and then Sodotan TSN was chosen due to it meets the requirements of...

  20. Etiologi Penyebab Malformasi Tunas Ranting Kakao di Kulonprogo, DIY dan Segayung, Jawa Tengah

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    2014-12-01

    insektisida hasilnya tunas muda yang tumbuh berikutnya tidak menunjukan adanya gejala malformasi. Diduga bahwa malformasi pada tunas dan ranting tersebut disebabkan oleh racun yang ditularkan oleh serangga. Penelitian lebih lanjut untuk karakterisasi penyebab penyakit secara molekuler saat ini sedang dilakukan.

  1. Does thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal exist?

    Fernandes, R.; Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Optik 125 (2014) 2022-2025) claim to have grown a so called thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal by the slow evaporation method. In this comment we prove that TSLN is actually thiosemicarbazide.

  2. Bernhard Schmidt - realiteet müütide vastu / Ülo Tonts

    Tonts, Ülo, 1931-2016

    1996-01-01

    Raamatust Optical illusions. The life story of Bernhard Schmidt the great stellar optician of the twentieth century by Erik Schmidt. Estonian Academy Publishers 1995. B. Schmidt - eestlasest optik, kellest kirjutas J. Kross romaanis "Vastutuulelaev"

  3. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK, SIFAT FISIK, SERTA KADAR β-KAROTEN DAN α-TOKOFEROL EMULSI BUAH MERAH (Pandanus conoideus (The Organoleptic Properties, Physical Properties, and the Level of β-carotene and α-tocopherol of Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus Oil Emulsion

    Zita Letviany Sarungallo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the organoleptic and physical properties, and the level of β-carotene and α-tocopherol of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus emulsion. The emulsion was made by mixing red fruit oil and water in ratio of 7:3, with addition of some emulsifiers as treatments, namely 0.20% of CMC (carboxyl methyl cellulose (F0, 0.5% of Tween 80 and 0.2% of CMC  (F1, and 0.5% of Tween 20 and 0.2% of CMC  (F2. Based on the organoleptic evaluation, the most preferred formulation of red fruit emulsion was F1, which have complementary ingredients, namely 0.50% of Tween 80, 0.20% of CMC, 0.06% of sodium benzoate, 0.02% of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, 1.5% of orange citrus essence, and 15% of sugar. The acceptance scores of the formulation for color, taste, aroma, and texture were 4.5 (like-extremely like, 3.8 (neutral-like, 3.8 (neutral-like, and 4.1 (like, respectively, and the level of viscosity was thick with organoleptic score of 6.1 (thick. Physically, red fruit emulsion has red orange in color, citrus in aroma, sweet in taste, viscous in texture, viscosity 20.5 dPa.s, pH 6.4,  and stability 100% in strorage for 30 days at room temperature.  The content  of β-carotene  and α-tocopherol were 14 mg/kg and 229.4 mg/kg respectively. Keywords: Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus, emulsion, organoleptic and physical properties, β-carotene, α-tocopherol

  4. PENGARUH KOMPOSOSI LAPISAN PADA PERMUKAAN GLOBULA MINYAK EMULSI SEBELUM PENGERINGAN SEMPROT TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MIKROKAMSUL TRIGLISERIDA KAYA ASAM LEMAK W-3 [The Effect of the Composition of Adsorbed Layer at Globule Interface of -3 Fatty Acids Enriched Triglyceride Prior to Spray Drying on its Microcapsule Properties

    Moch Adnan2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsification is the critical factor in microencapsulation by spray drying method. Sodium caseinate is a protein with good emulsifying properties. The properties could be improved by phospholipids addition in the emulsification. Phospholipids addition which stabilized oil globule might change the composition of adsorbed layer.This research was conducted to analyze the changes in composition at oil globule interface by analyzing emulsion systems of triglyceride enriched by -3 fatty acids at 5% (w/v stabilized by sodium caseinate (10% w/v and addition of phospholipids at 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; and 2,5% (w/v. The changes in composition of adsorbed layer could be determined from the changes in phospholipids and adsorbed protein concentrations at oil globule interface. Analyses were done to measure the possibility of casein-phospholipids complex, phospholipids and protein adsorption concentration at interface, and adsorbed protein.The increase of phospholipids concentration in the emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate changed the composition of adsorbed layer at interface. There was phospholipids increase and adsorbed protein decrease at oil globule interface. These changes were caused by casein-phospholipids complex which that decreased surface activity and displacement protein by phospholipids that was adsorbed at oil globule interface.Changes of composition of casein-phospholipids at oil globule prior to microcapsulation process caused changes in the properties of microcapsule produced. The increasing phospholipids and decreasing casein concentrations at oil globule interface decreased the quality of the microcapsule, including decreasing in microencapsulation efficiency, in oxidative stability, and decreasing in EPA+DHA content.

  5. KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batata L. VARIETAS SHIROYUTAKA SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER PANGAN KARBOHIDRAT ALTERNATIF [Characterization of Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomea batatas L. var. Shiroyutaka and Assesment of the potential as Alternative Carbohydrate Source For Food Product

    Beni Hidayat 1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to characterize sweet potato flour var. shiroyutaka and assessment of its potential as alternative carbohydrate source on food product. Characterization was conducted on flour processed from sweet potato var. shiroyutaka harvested at four months was characteristic, these included whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour, ratio of amylase-amylopectin, form and size of starch granule, and starch digestibility.The research showed that whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour were 78,82% ( 0,52 and 1,25 g/g ( 0,12 respectively. The ratio of amylase-amylopectin, gelatinization temperature, maximum viscosity and invitro starch digest ability were 69.82%: 30.18%, 78-900C and 84,78% respectively. The granule of its starch was round form and with size 2-4 micron.The main potential of the flour is related with its specific characteristics which were the amylose-amylopectin ratio, the starch amylograph profile, form and size of starch granule, and the starch digest ability. These parameters implied that, the flour should be utilized in the production specific food products.

  6. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS INTERPRETATION FOR GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE COASTAL AREA, NORTH KELANTAN, MALAYSIA (Interpretasi Karakterisasi Fisika dan Kimia Untuk Penilaian Kualitas Airtanah di Area Pesisir, Kelantan Utara, Malaysia

    Nur Islami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physical and chemical groundwater interpretation has been done in order to characterize and assess its associated problem in the coastal area, North Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of thirty three groundwater samples that consisted of sixteen groundwater samples were collected directly from existing well and together with seventeen groundwater data obtained from government agency, were used in this study. The depth of groundwater sample was varied from the shallow (3.5 m to the deeper (130 m aquifer. The physical groundwater characteristics were measured directly at the site just after the groundwater collected. The chemical content of the groundwater sample were analysed using Ion Chromatography (IC and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Finally the data was presented and interpreted using the bivariate and piper diagram to improve interpretation and analysis of the whole data. Analysis result of the groundwater sample indicates that the shallow aquifer can be categorized as fresh water. In the zone with marine soil deposit, chloride and sulphate concentration tend to be higher in the water sample. However, the concentration of water sample is still within the accepted limit for human consumption. In places with relatively higher usage of chemical fertilizer, the groundwater sample exhibits higher nitrate concentration more than limit of safe for human consumption (>45 mg/L. K, Ca, Mg and Na content have a positive correlation with chloride concentration in deeper aquifer, indicating that the ions are derived from the same source of saline waters. The relationship between Cl/HCO3 ratios and chloride also shows that the fresh groundwater and seawater mixing in aquifer, and the samples with lower ratios can be categorized as fresh waters. In the shallow aquifer most ions exhibit a poor correlation to chloride indicating that such ions are derived from a different source. ABSTRAK Interpretasi karakter fisika dan kimia air tanah telah dilakukan untuk menilai kualitas air tanah dan masalah masalah yang berhubungan dengannya di zona pesisir, Kelantar Utara, Malaysia. Sebanyak tiga puluh tiga sampel airtanah yang terdiri dari enam belas sampee airtanah yang di ambil langsung dari sumur dan bersama dengan tujuh belas data sampel airtanah diperoleh dari agensi pemerintah digunakan pada penelitian ini. Kedalaman air tanah bervariasi dari yang akuifer dangkal (3,5 m sampai ke yang dalam (130 m. Karakter fisika air tanah di ukur secara langsung di lokasi saat setelah air tanah di ambil. Kandungan kimia sampel air tanah dianalisa dengan menggunakan Ion Chromatography (IC and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Data-data yang diperoleh di presentasikan dan diinterpretasi menggunakan diagram bivariate dan diagram piper untuk meningkatkan interpretasi dan analisa data secara keseluruhan. Hasil analisa sampel airtanah mengindikasikan bahwa akuifer yang dangkal dapat dikategorikan sebagai air segar. Pada zona pengendapan laut, kadar klorid dan sulfat dalam air tanah cenderung tinggi dalam sampel air. Namun kandungan ini masih dalam kategori aman untuk dikonsumsi oleh manusia. Pada lokasi yang banyak penggunaan pupuk kimia, sampel airtanah memperlihatkan kandungan nitrat relative tinggi, yang melebihi batas aman untuk dikonsumsi oleh manusia (>45 mg/L. Kadar K, Ca, Mg dan Na memiliki hubungan yang positif dengan kandungan klorid pada aquifer yang dalam, ini mengindikasikan bahwa ion-ion dalam air adalah berasal dari sumber air asin yang sama. Hubungan antara rasio Cl/HCO3 dan chloride juga menunjukkan bahwa airtanah yang segar and air laut bercampur di dalam aquifer, dan sampel air dengan rasio yang rendah bisa dikategorikan air segar. Untuk aquifer yang dangkal, kebanyakan ion menunjukkan korelasi yang tidak linier dengan klorid yang mengindikasikan bahwa ion-ion tersebut berasal dari sumber yang berbeda.

  7. Karakterisasi Adsorben dari Kulit Manggis dan Kinerjanya pada Adsorpsi Logam Pb(II dan Cr(VI - (Adsorbent Characterization from Mangosteen Peel and Its Adsorption Performance on Pb(II and Cr(VI

    Ulfa Haura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of biomass waste-based adsorbent for the adsorption of hazardous metal in wastewater is not only reducing waste but also lowering adsorbent price. This research aims to study the characteristics of adsorbent from mangosteen peel (Garcinia Mangostana L. and activated charcoal from mangosteen peel, also to compare the adsorption performance on metal ion Pb(II and Cr(VI. Synthetic wastewater used from a solution of Pb(NO32 and K2Cr2O7 with variations in initial concentration of 20, 40, 80, 100 and 200 mg/L. Adsorption performed at pH 5, ratio of adsorbent and waste solution 1/200 (w/v, 60 rpm, 0.5 gs nano-sized adsorbent. Characterization using SEM, FTIR and SEM-EDS showed that both adsorbents characteristics met the requirements of SNI 06-3730-1995. The highest adsorption capacity of activated carbon to adsorb Pb(II and Cr(VI were 38.543 mg/g and 36.838 mg/g while biosorbent adsorb Pb(II and Cr(VI respectively 3.98 mg/g and 36.12 mg/g.Keywords: adsorption, biosorbent, Cr(VI, mangosteen peel, Pb(IIABSTRAKPenggunaan adsorben berbasis limbah biomassa untuk adsorpsi kandungan logam berbahaya dari limbah cair industri selain dapat mengurangi limbah juga dapat menekan harga jual adsorben. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari karakteristik adsorben yang terbuat dari limbah kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dan arang aktif dari limbah kulit manggis serta membandingkan kinerja kedua jenis adsorben tersebut pada proses adsorpsi ion logam Pb(II dan Cr(VI. Limbah sintetis yang digunakan berupa ion dari Pb(II dan Cr(VI dari larutan Pb(NO32 dan K2Cr2O7 dengan variasi konsentrasi awal 20, 40, 80, 100 dan 200 mg/L. Proses adsorpsi dilakukan pada pH 5, rasio perbandingan berat adsorben dan volume larutan limbah 1:200, kecepatan pengadukan 60 rpm, adsorben berukuran nano dengan berat adsorben 0,5 g. Masing-masing adsorben dikarakterisasi menggunakan SEM untuk mengetahui sturktur morfologi, FTIR untuk mengetahui gugus fungsi dan SEM-EDS untuk mengetahui komponen kimia yang terkandung dalam adsorben tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik kedua jenis adsorben memenuhi syarat mutu sesuai SNI 06-3730-1995. Kapasitas adsorpsi tertinggi dari karbon aktif untuk menyerap Pb(II dan Cr(VI masing-masing 38,543 mg/g dan 36,838 mg/g, sedangkan kapasitas adsorpsi tertinggi biosorben untuk menyerap Pb(II dan Cr(VI masing-masing 36,98 mg/g dan 36,12 mg/g.Kata kunci: adsorpsi, biosorben, Cr(VI, kulit manggis, Pb(II

  8. KARAKTERISASI PROTEIN MIOFIBRIL DARI IKAN KUNIRAN (Upeneus moluccensis DAN IKAN MATA BESAR (Selar crumenophthalmus [Characterization of Myofibrillar Protein from Goldband Goat Fish (Upeneus moluccensis and Bigeye Scad Fish (Selar crumenophthalmus

    Achmad Subagio

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of myofibrillar protein from goldband goat fish (U. moluccensis and bigeye scad fish (S. crumenophthalmus were studied for their development as food ingredient. Color analysis using chromameter showed that myfibrillar protein from goldband goat fish was light colored, while that of bigeye scad was slightly drak colored. Proximate analysis showed that their contents were similar by crude protein 7-10%, crude fat 0.2-0.5%, and ash 0.4-0.7%. Amino acid compositions of both myofibrillar proteins were very close, dominated by glutamic acid (20%, aspartic acid (10% and lysine (9%. However, comparing with bigeye scad, myofibrillar proteins from goldband goatfish were easily aggregated, had higher gelation capacity and higher emulsion activity, but lower solubility. Based on these result, myofibrillar protein from goldband goatfish has good charachteristics as food ingredient especially for restructured products comparing with bigeye scad

  9. KARAKTERISASI MALTODEKSTRIN DP 3-9 SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER KARBOHIDRAT PADA MINUMAN OLAHRAGA [Characterization of Maltodextrin DP 3-9 and Assesment of Its Potential Application as Carbohydrate Source in Sport Drink

    Beni Hidayat 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at characterization of maltodextrin DP 3-9 (produced by enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane separation process as compared to commercial maltodextrin and glucose and assessment of its potential application as carbohydrate source in sport drink. The research showed that application of maltodextrin DP 3-9 had some advantages as compared to glucose with regard to absorption rate that was 2 times longer (60 minutes instead of 30 minutes, osmolality degree that was 5,6 times lower (178 mOsmol/kg as compared to 1000 mOsmol/kg, and relative sweetness degree that was 10 - 11 times lower (6,15-7,20 as compared to 57,00-61,00. However, thie application of maltodekstrin DP 3-9 had limitation which was shown by its viscosity characteristic that was 5,70 -- 6,20% higher (1,29 cSt and 1,37 cSt as compared to 1,22 cSt and 1,29 cSt. When compared to commercial maltodextrin, maltodextrin DP 3-9 is favorable as carbohydrate source in sport drink based on its absorption rate that was more than 2 times faster (60 minutes as compared to more than 120 minutes and storage stability at refrigeration temperature (which was more than 8 weeks, with or without sterilization; with sterilization.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGIS DAN GENETIS IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 STRAIN MUTIARA

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika Clarias gariepinus hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan karakteristik budidaya. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis dan genetis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dibandingkan dengan strain yang lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara (melalui uji morfometrik dan meristik, serta karakteristik genetis menggunakan marka DNA mikrosatelit dibandingkan dengan ikan lele Mesir, Paiton, Sangkuriang, dan Dumbo yang merupakan induk-induk pembentuknya. Karakterisasi morfometrik dilakukan melalui pengukuran terhadap 20 karakter, sedangkan karakterisasi meristik dilakukan melalui penghitungan terhadap lima karakter sesuai metode standar karakterisasi biometrik-morfologis ikan lele. Data karakteristik morfometrik dan meristik dievaluasi dengan menggunakan analisis komponen utama. Hasil karakterisasi morfologis menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik morfometrik dan meristik ikan lele Mutiara tidak dapat dibedakan dari ikan lele Mesir, Paiton, Sangkuriang, dan Dumbo. Karakterisasi secara genetis dengan menggunakan empat primer DNA mikrosatelit untuk ikan lele Afrika (Cga01, Cga02, Cga05, dan Cga09 menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele Mutiara memiliki keragaman genetis (jumlah alel dan heterozigositas yang relatif lebih tinggi daripada ikan lele Mesir, Paiton, Sangkuriang, dan Dumbo.

  11. ASETILASI PADA FENOL DAN ANISOL MENGGUNAKAN ANHIDRIDA ASAM ASETAT BERKATALIS Zr4+-ZEOLIT BETA

    DA Retnoningrum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeolit beta pada umumnya memiliki keasaman tinggi dan berpotensi aktif sebagai katalis heterogen dalam asilasi Friedel-Crafts senyawa aromatik. Untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dan selektivitasnya, zeolit beta perlu diaktivasi dan dimodifikasi terlebih dahulu dengan mengembankan logam aktif zirkonium dengan metode pertukaran ion. Karakterisasi katalis meliputi analisis kristalinitas katalis dengan XRD, sifat permukaan katalis dengan Surface Area Analyzer dan uji keasaman dengan pengadsorbsi piridin. Dalam penelitian ini, dipelajari aktivitas dan selektivitas katalis Zr4+-zeolit beta dalam reaksi asetilasi fenol dan anisol. Reaksi dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu yaitu 100 dan 130C dengan waktu reaksi yaitu pada jam ke 4, 8 dan 12. Hasil asetilasi kemudian dianalisis menggunakan GC, FTIR dan analisis produk menggunakan GC-MS. Asetilasi fenol dengan katalis Zr4+-zeolit beta menghasilkan produk fenil etanoat dengan kadar 95,87% dan selektivitas 100%. Hasil ini didapatkan pada suhu reaksi 130C dan waktu reaksi 8 jam. Asetilasi pada cincin benzena baik pada fenol maupun anisol tidak terjadi, hal ini karena asetilasi pada cincin benzena lebih sukar dibandingkan asetilasi pada gugus OH fenol. Perlu adanya kondisi lain untuk melakukan asetilasi pada cincin benzena. Asetilasi anisol pada waktu reaksi 24 jam dan temperatur 130C didapatkan produk dengan kadar 74%.Beta zeolite generally has a high acidity and potentially active as heterogeneous catalyst in the Friedel-Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds. To improve its stability and selectivity, beta zeolite needs to be activated and modified in advance with zirconium to elicit active metal using ion exchange method. Characterization of catalyst include catalyst’s crystallinity using XRD analysis, the nature of the catalyst surface with the Surface Area Analyzer and the acidity test using pyridine adsorption. In the current study the activity and the selectivity of catalyst Zr4+-beta zeolite

  12. Evaluasi karakteristik abu sekam padi dengan kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel sebagai bahan dentinogenesis (Characteristic evaluation of rice husk ash with chitosan high molecule nanoparticle as dentinogenesis material

    Pretty Farida Sinta Silalahi

    2014-06-01

    langsung karena biokompatibel, namun bahan ini memiliki banyak kekurangan. Trioksida Mineral agregat mengandung sejumlah kecil arsenik dan setting time-nya lama, sementara HEMA dalam SIKMR bersifat sitotoksik. Abu sekam padi nanopartikel (ASPn merupakan sumber potensial dari silika. Kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel (KMTn dapat merangsang pembentukan dentin reparatif. Kombinasi dari kedua bahan tersebut memiliki sifat biokompatibel dan memiliki kemampuan pelapisan yang baik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik mikrostruktur hubungan permukaan abu sekam padi dengan kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel pada jaringan dentin untuk melindungi jaringan pulpodential kompleks. Metode: Dua puluh empat gigi premolar mandibula yang diekstraksi untuk tujuan ortodontik digunakan sebagai sampel, gigi dibuat preparasi kavitas klas I dengan kedalaman 3 mm di atas cemento enamel junction (CEJ. Kemudian masing-masing gigi dibelah dua arah bucco-lingual dan setiap bagian dipotong menggunakan disc bur servikal. Sampel dibagi 3 kelompok, kelompok I diaplikasikan MTA, kelompok II diaplikasikan SIKMR, kelompok III diaplikasikan ASPn + KMTn. Karakterisasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM pada interface antara bahan uji dan dentin berdekatan dengan pulp untuk melihat struktur mikro permukaan. Hasil: Microstructure bahan ASPn + KMTn yang diaplikasi pada dentin menunjukkan struktur seperti tag yang lebih signifikan daripada MTA. ASPn + KMTn menunjukkan kemampuan pelapisan yang lebih baik dari MTA. Porositas ASPn + KMTn lebih sedikit dari MTA dan SIKMR. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi biomaterial ASPn + KMTn dapat digunakan sebagai biomaterial aktif yang dapat menjaga integritas pulpa.

  13. PREVALENCE OF ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN ADAM MALIK HOSPITAL

    Evita Mayasari; Cherry Siregar

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakAcinetobacter baumannii merupakan spesies Acinetobacter spp. tersering diisolasi darimanusia, dan lebih sering dijumpai pada infeksi nosokomial dibandingkan dengan infeksi dikomunitas. Eksistensi bakteri ini di lingkungan terkait dengan keragaman reservoir, kemampuanmemperoleh gen pembawa sifat resisten antimikroba, dan sifat resisten terhadap pengeringan.Infeksi disebabkan strain A.baumannii yang resisten terhadap banyak antibiotik tidak mudahdikendalikan dan menjadi permasalahan di b...

