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Sample records for kappaphycus alvarezii doty

  1. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenarska, Zornitsa; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hiraoka, Masanori; Itoh, Nobuya

    2007-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), including Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-. The K(m) values for Br- and H2O2 were 2.5x10(-3) M and 8.5x10(-5) M, respectively. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. alvarezii was additionally determined.

  2. Studies on the functional properties of protein concentrate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty - an edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Ganesan, K; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Subba Rao, P V

    2014-06-15

    Protein concentrate (PC) of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cultivated on the West coast of India), was extracted and its functional properties were evaluated. The K. alvarezii PC contained 62.3 ± 1.62% proteins. At pH 12, the nitrogen solubility of this PC was 58.72 ± 1.68% in the presence of 0.5M NaCl. The emulsifying and foaming properties of this PC varied with time and pH. However, it formed remarkably stable emulsions with Jatropha oil after 720 min (i.e. E720=53.67 ± 1.59). On the other hand, maximum foaming ability (53.33 ± 2.31%) of the PC was recorded at pH 4.0. This PC had high oil (1.29 ± 0.20 ml oil/g PC) and water absorption capacity (2.22 0.04 ml H2O/g PC). DSC analysis revealed thermal transitions at about 109.25°C at neutral pH. The results obtained in this investigation suggest the suitability of K. alvarezii PC as an inexpensive source of protein; thus this PC could be incorporated into several value-added food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal variation in nutritional composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty-an edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Ganesan, K; Subba Rao, P V

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal variation in the proximate and mineral composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii were investigated in the present study, moreover, the relationship between the nutritive components of this seaweed and the environment were also established. Carbohydrates represented the major portion of the algae (i.e. average total carbohydrate content was 23.01 ± 1.64 g/100 g DW), while the lipid content was the lowest among the constituents investigated (0.39 ± 0.04 to 0.91 ± 0.51 g/100 g DW). The protein content of K. alvarezii varied from 12.69 ± 0.6 to 23.61 ± 0.02 g/100 g DW, and the fiber content varied between 9.68 ± 0.08 to 18.57 ± 0.15 g/100 g DW. Highest total mineral content (29939.61 ± 9340.38 mg/100 g DW) was observed in April 2005, while least values were recorded in January 2006 i.e. (10997.62 ± 1120.26 mg/100 g DW). The Na/K ratio during the study ranged from 0.34 to 0.87. All the samples showed remarkable semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) yield ranging from 42.70 ± 1.07 to 63.73 ± 1.73 % (average 53.90 ± 1.37 %), and, the samples collected during December 2004 and January 2006 demonstrated maximum gel strengths i.e. 743 ± 15.28 and 783.33 ± 15.28 g·cm(-2) respectively. Various environmental parameters influenced the chemical composition of K. alvarezii, and these parameters demonstrated seasonal fluctuations. Moreover, based on the nutritional composition obtained, it could be stated that this seaweed has great scope to be incorporated into several food products as an excellent nutritional supplement, or as a value additive in animal or pet food.

  4. REGENERASIRUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty MELALUI INDUKSI KALUS DAN EMBRIO DENGAN PENAMBAHAN HORMON PERANGSANG TUMBUH SECARA IN VITRO

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    Emma Suryati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Regenerasi rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan dalam rangka penyediaan benih yang bermutu dan mempunyai keunggulan melalui induksi kalus dan embrio dengan penambahan hormon pertumbuhan yang diintroduksi ke dalam media kultur yang dapat memacu induksi kalus dan penebalan pigmen rumput laut. Media kultur yang digunakan adalah media Conwy padat dengan penambahan agar 0,8%-1,6%. Hormon perangsang tumbuh yang digunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan kalus dan filamen embrio yaitu IAA (Indol acetic acid, kinetin, dan auxilin dengan konsentrasi berkisar 0,4-1 mg/L. Embrio yang dihasilkan merupakan anakan yang mempunyai sifat yang sama dengan induknya. Sintasan dan perkembangan embrio yang paling baik yaitu dengan penambahan IAA dengan konsentrasi 0,4 mg/L pada media padat. Pembentukan anakan dilakukan dengan mengiris embrio dan menumbuhkan pada media cair yang diperkaya dengan hormon yang sama. Pemeliharaan anakan pada media kultur dilakukan hingga mencapai ukuran 2-3 cm. Regeneration of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii was done to provide high quality seed through callus and embryo induction using plant growth regulator which was introducted to the culture medium. This growth regulator can stimulate the callus induction procces and thickening the seaweed pigment. Applied medium culture was agar medium with 0.8%-1.6% concentration enriched with Conwy and the applied growth regulators were IAA (Indol acetic acid, kinetin dan auxilin with 0.4-1 mg/L concentration range. Resulted embryo has the same characteristics with the stock. The best survival rate and embryo growth was IAA treatment with 0.4 mg/L concentration. Formation of embryo was done by transferring them from solid medium to the liquid one with the same growth regulator treatment. The nursery of the seed in culture medium was carried out until it has reached 2-3 cm in size.

  5. MENGENAL RUMPUT LAUT, Kappaphycus alvarezii

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    Andi Parenrengi

    2007-06-01

    ditas ini semakin banyak diminati. Indonesia merupakan penghasil rumput laut karaginan terbesar kedua dunia setelah Filipina. Untuk mengenal lebih dekat rumput laut tersebut, makalah ini akan memberikan gambaran secara umum dari karakteristik K. alvarezii yang meliputi taksonomi, morfologi, reproduksi, eko-fisiologi, dan distribusi, serta dilengkapi dengan dukungan hasil riset mengenai pertumbuhan dan analisis genetik antara dua perbedaan warna dari spesies rumput laut tersebut.