  14. ANALISIS SIFAT AKUSTIK PAGAR PEMBATAS SEBAGAI PEREDAM BISING KENDARAAN BERMOTOR: SALAH SATU ALTERNATIF PENGENDALI BISING DI KOTA DENPASAR (Analysis on The Acoustic Characteristic of Fence to Reduce Noise from Motorized Vehicles: One of The Alternatives

    Putri Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Salah satu sumber kebisingan di daerah urban adalah kendaraan bermotor. Upaya untuk menghadapi kebisingan ini adalah mengendalikannya dengan cara memasang penghalang (barrier dalam bentuk pagar, seperti misalnya pada arsitektur tradisional Bali. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan studi tentang efektivitas berbagai macam pagar dan tentang efek pagar ini dan jumlah kendaraan bermotor terhadap tingkat kebisingan yang ditimbulkan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan berdasar pada standar (ISO R 1996, atau Equivalence of Noise Level of n number of sample. Penelitian ini mengadopsi sampling purposif untuk memilih jenis penghalang, dan berfokus pada objek berikut: (1 jenis pagar, (2 jarak dari sumber kebisingan, dan (3 jumlah jenis kendaraan. Efektivitas penghalang diekspresikan dalam jumlah reduksi kebisingan dari suatu kebisingan, baik menggunakan atau tidak menggunakan penghalang, serta koefisien keheningan (coefficient of muting dari setiap penghalang. Tes untuk menganalisis data meliputi korelasi untuk mengetahui efektifitas penghalang, dan tes regresi untuk mengetahui hubungan antara jenis kendaraan dan tingkat kebisingan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa pagar masif merupakan pengurang kebisingan yang paling efektif diantara jenis-jenis pagar yang ada, dengan koefisien 0,12, tetapi jenis ini memiliki kekurangan elemen estetika dan memberikan kesan individualistik ditambah lagi bahwa struktur tersebut menghalangi pandangan apa yang terjadi diluar. Pagar yang berselang-seling dan ditutupi dengan vegetasi lebih baik ditinjau dari sisi estetika maupun fungsi fisik untuk mengurangi kebisingan, dengan koefisien 0,09. Relasi antara tingkat kebisingan dan jumlah kendaraan dapat diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan persamaan linier dengan memberikan jumlah kendaraan yang equivalen dengan jumlah sepeda motor.   ABSTRACT One of the sources of noise in urban areas is motorized vehicles. An attempt to deal with noise is to control it in its tract by setting up barriers in a form of fence, especially that in Balinese traditional architecture. The research aims to study the effectiveness of different kinds of fence and to study the effects of these fences and the number of vehicles on the noise level produced. The research was conducted based on the (ISO R 1996 standard, namely the equivalence of noise level of n number of sample. It adopted a purposive sampling select the type of barrier, and focused on the following research objects: (1 type of fence, (2 distance of measurement from a noise source, and (3 type number of vehicles. The effectiveness of a barrier is expressed in the amount of noise reduction from a noise, either with or without barrier, and the coefficient of muting from each barrier. The tests to analyze the data are the correlation test to know the effectiveness of barrier and the regression test to know the kind of relationship between the type of vehicle and the noise level. The research found that a massive fence is the most effective noise reducer among different tyes of fence, with coefficient of 0.12. However, it offers less aesthetic element as it gives a impression of individualsm in addition to its structure that obstructs the eyes to see what is happening ourtside. A fence with gaps covered with vegetation is better both from the esthetic point of view and from physical function that is to reduce noise, with a coefficient of 0.09. The relation between the noise level and the number of vehicle can be identified by using a linear equation approach by putting the equivalence of the number of vehicle with that of motorcycle.

  15. Uji Sifat Fisik dan Palatabilitas Biskuit Limbah Tanaman Jagung sebagai Substitusi Sumber Serat untuk Domba (The Physical Characteristic and Palatability of Corn Plant Waste Biscuit as Fiber Substitution for Sheep

    Yuli Retnani

    2012-02-01

    design used was Completely Randomized Design with 6 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment were : R1 (100% field grass, R2 (50% field grass+50% corn leaf, R3 (100% corn leaf, R4 (50% field grass+50% corn husk, R5 (50% corn leaf+50% corn husk and R6 (100% corn husk. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Contrast Orthogonal Test. The observed variables were water activity, moisture, water absorption, density, and palatability. The results indicated that the treatments had highly significant effect (P<0.01 on water content. The water content of biscuits in R2 (11.06±0.10, R1 (11.23±0.60, and R6 (11.39±0.71 were lower than in biscuits R4 (11.73±0.17, R5 (11.80±0.09, and R3 (12.85±0.37. The average of water content of all treatments was 11.68±0.34%. The treatments also significantly affected (P<0.05 water absorption of biscuit feed in which water absorption on R4 (514.48±19.95, R5 (504.27±5.59 and R1 (492.34±40.90 were higher than R6 (452.31±42.63, R3 (438.00±15.69 and R2 (383.49±31.97 with overall averages of 464.15±26.12%. Water activity, density, and palatability were not significantly different. It could be concluded that palatability of corn plant waste biscuit was the same with field grass biscuit on sheep. (Key words: Biscuit of corn plant waste, Physical characteristic, Palatability, Sheep

  16. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ES KRIM SUSU KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWA [The Influence of Purple Sweet Potato Increment og Organoleptic Characteristic of Goat Milk Ice Cream of Etawa Generation

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is perishable foodstuffs and has  low shelf life. One way to preserve it is process goat milk into ice cream. This is usefulforreducingthe damagenutritiongoat milk. Purple sweet potatoes which contain some anthosianin can be added to inprove the texture. However, the amount of purple sweet potato  added will affect the texture and body of icecream.  Therfore this research is needed. This research was purposed to find concentration of purple sweet potato that will produce the best ice cream especially on organoleptic characteristic. The experiment was arranged in  Latin Square design in single factor that consist of 5 levels  concentrations of purple sweet potato paste. There were 0% (reference, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (b/b with 5 replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance . furtehre tested using the HSD Test in 5% level of signiificance. The The results showed that addition of  30%  sweet potato paste produced the best quality of goat milk ice cream of Etawa . The score of aroma was 3,5 (not specific goat milk, the taste’s score was 3,47 (sweet, color’s score was 2,8 (rather purple, texture’s score was 3,5 (soft, and the overall  of acceptance was 3,203 (rather like. This ice cream contained water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and total carbohidrate as amuch as 66,98%, protein was 5,5%, 11,86%, 1,34%, 0,3% and 14,2%. Keyword : goat milk, ice cream, purple sweet potato

  17. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ES KRIM SUSU KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWA [The Influence of Purple Sweet Potato Increment og Organoleptic Characteristic of Goat Milk Ice Cream of Etawa Generation

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is perishable foodstuffs and has  low shelf life. One way to preserve it is process goat milk into ice cream. This is usefulforreducingthe damagenutritiongoat milk. Purple sweet potatoes which contain some anthosianin can be added to inprove the texture. However, the amount of purple sweet potato  added will affect the texture and body of icecream.  Therfore this research is needed. This research was purposed to find concentration of purple sweet potato that will produce the best ice cream especially on organoleptic characteristic. The experiment was arranged in  Latin Square design in single factor that consist of 5 levels  concentrations of purple sweet potato paste. There were 0% (reference, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (b/b with 5 replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance . further tested using the HSD Test in 5% level of signiificance. The The results showed that addition of  30%  sweet potato paste produced the best quality of goat milk ice cream of Etawa . The score of aroma was 3,5 (not specific goat milk, the taste’s score was 3,47 (sweet, color’s score was 2,8 (rather purple, texture’s score was 3,5 (soft, and the overall  of acceptance was 3,203 (rather like. This ice cream contained water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and total carbohidrate as amuch as 66,98%, protein was 5,5%, 11,86%, 1,34%, 0,3% and 14,2%. Keywords : goat milk, ice cream, purple sweet potato

  18. PENGARUH FORMULASI PASTA LABU KUNING DAN TEPUNG BERAS KETAN PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN SENSORI DODOL [The Effect of Formulation Pumpkin Paste and White Glutinous Rice Flour on Chemical and Sensory Properties Dodol

    Hadi Hanggara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect formulation between pumpkin pasta and white glutinous rice flour on chemical and sensory properties of dodol. The research was a single factor, arranged in a Complete Randomized Design with six replications. The factor was the formulation of pumpkin pasta and white glutinous rice flour consisted of four levels, i.e. 10 : 90 (L1; 20 : 80 (L2; 30 : 70 (L3; 40 : 60 (L4; 50 : 50 (L5; and 60 : 40 (L6.  The data were analyzed by using ANOVA and were further tested with LSD test at 5% level of significant. The results showed that the ratio of pumpkin paste and white glutinous rice flour significantly affected the chemical (moisture and sucrose contents and  sensory properties (texture, color, taste, flavor and overall acceptance of dodol.  The best formulation was found on dodol produced from 50% pumpkin paste and 50% white glutinous rice flour (L5 with the moisture content of 22,51%, sucrose content of 33,67%, total carotenoids content of 1,16 µg/g, fat content of 23,12%, with the texture score of 2,71 (rather elastic, color score of  3,97 (yellow-brown, taste score of 3,75 (feel pumpkin, flavor score of 3,50 (flavorful pumpkin and the overall acceptance of 3,51 (like. Keywords:  dodol, pumpkin, white glutinous rice

  19. PENGARUH FORMULASI PASTA LABU KUNING DAN TEPUNG BERAS KETAN PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN SENSORI DODOL [The Effect of Formulation Pumpkin Paste and White Glutinous Rice Flour on Chemical and Sensory Properties Dodol

    Hadi Hanggara; Sussi Astuti; Sri Setyani

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect formulation between pumpkin pasta and white glutinous rice flour on chemical and sensory properties of dodol. The research was a single factor, arranged in a Complete Randomized Design with six replications. The factor was the formulation of pumpkin pasta and white glutinous rice flour consisted of four levels, i.e. 10 : 90 (L1); 20 : 80 (L2); 30 : 70 (L3); 40 : 60 (L4); 50 : 50 (L5); and 60 : 40 (L6).  The data were analyzed by using ANO...

  20. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum

    Sukamto1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

  1. EFEK KONSUMSI MINUMAN BUBUK KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. BEBAS LEMAK TERHADAP SIFAT ANTIOKSIDATIF LIMFOSIT SUBYEK PEREMPUAN [The Effect of Fat Free Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L. Powder Drinks Consumption on Antioxidative Activity of Lymphocyte of Women Subjects

    Erniati1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of cocoa both in vivo and in vitro have been reported in many studies. Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids known to have antioxidant activity, such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of fat free cocoa powder drink consumption on antioxidative properties and proliferation activities of woman lymphocyte. Healthy woman subjects were divided into cocoa group (n = 9 and control group (n = 9. Cocoa powder drink containing skim milk and sugar was given to the cocoa groups every morning for 25 days. The control group received only water containing skim milk and sugar. Both cocoa and control group received physical medical checkup at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Their peripheral blood was taken for lymphocyte antioxidant analysis. The measured antioxidant properties consisted of antiradical activity by DPPH method, malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione levels. The data of cocoa group showed that there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in antiradical level from 31+11.2 to 40.19+7.42% and glutathione from 48.2±10.5 to 66.7±15.9 μmol/land a decrease in MDA level in the lymphocyte (p < 0.05 from 2.98±2.21 to 1.29±0.33 μmol/las compared to the control group (from 25.77±6.9 to 26.79±6.12%; 34.7±20.7 to 37.8±19.2 μmol/land 3.01±1.53 to 2.069±0.707 μmol/l respectively after consumption of the cocoa powder drink. The results of this research revealed that fat free cocoa powder has a strong antioxidant activity which was manifested up to the blood cells.

  2. Pengujian sifat unggul beberapa klon harapan kopi arabika di kebun percobaan Andungsari, Jawa Timur (Testing for superior traits of some arabica coffee promising clones at Andungsari research station, East Java

    Retno Hulupi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major diseases which limiting production in arabica coffee is the leaf rust caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, B et Br. Selection and testing on thirteen promising arabica coffee clones were carried out at endemic area for leaf rust disease, Andungsari Research Station, for six fruiting times. The aims of these test were to find out superior planting material as clone with genetic resistance to leaf rust. As the beverage commodities, criterium selections for superiority clone besides resistant to leaf rust and yielding ability of more than 1,5 ton/ha also must be excellent in cup quality. Under this consideration, BP 416 A clone showed as the best high yielding ability i.e. 1,595 kg/ha and stable, besides resistant to leaf rust disease compared to the other clones tested. This clone had good cup quality, better than earlier released variety such as USDA 762 and S 795 although was not better than Andungsari 1 that were planted in the same location. The best physical bean characteristics was obtained on BP 513 A clone wich is derived from S 795 x Caturra red, having 89.2% of normal bean and 18.3% outurn characteristics. However, due to lower yielding and more susceptible to leaf rust, this clone could not be classified as superior clone.

  3. PENGARUH JENIS LARUTAN PERENDAM SERTA METODE PENGERINGAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA, DAN FUNGSIONAL GELATIN DARI KULIT CUCUT [The Influence of Solvent Variety and Drying Method on Physical, Chemical and Functional Characteristic of Shark Skin Gelatin

    Made Astawan 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a denaturation product of collagen and has been widely utilized for foods, photography uses, medical materials, and culture materials for microorganisms. Recently, gelatin’s uses has expanded to new applications such as health foods. Gelatin of land animal origin such as bovine and porcine has been mainly used. However, gelatin with new properties is desired to develop expanded applications. In this research gelatin was made from shark skin. The shark skin collagen was distended by acetic acid solution (acid process and sodium hydroxide solution (alkali process, and gelatin was then extracted at 80oC of water. The extracted gelatin was dried by vacuum drying and freeze drying to obtain powder product. Shark gelatin produced by the combination of alkali and vacuum drying process (OVB gelatin had better qualities on yield, water content, gel strength, melting point, and emulsion stability as compared to the others. Sensory evaluation indicated that shark gelatin had lower values in color, odor, and performance as compared to the commercial gelatin of fish, pig and bovine (SKW Biosystem. However, as compared to the commercial gelatins, OVB gelatin had a similar values on gel strength (202 bloom and emulsion stability (100%, but higher values on viscosity (8 cP and pH (9.3. Those values indicated that ray skin gelatin can be used to substitute the commercial gelatin in some food industries

  4. PENGARUH DEKSTRIN DAN GUM ARAB TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN FISIK BUBUK SARI JAGUNG MANIS (Zeamays saccharata [The Effects of Dextrin and Arabic Gum on Chemical and Physical Properties of Sweet Corn (Zeamays saccharata Milk-like Powder

    Sutardi*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effects of type and amount of binder on the chemical and physical properties of sweet corn milk-like powder. Sweet corn milk-like powder was prepared from sweet corn kernel extracted with water with ratio of water and kernel of 2:1 (v/w, then dehydrated by spray dryer. Dextrin and arabic gum in various amount i.e. 2.5; 5.0; and 7.5% (w/v, respectively were added to the sweet corn milk-like before drying, and control was also made. The reducing sugar and total sugar, protein, fat, and moisture content, and as well as bulk density, colour, and solubility of the powder were then analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of sweet corn milk-like powder with addition of dextrin and arabic gum in the amount of 2.5; 5.0; and 7.5% (w/v were significantly different (p > 0.05. According to all aspects studied, sweet corn milk-like powder with addition of dextrin in the amount of 2.5% was the best product of all, which had reducing sugar of 5.00% (db; total sugar 17.01% (db; protein13.67% (db; fat 5.97% (db; moisture 5.38%; bulk density 0.47 g/cm3; and solubility of 93.70%.

  5. SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA BUAH MANGGA (Mangifera indica L. SELAMA PENYIMPANAN DENGAN BERBAGAI METODE PENGEMASAN [Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Mangos (Mangifera indica L. during Storage with Various Methods of Packaging

    Daniel Saputra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of mangos in various packing methods during storage. Factorial Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three replications were used in this research. The treatments were individually and collectively packed mangos which were stored at 10 and 200C. The physical and chemical changes of mangos in the flexible packaging (individual and collective were slower than mangos without packaging. Collectively packed mango stored was with the storage temperature of 100C was found to have longer shelf life than that of other treatments. On day 25, the collectively packed mango had weight loss of 1,464%, 0,316 Kgf hardness, 11,4% total sugars, 0,44% total acids, and 229,44 mg/100g vitamin C. Further duo-trio test indicated that panelists could detect the differences of the taste between packed and freshly harvested mangos. The hedonic test shows that most panelists preferred the taste of mangos that were collectively packed and stored at 100C (on day 10.

  6. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS ON CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SKY FRUIT (Swietenia macrophylla SEED OIL [Pengaruh Pra-perlakuan Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Antioksidan Minyak Biji Buah Tunjuk Langit (Swietenia macrophylla

    Hayati Mohd Yusof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatments on chemical and antioxidant properties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrohylla seed oil. The seeds were treated with different heat pretreatments (roasting, steaming, and microwaving and subsequently subjected to oil extraction by using a Bligh and Dyer method. It was found that different pretreatments significantly (p<0.05 affected yield and peroxide value of the extracted oils. However, no significant effect of pretreatment was observed on free fatty acid content of the seed oils. The oils exhibited significantly different levels of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity due to different heat pretreatments. The results revealed that the mean percentages of DPPH scavenging activity of untreated (control seed oil (87.69% and steamed seed oil (83.40% were significantly higher than those of roasted seed oil (75.71% as well as the microwaved one (63.98%. In contrast, the pretreatments did not significantly affect total phenolic content (TPC of the seed oils with the TPC mean values ranging from 0.016 to 0.022 mg/g (as gallic acid. Data gained from this study provided valuable information for edible oil industries in searching for alternative source of edible oil with medicinal benefits.

  7. Læring i videnssamfundet

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier.......Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier....

  8. Fra selvdannelse til eksistensoplysning

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en perspektiv......Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en...

  9. WOLFRAM (DIDMOAD) SENDROMU BULUNAN BİR OLGUDAKİ ORAL BULGULAR (OLGU BİLDİRİMİ)

    Hatipoğlu, Hasan; Hatipoğlu, Müjgan Güngör; Kansu, Özden

    2018-01-01

    Wolfram Sendromu, nadir görülen konjenital, birçok sistemi etkileyebilen sendromdur. Diabetes mellitus,diabetes insipidus, optik atrofi ve sağırlık ile karakterizedir. Hastalarda nörolojik rahatsızlıklar ile üriner sistemrahatsızlıkları ve psikolojik rahatsızlıklar da izlenir. Diabetes mellitus ve optik atrofi ilk ortaya çıkan bulgulardır.Bu olgu raporunda 20 yaşındaki Wolfram sendromlu erkek hastanın klinik ve radyografik ağız bulgularısunulmaktadır.

  10. Potensi Arang Hasil Pirolisis Tempurung Kelapa sebagai Material Karbon

    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian pengembangan material karbon dari arang hasil pirolisis tempurung kelapa. Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari penggunaan polivinil alkohol (PVA sebagai stimulan dalam pengembangan arang terhadap sifat-sifat fisikokimia material karbon. Kalsinasi, pencampuran, dan sintering temperatur tinggi dilakukan pada proses penerapan teknologi karbon. Metode analisis X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS untuk pengujian struktur kristal, topografi permukaan berupa struktur mikro dan analisis unsur material karbon. Karakteristik produk material karbon menunjukkan perubahan karakter di mana terjadi perubahan sifat fisikokimia dari arang amorf menjadi karbon dengan struktur semi-kristalin.Kata kunci: Arang, Tempurung Kelapa, Pirolisis, Karbon

  11. PENGGUNAAN KARBON AKTIF DARI AMPAS TEBU SEBAGAI ADSORBEN ZAT WARNA PROCION MERAH DARI INDUSTRI SONGKET

    Melyza Fitri Permanda Sari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian penggunaan karbon aktif dari ampas tebu untuk menyerap zat warna procion merah dari industri songket. Pembuatan karbon aktif dilakukan dengan proses karbonisasi pada temperatur 4500C selama 2 jam, karbon aktif yang dihasilkan dilakukan karakterisasi FTIR untuk mengetahui gugus fungsinya serta karakterisasi BET untuk mengetahui luas permukan. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi karbon aktif dari ampas tebu terhadap procion merah dilakukan dengan beberapa variabel, meliputi waktu kontak, berat karbon aktif, dan pH. Hasil karakterisasi FTIR pada karbon aktif dari ampas tebu memiliki gugus fungsi -CO- dan –OH, sedangkan karakterisasi BET karbon aktif dari ampas tebu sebesar 29,2 m2/g. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi karbon aktif dari ampas tebu diperoleh waktu kontak 90 menit dengan berat karbon aktif 0,1 g dan pH optimum 5. Karbon aktif dari ampas tebu mengikuti isotherm Langmuir, efektifitas penyerapan zat warna procion merah dari limbah cair industri songket oleh karbon aktif dari ampas tebu dalam kondisi optimum, sebesar 76,3%.

  12. Aplikasi Wax Sebagai Salah Satu Material Di Bidang Kedokteran Gigi

    Rika Jamilah Israwati Lubis

    2008-01-01

    Wax merupakan salah satu bahan termoplastik yang terdiri dari berbagai bahan organis dan bahan alami sehingga membuatnya sebagai bahan dengan sifat-sifat yang sangat berguna. Unsur-unsur pokok dental wax terdiri dari 3 suraber utama, yaitu : mineral, serangga (hewani), dan sayur-sayuran (tumbuh-tumbuhan). Wax yang berasal dari bahan mineral diantaranya adalah paraffin wax dan microcrystallin wax yang diperoleh dari hasil residu petroleum melalui proses destilasi. Wax yang berasal dari serangg...

  13. Konsep Fiqah Malaysia dalam Perundangan Islam: Satu Pengenalan (The Concept of Malaysian Fiqah in Islamic Law: An Introduction)

    Rahimin Affandi Abd. Rahim; Shamsiah Mohamad; Paizah Ismail; Nor Hayati Mohd Dahlal

    2010-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan sifat dinamik konsep fiqah dalam sistem perundangan Islam Malaysia yang menekankan kepentingan hubungan dengan Allah dan sesama makhluk. Teori utama yang digunakan adalah teori epistemologi hukum Islam yang menetapkan bahawa sifat kelestarian sistem hukum Islam hanya boleh dicapai melalui pembentukan kerangka epistemologi (apa, bagaimana dan untuk tujuan apa) yang jelas. Bagi mencapai objektif, kajian ini menggunakan kaedah pengumpulan data primer dan da...

  14. Pembuatan Poros Berulir (Screw) untuk Pengupas Kulit Ari Kedelai Berbahan Dasar 50% Aluminium Profil dan 50% Piston Bekas dengan Penambahan 0,02 % Tib (Titanium Boron)

    Wisnujati, Andika

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium paduan pada penelitian ini menggunakan campuran Aluminium profil dan piston bekas. Piston bekas digunakan untuk mendapatkan unsur Si yang cukup tinggi pada piston. Penambahan unsur TiB (Titanium-Boron) sebanyak 0,02% pada saat pengecoran diharapkan mampu memperbaiki sifat-sifat mekanis dan fisis aluminium sehingga diharapkan aluminium paduan ini memiliki kekuatan yang jauh lebih baik dibandingkan tanpa penambahan unsur apapun.Paduan aluminium untuk pembuatan screw akan dicor dengan ...

  15. Pembuatan Sabun Cair Menggunakan Alkali Dari Kulit Coklat (Theobroma cacao L.) dengan Minyak Kelapa

    Paduana, Aulia Bismar

    2017-01-01

    120405037 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi kulit coklat sebagai alkali pada proses pembuatan sabun natural dan mengetahui sifat-sifat sabun natural yang dihasilkan dari minyak kelapa sebagai sumber asam lemak. Bahan ? bahan yang digunakan, antara lain minyak kelapa, alkali dari kulit coklat dan aquadest. Variabel ? variabel yang diamati, antara lain temperatur reaksi pembuatan sabun, waktu pengadukan dan waktu reaski penyabunan. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan alkali d...

  16. Om formidling af kunst, kunsthistorie og billeder i anledning af nye bøger 2008

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer væsentlige danske kunsthistoriske udgivelser fra 2008 med særlig henblik på at problematisere den brede kunsthistoriske formidlingslitteratur i en mere snæver teoretisk optik. Denne har sjældent samme brede gennemslagskraft, selv om den kan bruges til at pege på fx kønsproblem...

  17. Sexl Physik 7 für die 7. und 8. Klasse der allgemein bildenden höheren Schulen (1. Teil)

    Sexl, Roman U; Stadler, Helga; Jakesch, Peter; Sattlberger, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Die Schwerpunkte dieses Bandes sind die Erarbeitung der Themen Optik, Atombau und Elektrodynamik über einen historisch-philosophischen Zugang. Wie in jedem Band des Lehrgangs sind übersichtliche Zusammenfassungen, Test- und weiterführende Fragen sowie Rechenbeispiele enthalten.

  18. Digital literacy som læringsoptik i det senmoderne

    Grevy, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    indledes med en redegørelse for de aktuelle potentialer for folkeskolen i dag. Herefter følger et generelt koncept for digital literacy. I det tredje afsnit opstilles på baggrund af projektets undersøgelser udfordringer for den nye optik, og i det sidste afsnit gives et udblik, hvor konceptets muligheder...

  19. Konduktifitas Listrik Komposit Polimer Polipropilena/Karbon Untuk Aplikasi Pelat Bipolar Fuel Cell

    Agus Pramono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC merupakan salah satu sumber energi alternatif yang saat ini sedang dikembangkan untuk mengatasi permasahan krisis energi dan lingkungan. Salah satu komponen yang mempunyai peran  signifikan dalam efisiensi biaya dan proses PEMFC adalah pelat bipolar. Untuk itu diperlukan pelat bipolar yang ringan, murah, dan mudah diproduksi secara masal. Dalam penelitian ini dikembangkan komposit pelat bipolar menggunakan matriks polipropilena (PP, penguat karbon hitam dan grafit elektroda dengan variasi komposisi wt% PP/grafit/CB sebesar 85:10:5; 75:20:5; 65:30:5;dan 55:40:5, sehingga mendapatkan sifat daya hantar listrik yang baik. Sifat-sifat dari komposit yang dihasilkan diuji dengan pengujian konduktivitas, Dari keempat formula, didapatkan bahwa sifat listrik yang paling baik terdapat pada formula empat dengan penambahan grafit sebesar 40 wt%. Formulasi empat memiliki konduktivitas listrik sebesar 2,523E-03 S/cm. sifat listrik juga belum optimal dikarenakan masih terdapatnya banyak rongga atau pori dalam komposit PP/grafit/CB yang disebabkan oleh udara yang terjebak selama proses penekanan.

  20. nalisis Keragaman Genetik Streptococcus agalactiae Penyebab Mastitis Subklinis Pada Sapi Perah Menggunakan pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) = Genetic Analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae Caused Subclinical ...

    Trihastuti, Agnesia Endang

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae atau Streptokokus grup B (SGB) adalah salah satu bakteri utama penyebab mastitis subklinis pada sapi perch dan merupakan parasit obligat pada ambing. Karakterisasi S.agalactiae biasanya dilakukan secara konvensional menggunakan metode serotyping. Meslci metode ini sering digunakan namun masih mempunyai kelemahan apalagi masih adanya isolat S.agalactiae yang belum dapat dimasukkan ke dalam serotipe yang ada (nontypeable/NT), oleh karena itu pendekatan bare denga...

  1. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 72, July - August 1984.

    1985-11-01

    automating experiments at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. CVSLAZAt, 8th. Tezisy dokladov. Part 2. IOF. Tomsk, 1984, 341...8217 4 w ~ ~ 1016. Vlokh , O.G. (LvGU). Electrodynamics in nonlinear optics . Elektrodinamika v nelineynoy optike. LvGU. L’vov, 1983, 83 p...Fizicheskiy institut im Lebedeva AN SSSR Physics Institute imeni Lebedev, Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow FIANKuy Kuybyshevskiy filial Fizicheskogo instituta

  2. Konsep Dan Kinerja Dari Sistem Hybrid OCDMA/WDM Untuk Local Area Network

    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin

    2011-01-01

    Peningkatan kapasitas, distribusi bandwidth dan daya merupakan beberapa isu penting untuk aplikasi local area network (LAN). Saat ini, teknologi fiber optik sudah dapat mendukung jaringan akses dengan kecepatan tinggi untuk layanan multimedia diantaranya teknologi OCDMA dan WDM. Penambahan kapasitas transmisi LAN bisa dilakukan dengan penggabungan sistem transmisi OCDMA dengan WDM. Untuk itu, paper ini mengusulkan konsep dan kinerja dari sistem hybrid OCDMA/WDM. Sistem hybrid OCDMA/WDM ini be...

  3. Kolloide in externen elektrischen und magnetischen Feldern

    Zhao, Jinyu

    2011-01-01

    Kolloide spielen eine wichtige Rolle in der Forschung. In vielen Anwendungsgebieten, beispielsweise Optik, Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Mikrofluidik, Automobilindustrie, Mineralölindustrie, dienen sie sowohl als Testsubstanzen als auch "Werkzeug", um grundlegende Vorgänge zu erforschen. In der Grundlagenforschung dienen kolloidale Suspensionen als Modelle für atomare und molekulare Systeme. In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich Suspensionen aus festen Kolloiden (auch als Partikel bezeichnet) in e...

  4. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN DAGING PRA KYURING DALAM JUS DAUN SIRIH TERHADAP KETENGIKAN DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK DENDENG SAPI SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [The Effect of Soaking of Beef in Betle (Piper betle L Leaf Juice Prior to Curing on Rancidity and Sensory Characteristics of Beef “Dendeng” During Storage

    Yuli Rohidayah 2

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out to determine the effect of soaking of beef in betle (Piper betle L leaf juice prior to curing on peroxide level, thiobarbituric acid (TBA score, and sensory characteristics of beef “dendeng” during 1-3 months storage. The result in showed that soaking in 10% of betle leaf juice resulted in “dendeng” with peroxide level of 8.69 meq/kg which was significantly lower than that of “dendeng” without soaking. TBA scores of “dendeng” soaked in 10% betle leaf juice after 1, 2, and 3 months storage were 0.0131, 0.0159, and 0.0168 μ mole MA/kg, respectively. These scores were lower than that of threshold score of food rancidity (18 μ mole MA/kg. Sensory characteristics (color, taste, and aroma of “dendeng” during storage were accepted well by the panellists.

  5. ANALISIS PERGERAKAN POLUTAN TRIKLOROETILEN DALAM MEDIA BERPORI MENGGUNAKAN SENTRIFUG GEOTEKNIK (Analysis of Trichloroethylene Pollutant Migration in Porous Media Using Geotechnical Centrifuge

    Muchlis Muchlis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Trikloroetilen (TCE adalah pelarut organik yang sering digunakan dalam proses industri. TCE adalah salah satu contoh dari Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL yang sudah banyak mencemari tanah dan air tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sifat-sifat pergerakan TCE dalam berbagai jenis tanah yang berbeda, mengkaji sifat-sifat pergerakan TCE dalam tanah dengan menggunakan kecepatan 1 dan 25 Gravitasi, dan mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pergerakan TCE dalam tanah. Sifat pergerakan TCE dalam tanah riolit dan granit adalah TCE akan masuk langsung secara vertikal dan horizontal dalam tanah hingga ke dasar tanah. Pergerakan TCE akan terhambat pada tanah yang banyak mengandung partikel berukuran kecil. Pergerakan TCE secara vertikal pada gaya 1G dan 25G dalam tanah granit adalah paling cepat berbanding dalam tanah riolit. Pergerakan TCE dalam tanah kering dipengaruhi oleh sifat tanah terutama ukuran butir dan Kapasitas Pertukaran Kation (KPK. ABSTRACT Tricholoroethylene (TCE is an organic solvent used in many industrial processes. TCE is one of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL which has already contaminated soil and groundwater. The objectives of this study are to determine the migration of TCE in rhyolite and granite soil, to determine the migration of TCE in soil using 1 and 25 Gravity (G force, and to determine the migration of TCE influencing factors in the soil. The characteristics of TCE migration in rhyolite and granite soil will migrate vertically and laterally to the bottom of the ground. The migration will be retarded in small particle size of soil. The fastest migration of TCE at 1G and 25G was found in the granite soil. The migration of TCE in dry soil is affected by properties of soil particularly particle size and cation exchange capacity.

  6. Tinjauan Yuridis Terhadap Cybercrime di Indonesia

    Azamul Fadhly Noor

    2005-01-01

    Modus operandi Cybercrime sangat beragam dan terus berkembang sejalan dengan perkembangan teknologi, tetapi jika diperhatikan lebih seksama akan terlihat bahwa banyak di antara kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut memiliki sifat yang sama dengan kejahatan-kejahatan konvensional yang selama ini sudah dikenal, oleh Azamul Fadhly Noor 05002515

  7. PERBANDINGAN EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK DAUN SAGA DAN DAUN SIRIH TERHADAP BAKTERI STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS SKRIPSI Diajukan Untuk Melengkapi Salah Satu Syarat Mencapai Gelar Sarjana Kedokteran Gigi

    USEMAHU, RIFDATUL AHWAL

    2015-01-01

    2015 Latar Belakang: Bakteri adalah salah satu mikroorganisme yang menyebabkan penyakit, salah satunya adalah bakteri Staphylococcus aureus. Daun sirih dan daun saga memiliki sifat antibakteri karena mempunyai zat aktif yang berguna untuk meghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat perbedaan efektivitas antara daun saga dan daun sirih. Metodologi : Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratories. Sampel penelitian ini adalah ...

  8. POTENSI BELAJAR DALAM AL-QU’RAN (TELAAH SURAT AN NAHL :78

    Chanifudin *

    2017-10-01

    Kaitan antara ketiga komponen tersebut adalah bahwa pendengaran bertugas memelihara ilmu pengetahuan yang telah ditemukan dari hasil belajar dan mengajar, penglihatan bertugas mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan dan menambahkan hasil penelitian dengan mengadakan pengkajian terhadapnya. Hati bertugas membersihkan ilmu pengetahuan dari segala sifat yang jelek. Yang terakhir ini, berkaitan dengan teori belajar dan mengajar dalam aspek aqidah dan akhlak

  9. Respon 2 Varietas Padi (Oryza Sativa L.) Terhadap Pyraclostrobin Dalam Efisiensi Penyerapan Nitrogen

    Rudyanto, Mochamad Yusuf; Basuki, Nur; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2014-01-01

    Penggunaan varietas unggul serta berumur pendek memiliki sifat responsif terhadap aplikasi nitrogen. Pyraclostrobin merupakan fungisida sistemik berbentuk emulsi yang dapat larut dalam air dan memiliki fungsi sebagai Zat Pengatur Tanaman (ZPT) yang dapat menjadi pemicu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengkaji pyraclostrobin dalam peningkatan efisiensi nitrogen dan produktivitas serta pertumbuhan tanaman padi. Bahan percobaan varietas padi yaitu varietas Ciherang d...

  10. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPS sebagai Upaya Mengatasi Miskonsepsi Matematis Siswa

    Asri Gita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kesalahan dalam memahami konsep menjadi salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan miskonsepsi pada pelajaran matematika. Miskonsepsi pada materi bangun datar disebabkan oleh cara belajar siswa yang hanya menghafalkan bentuk dasar tanpa memahami hubungan antar bangun datar dan sifat-sifatnya. Upaya yang dilakukan dalam mengatasi miskonsepsi tersebut adalah dengan menerapkan pembelajaran konstruktivis. Salah satu model pembelajaran konstruktivis adalah Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui penerapan model pembelajaran Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs sebagai upaya mengatasi miskonsepsi matematis siswa pada materi sifat-sifat bangun datar segiempat. Subjek penelitian adalah 12 orang siswa SMP yang mengalami miskonsepsi pada materi sifat-sifat bangun datar segiempat. Teknik pengumpulan data pada penelitian ini melalui tes, video, observasi, dan wawancara. Validitas dan reliabilitas data melalui credibility, dependability, transferability, dan confirmability. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan model pembelajaran Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs yang terdiri dari fase individu, fase kelompok triplet, dan fase interpretasi seluruh kelas dapat mengatasi miskonsepsi siswa pada materi sifat-sifat bangun datar segiempat. Perubahan miskonsepsi siswa juga dapat dilihat dari nilai tes yang mengalami peningkatan nilai berdasarkan nilai tes awal dan tes akhir siswa. Kata Kunci: Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs, miskonsepsi, segiempat.   ABSTRACT Mistakes in understanding the concept became one of the factors that led to misconceptions in mathematics. The misconceptions in plane shapes are caused by the way of learning of students who only memorize the basic form without understanding the relationship between the plane shapes and its properties. Efforts made in overcoming these misconceptions is to apply constructivist learning. One of the constructivist learning

  11. Efektivitas Penambahan Getah Pelepah Pisang Kepok (Musa mcuminata balbisianacolla pada Pigmen Kunyit (Curcuma domestica valet untuk Mengatasi Kelunturan Kain

    Junaedi Harmiansyah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Penambahan volume getah pisang kepok pada pigmen alami kunyit dalam mempertahankan warna dari kelunturan pada kain dilakukan dengan perbandingan pemberian volume getah pisang kepok : pigmen kunyit (80%:20%, 70%:30%, 60%:40%, 50%:50%, 40%:60%, 30%:70%. Efektifitas penambahan getah pelepah pisang Kepok diperoleh dari hasil karakterisasi material dengan mencari nilai trasmitansi yang dihasilkan cahaya laser yang dikenakan luxmeter melalui limbah pencucian sabun dengan detergen dan material kain, sehingga di dapatkan nilai transmitasi terbaik sebesar 0.68, di hasilkan dari penambahan getah pelepah pisang kepok sebesar 40%. Getah pisang kapok mampu sebagai pengikat pigmen alami kunyit, dalam mempertahankan kelunturan pada kain.

  12. Analysis of the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticulate phosphors

    Raleaooa, PV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Raleaooa_20160_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1286 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Raleaooa_20160_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Optik - International... journal for Light and Electron Optics Analysis of the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticulate phosphors Raleaooa PV Roodt A Mhlongo GH Motaung DE Ntwaeaborwa OM ABSTRACT: The structure...

  13. Studerendes orientering i fleksible professionsuddannelsers læringsrum

    Dau, Susanne

    Implementeringen af fleksible videregående uddannelser i lærer- og radiografuddannelsen på University College North danner baggrund for denne undersøgelse af, hvorledes studerende orienterer sig i fleksible miljøer. Det afsløres, hvorledes de studerendes mentale, fysiske og virtuelle orientering i...... ved orienteringsprocesser med at finde vej, altså ’wayfinding’. ’Wayfinding’ giver, som metaforisk grundlag, basis for en begrebsliggørelse af lærerprocesser ud fra en fænomenologisk-økologisk optik, som er karakteriseret ved dimensionerne spatialitet, mobilitet, interaktionalitet, struktualitet...

  14. Numeriske tåger

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    med dette talpar omtyder vi alt, hvad der lader sig omtyde, til tabeller i en ustoppelig bevægelse, som efterlader det omtydede til glemsel og nostalgi. Afhængig af hvordan vi anskuer disse tabeller, i det rene Aristoteliske perspektiv eller i Heideggers mere spekulative optik, er det enten causa...... finalis eller causa efficiens, som tabellerne fremstiller for os, men hvad blev der af causa materialis og causa formalis undervejs? Og at producere betyder netop at stille frem, at fremstille - dette vægter ifølge sagens natur det 'stillads' - den teknik eller teknologi - gennem hvilket noget stilles...

  15. Transverse mode selection in a monolithic microchip laser

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available selection in a monolithic microchip laser Darryl Naidooa,b, Thomas Godinc, Michael Fromagerc, Emmanuel Cagniotc, Nicolas Passillyd, Andrew Forbesa,b and Kamel A?t-Ameurc1 a:CSIR National Laser Centre, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b.... Lett. 77 (2000) 34-36. [14] W. Zhao, J. Tan and L. Qui, ?Improvement of confocal microscope performance by shaped annular beam and heterodyne confocal techniques,? Optik 116 (2005) 111-117. [15] T. Shiina, K. Yoshida, M. Ito and Y. Okamura, ?Long...

  16. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM. Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF. ABSTRACT In this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  17. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM.Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF.ABSTRACTIn this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  18. Teknologi Proses Pembuatan Molecular Sieve TiZA Untuk Pemekatan Asam Nitrat

    Ali Nurdin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular sieve zeolit dapat memurnikan campuran larutan yang bersifat azeotrop yang tidak bisa dilakukan menggunakan metode distilasi biasa. Namun, masih memiliki kelemahan dalam half life time molecular sieve tersebut, khususnya stabilitas bahan apabila digunakan pada larutan yang bersifat korosif seperti larutan asam atau basa. Pada penelitian ini telah  dilakukan pembuatan molecular sieve zeolit A yang dimodifikasi  dengan penambahan 10% titanium. Molecular sieve titanium - zeolit A (TiZA dibuat dengan dengan metode hidrotermal pada temperatur 110 °C dan kalsinasi pada temperatur 500 °C. Karakterisasi dilakukan antara lain menggunakan X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX dan karakterisasi pori dengan metode physisorption menggunakan nitrogen pada temperatur 44 K. Molecular sieve TiZA yang dihasilkan stabil terhadap temperatur tinggi, dan larutan asam. Modifikasi zeolit A dengan titanium telah mampu meningkatkan stabilitas molecular sieve Ti-zeolit A dalam larutan asam nitrat selama 24 jam. Distribusi ukuran pori BJH (Barret Joyner Halenda  yang sempit menggambarkan ukuran yang homogen dengan didominasi oleh mikro porus dengan diameter rata-rata sekitar 4Å. Uji coba pemurnian asam nitrat dengan menggunakan molecular sieve secara single stage dapat meningkatkan kemurnian asam nitrat dari 70% hingga 85%.

  19. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pecahan Genteng sebagai Katalis dalam Reaksi Pirolisis Plastik Polipropilena Menjadi Bahan Bakar Alternatif

    Rahmat Jaya Eka Syahputra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mendiskusikan karakterisasi pecahan genteng dan pemanfaatannya untuk memproduksi katalis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik pecahan genteng dan kemudian melakukan modifikasi untuk pembuatan katalis. Katalis dibuat dengan pilarisasi nikel ke dalam pecahan genteng, dan dikarakterisasi menggunakan x-ray diffractometer (XRD. Pirolisis dilakukan terhadap limbah plastik polipropilena hingga diperoleh cairan minyak. Minyak direforming menggunakan katalis pecahan genteng terpilarisasi nikel. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa pecahan genteng mempunyai kandungan logam oksida berdasarkan standar Fe2O3, NiO2, Al2O3, SiO2. Refinement dilakukan menggunakan program Rietica metode Le-Bail dan diperoleh hasil nilai keberterimaan Rp/Rwp <10. Setiap 1,3 kg sampel limbah polipropilena diperoleh hasil minyak sebanyak 1,7 L. Hasil reforming menunjukkan bahwa densitas minyak sebesar 745,919 kg/m3 dan viskositas 0,720 cp. Berdasarkan analisis GC-MS diperoleh fraksi pembentukan terbesar dari katalis pecahan genteng terpilarisasi nikel adalah fraksi C10 - C12. Sehingga, pecahan genteng yang terpilarisasi nikel efektif dijadikan sebagai katalisator dalam proses pirolisis untuk mengubah limbah palstik polipropilena menjadi bahan bakar.

  20. Teori Implisit dalam Proses Belajar, Relasi antar Pribadi dan antar Kelompok

    Aquilina Tanti Arini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini memaparkan tentang teori implisit yang perkembangannya dipelopori oleh Carol S. Dweck dan kolega-koleganya. Teori implisit merupakan teori orang awam yang terdiri atas teori entitas dan inkremental. Teori entitas adalah pandangan yang dimiliki orang awam bahwa sifat bersifat permanen, sedangkan teori inkremental adalah pandangan orang awam bahwa sifat bersifat dinamis dan dapat dikembangkan. Pemaparan teori implisit didasarkan pada hasil-hasil penelitian pada berbagai isu belajar dan relasi-relasi sosial, meliputi penelitian-penelitian tentang peran teori implisit pada performansi dan proses-proses belajar yang mendasarinya, pada relasi antar pribadi dan relasi antar kelompok. Selain itu juga dipaparkan hasil penelitian tentang intervensi untuk mengubah teori implisit yang mendukung perubahan diri dan sosial yang konstruktif. Paparan tentang teori implisit diharapkan memberikan pemahaman tentang peran perbedaan individu dalam proses interaksi sosial.

  1. DIMENSI FEMINIS TUHAN: Paradigma Baru bagi Kesetaraan Gender

    Tri Astutik Haryati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality seringkali dianggap devine creation (segalanya bersumber dari Tuhan. Di sinilah teologi Islam sebenarnya mendapat batu ujian. Karena teologi seharusnya merupakan refleksi kritis agama terhadap permasalahan yang dihadapi masyarakat sehingga tidak hanya bicara tentang konsep ketuhanan, tetapi  yang metafisik diterjemahkan kepada persoalan sosial terutama persoalan perempuan. Lebih tepatnya, teologi perempuan adalah teologi yang menggali aspek-aspek feminim Tuhan demi kesetaraan jender. Penelitian ini berusaha melacak akar-akar teologis perempuan serta mengekplorasi sifat-sifat feminim Tuhan agar kesetaraan gender dapat tercipta.  Perendahan terhadap kualitas feminim perempuan bernilai sama dengan pengabaian kualitas feminim Tuhan. Atas dasar hal tersebut, diskriminasi jender sesungguhnya tidak memiliki legitimasi teologis tetapi justru pengingkaran terhadap Tuhan secara utuh. Alasannya, relasi jender secara mengesankan telah direpresentasikan oleh Tuhan sendiri.

  2. Pemanfaatan Limbah Investment Menjadi Barang Kerajinan

    Hastuti Kusreni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk memanfaatkan kembali limbah investment padat yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan teknologi proses pembuatan barang kerajinan yang bisa  diterapkan untuk usaha kecil kerajinan. Pada pembuatan perhiasan dengan metode wax lost casting digunakan bahan investment powder yang menghasilkan limbah padat investment. Limbah padat investment bisa dibuat barang kerajinan dengan cara menambah resin katalist, gips, alkasit, sabut kelapa, semen putih, yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki sifat plastisitas, meningkatkan kekuatan dan mempercepat pengeringan. Untuk menentukan kualitas sampel dilakukan uji terhadap sifat plastisitas, kekuatan, kekerasan dan waktu pengeringan yang dilakukan secara visual. Hasil olahan limbah investment dengan penambahan gips, alkasit, sabut kelapa dengan komposisi 10:2:1:4, pengeringan selama 3 hari menghasilkan barang kerajinan yang kurang keras, plastis dan kuat. Hasil olahan limbah investment dengan penambahan gips, semen putih dengan komposisi 10:2:4, pengeringan selama 3 jam menghasilkan barang kerajinan yang keras dan plastis. Kata kunci : limbah investment padat

  3. "Utuslah Aku": Eksposisi Yunus Pasal 3-4 Tentang Pengutusan Nabi Yunus Berdasarkan Perspektif Allah Menyesal

    Peniel C.D. Maiaweng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available mereka yang seharusnya dipanggilTuhan untuk pergi ke Niniwe (1:1-2, tetapi melarikan diri ke Tarsis (1:4-14, dan saat ini sedang berdoa dalam perut ikan besar dengankebingungannya (Yun. 2:1-9, akan kembali kepada panggilannya, yaituberbalik arah menuju ke Niniwe (3:1-2, untuk melaksanakanpelayanannya (3:4-9, karena Allah yang memanggil, walaupun Iadisebut Allah yang menyesal, tetapi Ia adalah Allah yang menyerukananugerah, Allah menerima pertobatan, dan diakui dalam pemberitaanPerjanjian Lama. Sebagai Allah yang menyesal, Ia adalah Allah yangterbuka terhadap orang-orang yang belum diselamatkan; Ia adalah Allahyang berdaulat untuk melakukan yang terbaik bagi manusia; Ia adalahAllah yang Mahatahu yang mengantisipasi segala perubahan sikap hidupmanusia di masa yang akan datang; Ia adalah Allah yang konsistenterhadap firman yang telah dinyatakan-Nya; dan Ia adalah Allah yangkonsisten terhadap sifat-sifat-Nya, sebagai Allah yang penyayang danpengasih serta panjang sabar dan berlimpah kasihs setia (4:2.

  4. Sistem Scoring Conversion TOEFL Paper Based Test (PBT Politeknik Negeri Cilacap Menggunakan Metode User Centered Design

    Cahya Vikasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komputer interaktif untuk dipakai oleh useruntuk mendukung pekerjannya. User merupakan object yang penting didalam pengembangan dan pembangun sistem. User adalah personal-personal yang terlibat langsung dalam pemakaian aplikasi. Konsep dari UCD adalah user sebagai pusat dari proses pengembangan sistem, dan tujuan/sifat-sifat, konteks dan lingkungan sistem semua didasarkan dari pengalaman pengguna Pembangunan sistem skoring test TOEFL paper based test (PBT di UPT bahasa politeknik negeri cilacapmenggunakan metode UCD. Dengan menggunakan metode UCD sistem dapat   mempermudah dan mempercepat pendaftaran oleh calon pendaftar dengan tampilan antarmuka yang user friendly , mempermudah proses pengelolaan data dan rekap data pendaftar, mempermudah pengkonversian skor TOEFL yang dilakukan secara otomatis, serta  meminimalisir terjadinya kesalahan, duplikasi data dan duplikasi kegiatan.

  5. Penilaian Kerentanan Habitat Mangrove di Kelurahan Mangunharjo, Kecamatan Tugu, Kota Semarang terhadap Variabel Oseanografi Berdasarkan Metode Cvi (Coastal Vulnerability Index)

    Wahyudi, Agus; Hendrarto, Boedi; Hartoko, Agus

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove merupakan tumbuhan atau vegetasi pantai tropis yang hidup di wilayah pesisir yang luas dan terbuka. Hutan mangrove disebut juga sabuk hijau karena mangrove berfungsi sebagai pelindung pantai dari hantaman gelombang laut. Habitat mangrove memiliki beberapa sifat atau karakteristik yang khusus diantaranya salinitas, pasang surut, angin, dan substrat yang berlumpur. Kerentanan variabel oseanografi di habitat mangrove dan pembukaan lahan kawasan hutan mangrove menjadi lahan tambak budida...

  6. Pengaruh Perubahan Saat Penyalaan (Ignition Timing) Terhadap Prestasi Mesin Pada Sepeda Motor 4 Langkah Dengan Bahan Bakar Lpg

    Yunianto, Bambang

    2010-01-01

    Bahan bakar LPG merupakan bahan bakar gas yang ramah lingkungan, sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan bakar alternatif selain bahan bakar bensin Performa Mesin bensin yang dioperasikan dengan menggunakan bahan bakar gas LPG mengalami penurunan. Penurunan ini terjadi dikarenakan karakteristik sifat bahan bakar bensin berbeda dengan LPG. Hal ini dapat diatasi dengan mengatur saat penyalaan sehingga lebih sesuai dengan karakteristik gas LPG. Dari hasil pengujian diperoleh bahwa dengan pengaturan saat ...

  7. Pembuatan dan Pengujian Kualitas Semen Portland Yang Diperkaya Silikat Abu Ampas Tebu

    Suci Wulandari, Indah Pratama

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh penambahan abu ampas tebu terhadap kuat tekan mortar dan sifat fisis semen portland komposit, meliputi: kehalusan semen, kebutuhan air semen, waktu pengikatan semen, pemuaian dan komposisi kimia semen. Dari hasil penelitian, besar kuat tekan pada penggunaan abu ampas tebu dengan kadar 9% merupakan penambahan optimum pada mortar yang direndam larutan kapur jenuh Sedangkan dari hasil pengujian fisis yang meliputi kehalusan semen, kebutuhan air semen, waktu pengi...

  8. Keragaman Jenis Salak Bangkalan {Salacca Zalacca (Gaertner) Voss} Menggunakan Penanda Morfologi Dan Analisis Isozim

    Ariestin, Yuliamita; Kuswanto, Kuswanto; Ashari, Sumeru

    2015-01-01

    Kabupaten Bangkalan merupakan salah satu daerah yang memiliki potensi cukup besar dalam sektor pertanian khususnya salak. Keragaman tanaman salak yang ada di Kabupaten Bangkalan perlu diidentifikasi untuk melihat sifat dan keragaman genetik. Untuk tujuan pemuliaan tanaman salak, telah dilakukan penelitian identifikasi tanaman pada bulan Februari sampai bulan Maret 2014. Berdasarkan hasil survey dan wawancara dengan petani telah ditemukan enam jenis tanaman salak antara lain salak Apel, Bunter...

  9. Analisis Pengaruh Beban Terhadap Karakteristik dan Efisiensi Generator Arus Searah Penguatan Kompon Kumulatif dan Kompon Diferensial (Aplikasi pada Laboratorium Konversi Energi Listrik FT-USU)

    Lubis, Syahrizal

    2015-01-01

    Salah satu jenis generator DC yang cukup banyak digunakan adalah generator DC kompon panjang dan generator DC kompon pendek. Berdasarkan sifat penguatnya terhadap jangkar generator kompon dibagi menjadi dua yaitu generator DC kompon diferensial dan generator DC kompon kumulatif. Pada karakteristik berbeban sebuah generator DC menunjukkan bagaimana hubungan antara tegangan terminal Vt dan arus medan If ketika generator dibebani. Pada generator DC penguatan kompon, peningkatan...

  10. Fitoakumulasi Ion Logam Tembaga(II) Oleh Tanaman Lidah Mertua (Sansevieria trifasciata Prain)

    Ayu Ika Pratiwi, Asmawati, Syarifuddin Liong

    2017-01-01

    Limbah Cu yang bersumber dari aktivitas industri memiliki sifat toksik bagi makhluk hidup. Pengolahan limbah Cu dapat dilakukan dengan teknik fitoremediasi yaitu teknik pembersihan lingkungan yang tercemar dengan memanfaatkan tanaman hiperakumulator dan telah dikembangkan menjadi metode yang murah dan ramah lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini digunakan tanaman lidah mertua (Sansevieria trifasciata Prain) untuk menarik ion logam berat Cu(II) dari tanah dengan variasi waktu sehingga dapat diketahui...

  11. Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Kompos Dan Azolla ( Azolla Pinnata R. B ) Segar Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil 2 Varietas Tanaman Wortel ( Daucus Carotta L. )

    Huda, M. Syahrial; Widaryanto, Eko; Nugroho, Agung

    2016-01-01

    Wortel termasuk jenis sayuran umbi yang bernilai ekonomis penting di dunia. Salah satu factor budidaya wortel adalah tanah yang tidak hanya sebagai media akar tanaman namun sebagai media tanaman dapat menyerap nutrisi, air dan oksigen. Salah satu peranan bahan organik adalah memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) ialah tumbuhan paku air yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan organik untuk memperbaiki agregat tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk dapat mengetahui pengaruh dosis kom...

  12. Peningkatan Aktivitas Antijamur Candida Albicans Salep Minyak Atsiri Daun Sirih (Piper Bettle Linn.) melalui Pembentukan Kompleks Inklusi dengan B-siklodekstrin

    Astuti, Ika Yuni; Hartanti, Dwi; Aminiati, Ani

    2010-01-01

    Minyak atsiri daun sirih (Piper betle Linn.) memberikan aktifitas antimikroba terhadap Candida albicans (Wirna, 2006). Sifat minyak atsiri adalah kurang stabil terhadap suhu tinggi, cahaya, dan oksigen. Untuk menjaga kestabilan dan memudahkan penanganan minyak atsiri dalam pembuatan sediaan, dapat dilakukan pembuatan kompleks inklusi minyak atsri dengan b-siklodekstrin (Szejtli, 1989). Hal ini mendorong penulis untuk meneliti tentang pengaruh pembentukan kompleks inklusi minyak atsiri daun si...

  13. Rickettsia

    Pramestuti, Nova

    2011-01-01

    Mungkin sebagian orang belum mengetahui bahkan baru mendengar tentang Rickettsia. Di Indonesia, skrining terhadap kasus Rickettsia ini masih jarang dan belum banyak dilakukan penelitian. Rickettsia sebenarnya merupakan bakteri yang mempunyai sifat parasit obligat intrasel uler, berukuran kecil (0,3-0,5 x 0,8-2,0 µm), mempunyai bentuk coccobacilli, gram negatif, tidak berflagel (kecuali Rickettsia prowazekii), dan mengalami pembelahan ganda dalam set pejamu. Rickettsia dianggap sebagai kelompo...

  14. Karakteristik Laminasi Bambu pada Papan Jabon

    Supriadi, Achmad; Sulastiningsih, Ignasia Maria; Subyakto, Subyakto

    2017-01-01

    Tanaman jabon (Anthocephallus cadamba Miq.) sudah banyak ditanam oleh masyarakat sebagai bahan alternatif untuk keperluan bangunan dan mebel. Kayu jabon memiliki dua kelemahan, yaitu tidak kuat (termasuk kelas kuat IV) dan tidak awet (kelas awet V). Untuk meningkatkan sifat kekuatan kayu jabon dalam penelitian ini dilakukan pembuatan papan komposit kayu jabon laminasi bambu atau papan jabon laminasi bambu (PJLB). Bambu yang digunakan adalah bambu mayan (Gigantochloa robusta Kurz) dan bambu an...

  15. Aplikasi Diagnosis Kelainan Refraksi Mata Dan Tips Perawatan Mata Dengan Metode Forward Chaining Berbasis Web

    Sayyidah Fathimah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis merupakan penentuan jenis-jenis penyakit berdasarkan penelitian sesuai dengan gejala-gejala yang dialami. Gejala gangguan penglihatan yang sering dialami adalah rabun. Rabun dapat berupa rabun melihat benda jauh, rabun melihat benda pada jarak dekat dan lain-lain. Semua jenis rabun mata pada intinya merupakan gangguan memfokuskan bayangan benda yang dilihat atau kelainan refraksi (Ametropia. Untuk mengetahui kelainan refraksi pada mata di Rosya Optikal masih menggunakan cara manual yaitu dengan pasien datang ke Rosya Optikal melakukan pendaftaran, pemeriksaan mata, refraksionis optisien mendiagnosis dan memberikan hasil diagnosisnya, memberikan tips perawatan mata beserta resep pembuatan kacamata diberikan kepada pasien. Cara ini merupakan hal yang biasa dilakukan, namun tidak semua orang mempunyai waktu dan kesempatan untuk melakukan pemeriksaan mata dikarenakan kesibukan pekerjaan yang harus dilakukan. Melihat alasan diatas, maka diperlukan pembuatan alat bantu untuk diagnosis kelainan refraksi pada mata dan memberikan tips perawatan mata. Pembuatan Aplikasi Diagnosis Kelainan Refraksi Pada Mata dan Tips Perawatan Mata dengan Metode Forward Chaining yaitu metode pencarian atau teknik pelacakan ke depan yang dimulai dengan informasi yang ada dan penggabungan rule untuk menghasilkan suatu kesimpulan atau tujuan. Pengujian aplikasi menggunakan black box testing yang dilakukan hanya mengamati hasil eksekusi melalui data uji dan memeriksa fungsional dari perangkat lunak.Dengan adanya alat bantu ini, pengguna dapat mengetahui kelainan mata yang dialami, mendapatkan tips perawatan mata sehingga dapat merawat dan mencegah penyakit mata yang berkelanjutan dan solusi jenis kacamata jika diperlukan.

  16. BIOTIPE ISOLAT LOKAL ENTEROBACTER SAKAZAKII

    Iza Ayu Saufani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sakazakii telah diklasifikasikan ke dalam 16 biogrup berdasarkan sifat biokimianya dan menjadi 3 biogrup berdasarkan 20 reaksi biokimia dengan perangkat cepat API 20E. Pada tahun 2007, Iversen mengklasifikasi ulang Enterobacter sakazakii menjadi Cronobacter spp. berdasarkan sifat genotip dan biokimia seperti uji indol, pemanfaatan malonat, dan kemampuannya memproduksi asam dari dulsitol serta metil-α-D-glukosida. Pengelompokan berdasarkan sifat biokimia terhadap genus dan spesies ini belum banyak dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengelompokkan Enterobacter sakazakii yang telah diisolasi dan terkonfirmasi menggunakan PCR berdasarkan gen penyandi 16S rRNA-nya pada penelitian sebelumnya. Pengelompokan dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat cepat RapID ONE® dan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen. Hasil klasifikasi menggunakan RapID ONE® kemudian dibandingkan dengan hasil klasifikasi menggunakan API 20E yang telah dilaporkan sebelumnya. Dengan menggunakan RapID ONE diperoleh 9 isolat Enterobacter sakazakii, 9 isolat Enterobacter cloacae dan 1 isolat Enterobacter cancerogenus dari 19 isolat yang diteliti. Kesembilan belas isolat uji tersebut dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 16 biotipe. Jika dibandingkan dengan menggunakan API 20E, terdapat 8 isolat yang juga teridentifikasi sebagai Enterobacter sakazakii. Berdasarkan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen, 15 dari 19 isolat di atas dapat diklasifikasikan ke dalam Cronobacter spp. Uji pirolidonil disarankan untuk mengklasifikasikan 4 isolat yang tidak terklasifikasi dengan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF GEOTECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF SAND DUNE SOIL: A CASE STUDY AROUND BAIJI IN IRAQ

    Abbas J. Al-Taie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While more than half the land surface of Iraq consists of deserts covered mainly with sand dunes, little research has taken place to study the characteristics and the behavior of dune soils. This paper directed toward studying the geotechnical properties of dune sands taken from Baiji city (northwest of Iraq. A vast laboratory testing program was carried out to achieve the purpose of this paper. The physical tests, chemical tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, permeability test, compaction characteristics, compressibility and collapsibility tests; and shear strength tests were included in this program. The results indicate that soil of Baiji sand dune exhibits prefer engineering properties according to their state. As such, this soil is considered suitable for use in geotechnical constructions. ABSTRAK: Walaupun lebih separuh daripada bumi Iraq terdiri daripada gurun yang dipenuhi dengan bukit-bukit pasir, tidak banyak penyelidikan dijalankan untuk mengkaji sifat-sifat dan ciri-ciri tanah pasir  tersebut. Kertas kerja ini menyelidik sifat geoteknikal bukit pasir yang diambil dari pekan Baiji (di bahagian barat utara Iraq.  Program penyelidikan makmal yang menyeluruh telah  dijalankan bagi mencapai objektif kajian ini. Ujian fizikal, ujian kimia, analisis belauan sinar-x, ujian kebolehtelapan, ciri pemadatan, faktor ketermampatan, ujian keruntuhan dan ujian kekuatan ricih diambilkira dalam program ini. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa tanih bukit pasir Baiji mengutamakan ciri kejuruteraan berdasarkan keadaannya. Oleh itu, tanah ini dianggap sesuai untuk kegunaan pembinaan geoteknikal.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI, TERMAL, FISIK-MEKANIK, DAN BARRIER PLASTIK BIODEGRADABEL BERBAHAN BAKU KOMPOSIT PATI TERMOPLASTIK-LLDPE/HDPE

    Waryat Waryat

    2013-08-01

      ABSTRAK   Plastik sebagai kemasan suatu produk sudah banyak dipakai dan digunakan dalam kurun waktu lama. Namun, limbah plastik tersebut dapat menimbulkan pencemaran lingkungan dikarenakan plastik sulit untuk terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme. Usaha untuk mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap plastik salah satunya adalah penggunaan plastik ramah lingkungan dari bahan baku yang dapat diperbaruhi dengan metode pencampuran/blending. Permasalahan yang dihadapi dalam pembuatan plastik biodegradabel berbahan baku campuran antara bahan alami dan sintetis adalah tidak kompatibel antara kedua bahan tersebut karena bahan alami bersifat hidrofilik/polar dan bahan sintetis bersifat hidrofobik/non polar. Untuk meningkatkan kompatibilitas antara kedua campuran itu perlu ditambahkan bahan seperti compatibilizer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik morfologi permukaan plastik, kecepatan alir, densitas, suhu leleh, sifat mekanik, dan barrier pastik biodegradabel berbahan baku campuran pati termoplastik-LLDPE/HDPE. Penelitian ini dibagi menjadi tiga tahap yaitu pembuatan pati termoplastik, pembuatan compatibilizer LLDPE/HDPE-g-MA dan pembuatan plastik biodegradabel. Karakteristik sifat aliran, kekuatan tarik, perpanjangan putus, dan permeabilitas oksigen plastik biodegradabel berbahan baku pati termoplastik-LLDPE/HDPE cenderung menurun, sedangkan karakteristik permeabilitas terhadap uap air cenderung meningkat dengan semakin meningkatnya kandungan pati termoplastik. Adanya compatibilizer LLDPE/HDPE-g-MA menghasilkan sifat mekanik lebih baik pada plastik biodegradabel. Kata kunci: plastik biodegradabel, pati termoplastik, compatibilizer MA-g-LLDPE/HDPE

  19. Studi Penggunaan Plat Elektroda Netral Stainless Steel 316 dan Aluminium Terhadap Performa Generator HHO Dry Cell

    Tasrif Arifin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Generator HHO merupakan alat yang menggunakan prinsip elektrolisis air untuk memisahkan unsur-unsur kandungan air murni (H2O menjadi Gas HHO, dalam upaya peningkatan performanya tentu dibutuhkan bahan konduktor yang memiliki sifat kelistrikan baik. Penambahan plat elektroda netral ialah bertujuan untuk meningkatkan performa elektroliser dan mengatasi berbagai macam permasalahan yang terjadi pada saat proses elektrolisis air bekerja. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa plat elektroda netral aluminium mampu meningkatkan nilai performanya sedangkan untuk plat SS 316 mampu meminamalisir persentase losses energy. Larutan AMDK murni terbukti mampu meningkatkan produktivitas gas dibandingkan dengan larutan aquades murni, tetapi kelemahan dari larutan AMDK yaitu mudahnya terbentuk gel-gel, sehingga menghambat pergerakan elektron dan laju aliran produksi. Karateristik sifat bahan sangat berpengaruh terhadap pencapaian kinerja Generator HHO karena tidak semua jenis plat elektroda netral mampu meningkatkan performanya. Sifat-sifat kelistrikkan bahan yang sangat berpengaruh ialah sifat keelektronegatifan atau potesial elektroda dan koefisien nilai muai dari suatu bahan konduktor.   Usage Study Neutral Electrode Plate Stainless Steel 316 and Aluminium of Performance Generator HHO Dry Cell Type Abstract. Generator is a tool that use principle of water electrolysis to separated the element of pure water conscience (H2O be HHO gas, in effort to increase the perform of HHO Generator is needed a conductor ingredients which has a good electricity character the direction of addition neutral electrode plate is to increase the electrolyzer perform and to overcome every problem that happen when the water electrolisys process is going. This research shows that neutral electrode aluminium plate can increase the performance value and the SS 316 plate can minimize the percentage of losses energy. The pure AMDK solution proofs that can increase the gas productivity

  20. Pengembangan Indentation Size Effect (ISE Dalam Penentuan Koefisien Pengerasan Regang Baja

    I Nyoman Budiarsa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Hubungan antara sifat material konstitutif dengan indentasi kekerasan (Hardness Indentation termasuk ISE (Indentation Size Effect telah dikembangkan dan dievaluasi dengan indentasi Vickers, hal Ini akan menjadi alat yang berguna dalam mengevaluasi kelayakan penggunaan nilai kekerasan dalam memprediksi parameter bahan konstitutif dengan mengacu pada syarat akurasi pada rentang semua potensi bahan. ISE dapat konsisten diukur dan dapat berpotensi dihubungkan dengan H/E rasio. Skala ISE dari sampel yang diuji menunjukkan pengulangan yang konsisten dan berhubungan kuat dengan sifat material secara signifikan. Hal Ini berpotensi memberikan set data eksperimen yang mencerminkan sifat material yang terkait dengan ketegangan gradien dan kerapatan dislokasi selama proses indentasi Konsep untuk menggunakan data ukuran indentasi Vickers telah dikembangkan untuk meningkatkan akurasi sifat invers pemodelan berdasarkan kekerasan menggunakan baja sebagai sistem bahan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada ISE signifikan dalam tes kekerasan Vickers dimana skala dan reliabilitas ISE dianalisis dengan fitting data mengikuti Power law and proportional resistance model Sebuah konsep baru menggunakan data ISE untuk memperkirakan Koefisien Pengerasan Regang (n nilai-nilai dari baja telah dievaluasi dan menunjukkan hasil yang baik untuk mempersempit kisaran sifat material yang diprediksi berdasarkan nilai-nilai kekerasan. . Kata kunci: ISE, H/E rasio, Koefisien Pengerasan Regang (n Abstract: The relationship between the constitutive material properties with Hardness indentation including ISE (indentation Size Effect has been developed and evaluated by Vickers indentation. This provided a useful tool in evaluating the feasibility of using of hardness value in predicting the constitutive material parameters with reference to the terms of accuracy in the all the potential materials range. ISE can be consistently measured and may potentially be associated with H

  1. APLIKASI SERBUK WORTEL SEBAGAI SUMBER β-KAROTEN ALAMI PADA PRODUK MI INSTAN

    Sri Anna Marliyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to study the use of carrot powder as a source of natural β-carotene in instant noodle. Four formulas were developed based on carrot powder level added into the formula (0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The carrot instant noodle was evaluated for sensory properties by 30 panelists. The best formula was analyzed for chemical properties, including proximate composition, dietary fibre, and β-carotene. The physical properties were analyzed in color, cooking time, elasticity, and water holding capacity. The experimental design applied terms of Complete Randomized Design. The result showed that instant noodle with 15% carrot powder was the best formula of carrot instant noodle. No significant difference in acceptance between this formula and commercial instant noodles. Product was composed of moisture content 7.75% (wb, ash 1.59% (d.b, protein 12.82% (d.b, fat 1.41% (d.b, carbohydrate 84.18% (d.b and β-carotene 2 390 μg/100 g (199 RE or 99.5 RAE/serving size. Carrot instant noodle had physical properties as cooking time was 3.5 minutes, the color was yellow-redish, elasticity properties was 162.22%, and water holding capacity was 143.89%. This noodle contribute above 15% RDA of vitamin A for the children aged 4—5 years.Key words: β-carotene, carrot powder, instant noodleABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari penggunaan serbuk wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dalam mi instan. Empat formula dikembangkan berdasarkan jumlah serbuk wortel yang ditambahkan (0%, 10%, 15%, dan 20%. Mi instan wortel dievaluasi sifat organoleptiknya oleh 30 orang panelis. Formula terbaik dianalisis sifat-sifat kimianya meliputi komposisi, serat pangan, dan beta karoten, sedangkan sifat-sifat fisik yang dianalisis adalah warna, waktu masak, elastisitas, dan daya serap air. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mi instan dengan penambahan 15% serbuk wortel

  2. Optimasi Waktu Proses Hidrolisis dan Fermentasi dalam Produksi Bioetanol dari Limbah Pengolahan Agar (Gracilaria sp. Industri

    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2013-12-01

    menggunakan kapang Trichoderma viride dan khamir Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Penelitian yang dilakukan terdiri dari beberapa tahap yaitu karakterisasi limbah agar industri, hidrolisis enzimatis menggunakan kapang Trichoderma viride penghasil selulase, dan fermentasi dengan khamir Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa waktu optimal untuk hidrolisis enzimatis adalah 4 hari pada suhu 28 oC dan pH 3,91; aktivitas CMCase 210,48 IU/ml dan menghasilkan total gula pereduksi 6,74 mg/ml. Sedangkan untuk waktu fermentasi yang optimal adalah 2 hari pada suhu 32 oC dan pH 4,66 dengan nilai OD 600 nm 0,0181 menghasilkan etanol kasar dengan kadar 0,47% (b/b.

  3. ANALISA THERMOGRAVIMETRY PADA PIROLISIS LIMBAH PERTANIAN

    Bagus Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan karakterisasi degradasi termal dari limbah pertanian untuk dijadikan suatu bahan bakar padat alternatif. Penelitian diawali dengan tahap pengumpulan bahan yang dilanjutkan penyeragaman ukuran sampel uji hingga berukuran 20 mesh. Setelah itu masing-masing sampel dikeringkan hingga kadar air maksimal 12 %. Sebelum Sampel seberat 20 gram diuji pirolisis dengan menempatkan sampel dalam reaktor yang telah dialiri nitrogen dengan laju 100 ml/menit. Sampel diuji dengan kondisi heating rate 15 oC/menit, temperatur akhir 600 oC dan holding time 10 menit. Data yang didapat berupa penurunan massa dan perubahan temperatur dicatat dalam laptop dengan menggunakan software RS-Key, Ms Excel dan Adam.NET Utility. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat disimpulkan campuran serbuk gergaji dan jerami memiliki temperatur pirolisis paling rendah, sementara campuran sekam padi dan kulit singkong memiliki massa arang paling banyak.

  4. MOBILITAS PEMBAWA MUATAN PADA OFET (ORGANIC FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR BERBASIS FILM TIPIS

    Sujarwata -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini adalah pembuatan dan karakterisasi pada OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact. Pembuatan OFET dilakukan dengan cara pencucian substrat dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat SiO2 dengan metode  penguapan hampa udara pada suhu ruang dan teknik lithography. Selanjutnya dilakukan deposisi film tipis CuPc diantara source (S dan drain (D sebagai panjang saluran (channel dan diakhiri dengan deposisi elektrode gate (G. Karakterisai OFET berbasis film tipis dilakukan dengan El-Kahfi 100, untuk menentukan karakteristik keluaran V-I. Hasil karakterisasi OFET dengan panjang channel (L 100 μm dan lebar (W 1 mm, mempunyai daerah aktif, yaitu: 2,80 V sampai dengan 3,42. Mobilitas pembawa muatan OFET untuk daerah saturasi, µ = 0,00182278 cm2 /Vs dan untuk daerah linier, µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this research is to produce and characterize the OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor based on thin film with bottom-contact structure. The OFET production consists of the substract wash by using ethanol in the ultrasonic cleaner, then electrode deposition of source and drain on the SiO2 substract by using vacuum evaporation in the room temperature and lithography technique.  Then, the deposition of thin film of CuPc between source (S and drain (D was done as the channel length and ended with electrode gate (G deposition. The OFET characterization  with channel length (L  100 μm and wide (W 1 mm  obtained the active area of 2,80 - 3,42 v. While the mobility of OFET charge carrier  obtained µ =  0,00182278 cm2 /Vs for the saturation area and µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs for linier area.

  5. ADHD SOM SOCIALT OG KULTURELT FÆNOMEN

    Berger, Nichlas Permin

    Der har i Danmark de seneste årtier været en eksplosiv vækst i antallet af mennesker, der stilles en ADHD-diagnose. Der eksisterer et væld af forskellige bud på forklaringer på dette fænomen. Lige fra epidemiologiske og medicinske tolkninger, der peger på, at mennesker generelt er blevet mere syge...... at forbinde psykiske lidelser, herunder i væsentlig grad ADHD, som en risikofaktor for kriminalitet, antisocial adfærd, misbrug og en række andre sociale problemer. Med interesse i dette komplekse fænomen belyses empirisk den sociale og kulturelle forudsætning for ADHD-diagnosen i Kriminalforsorgens...... institutioner i en kulturanalytisk og socialkonstruktivistisk optik. Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan ADHD og kriminalitet diskursivt kobles sammen af voksne kriminelle med en ADHD-diagnose og frontmedarbejdere i Kriminalforsorgen....

  6. Faglige fællesskaber og MOOCs

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Rosenlund, Lea Tilde

    2016-01-01

    Fag og faglige fællesskaber må etableres på ny, når traditionelle faglokaler skiftes ud med uddannelsesformater som MOOCs. Dette kapitel sætter fokus på de potentialer og udfordringer, der opstår for både undervisere og studerende, når læringsressourcer og faglige opgaver gøres tilgængelige i et...... uddannelsesformat uden mulighed for umiddelbar personlig kontakt. I kapitlet præsenteres kort forskellige uddannelsesformaters muligheder, og der etableres med begreberne “teknisk og didaktisk understøttelse af læring” en optik på de refleksioner og tiltag, undervisere og producenter af MOOCs kan gøre, ligesom...

  7. ANALISIS KUALITAS JARINGAN GPON PADA LAYANAN IPTV PT. TELKOM DI DAERAH DENPASAR, BALI

    Ngakan Oka Pramundia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GPON adalah sebuah teknologi berbasis fiber optik. PT.TELKOM menerapkan teknologi GPON sebagai jaringan access network untuk layanan IPTV Usee TV. Penelitian ini membahas kualitas jaringan GPON pada layanan IPTV di daerah Denpasar, Bali mengacu pada topologi dan standarisasi kualitas jaringan. Kualitas jaringan dikategorikan baik untuk 3 parameter yaitu Rx Power(Prx, Attenuatiion, dan Attainable Rate. Untuk Rx Power (Prx nilai berkisar antara -18 dBm sampai dengan -24 dBm. Pada Attenuation klasifikasi kualitas jaringannya termasuk pada kategori Excellent. Sedangkan untuk Attainable Rate-nya nilai downstream berkisar antara 2 Gbps sampai dengan 2.4 Gbps. Dengan nilai downstream tersebut dapat memenuhi kebutuhan layanan Usee TV. Hal ini menyatakan bahwa GPON PT.TELKOM sudah mampu melayani layanan IPTV UseeTV di daerah Denpasar, Bali dengan baik

  8. Analisis Redaman Pada Jaringan FTTH (Fiber To The Home Dengan Teknologi GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network Di PT MNC Kabel Mediacom

    Minal Abral

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available iber optic merupakan teknologi yang menyediakan kapasitas bandwith besar dengan kecepatan tinggi, tidak dipengaruhi interferensi gelombang elektromagnetik, Sejalan dengan berkembang secara pesatnya penggunaan serat optik sebagai medium penghantar, ada kemungkinan terjadinya hilang informasi akibat kerugian dari pemanjangan kabel fiber optic ataupun penyambungan kabel fiber optic, kerugian tersebut yaitu redaman. Dalam penerapan metode link power budget, perhitungan redaman dilakukan dengan data yang diperoleh berdasarkan standarisasi dan pengukuran menggunakan perangkat optical power meter. Hasil analisa perhitungan, sistem mampu dalam keadaan normal menggunakan layanan gigabit passive optical network dapat diterima oleh perangkat akhir jaringan fiber to the home pada pelanggan perusahaan PT MNC Kabel Mediacom yang berada di Kelurahan Jati RW 02 Pulo Gadung Jakarta Timur.

  9. Forestillinger om kvinden i sygeplejefaget

    Holen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Kapitlet analyserer forestillingen om at kvindelighed og sygeplejefaget hører sammen. Den teoretiske optik er Judith Butlers opgør med forestillingen om, at kønnet har en biologisk komponent og en social/kulturel komponent. Kapitlet er en analyse af forskellige tekster skrevet af tre forskellige...... forbinder kvinden til sygeplejefaget. Denne forbindelselinje er dog på mange måder paradoksal, hvilket fremkommer ved at læse teksterne i lyset af Butlers kritik af skellet mellem sex og gender. For på den ene side beskrives det kvidnelige om særlig værdifuldt i forhold til sygeplejefaget, og på den anden...

  10. PENGARUH VARIASI TEMPERATUR TUANG TERHADAP KETANGGUHAN IMPAK DAN STRUKTUR MIKRO PADA PENGECORAN ALUMINIUM

    Mohammad Tofa Wijaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki pengaruh temperatur tuang terhadap ketangguhan impak dan struktur mikro hasil pengecoran paduan aluminium dengan menggunakan cetakan pasir. Bahan penelitian ini adalah paduan alumunium dari scrap aluminium, kemudian dilebur dan dituang ke dalam cetakan dengan variasi temperatur tuang dari 660 °C, 700 °C dan 740 °C. Pengujian impak dilakukan untuk mengetahui ketangguhan impak pada hasil coran dengan menggunakan alat uji impak Charpy (ASTM E 23-02a. Foto struktur mikro dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroskop optik Nikon seri 661103. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variasi temperatur tuang pada saat pengecoran berpengaruh terhadap nilai ketangguhan impak dan struktur mikro hasil coran. Dari tiga variasi temperatur tuang yang dilakukan, semakin tinggi temperatur tuang maka nilai ketangguhan impaknya juga semakin meningkat. Struktur mikro yang terbentuk dari  logam paduan aluminium coran secara umum memiliki bentuk struktur mikro berupa struktur dendrite.

  11. Teori-praksis i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen

    Bering Keiding, Tina

    2008-01-01

    differensteoretisk optik, som nok virker kompleks, emn som også tilbyder en betydelige kompleksitetsfølsomhed. Den kompleksitetsfølsomhed som Luhmann tilbyder, peger for det første på, at der må forventes forskelle mellem såvel intention og interaktion, som mellem forskellige interaktionssystemer. Og at denne...... interaktionelt, bidrager til uddannelsen at i hvert tilfælde at overveje om brudte forventninger skal justeres på niveauet for forventninger/intentioner, eller om ændringerne skal søges tilvejebragt i interaktionen. Artiklen bygger på et oplæg holdt på Fagligt Selskab for Undervisende Sygeplejerskers møde...

  12. SIMULASI POLA MEDAN ELEKTROMAGNET PADA PANDU GELOMBANG PERSEGI DENGAN DUA PARAMETER

    Sujito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan visualisasi pola medan elektromagnetik 4 moda terendah pada pandu gelombang persegi untuk moda berorde tinggi, yaitu moda TE00, TE01, TE10 dan TE11. Konstanta propagasi sebagai salah satu parameter yang digunakan untuk mengkarakter moda gelombang optik diformulasikan secara semi analitik. Hal ini dikarenakan formulasi konstanta propagasi efektif moda gelombang tidak dapat diturunkan secara eksak. Beberapa bagian dipecahkan menggunakan penyelesaian analitik, sedangkan beberapa bagian diselesaikan melalui analisa numerik secara komputasional dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Matlab. Analisis karakter pola medan dilakukan dengan menggunakan prinsip Variasional fungsi trial polinom Hypergeometri, sedangkan profil indeks bias berbentuk secant hyperbolik. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan berbagai orde moda menunjukkan kesesuaian terhadap metode indeks efektif dan mampu mendeskripsikan pola medan.

  13. Farklı Oranlarda Tiyoüre Katkısının Nanoyapılı Kadmiyum Oksit (CdO Filmlerin Fiziksel Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi

    Raşit AYDIN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı nanoyapılı CdO filmlerin fiziksel özelliklerine tiyoüre konsantrasyonunun etkisini incelemektir. Bunun için farklı tiyoüre konsantrasyonlarındaki (%0, 0.5, 1 ve 2 dört seri CdO film soda lime cam altlık üzerine SILAR tekniği kullanılarak büyütüldü. Bu filmlerin morfolojileri, kristal yapıları ve optik özellikleri sırasıyla MM, XRD ve UV-visible spektroskopi teknikleri ile karakterize edilmiştir. MM görüntüleri tiyoüre konsantrasyonunun nanoyapılı CdO filmlerin yüzey morfolojilerini etkilediğini göstermektedir. CdO filmlerinin düzlemlerinin tercihli yöneliminin tiyoüre konsantrasyon değerine kuvvetle bağlı olduğunu XRD analizinden elde edilen sonuçlar ortaya koymaktadır. UV-vis analizinden, tiyoüre miktarı arttıkça CdO filmlerinin optik enerji bant aralığının (Eg önce azaldığı ve daha sonra tekrar artan konsantrasyonla arttığı belirlenmiş ve bu enerji değerlerinin (2.25 - 2.13 eV aralığında olduğu bulunmuştur.

  14. STUDI TENTANG PEMROSESAN TEPUNG SORGUM TERFOSFORILASI DAN APLIKASINYA PADA BERBAGAI ADONAN PASTRI

    Ummi Rohajatien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum is a potential alternative food source to be developed. The objective of the research is. (1 to know the effects of the treatment of STTP concen­tra­tion and duration of phosphorylation process to functional properties of sorghum flour; and (2 to know the comparison on both the physical and organoleptic quality of pastry product using basic material of phosphorylated sorghum and wheat flour. The research uses factorial randomized block design with 2 factors. T-Test is used to know both comparison on physical and organoleptic quality of pastry product by using basic material of phosphorylated sorghum and wheat flour. The result of T-test to the physical quality parameters of cake and pancake (cutting power, texture and color lightness was significantly different for the alpha 0,05. On the other hand, organoleptic quality parameters (appearance, taste, flavor, smoothness, softness and color were not significantly different. In addition, for cookies physical quality para­meters (broken power, texture, and color were significantly different. On the contrary, for organoleptic quality parameters, they were not significantly different. Sorgum merupakan sumber makanan alternatif sangat potensial untuk di­kembangkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan: (1 mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan konsentrasi STTP dan lamanya proses fosforilasi pada sifat fungsional pada tepung sorgum; dan (2 me­ngetahui perbandingan kedua kualitas organopleptik dan fisik produk pastri dengan menggunakan bahan dasar tepung terigu sorgum terfosforilasi. Penelitian meng­gunakan rancangan blok acak faktorial dengan 2 faktor. T-test digunakan untuk mengetahui kedua perbandingan pada sifat fisik dan organoleptik produk pastri dengan menggunakan sifat dasar tepung terigu dan sorgum terfosforilasi. Hasil dari T-test pada parameter kualitas fisik cake dan kue dadar berbeda secara nyata pada alpa 0,05. Parameter kualitas organoleptik tidak berbeda nyata. Parameter kualitas fisik cookies

  15. Negotiation of Gender Relations Meaning among Female Interpretation Community in Housing and Village Settlement

    Sri Budi Lestari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sitcom of Husbands fearing Wives (SSTI-Suami-Suami Takut Istri, is one of the private television sitcoms which highlights violence as a joke to provoke laughter of its audiences. In SSTI, the joke involves the concept of gender, exchanging the role of women and men which has been socially and culturally constructed. One of the main objectives of this study is to analyze the role of the interpretation community in understanding the gender relations in SSTI sitcom. The study aims to discover the media interpretation by a group of female audiences living in the village and sub-district of Tembalang, Semarang. The results show that the negotiation of interpretation community on SSTI sitcom is not in line with the goal of the media; because the nature of men and women roles that are exchanged is interpreted as an “abnormal” relation. Therefore, the hierarchical power relation between men and women which tends to disadvantage women, for interpretation community is regarded as a normal & natural.Tayangan sinetron komedi Suami-suami Takut Istri (SSTI, merupakan salah satu program televisi swasta yang menonjolkan kekerasan sebagai lelucon untuk tujuan memancing tawa. Dalam prakteknya SSTI melibatkan konsep jender, yang mempertukarkan sifat-sifat perempuan dan laki-laki  sebagai hasil kontruksi secara sosial maupun kultural. Salah satu tujuan penelitian ini ingin menganalisis peran komunitas interpretasi dalam pemaknaan tentang relasi jender pada tayangan sinetron SSTI. Penelitian ini berlangsung pada penonton perempuan yang tinggal di perumahan dan perkampungan wilayah kecamatan Tembalang, kota Semarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa negosiasi komunitas interpretasi pada tayangan sinetron SSTI tidak sejalan dengan arahan media karena ternyata sifat laki-laki dan perempuan yang dipertuarkan dimaknai sebagai relasi yang tidak ‘normal’. Dengan demikian relasi kuasa hirarkis antara laki-laki dan perempuan  yang cenderung merugikan

  16. Aktualisasi Etika Kepemimpinan Jawa dalam Asthabrata

    Pardi Suratno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nama Asthabrata sangat populer dalam kehidupan masyarakat Jawa karena sering muncul dalarn pagelaran wayang purwa. Ajaran Asthabrata mendapat apresiasi yang sangat luas oleh masyarakat Indonesia karena memuat ajaran kepemimpinan yang dapat dijadikan aspirasi bagi semua pihak yang sedang dan akan mengabdikan hidupnya bagi bangsa dan negara. Asthabrata merupakan kreativitas pujangga Jawa karena tidak dikcnal dalam Ramayana India (baru muncul dalam Ramayana Kakawin, Semua Asthabrata menampilkan figur pemimpin dalam sosok delapan dewa. Dalam perkernbangan lebih lanjut, budayawan Jawa memilih menampilkan figur pemimpin itu dalam sifat-sifat benda alam, yakni bumi, matahari, bulan, bintang, laut, angin, dan awan. Penampilan figur pernimpin dalam sifat benda-benda alam tersebut lebih netral sebagai pilihan cerdas pujangga Jawa. Abstract: The name of Asthabrata is very popular among Javanese live because of its frequent appearance in the wayang purwa performance. Asthabrata teachings have got a wide appreciation from Indonesian people because it carries leadership teachings which can be an aspiration to everyone who is dedicating and will dedicate their lives to their nation and country. Asthabrata is the creativity of the Javanese men of letters for not discovered in Indian's Ramayana (not until Ramayana Kakawin. All Asthabrata present a leader figure in the characters of eight gods. In further progress, Javanese culture vultures chose to present the leader figure in the characters of natural objects. namely earth, Sun, moon, star, ocean, wind, and cloud. The performance of a leader figure in the characters of the natural objects is more neutral as a smart choice of Javanese man of letters. " Keywords: creativity, Asthabrata, leader

  17. ANALISIS KADAR HARA PUPUK ORGANIK KASCING DARI LIMBAH KANGKUNG DAN BAYAM

    Elfayetti Elfayetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertanian organik merupakan sistem pertanian yang holistik yang mendukung dan mempercepat biodeversiti, siklus biologi dan aktivitas biologi tanah(International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements,2014. Geografi Pertanian merupakan mata kuliah di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi FIS Unimed. Dalam Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi yang diterapkan di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi FIS Unimed merupakan matakuliah wajib pada semester genap, tepatnya pada semester IV (empat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan pertumbuhan berat cacing tanah pada pupuk kascing dari limbah kangkung dan bayam dan untuk mengetahui kandungan hara N, P, K dan pH kascing dari limbah kangkung dan bayam pada tanah ultisol. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan pada pupuk organik, maka harus diupayakan bagaimana memperoleh pupuk yang memiliki unsur hara yang padat dan pengadaannya relatif murah dan mudah. Pemanfaatan limbah organik untuk budidaya cacing tanah merupakan salah satu tindakan yang tepat untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Rendahnya bahan organik, N, P, K menunjukkan bahwa tanah pada percobaan ini membutuhkan bahan organik. Pemberian bahan organik seperti cacing diharapkan dapat meningkatkan Produktivitas Ultisol dimana Kascing mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia, fisika, dan biologi tanah yang baik, sehingga dapat meningkatkan serapan hara dan pertumbuhan tanaman. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa : 1. Jenis makanan berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan cacing tanah dan kualitas kascing yang dihasilkan. 2.Terdapat perbedaaan pada bobot cacing tanah yang dihasilkan dengan adanya perbedaan jenis makanan. Jenis makanan bayam memberikan tingkat pertumbuhan cacing tanah terbaik dengan terjadinya pertambahan bobot sebesar 650 gram yang awalnya hanya 250 gram. 3. Dari beberapa parameter sifat kimia dan biologi kascing, maka jenis makanan bayam memberikan nilai N tertinggi yaitu 0,52 dan pada pakan kangkung terdapatnilai p tertinggi yaitu 0,35. Kata Kunci

  18. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN SAAT PENYALAAN (IGNITION TIMING TERHADAP PRESTASI MESIN PADA SEPEDA MOTOR 4 LANGKAH DENGAN BAHAN BAKAR LPG

    Bambang Yunianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar LPG merupakan bahan bakar gas yang ramah lingkungan, sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan bakar alternatif selain bahan bakar bensin Performa Mesin bensin yang dioperasikan dengan menggunakan bahan bakar gas LPG mengalami penurunan. Penurunan ini terjadi dikarenakan karakteristik sifat bahan bakar bensin berbeda dengan LPG. Hal ini dapat diatasi dengan mengatur saat penyalaan sehingga lebih sesuai dengan karakteristik gas LPG. Dari hasil pengujian diperoleh bahwa dengan pengaturan saat penyalaan 11° sebelum TMA, menghasilkan prestasi (Torsi dan Daya yang dekat dengan prestasi motor bensin yaitu hanya selisih 3 %. Prestasi terbaik pada mesin bahan bakar bensin ataupun LPG berkisar pada putaran 4000 s.d 5000 rpm

  19. PERANAN FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN DALAM PEMULIAAN IKAN

    Anang Hari Kristanto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan pemuliaan ikan selain dipengaruhi oleh genetik, juga sangat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan. Walaupun faktor ini tidak diwariskan kepada generasi berikutnya, tetapi mempengaruhi fenotif suatu individu atau populasi ikan yang akan dibudidayakan, karena faktor lingkungan yang buruk akan menutup potensi genetik dari individu atau populasi tersebut. Aspek lingkungan yang berpengaruh terhadap pemuliaan tersebut adalah padat tebar dan mortalitas; umur, suhu, dan kualitas air; sifat biologi dan fisiologi; maternal efek; kecondongan, dan cara pemberian pakan; kompensasi pertumbuhan; dan pemeliharaan komunal (bersama. Usaha pemuliaan dan budi daya perlu memperhatikan faktor-faktor ling-kungan.

  20. PENALARAN ANALOGI SISWA DALAM MENYELESAIKAN MASALAH LUAS DAN KELILING SEGITIGA DAN SEGIEMPAT

    Dyah Ayu Pramoda Wardhani

    2016-09-01

    Penalaran analogi adalah proses penarikan kesimpulan dengan menggunakan kesamaan sifat dan struktur hubungan dari permasalahan sumber untuk diaplikasikan pada permasalahan target. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan penalaran analogi siswa kelas VIII dalam menyelesaikan masalah luas dan keliling segitiga dan segiempat. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan penalaran analogi siswa kemampuan tinggi terjadi dengan baik. Penalaran analogi siswa kelompok sedang cenderung terjadi cukup baik. Ada beberapa hambatan yang dialami siswa kelompok sedang, yaitu pada proses mapping. Penalaran analogi siswa kemampuan rendah menunjukkan bahwa subjek tidak dapat memahami masalah yang diberikan.

  1. A TABLET SCREEN CAST RECEIVER FOR CLASSROOM WITH LOW END ANDROID DEVICES

    Moh. Hasbi Assidiqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu aktivitas menggunakan tablet adalah presentasi. Saat ini, kebanyakan aktivitas presentasi dilakukan menggunakan adapter VGA untuk bisa tersambung dengan LCD Proyektor. Konfigurasi ini memungkin presentasi berbasis kabel. Dan ini adalah hal yang menyulitkan penggunaannya untuk perangkat tablet yang memiliki sifat mobilitas tinggi. Beruntung, sudah ada banyak vendor yang menyediakan sistem presentasi yang bersahabat dengan membuatnya menjadi nirkabel. Tapi sistem tersebut hanya mendukung perangkat tablet high end. Pada makalah ini, kami mengajukan sebuah penerima tablet screen cast untuk perangkat tablet android low end. Yang memiliki potensi untuk diimplementasikan di kelas. Dari eksperimen, kami memperoleh hasil 9 FPS dengan delay sebesar 2 detik.

  2. Identifikasi Keragaman Genetik Dengan Karakter Morfologi Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk Nangka Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia

    Nugraha Banu Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nangka Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Merupakan buah yang sudah lama dikenal namun belum banyak penelitian tentang nangka.  Kalimantan  Barat  merupakan  provinsi yang kaya plasma  nutfah baik  tanaman  hutan,  perkebunan dan tanaman pertanian. Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk  mengetahui  keragaman  genetik dengan karakter morfologi dan untuk mengetahui  nilai  similaritas jarak antar aksesi  keragaman nangka di Kalimantan Barat.  Metode yang digunakan  adalah metode observasi pengambilan sampel menggunakan  purposive sampling. Identifikasi morfologi menggunakan data kuantitatif dan data kualitatif dengan passport data IPGRI diubah menjadi data numerik. Hasil identifikasi keragaman morfologi pada nangka diperoleh tiga kelompok besar dalam skala 20 analisis cluster menggunakan software SPSS versi 22. Hasil pengelompokan pertama Kubu Raya02 dan Pontianak01; kelompok kedua Sambas01,Singkawang02, Sambas02, Kubu Raya05, Kubu Raya01 dan Singkawang01; kelompok ketiga terdiri Pontianak02, Kuburaya04 dan  Kubu Raya03. Hasil analisis similaritas menunjukkan bahwa memiliki nilai koefisien similaritas tertinggi pasangan Kubu Raya02 dengan Kubu Raya02 dan nilai koefisien terendah pada pasangan Kubu Raya04 dengan Pontianak02. Dengan identifikasi kelompok dapat merancang dan merencanakan pemuliaan tanaman dengan metode persilangan konfensional maupun menggunakan rekayasa genetika. Pemetaan menggunakan analisis cluster memberikan peran penting untuk memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanaman yang dikehendaki.Kata kunci: Artocarpus heterophyllus. Lamk, Genetik, Identifikasi, Kalimantan Barat, Keragaman, Morfologi, Nangka, Pengelompokan.

  3. PENGARUH RASIO RIMPANG RUMPUT TEKI (Cyperus rotundus L. DENGAN JAHE (Zingiber officinale TERHADAP KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN MUTU WEDANG TEKI INSTAN

    Nurwikan Sutralestari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh proses pengolahan wedang teki ins­tan, mengetahui kapasitas antioksidan serta mutu (rendemen, waktu rehidrasi, sifat fi­sik warna, dan uji hedonik wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe berbeda. Jenis penelitian yang dilakukan merupakan penelitian eksperimen meng­­­­gunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan dua kali pengulangan. Data ha­sil analisis diuji menggunakan ANOVA (Analysis of Variances. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe yang berbeda berpengaruh terhadap kapasitas antioksidan, waktu rehidrasi, si­­fat fisik warna, serta uji hedonik rasa dan warna. Kapasitas antioksidan dan ke­su­ka­an rasa terbaik  pada wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe 1 : 2½. Waktu rehidrasi tercepat, sifat fisik warna paling cerah dan kesukaan war­­­­na pada wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe 1 : 1½.

  4. IKAN HIAS LAUT: TANTANGAN BUDIDAYA DAN PELUANG BISNIS

    Anjang Bangun Prasetio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia mempunyai potensi ikan hias laut cukup besar, selain ikan yang unik, baik warna, bentuk, dan tingkah laku, serta sifat-sifat lain yang dimilikinya, juga potensi jenis yang cukup banyak di alam. Hal ini cukup menarik untuk peluang bisnis, karena tidak hanya bagi para pencinta ikan hias (hobiis akan tetapi para pemula juga mulai menggemari ikan hias. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan perhatian khusus terkait ikan hias laut ini sehingga upaya untuk memproduksi benih dan induk dari hasil budidaya sudah harus digalakkan, mengingat banyak jenis-jenis budidaya ikan hias laut yang potensial untuk dikembangkan berdasarkan permintaan pasar baik domestik maupun internasional. Beberapa dukungan kebijakan yang dapat dilakukan terkait status budidaya ikan hias laut, antara lain pengembangan ke arah budidaya, industrialisasi budidaya, serta penataan sistem perdagangan.

  5. POTENSI JERAMI PADI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PANEL AKUSTIK

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increase of environmental noise, building elements enriched with acoustical properties are significant to serve amenities and healtiness among inhabitants. However, this type of elements which usually consist of high quality materials is much too expensive for most people. The use of paddy straw as the main material to construct acoustical panels is considered in a very early stage of material research. Paddy straw has chareacteristics which is close to acoustical requirements of panels, besides abundance of availability. These benefits will significantly lowered cost production without significantly reduce the quality. Further research to seek the next step of application of paddy straw as acoustic panels is in conduct. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kebisingan di sekitar bangunan yang terus meningkat serta naiknya permintaan bahan bangunan yang bersifat akustik untuk keperluan studio pribadi telah menyebabkan kebutuhan bahan bangunan yang bersifat akustik juga meningkat. Namun, bahan semacam ini tidak secara merata terjangkau masyarakat. Penggunaan bahan limbah, salah satunya jerami padi sebagai bahan baku pembuatan panel akustik, diharapkan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bangunan bersifat akustik dengan kualitas tinggi namun tetap dalam harga bersaing. Jerami padi menjadi bahan yang realistis dipertimbangkan sebagai bahan utama karena ketersediaannya yang melimpah dan sifat-sifat fisik batangnya yang secara teoretis mampu menjadi bahan akustik yang baik. Penelitian lanjutan ke arah pemanfaatan limbah jerami padi sebagai bahan baku panel akustik sedang dilaksanakan. Kata kunci: panel akustik, jerami padi.

  6. ESTIMASI HERITABILITAS UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii BERBASIS PADA KERAGAMAN FENOTIP

    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dirancang untuk menghitung heritabilitas pada sifat bobot udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii pada umur lima bulan. Lima full-sib dan 15 half-sib dipelihara pada dua tingkat salinitas yaitu 0‰ dan 10‰, dengan rata-rata bobot sebesar 5,6 g; dan  = 0,40 g. Komponen keragaman diestimasi dengan mixed model leastsquares dan maximum likelihood. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa respons genetik yang tinggi dapat diperoleh melalui seleksi bobot, karena nilai heritabilitas pada sifat tersebut relatif tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini juga memperlihatkan bahwa kisaran nilai h2 pada air tawar (0,509-0,866 dan air payau (0,235-0,499. Jadi nilai h2 pada air tawar lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lingkungan air payau pada salinitas 10,0‰. Kisaran nilai h2 yang dicapai pada out-crossing antara koleksi Barito dengan Musi adalah 0,663±0,037-0,866±0,047. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk menghasilkan perbaikan mutu genetik pada udang galah dapat ditempuh melalui program seleksi yang dikombinasikan dengan metode pemijahan secara out-crossing.

  7. Pemodelan Sistem Informasi Untuk Mengukur Kualitas Kinerja Perguruan Tinggi dengan Pendekatan Balanced Scorecard dan Blue Ocean Strategy

    Herlinah Baharuddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semakin tingginya persaingan saat ini, khususnya perguruan tinggi bidang pendidikan, memunculkan kebutuhan strategi bisnis untuk bertahan. Pemodelan Sistem Informasi dengan pendekatan Balanced Scorecardkini merupakan salah satu tujuan dalam pencapaian pengukuran hasil kinerja untuk mencapai sasaran perguruan tinggi serta menciptakan inovasi solusi dengan menerapkan Blue Ocean sehingga selaras dengan strategi bisnis yang dijalankan. Pemodelan sistem informasi yang akan dibahas adalah menggunakan strategi bisnis Balanced Scorecard (BSC diintegrasikan dengan Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS. Dengan sifat-sifat pada BSC dan BOS, model ini menjawab kebutuhan Strategi Sistem Informasi pada perguruan tinggi yang berkarakteristik dinamis, inovatif, dan tingkat persaingan tinggi dengan hasil pencapaian kinerja yang terukur. Pemodelan sistem informasi diimplementasikan pada Universitas Pancasakti Makassar. Hasil menunjukkan komponen-komponen perguruan tinggi yang dipetakan ke dalam 4 perspektif BSC, yaitu perspektif pelanggan, finansial, proses bisnis internal, pembelajaran dan pertumbuhan dan kanvas strategi serta kerangka kerja 4 langkah pada BOS yaitu kurangi-tingkatkan-hapus-ciptakan. Hasil penelitian berupa pengukuran penilaian kinerja dengan program aplikasi berbasis web, yang merupakan bagian dari sistem informasi management perguruan tinggi. Sistem ini memberikan informasi kepada seluruh anggota yang terkait tentang kualitas kinerja. Kata kunci : Balanced Scorecard(BSC; Kualitas kinerja; Blue ocean strategy(BOS; Web; Perguruan tinggi

  8. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN NUMBER HEADS TOGETHER (NHT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA KELAS VIIA SMP NEGERI 2 TUNTANG PADA MATERI SEGITIGA

    Era Destiyandani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tindakan kelas ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar dan mendeskripsikan kondisi siswa kelas VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Tuntang pada materi segitiga melalui penerapan model pembelajaran Number Heads Together (NHT. Melalui model pembelajaran NHT, tugas diberikan kepada semua siswa dimana siswa telah diberi nomor berbeda didalam kelompoknya namun masing-masing kelompok menggunakan penomoran yang sama. Pemanggilan nomor siswa secara acak untuk melaporkan hasil diskusi kelompok mendorong setiap siswa secara individu bertanggung jawab atas hasil belajarnya. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan untuk mengambil data penelitian adalah soal tes dan lembar observasi. Penelitian ini diterapkan pada 31 siswa sebagai subjek dan menggunakan model spiral Kemmis dan McTaggart. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase ketuntasan siswa untuk materi segitiga tentang mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat segitiga berdasarkan sisi dan sudutnya pada siklus I mencapai 87,1% tuntas dan ketuntasan meningkat menjadi 96,77% pada siklus II dengan materi pembelajaran menghitung keliling dan luas segitiga. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran NHT telah meningkatkan penguasaan materi segitiga oleh siswa.

  9. Ekstraksi Minyak Atsiri Dari Akar Wangi Menggunakan Metode Steam - Hydro distillation dan Hydro distilation dengan Pemanas Microwave

    Maulana M Al Hanief

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh minyak atsiri dari akar wangi dengan modifikasi metode steam-hydro distillation dan hydro distillation yaitu menggunakan pemanasan microwave kemudian membandingkan hasilnya dengan penelitian sebelumnya. Modifikasi ini diharapkan lebih efisien dalam masalah lama penyulingan dan kualitas serta kuantitas rendemen minyak yang lebih baik dan banyak. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua metode yaitu steam-hydro distillation dan hydro distillation dengan pemanfaatan gelombang mikro. Bahan baku yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah akar wangi jenis pulus wangi yang tumbuh di Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat. Variabel yang digunakan adalah bahan baku yang dicacah dan bahan baku utuh dengan variasi massa bahan 50 gr, 60, gr, 70 gr, 80 gr, dan 90 gr dengan pelarut air sebanyak 450 ml dalam labau distiller berukuran 1000 ml. Lama penyulingan adalah lima jam dengan pengamatan tiap 30 menit serta daya yang digunakan adalah 400 Watt. Analisa terhadap hasil minyak atsiri yang diperoleh antara lain analisa GC-MS, spesific gravity, indeks bias, dan bilangan asam. Hasil dari penelitian ini dibandingkan dengan hasil penelitian terdahulu yang tidak memanfaatkan gelombang mikro. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh % rendemen kumulatif, sifat fisik, sifat kimia, dan kandungan komponen minyak dari metode steam-hydro distillation lebih baik dibandingkan metode hydro distillation ditandai dengan kuantitas dan kualitas yang sesuai dengan SNI.  Sementara itu jika dibandingkan dengan metode terdahulu dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan gelombang mikro lebih efisien dalam waktu dan kuantitas serta kualitas minyak yang lebih baik dibandingkan tanpa penggunaan gelombang mikro

  10. Analisis Koefisien Absorpsi Bunyi Pada Komposit Penguat Serat Alam Dengan Menggunakan Alat Uji Tabung Impedansi 2 Microphone

    Cok Istri Putri Kusuma Kencanawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Dalam perambatannya gelombang bunyi dapat di halangi dengan menggunakan suatu medium yang memiliki sifat-sifatkedap suara, sehingga energi yang ditransmisikan akan mampu dikurangi/dihambat oleh medium tersebut. Salah satumetode yang dapat dipergunakan untuk mengetahui kemampuan peredaman (koefisien absorpsi suatu mediumterhadap gelombang bunyi yang datang dapat diketahui dengan menggunakan Tabung Impedansi 2 Microphone.Sedangkan sebagai mediumnya adalah panel komposit. Mengingat dalam perkembangan ilmu bahan saat ini banyak digunakan komposit dengan penguat serat alam, dan salah satu sifat yang dikaji adalah sifat akustiknya. Kajian ini lebihmenitik beratkan sifat akustik komposit berpenguat serat alam, mengingat selama ini banyak serat alam yang terbuangpercuma menjadi limbahsehingga mencemari lingkungan. Jenis-jenis serat alam yang digunakan sebagai penguatantara lain : serat serabut kelapa, serat jerami, serat batang pisang, serat nenas, serat kapuk dan serat batang kelapasawit, sedangkan frekuensi pengukuran koefisien absorpsi terhadap medium ini berkisar anatra 200 hz sampai dengan1400 hz, dengan ketebalan spesiemn uji antara 2 mm sampai dengan 4 mmdengan menggunakan metode pengujianTabung impedansi 2 mikrophone, sesuai dengan standart ISO 10534-2:1998 and American Standart forTestingMaterials (ASTM E1050-98. Dalam kajian ini diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa pada frekuensi rendah koefisienabsorpsi bahan cukup tinggi antara 0,4 sampai dengan 0,6 dan kemampuan serap bunyi ini akan menurun denganmeningkatnya frekuensi, sedangkan pengaruh ketebalan bahan juga mempengaruhi sifat akustiknya.Kata kunci: komposit, serat alam, koefisien absorpsi, tabung impedansi Abstract: In the propagation of sound waves can be prevented by using a medium that has properties soundproofed, so that thetransmitted energy to be able to be reduced / inhibited by the medium. One method that can be used to determine theability of damping (absorption coefficient of a

  11. RESTRUKTURISASI MENIR MENJADI BERAS BERKALSIUM TINGGI DENGAN METODE EKSTRUSI Restructured Fine Grain Rice to High Calcium Rice by Extrusion Method

    Chatarina Wariyah

    2012-05-01

    . Permasalahannya adalah sifat fisik dan inderawi  serta kualitastanak beras ditentukan oleh binder (bahan pengikat yang digunakan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan berashasil ekstrusi atau beras ultra berkalsium tinggi dengan sifat fisik, inderawi dan kualitas tanak seperti beras biasa. Se-cara khusus tujuannya adalah mengevaluasi pengaruh jenis dan jumlah binder (gluten dan tapioka terhadap sifat-sifatberas ultra, menentukan jenis dan jumlah binder yang tepat agar dihasilkan beras ultra dengan sifat fisik dan kualitastanak yang disukai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa beras ultra berkalsium tinggi yang dibuat dengan bindertapioka memiliki warna, tekstur dan sifat inderawi seperti beras biasa. Secara khusus kesimpulannya adalah jenis dan jumlah binder kurang berpengaruh terhadap tekstur beras maupun nasi beras ultra, namun dibandingkan beras IR-64 tekstur beras ultra cenderung lebih keras, akan tetapi nasinya lebih lunak. Sedangkan warna beras ultra dengan binder tapioka hampir sama dengan beras IR-64, sedang dengan gluten agak kekuningan. Kualitas tanak beras ultra kurang baik dibandingkan beras IR-64. Beras ultra yang paling disukai adalah yang dibuat dengan binder tapioka 4 %. Beras tersebut memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 140,43N, deformasi 63,70 %,  warna dengan nilai L: 71,08, b: 11,00 dan a:-0,27 dengan kualitas tanak cukup baik.

  12. Produksi Biofuel dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit dengan Katalis Au/HZSM-5 dan Kompositnya

    Tillotama Anindita Sari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Semakin meningkatnya kebutuhan dan konsumsi bahan bakar minyak menyebabkan cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis sehingga perlu adanya pengembangan bahan lain sebagai sumber bahan bakar alternatif yang dapat menggantikannya. Salah satu produk energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan dan dapat diperbaharui adalah biofuel. Perubahan minyak sawit menjadi biofuel salah satunya adalah dengan proses perengkahan katalitik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut dimana dalam penelitian ini akan dipelajari kondisi operasi dan  unjuk kerja katalis Au/HZSM-5 sintetis dan kompositnya pada reaksi perengkahan minyak sawit menjadi biofuel. Penelitian ini diharapakan mampu menghasilkan teknologi pembuatan katalis baru dan teknologi proses baru dalam proses produksi biofuel pada proses perengkahan katalitik asam palmitat dari minyak sawit. Pada penelitian ini biofuel telah berhasil diperoleh pada proses perengkahan minyak sawit menggunakan katalis Au/HZSM-5 sintetis dan kompositnya pada berbagai temperatur dan laju alir gas N2. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tiga tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis, karakterisasi katalis dan proses perengkahan katalitik. Au/HZSM-5 disintesa dengan metode Plank dan katalis komposit disentesa berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh Qjang Tang et all. Hasil yang telah berhasil disintesa dikarakterisasi dengan Energy Difraction X-Ray (EDX, X-Ray Difraction (XRD dan Brunaur Emmet Teller (BET. Dari hasil karakterisasi dapat disimpulkan bahwa katalis yang telah disintetis telah memenuhi syarat untuk digunakan sebagai katalis pada proses perengkahan. Proses perengkahan katalitik dilakukan dalam suatu mikroreaktor fixed bed dengan berat katalis yang digunakan sebanyak 2 gram dan proses perengkahan dimulai saat gas N2 dialirkan selama 60 menit. Proses perengkahan dilakukan pada variasi temperatur 350-550 °C dan laju alir gas N2 90-400 ml/min. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan metode gas kromatografi. Hasil yang

  13. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN ANTIBAKTERI HASIL PURIFIKASI MINYAK BIJI NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum L. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Degummed Calophyllum inophyllum L. Seed Oil

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The high solid fraction in Calophyllum seed oil causes Calophyllum biodiesel-oil produced has a high viscosity, high acid value, high cloud point, and other negative influences that is difficult to meet the biodiesel standard SNI 04-7182-2006. This underlies the need to increase the added value of solid fraction Calophyllum seed oil, such as healthy soap. This research was aimed to purification, fractionation, and characterization of fatty acid component as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant owned. So that Calophyllum seed oil may be considered for healthy soap application. The design used in the purification process is factorial completely randomized design, consisting of three factors, namely acid phosphate concentration, temperature and heating time. Based on the research, it resulted in the best treatment for Calophyllum seed oil’s purification was reached by using 0,2% H3PO4  20% at 80  C for 15 minutes. Major fatty acid component in Calophyllum seed oil purification results are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid that reached 98,19 percent of the total fatty acids. The results showed that the Calophyllum oil contains components steroids, flavonoids, saponins, and triterpenoids and has an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus but instead to Escherichia coli. Keywords: Calophyllum inophyllum,  purification, solid fraction, antibacterial, antioxidant Tingginya fraksi padat pada minyak biji nyamplung menyebabkan biodiesel nyamplung yang dihasilkan memiliki viskositas tinggi, bilangan asam tinggi, titik kabut tinggi, dan pengaruh buruk lainnya sehingga sulit memenuhi standar biodiesel SNI 04-7182-2006. Hal ini mendasari perlunya peningkatan nilai tambah fraksi padat minyak biji nyamplung. Tujuan penelitian adalah melakukan purifikasi, fraksinasi, dan karakterisasi minyak biji nyamplung. Karakterisasi dilakukan terhadap komponen asam lemak serta uji pengenalan bioantibakteri dan bioantioksidan

  14. Pengembangan Adsorben dari Limbah Lumpur Industri Crumb Rubber Yang Diaktivasi dengan H3PO4 Untuk Menyerap Ion Cr(VI

    Salmariza Salmariza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing an adsorbent from activated sludge waste of crumb rubber industry which was activated by H3PO4 for Adsorption of Cr(VI had been done. The research was carried out by characterization of activated carbon in accordance with Indonesia National Standard (SNI 06-3730-1995, involved determination of iodine absorption, water content, and bounded carbon content. The research was conducted in batch system for activated carbon and adsorbent without activation, by observed pH sollution, contact time, and initial concentration of the treatment solution. Determination of maximum absorption capacity of activated carbon on Cr(VI used the Langmuir isotherm equation. From the characterization study of activated carbon was obtained that adsorption of iodine 482.6 mg/g, water content 0.14%, and bonded carbon content 24.925%. The results revealed that H3PO4 activator affected the adsorption of Cr(VI. Research with batch systems were obtained the optimum pH 2, contact time 120 minutes, and the optimum concentration 50 mg/L for adsorbent without activation and optimum pH 3, contact time 60 minutes, and the optimum concentration 50 mg/L for activated carbon. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 1.16 mg/g for adsorbent without activation and 1.99 mg/g for activated carbon.ABSTRAK Pengembangan adsorben dari limbah lumpur aktif Industri Crumb Rubber yang diaktivasi dengan H3PO4 untuk menyerap ion Cr(VI telah dilakukan. Pada penelitian dilakukan karakterisasi karbon aktif sesuai dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI 06-3730-1995, meliputi penentuan daya serap terhadap iodin, kadar air, dan kadar karbon terikat. Penelitian dilakukan dengan sistem batch terhadap karbon aktif dan adsorben tanpa aktivasi, dengan mengamati pH larutan, waktu kontak, dan konsentrasi awal larutan. Penentuan kapasitas serapan maksimum karbon aktif terhadap Cr(VI menggunakan persamaan Isoterm Langmuir. Hasil penelitian karakterisasi karbon aktif didapatkan daya serap terhadap

  15. PENGUJIAN AKTIVITAS KOMPOSIT Fe2O3-SiO2 SEBAGAI FOTOKATALIS PADA FOTODEGRADASI 4-KLOROFENOL (The Activity Test of Fe2O3-SiO2 Composite As Photocatalyst on 4-Chlorophenol Photodegradation

    Eko Sri Kunarti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan pengujian aktivitas komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 sebagai fotokatalis pada fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Penelitian diawali dengan preparasi dan karakterisasi fotokatalis Fe2O3-SiO2. Preparasi dilakukan dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar menggunakan tetraetil ortosilikat (TEOS dan besi (III nitrat sebagai prekursor diikuti dengan perlakuan termal pada temperature 500 oC. Karakterisasi dilakukan dengan metode spektrometri inframerah, difraksi sinar-X dan spektrometri fluoresensi sinar-X. Uji aktivitas komposit untuk fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dilakukan dalam reaktor tertutup yang dilengkapi dengan lampu UV. Pada uji ini telah dipelajari pengaruh waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan terhadap efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat dipreparasi dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar diikuti perlakuan termal. Komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dari 11,86 % menjadi 55,38 %. Efektivitas fotodegradasi 4- klorofenol dipengaruhi waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan yang semakin lama waktu penyinaran efektifitas fotodegradasi semakin tinggi, namun waktu penyinaran yang lebih lama dari 4 jam dapat menurunkan efektivitasnya. pH larutan memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda pada efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol.   ABSTRACT The activity test of Fe2O3-SiO2 composite as photocatalyst on 4-chlorophenol photodegradation has been studied. The research was initiated by preparation of Fe2O3-SiO2 photocatalyst and followed by characterization. The preparation was conducted by sol-gel method at room temperature using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and iron (III nitrate as precursors followed by thermal treatment at a temperature of 500oC. The characterizations were performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometry. The photocatalytic activity test of composites for 4 chlorophenol

  16. Pengembangan Teknik Jahit Celup (Tritik dengan Pola Geometris

    Bintan Titisari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Teknik jahit celup biasa dikenal dengan istilah tritik, yang berarti titik, merupakan teknik tekstil kelompok celup rintang. Tritik adalah cara menghias kain putih dengan menjahit jelujur lalu ditarik kemudian dicelup dan motif terbentuk setelah benang dilepaskan. Teknik tritik digunakan untuk membuat kain sasirangan, kain tradisional Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia. Proses menjahit pada tritik dikerjakan secara tradisional tanpa ketentuan yang jelas, sehingga pengembangan desain motif belum maksimal. Melihat kondisi tersebut, penelitian  ini menggunakan pola geometris pada teknik tritik untuk melihat kemungkinan dihasilkan motif berbeda. Dengan  metode eksperimen kualitatif didapat ketentuan mengenai aturan jahitan yang diaplikasikan pada pembuatan pola geometris. Penggunaan pola geometris menghasilkan motif lebih teratur dengan tetap terkesan samar sebagai ciri khas tritik. Pewarnaan bertahap dan pengaturan jarak menghasilkan efek ilusi optik (kedalaman, arah, dan gerak. Motif tersebut diaplikasikan pada produk fashion dengan menonjolkan efek ilusi optik untuk menghasilkan siluet pada pakaian wanita.Kata kunci: geometri; jahit celup rintang; pola; sasirangan; tritik.Resist stitch-dyeing, also known locally as tritik (lit. dots, is resist dye textile weaving technique. Tritik is a method to embellish white cloth by tacking, which is then dyed and removed. The motif is formed after the thread is removed. Tritik methods and techniques are less popular compared to batik or dyed ikat. It is, however, used in making sasirangan cloth, a traditional cloth from South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The stitching has always been done traditionally due to the lack of clear convention on stitching as a resist-media. Thus, development of motif designs is not in full capacity. Taking into consideration the above, this study is carried out to create new geometric patterns using tritik techniques. Qualitative experiment methods are used to obtain ideal stitching

  17. PERANCANGAN DAN PEMBUATAB ALAT UKUR KADAR KROM DALAM AIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PRINSIP SPEKTROSKOPI SERAPAN ATOM

    Tin Yunis Mahfudloh, Mohammad Tirono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Air adalah bahan yang berperan penting dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Air steril dengan kandungan mineral yang cukup dan tidak terpolusi dapat berperan sebagai cairan yang menata keseimbangan tubuh. Apabila air yang dikosumsi manusia telah tercemar oleh sampah dan limbah industri yang mengandung zat-zat kimia/logam berat yang bersifat racun akan berbahaya Seperti kromium/krom dengan kode kimiawi Cr. Penelitian dilakukan untuk membuat alat ukur kadar krom dalam air dengan metode absorpsi dengan instrumen fotometri. Alat ukur kadar krom dalam air menggunakan prinsip spektroskopi serapan atom terdiri dari 2 sistem, yaitu sistem optik dan sistem elektronik. Sistem optik terdiri dari lampu halogen, filter cahaya dengan panjang gelombang 520.4, kuvet dan sensor photodioda. Sedangkan sistem elektronik terdiri dari ADC 0804, MCU AT89S51 dan LCD.  Prinsip keja alat ini adalah cahaya polikromatis yang dipancarkan oleh lampu halogen akan melewati filter sehingga cahaya polikromatis akan bersifat monokromatis. Cahaya akan melewati air dengan kadar krom 0% untuk mereset reagen dan pelarut kemudian dideteksi oleh sensor sehingga menghasilkan data I0. Setelah dideteksi air  akan bergeser ke atas dan sensor bergeser kebelakang untuk mendeteksi sampel yang mempunyai kadar krom tertentu dan menghasilkan data I1. Di dalam sampel ini terjadi penyerapan intensitas cahaya oleh atom krom. Kemudian data I0 dan I1 akan diolah oleh MCU AT89S51 dan ditampilkan pada LCD. Sampel yang digunakan adalah larutan H2O dengan K2Cr2O7 sebanyak 10 sampel dengan variasi kadar 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, dan 5%. Larutan krom diperoleh dengan cara mengencerkan 10gr K2Cr2O7 dalam 100ml H2O sehingga didapatkan K2Cr2O7 10% sebagai larutan stok, selanjutnya untuk mendapatkan K2Cr2O7 dengan kadar tertentu, maka diambil dari larutan stok kemudian diencerkan sampai volume 25 ml sesuai dengan rumus M1 V1 =M 2 V2 Hasil pegujian pada sistem elektronik menunjukkan

  18. PENGARUH FRAKSI VOLUME PENGUAT TERHADAP KEKUATAN LENTUR GREEN COMPOSITE UNTUK APLIKASI PADA BODI KENDARAAN

    Mastariyanto Perdana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Composites are one of material be used in engineering field. This is due the composites has light weight and relatively strong properties. The synthesis fiber-based composites reduces to obtain environmental friendly properties. This research use hybrid fiber which consist of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 powder and bagasse fiber. Matrix used is resin polyester. Variation of volume fraction between bagasse and calcium carbonate powder are 10:20, 15:15 and 20:10 respectively. Volume fraction of hybrid fiber and polyester is 30:70. This study aims to determine mechanical properties of hybrid composites for each variation of volume fraction. Test results showed. Bending strength of bagasse-based hybrid composites and powder of calcium carbonate with a variation of volume fraction of 10%: 20%, 15%: 15% and 20%: 10% are 53.77 MPa, 54.90 MPa and 59.76 MPa. Hybrid composites with volume fraction 20% bagasse and 10% calcium carbonate powder has highest of bending strength. Green composite based bagasse and calcium carbonate powder can use on application of vehicle body.Komposit merupakan salah satu material yang banyak digunakan pada bidang keteknikan. Ini dikarenakan komposit memiliki sifat ringan dan relatif kuat. Untuk mendapakatkan sifat yang ramah lingkungan, penggunaan komposit yang berbasis serat sintesis dikurangi penggunaannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan serat hibrid yaitu penggabungan antara serbuk kalsium karbonat (CaCO3 dan serat ampas tebu (bagasse. Matrix yang digunakan adalah resin polyester.Variasi fraksi volume antara bagasse dan serbuk kalsium karbonat masing-masing adalah 10:20, 15:15 dan 20:10. Fraksi volume antara serat hibrid dan resin polyester adalah 30:70. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat mekanik dari komposit hibrid berbasis bagasse dan serbuk kalsium karbonat untuk masing-masing variasi fraksi volume. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwakekuatan bending tertinggi komposit hibrid berbasis bagasse dan serbuk kalsium

  19. PENERAPAN MATERIAL KACA DALAM ARSITEKTUR

    Lestari .

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaca telah dikenal sejak ribuan tahun dan merupakan bahan buatan manusia yang cukup tua. Penggunaannya sebagai bahan bangunan meluas sejak abad ke 17 terutama setelah perang dunia kedua.  Arsitektur kaca menjadi suatu kecenderungan dari desain-desain bangunan di dunia sejak abad ke-20. Material ini dianggap sangat relevan dengan konsep-konsep yang ada. Kaca digunakan sebagai material ornamen, bukaan atau jendela, material kulit  bangunan,  sampai pada material struktur  bangunan. Sifat kaca yang transparan,  simple, dan bersih menjadikan material ini menguntungkan untuk mendukung konsep yang digunakan. Tulisan ini memaparkan penggunaan kaca sebagai bahan bangunan, baik sebagai bahan ornamen, kulit bangunan atau struktur bangunan, maupun sebagai pendukung konsep arsitektur khususnya konsep transparansi. Dipaparkan pula mengenai sifat-sifat teknis dari bahan kaca sebagai pertimbangan dalam pemilihan bahan bangunan.   Glass has been known for thousands of years and is a man made material  that is quite old. Extends its use as building material since the 17 century, especially after the second world war. Glass architecture become a trend of buiding designs in the world since 20th century. This material relevant to the existing concepts. Glass is used as an ornament material, window, the building skin materials, and the building structure materials. Glass  properties that transparent, simple and clean make this material support the concepts used. This paper describes the use of glass as a building material, either as a ornament, the building skins, the building structures, and the building concepts expecially transparency concept. This paper also present the technical properties of glass as a building material REFERENCES Garg, N.K . 2007. Guidelines for Use of Glass in Building. New age international publisher. New Delhi Piano, R. 1997. The Renzo Piano Logbook. The Monacelli Press. London Staib, Schittich. 1999. Glass Construction

  20. ANALISIS KARAKTERISTIK BERPIKIR GEOMETRI DAN KEMANDIRIAN BELAJAR DALAM PEMBELAJARAN FASE VAN HIELE BERBANTUAN GEOMETERS SKETCHPAD

    Maya Kurniawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini mendeskripsikan karakteristik bepikir geometri dan kemandirian belajar siswa. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan subjek kelas 7 SMP N 2 Rembang yang diambil tiga siswa tiap level. Pengambilan datanya dilakukan tes dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas pembelajaran berkategori baik. (1 Subjek level 1 dapat mendefinisikan, mengelompokkan jenis transformasi berdasarkan gambar, namun belum mengenal sifat, serta memiliki kemandirian belajar yang rendah, (2 subjek level 2 dapat mendefinisikan, mengelompokkan jenis transformasi dan menyebutkan sifat-sifatnya serta memiliki kemandirian belajar sedang, (3 subjek level 3 dapat mendefinisikan, mengelompokkan jenis transformasi dari gambar, menyebut sifat dan menghubungkan dengan jenis lainnya serta memiliki kemandirian belajar tinggi. Berdasarkan hal tersebut maka guru dapat mendesain suatu pembelajaran yang mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir geometri siswa dengan memperhatikan karakteristik berpikir geometrinya.The purpose of this study was to describe the characteritics of VII grade students geometric thinking. This research was a descriptive qualitative research. The subject of this research was nine students of VII grade at SMP N 2 Rembang consist of three students from each level 1 (visualization, level 2 (analysis, and level 3 (informal deduction. Data in this research was the characteristics of geometric thinking obtained from test and interview. (1 Students of level 1 can define transformation based on the appearance; grouping the pictures; can’t understand properties of each transformation or related to another; and have low category in self regulated learning, (2 students of level 2 can define, grouping transformation based on the appearance, explain properties but can’t related to another, and have average category in their self regulated learning, (3 students of level 3 define, grouping transformation, understand properties

  1. SINTESIS BIODISEL DARI MINYAK BIJI KARET DENGAN VARIASI SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI KOH UNTUK TAHAPAN TRANSESTERIFIKASI

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar yang paling banyak digunakan adalah bahan bakar diesel atau fatty acid methyl ester (FAME. Biodiesel berasal dari minyak nabati yang dapat diperbaharui, dapat dihasilkan secara periodik, dan mudah diperoleh. Pada penelitian ini digunakan minyak biji karet untuk sintesis FAME. Proses utama dalam pembuatan FAME adalah transesterifikasi. Penelitian ini mengkaji hasil optimum dari variasi konsentrasi katalis KOH dan suhu reaksi pada reaksi transesterifikasi. Preparasi minyak biji karet dengan menggunakan arang aktif granular diikuti dengan degumming. Reaksi esterifikasi dilaksanakan pada kondisi operasi 500 C selama 1 jam, katalis asam sulfat (98% sebesar 0,5% volume minyak, dan metanol sebesar 20% volume minyak. Reaksi transesterifikasi dilaksanakan selama 1 jam, serta perbandingan volume minyak dan metanol sebesar 4:1. Analisis kadar metil ester yang terbentuk, jumlah komponen, dan komposisinya yang terdapat pada senyawa hasil dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat GC. Kondisi operasi terbaik pada transesterifikasi minyak biji karet menjadi metil ester adalah pada katalis KOH 1% dan suhu 60 0C. Berdasarkan uji sifat-sifat fisis, metil ester yang dihasilkan belum semua memenuhi mutu sifat fisis biodiesel yang disyaratkan. The most widely used fuel is diesel fuel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME. Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oil that can be renewed, can be produced periodically, and easy to obtain. In this research, the rubber seed was used for synthesizing the FAME. The main process in the production of FAME is transesterification. This study examined the optimum result from variations of the concentration of KOH catalyst and the reaction temperature on the transesterification reaction. Preparation of the rubber seed oil using granular activated charcoal was followed by degumming. Esterification reaction was carried out at 50 oC for 1 h with the sulfuric acid catalyst of 0.5% by volume of oil and methanol of 20% by the volume of

  2. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH SERBUK MARMER PADA BETON SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN SEMEN DENGAN VARIASI PENGGUNAAN SILICA FUME

    Agil Fitri Handayani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Utilization of Marble Powder Waste in Concrete Ma­­­­­­­­terials as a Partial Material Substitution of Cement  with the Variation Use of Silica Fume. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of marble powder and silica fume on the mechanical pro­per­ties of concrete. This study used an experimental design using 16 group of testing materials with variety types of mixtures between marble powder and silica fume 0.00; 5.00; 10.00; and 15.00%. The wa­ter-cement ratio was 0.50 and a low dosage of superplasticizer, which was 0.50%. The behavior of fresh concrete were calculated and the mechanical properties of concrete were tested on con­crete age of 28 days. The results showed the marble powder main com­position was Silicon Dioxide (SiO2 17.63% and Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3 2.73%. Mar­ble powder was more appropriate to be used as fillers than to be used as a partial substitution of ce­ment. The optimum mechanical properties of concrete was produced by the mixtures of 5.00% mar­ble powder  and 6.22% silica fume which resulted in compressive strength of 29.04 MPa.   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh peng­gunaan ser­buk marmer dan silica fume terhadap sifat mekanik beton. Penelitian ini meng­gu­na­kan desain eksperimen dengan 16 kelompok benda uji dengan variasi ser­buk marmer dan silica fume 0,00; 5,00; 10,00; dan 15,00%. Faktor air semen di­gu­nakan 0,50 dan superplasticizer dengan dosis rendah 0,50%. Perilaku beton segar di­perhitungkan dan sifat mekanik beton diuji pada umur beton 28 hari. Hasil analisis me­nunjukkan kom­posisi utama serbuk marmer adalah Silikon Dioksida (SiO2 17,63% dan Kalsium Kar­bonat (CaCO3 2,73%. Serbuk marmer lebih tepat digunakan se­bagai bahan pe­ng­isi atau filler dari pada sebagai pengganti semen. Sifat mekanik be­ton optimum di­ha­sil­kan pada campuran serbuk marmer 5,00% dan silica fume 6,22% dengan kuat tekan be­ton yang dihasilkan  mencapai 29

  3. Diskursus Akhlak dalam Filsafat Mulla Sadra

    Thuba Kermani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : In Mulla Sadra’s system of thought, the discussion of  philosophy of  moral (ethics, morality, the nature of morality and matters related, that is the soul (nafs and the spirit, is not a short discussion. All forms of action and the nature of malakah imprinted in the human psyche that will participate in the world hereafter. Therefore, some of the matters of the soul is a postulate of science of moral. Yet despite the differences in the ethics’s school of thoughts, it can be said that almost Muslim philosophers agree to the connection of moral with the perfection of soul. And the foundation of moral questions rests on the principle of perfection of the soul and the effects of the moral act. Without them, there will be no perfect rational and philosophical explanations of the good and bad character. However, in understanding how the process of perfection of the soul through moral acts, it is necessary to understand the perfection of the soul and make it a goal for human.Keywords : philosophy of moral, science of moral, theoretical reasoning, practical reasoning, intuition, meta-ethics. Abstrak : Dalam  struktur  pemikiran Mulla Sadra pembahasan  filsafat  akhlak,  akhlak,  sifat-sifat akhlak dan  hal yang berkaitan  dengannya,  yaitu  jiwa  (nafs dan ruh, bukan  pembahasan  yang  ringkas. Segala bentuk tindakan dan sifat malakah yang terpatri dalam jiwa manusia akan menyertainya di alam akhirat kelak. Oleh karena itu  sebagian  dari  persoalan-persoalan  jiwa  merupakan  postulat  ilmu  akhlak.  Namun  meskipun  terdapat perbedaan dalam aliran-aliran pemikiran filsafat akhlak, dapat dikatakan hampir semua filsuf Islam sepakat bahwa akhlak berkaitan dengan kesempurnaan jiwa. Dan fondasi persoalan-persoalan akhlak bersandar pada prinsip kesempurnaan jiwa dan pengaruh dari perbuatan akhlak. Tanpa hal itu, penjelasan rasional dan filosofis atas kebaikan dan keburukan akhlak tidak akan sempurna. Bagaimanapun

  4. Peningkatan Motivasi Belajar Kimia Siswa Sekolah Menengah Menggunakan Metode Koligatif Kemas Kreatif (K3

    Suci Rizki Nurul Aeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is classroom action research at XII class of Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA. The subject matter  properties of Colligative Solution conducted with K3 method (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif to improve student’s learning motivation. Research has been conducted with the repetition of three times so that the study be completed for three years. Three phase of learning are preparation, implementation and evaluation. Preparation phase is done by teachers and students at home. The teacher is preparing the learning media there are games rules, cardboard spacecraft, question cards,  stopwatch, and a dice. Students learn the material properties of koligatif independently learning by themself using  the student hand book. Implementation of the learning is done through a number of methods, there are the story method, discussions and cooperative teamwork through creative games. The evaluation was direct observation methods. The observation sheets assessing of cognitive and affective aspects of students. Based on the results of observation showed that students can impact the content, focus attention and participate active in learning, supported by innovations that have been implemented.Keywords: Colligative properties, K3, MotivationAbstrak: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas di Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA Kurnia kelas XII yang mengkaji materi Sifat Koligatif Larutan melalui metode pembelajaran K3 (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif, sebagai cara untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa. Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan pengulangan sebanyak tiga kali. Pembelajaran yang ditempuh berupa tahap persiapan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi. Tahap persiapan dilakukan oleh guru dan siswa di rumah. Guru mempersiapkan media pembelajaran berupa petunjuk games, karton wahana, question card, stopwatch, dan dadu. Siswa mempelajari materi sifat koligatif secara mandiri dengan cara belajar melalui buku pegangan siswa. Pelaksanaan

  5. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  6. Pengaruh Preparasi Pasta dan Temperatur Annealing pada Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC Berbasis Nanopartikel ZnO

    Ahmad Syukron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah difabrikan Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC berbasis nanopartikel ZnO dengan variasi metode preparasi pasta sesuai dengan Yonekawa dan Gratzel dan temperatur fabrikasi. Nanopartikel ZnO dibuat dengan metode kopresipitasi yaitu dengan mereaksikan prekursor Zinc Asetat dengan DEG (diethylene glycol. Prepararasi fotoelektroda ZnO dilakukan dengan memvariasikan komposisi pasta berdasarkan metode yang dilakukan oleh Gratzel dan Yonekawa untuk mendapatkan efisiensi yang besar. Selain itu, dilakukan variasi temperatur pada proses anil fotoelektroda. Fabrikasi DSSC menggunakan pewarna manggis sebagai pewarna alami. DSSC difabrikasi dalam bentuk struktur sandwich dengan menggunakan pasangan redoks I3-/I- dan elektroda pembanding platina/karbon. Hasil karakterisasi ZnO menunjukkan ZnO berdispersi tunggal dengan ukuran agregat dan partikel sebesar ~300nm dan 13,93 nm. Energi band gap yang dihasilkan dari nanopartikel ZnO adalah 3,29 eV. Berdasarkan karakteristik kurva I-V dan IPCE, diperoleh bahwa efisiensi terbaik berada pada suhu 200°C dengan menggunakan metode Yonekawa sebesar 0,11% dengan IPCE 0,0005%, FF 61,41%, Isc 2,79µA, Voc 232,4 mV.

  7. Fabrikasi Sistem Alat Ukur Temperatur Lapisan Buah Mangga dengan Menggunakan Sensor Waterproof LM35

    Muhammad Sarif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dibuat sistem alat ukur untuk memonitoring secara real time pada temperatur lapisan buah mangga dan temperatur lingkungan lemari pendingin. Ada tiga lapisan buah mangga yang dimonitoring dengan menggunakan sensor waterproof LM35. ketiga lapisan buah mangga yang dimaksud adalah lapisan 1 lapisan dekat dengan biji buah, lapisan 2 merupakan lapisan daging buah, dan lapisan 3 adalah lapisan di sekitar kulit buah mangga. Sinyal tegangan keluaran probe sensor LM35 dikondisikan dengan penguat tak mebalik yang mengaplikasikan IC OP07. Keluaran dari penguat tak membalik yang berupa data analog selanjutnya diolah menjadi data digital dengan modul mikrokontroler ATMega8535. Data digital hasil pengolahan mikrokontroler ATMega8535 di tampilkan ke unit penampil berupa liquid crystal display (LCD 20x4 karakter. Persamaan karakteristik yang diperoleh dari kalibrasi probe sensor LM35 menunjukkan performa yang sangat baik terlihat dari hasil karakterisasi yang memiliki linieritas tinggi. Persamaan karakteristik yang diperoleh dari masing masing probe sensor LM35 adalah probe sensor 1 dengan V = (9,663T – 6,054 milivolt, probe sensor 2 dengan V = (9,656 T – 2,517 milivolt, probe sensor 3 dengan V = (9,771T – 9,826 milivolt, dan probe sensor 4 dengan V = (9,782T – 8,092 milivolt.

  8. IDENTIFIKASI TUMBUHAN SUKU POACEAE SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN MATAKULIAH KEANEKARAGAMAN TUMBUHAN

    Desy Yanuarita Wulandari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poaceae known as plants used as food ingredients in Indonesian. One area thas has high level diversity of plants Poaceae is Tahura R. Soerjo. Morphological characterization Poaceae in that region are still rare. The Goal for this research are to identify Poaceae tribes, and make photography Poaceae data that can be used as a supplement on Diversity of Plants course. This study included descriptive exploratory study with free cruising method. The species Poaceae has identified are Bambusa multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, Digitaria radicosa, Echinochloa sp, Eragrostis unioloides, Lophatherum gracile, Oplismenus burmanni, Paspalidium flavidum, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites karka, Setaria parviflor. Suku Poaceae dikenal sebagai tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pangan masyarakat Indonesia. Salah satu daerah yang memiliki tingkat keanekaragaman tumbuhan Poaceae adalah di Tahura R. Soerjo. Karakterisasi morfologi terkait suku Poaceae di daerah tersebut masih sedikit. Tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk identifikasi suku Poaceae, membuat data fotografi suku Poaceae sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai suplemen keanekaragaman tumbuhan. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif eksploratif dengan metode jelajah bebas. Sebelas spesies suku Poaceae yang telah teridentifikasi, yaitu Bambusa multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, Digitaria radicosa, Echinochloa sp, Eragrostis unioloides, Lophatherum gracile, Oplismenus burmanni, Paspalidium flavidum, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites karka, Setaria parviflora.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THREE DIMENSIONAL ANIMATION FILM FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION MEDIA IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Cepi Riyana

    2015-06-01

    Abstrak. Pembentukan karakter merupakan salah satu tujuan pendidikan nasional. Pasal 1 UU Sisdiknas tahun 2003 menyatakan bahwa di antara tujuan pendidikan nasional adalah mengembangkan potensi peserta didik untuk memiliki kecerdasan, kepribadian dan akhlak mulia. Saat ini penguatan terhadap karakter bangsa menjadi prioritas program strategis pendidikan nasional, mengingat kondisi bangsa harus dikembalikan pada karakterisasi jati diri bangsa. Berbagai upaya perlu dilakukan untuk membangun pendidikan karakter, diantaranya melalui pemodelan (modeling karakter melalui tayangan Fim Animasi 3D. Kekuatan media ini adalah daya tariknya yang mampu menghipnosis anak sehingga muatan-muatan pendidikan karakter dapat diinternalisasi pada diri anak. Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah “mengembangkan Film Animasi 3D untuk Pendidikan Karater di Sekolah Dasar”, Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Research & Development (R&D melalui tahapan : (1 Analisis kebutuhan Media, (2 Pengembangan Media , (3 Validasi dan Diseminasi Produk. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa SD, dengan lokasi di tiga wilayah Jawa Barat (Cimahi, Kabupaten Bandung Barat dan Cianjur. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model animasi yang didesain dengan ABC (animation character building berdampak pada pembiasaan positif sebagai langkah awal untuk pembentukan karakter pada siswa SD. Kata Kunci : Pendidikan Karakter, Film 3D Animasi

  10. PENGEMBANGAN PENGENDALIAN KELEMBABAN, TEMPERATUR PADA RUMAH KACA DENGAN PENCATATAN DATA OTOMATIS

    Faisal Faisal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengembangan pengendalian kelembaban pada rumah kaca telah selesai dilakukan. Pengembangan alat ini terdiri atas pengukuran kelembaban, temperatur dan intensitas cahaya dan pengendalian kelembaban udara. Sistem alat ukur terdiri dari power supply DC, sensor SHT11, sensor LDR, relay, mikrokontroler ATMega8535, pengkodisi sinyal, LCD karakter 20x2 dan humidifier. Sensor SHT11 terkalibrasi secara digital melalui port B. Sensor LDR dikarakterisasi menggunakan lampu pijar di dalam chamber tidak tembus cahaya, sehingga menghasilkan persamaan karakteristik sensor v = 0,7595ln(I – 2,2484 volt. Persamaan karakterisasi tersebut diproses melalui program BASCOM AVR untuk mengisi perintah pada mikrokontroler ATMega8535 dalam proses pengukuran secara terus menerus dan menampilkannya pada LCD karakter 20x2 dalam satuan lux dan data disimpan dalam file dengan format *xlsx. Humidifier dihidupkan oleh relay yang dikendalikan oleh mikrokontroler ATMega8535 dengan set poin pengukuran kelembaban udara kurang dari 60%. Rumah kaca yang digunakan berukuran panjang 240 cm, lebar 150 cm, tinggi dinding 200 cm dan tinggi atap 50 cm. Uji pengendalian kelembaban udara berhasil dipertahankan pada kelembaban udara kisaran 60% dengan error rata-rata sebesar 1,9% dari pukul 11.00 WITA sampai dengan 16.00 WITA.

  11. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKA KIMIA BAKSO DARI DAGING LUMAT IKAN LAYARAN (Istiophorus orientalis

    Djoko Poernomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Daging lumat biasanya digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan surimi, dan produk turunannya sepertibakso ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik fi sika kimia gel daging lumat dan baksodari daging lumat ikan layaran serta membandingkan bakso hasil penelitian dengan bakso ikan komersial.Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap, yaitu karakterisasi fi sika kimia dan organoleptikgel daging lumat danbaksonya. Gel daging lumat ikan memiliki karakteristik fi sik derajat putih;63,03%, daya ikat air56,44% dankekuatan gel 1469,45 gf. Kadar air 76,13%, abu 2,80%, protein 11,20%, lemak 0,80% dan karbohidrat 9,07%serta protein larut garam sebesar 4,66%, dan organoleptik sebagai berikut: uji lipat 5,uji gigit 7. Sementaraitu, bakso daging lumat ikan layaran memiliki karakteristik yaitu derajat putih, daya ikat air dan kekuatan gelsebesar 67,6%, 56,51% dan 755,65 gf serta uji lipat dan uji gigit yang bernilai 5 dan 7. Kadar air, abu, protein,lemak, karbohidrat, protein larut garam dan pH bernilai 71,18%, 1,39%, 8,37%, 1,19%,17,87%, 3,33% dan 5,82.

  12. PENAPISAN ISOLAT BAKTERI Streptococcus spp. SEBAGAI KANDIDAT ANTIGEN DALAM PEMBUATAN VAKSIN, SERTA EFIKASINYA UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT STREPTOCOCCOSIS PADA IKAN NILA, Oreochromis niloticus

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Riset dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh isolat kandidat yang imunogenik bagi pembuatan vaksin untuk pengendalian penyakit streptococcosis pada ikan nila telah dilakukan. Karakterisasi dilakukan secara biokimia dan API 20 STREP terhadap 15 isolat bakteri Streptococcus spp. Uji Koch’s Postulate kemudian dilakukan untuk mengetahui peran bakteri pada infeksi streptococcosis pada ikan nila. Konfirmasi taksonomis hingga level spesies isolat bakteri S. agalactiae dilakukan dengan teknik Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dengan menggunakan primer spesifik. Uji patogenisitas dilakukan terhadap 6 isolat yang terdiri atas 5 isolat S. agalactiae (N3M, N4M, N14G, N17O, NK1 dan 1 isolat S. iniae (N2O. Hasil penapisan menunjukkan bahwa bakteri S. agalactiae (N4M memiliki nilai LD50 terkecil, dan nilai terbesar dimiliki oleh bakteri S. iniae (N2O. Isolat bakteri N4M digunakan sebagai sumber antigen dalam pembuatan vaksin anti streptococcosis. Vaksin disiapkan dalam bentuk sel utuh dan diinaktivasi dengan formalin, pemanasan, dan sonikasi. Nilai titer antibodi dan sintasan tertinggi diperoleh pada kelompok ikan yang divaksin dengan formalin killed vaccine dibandingkan dengan teknik inaktivasi lainnya (heat killed vaccine dan sonicated vaccine.

  13. Efikasi Kendiri: Perbandingan Antara Islam dan Barat

    Noornajihan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminologi efikasi kendiri (EK merupakan terminologi yang diperkenalkan dalam ilmu psikologi sekitar tahun 70-an. Namun, istilah ini masih kurang difahami oleh kebanyakan individu terutama mereka yang bukan berlatar belakangkan bidang psikologi. Oleh itu, satu keperluan hasil penulisan ini diketengahkan, memandangkan konsep ini penting dalam diri setiap individu bagi memacu kecemerlangan diri. Justeru, kertas kerja ini akan mengupas serba ringkas mengenai konsep EK dari perspektif Islam dan Barat, dengan melihat kepada beberapa titik persamaan dan perbezaan antara kedua-dua pandangan. Islam dan Barat bersetuju bahawa individu yang memiliki EK yang tinggi merupakan individu yang berfikiran positif, berani mengambil risiko dan tidak mudah berputus. Namun pandangan Islam terhadap konsep ini lebih luas, kerana Islam mengaitkan konsep ini dengan konsep tauhid uluhiyyah dan konsep manusia sebagai ahsan al-taqwim. Oleh demikian, EK dari perspektif Islam lebih bersifat kekal dan umum, di samping individu yang berefikasi tinggi menurut Islam ialah individu yang memiliki sifat sabar, syukur, redha dan redha.

  14. PEMANFAATAN TEKNIK GEOLISTRIK UNTUK MENDETEKSI PERSEBARAN AIRTANAH ASIN PADA AKUIFER BEBAS DI KOTA SURABAYA

    Setyawan Purnama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persebaran airtanah asin di Kota Surabaya, menganalisis faktor penyebabnya dan mencari kemungkinan ditemukannya airtanah tawar pada akuifer tertekan. Untuk rnencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan pendugaan geolistrik pada tujuh penampang dengan masingmasing penampang terdiri atas dua hingga tiga titik pendugaan. Untuk menganalisis hash pendugaan, data tahanan jenis hash pendugaan lapangan diinterpretasi dengan Program Schlumberger 0 Weil. Hasil interpretasi dapat ditentukan kedalaman dan ketebalan lapisan airtanah beserta sifat-sifatnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Kota Surabaya telah terdeteksi adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau, dengan jarak dari garis pantai dan ketebalan lapisan yang beniariasi. Faktor penyebab adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau tersebut adalah air fosil (connate water Hasil lain dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa hingga kedalaman 150 meter dari permukaan tanah, tidak ditemukan akuifer tertekan yang mengandung airtanah tawar.

  15. Sistem Pakar Analisis Kepribadian Diri dengan Metode Certainty Factor

    Putu Veda Andreyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kepribadian adalah sifat dan tingkah laku khas seseorang yang membedakan seseorang dengan orang lain. Salah satu metode yang digunakan psikolog adalah Big Five Personality untuk mendapatkan jenis-jenis kepribadian. Sistem pakar adalah sistem informasi yang berisi pengetahuan dari pakar yang dapat melakukan analisa seperti seorang pakar. Sistem Pakar Kepribadian Diri dengan metode Big Five dapat memudahkan seseorang melakukan tes kepribadian tanpa psikolog, dan memudahkan psikolog dalam melakukan tes kepribadian karena tanpa melakukan perhitungan manual. Sistem Pakar Kepribadian Diri merupakan sistem berbasis web yang memberikan hasil tes kepribadian seseorang dan juga memberikan informasi tentang jenis-jenis kepribadian yang ada. Sistem ini diimplementasikan menggunakan metode forward chaining untuk mendapatkan kesimpulan dari suatu kepribadian. Output sistem pakar tes kepribadian berupa jenis-jenis kepribadian berdasarkan Big Five Personality. Persentase kepercayaan yang diperoleh berdasarkan kuesioner terhadap sistem pakar ini yaitu tingkat akurasi 74%. Kata kunci: Sistem Pakar, Kepribadian, Big Five Personality, Certainty Factor, Forward Chaining

  16. ISLAMIC SCIENCE, NATURE AND HUMAN BEINGS: A DISCUSSION ON ZIAUDDIN SARDAR'S THOUGHTS

    Masthuriyah Sa’dan

    2015-12-01

    Pada era sekarang ini perkembangan sains telah mengalami kemajuan yang sangat pesat. Namun kemajuan sains hanya mengambil keuntungan sebesar-besarnya, tanpa memikirkan dampak dari perkembangan sains itu sendiri. Sains telah memarginalkan sisi metafisika dan teologi sehingga sains Barat me­nimbul­kan sifat materialistis bagi manusia, kerusakan ekologi, dan ketidak­harmonisan antara alam dan manusia. Tulisan ini mengkaji pemikiran Ziauddin Sardar tentang sains Islam dengan pendekatan analisis deskriptif. Dalam pandangan Sardar, masyarakat Muslim tidak harus mengekor sains Barat, akan tetapi masyarakat Muslim bisa memiliki sains sebagai karakteristik sains yang bercorak dan bernilai Islam yakni sains Islam. Adapun karaketeristik sains Islam tidak lepas dari sepuluh parameter yang meliputi tawḥīd, khilāfah, ’ibādah, ’ilm, ḥalāl, ḥarām, ’adl, ẓulm, istiṣlāḥ dan diyā’.

  17. ANALISIS TRANSFER RATE PENAMBAHAN NODE PADA INFRASTRUKTUR MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK (MANET UNTUK FILE SERVER

    Rudi Kurniawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Wireless Network sudah lama ditemukan dan seiring waktu juga mengalami perkembangan, Namun sifat teknologi ini menggantungkan diri pada infrastruktur jaringan yang ada. Hal ini bias menjadi kelemahan tersendiri saat kondisi infrastruktur jaringan sedang mengalami gangguan, karena setiap komunikasi yang melewati infrastruktur jaringan tersebut tidak akan sampai pada tujuan. Teknologi jaringan Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET diciptakan sebagai antisipasi jika infrastruktur jaringan sedang mengalami gangguan. Dengan jaringan MANET sistem komunikasi yang dilakukan tidak membutuhkan infrastruktur jaringan karena tiap node pada jaringan tersebut bersifat mobile. Untuk menguji kemampuan MANET, pada penelitian ini akan menerapkan File Transfer Protocol (FTP sebagai media untuk melakukan komunikasi data file transfer yang diimplementasi pada jaringan MANET. Dari pengujian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh hasil bahwa File Transfer dapat berfungsi dengan baik saat diterapkan pada jaringan MANET.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  19. Kajian Implementasi Graph Database pada Rute Bus Rapid Transit

    Panji Wisnu Wirawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT merupakan salah satu sarana transportasi publik yang memiliki rute perjalanan tertentu atau disebut sebagai koridor. Satu koridor BRT dengan koridor yang lain bukanlah koridor yang terpisah, melainkan saling terhubung. Dalam melakukan perjalanan, penumpang BRT boleh jadi melakukan perpindahan koridor melalui shelter. Informasi tersebut perlu didapatkan seorang calon penumpang sebelum melakukan perjalanan supaya tidak terjadi perpindahan koridor yang salah. Teknologi informasi memungkinkan representasi informasi pencarian koridor yang tepat ketika penumpang akan melakukan sebuah perjalanan, terlebih dengan hadirnya graph database. Graph Database memungkinkan representasi BRT yang baik karena sifat graph yang secara standar telah menunjukkan node dan relationship. Artikel ini mengkaji penerapan graph database untuk data pada BRT. Selain itu, artikel ini mendesain sebuah algoritma pencarian koridor BRT. Harapannya, algoritma tersebut dapat digunakan untuk membangun aplikasi yang memanfaatkan data pada graph database. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa graph database dapat diterapkan untuk data BRT dan algoritma yang dibangun dapat digunakan untuk menyajikan informasi rute sekaligus menyampaikan informasi perpindahan koridor.

  20. PERAN REVEGETASI TERHADAP RESTORASI TANAH PADA LAHAN REHABILITASI TAMBANG BATUBARA DI DAERAH TROPIKA (The Role of Revegetation on the Soil Restoration in Rehabilitation Areas of Tropical Coal Mining

    Cahyono Agus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pertambangan batubara terbuka menyebabkan degradasi lahan, sehingga perlu upaya rehabilitasi lahan melalui program revegetasi. Penelitian dilakukan di areal PT. Berau Coal  pada site Binungan, Lati dan Sambarata, Kabupaten Berau, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap ber-blok dengan umur revegetasi sebagai perlakuan, tiga kali ulangan dan tiga site sebagai blok. Pemilihan lokasi menggunakan metode purposif sampling yaitu pengambilan sampel yang didasarkan pada pertimbangan pada umur pengolahan lahan revegetasi, meliputi S1 : area hutan sebelum ditambang (rona awal, S2 : revegetasi awal, umur tanaman  5 tahun. Pengambilan sampel tanah pada  kedalaman 0–20 dan 20-40 cm pada setiap perlakuan di ketiga lokasi, selanjutnya dianalisis sifat fisik dan kimianya. Tanah Typic Hapludult pada lahan hutan sebelum ditambang batubara secara terbuka (S1,  rona awal mempunyai kadar C-organik (1,87 %, N-total (0,14 %, P-tersedia (31,40 ppm, K-tertukar (0,11 me/100g, pH (3,98, KTK (10,72 me/100g dan kejenuhan basa (17 %. Penambangan terbuka batubara telah menyebabkan lapisan bawah dan  permukaan tanah menjadi terbongkar dan terjadi penurunan kualitas tanah yang sangat drastis. Penimbunan lahan dengan media tanah permukaan sebelumnya, telah cukup  mampu memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanah tertambang namun belum sesuai sebagai media pertumbuhan, serta sangat rentan terhadap degradasi lahan lebih lanjut. Revegetasi menggunakan tanaman pionir, cepat tumbuh dan adaptif seperti Sengon, Akasia, Sungkai, Melina, Angsana, Jarak serta Legume Cover Crop (LCC pada area bekas tambang  batubara memberikan pengaruh yang  nyata terhadap peningkatan kandungan C-organik, N-total dan  pH tanah. Revegetasi menggunakan spesies cepat tumbuh setelah berumur 5 tahun telah mengembalikan bahkan memperbaiki sifat kimia tanah dibanding dengan kondisi pada hutan tropika basah sebelum dilakukan penambangan terbuka.   ABSTRACT Open coal mining