  6. Improvement Method of Gene Transfer in Kappaphycus Alvarezii

    OpenAIRE

    Triana, St. Hidayah; Alimuddin,; Widyastuti, Utut; Suharsono,; Suryati, Emma; Parenrengi, Andi

    2016-01-01

    Method of foreign gene transfer in red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been reported, however, li-mited number of transgenic F0 (broodstock) was obtained. This study was conducted to improve the method of gene transfer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in order to obtain high percentage of K. alvarezii transgenic. Superoxide dismutase gene from Melastoma malabatrichum (MmCu/Zn-SOD) was used as model towards increasing adaptability of K. alvarezii to environmental stress. The treat-ment...

  7. PERTUMBUHAN Kappaphycus alvarezii YANG TERKONTAMINASI EPIFIT DI PERAIRAN SUMENEP

    OpenAIRE

    Arisandi, Apri; Farid, Akhmad; Rokhmaniati, Sri

    2013-01-01

    Peningkatan suhu musim kemarau yang relatif tinggi memicu peningkatan kontaminasi penyakit dan epifit di perairan Sumenep, sehingga mempengaruhi rata-rata pertumbuhan harian Kappaphycus alvarezii.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak kontaminasi epifit, terhadap pertumbuhan K. alvarezii di perairan Sumenep.  Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode budidaya dalam rakit apung, thallus K. alvarezii yang terkontaminasi epifit diamati serta dihitung rata-rata pertumbuhan hariannya.  H...

  8. PERTUMBUHAN Kappaphycus alvarezii YANG TERKONTAMINASI EPIFIT DI PERAIRAN SUMENEP

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    Apri Arisandi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan suhu musim kemarau yang relatif tinggi memicu peningkatan kontaminasi penyakit dan epifit di perairan Sumenep, sehingga mempengaruhi rata-rata pertumbuhan harian Kappaphycus alvarezii.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak kontaminasi epifit, terhadap pertumbuhan K. alvarezii di perairan Sumenep.  Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode budidaya dalam rakit apung, thallus K. alvarezii yang terkontaminasi epifit diamati serta dihitung rata-rata pertumbuhan hariannya.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan,kontaminasi epifitmenyebabkanrata-rata pertumbuhan harian K. alvareziimenurunhingga-0,07% sampai 0,92%, oleh karena itu K. alvareziiyang telah terkontaminasiharus segera dipanen.Kata Kunci: epifit, pertumbuhan, K. alvarezii

  9. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  10. IMPROVEMENT METHOD OF GENE TRANSFER IN Kappaphycus alvarezii

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    St. Hidayah Triana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Method of foreign gene transfer in red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been reported, however, li-mited number of transgenic F0 (broodstock was obtained. This study was conducted to improve the method of gene transfer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in order to obtain high percentage of K. alvarezii transgenic. Superoxide dismutase gene from Melastoma malabatrichum (MmCu/Zn-SOD was used as model towards increasing adaptability of K. alvarezii to environmental stress. The treat-ments were the culture media and recovery duration, and each treatment consisted of three replica-tions. The best method was co-cultivation using liquid media, then recovery was conducted in liquid media for 10 days. That treatment allowed higher transformation percentage (90%, regeneration effi-ciency (90%, putative bud efficiency (100%, number of buds and explants sprouted (100% and transgenic explants (100%. The transgenic explants showed an amplification PCR product of Mm-Cu/Zn-SOD gene fragment, whereas the non-transgenic explants showed no amplification product.  All results revealed that suitable method of transgenesis for K. alvarezii has been developed. Keywords:       Agrobacterium tumefaciens, culture media, Kappaphycus alvarezii, recovery duration, transformation

  11. PERTUMBUHAN Kappaphycus alvarezii DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK Sargassum aquifolium

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    Bambang Ali Akbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan Sargassum aquifolium dengan konsentrasi dan lama waktu perendaman yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan Kappaphycus alvarezii, serta mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan S. aquifolium terhadap persentase kadar karaginan K. alvarezii. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu faktor 1 berupa konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium dan faktor 2 berupa perlakuan lama perendaman. Faktor 1 terdiri atas 4 perlakuan konsentrasi perendaman yaitu kontrol (K0, konsentrasi 5% (K1, 10% (K2, 15% (K3. Faktor 2 terdiri atas 3 taraf yaitu lama perendaman 30 menit (T1, 60 menit (T2 dan 90 menit (T3.  Data variabel penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam (ANOVA pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium tidak memberikan pengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii. Perlakuan K1T3 (perendaman dengan konsentrasi 5% selama 90 menit menunjukkan hasil tertinggi dari perlakuan lainnya, nilai laju pertumbuhan spesifik 6.11%, pertumbuhan mutlak 663.89 gram, berat kering 197.80 gr dan nilai kadar karaginan yaitu 53.33%. Berat kering terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K3T3 (perendaman dengan konsentrasi 15% selama 90 menit. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium tidak memiliki pengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan Kappaphycus alvarezii dan kadar karaginan tertinggi adalah 53.33% terdapat pada perlakuan  konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium 5% dengan perendaman selama 90 menit.Kata Kunci: berat kering, ekstrak, karaginan, perendaman, pertumbuhan.GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Kappaphycus alvarezii WITH ADDING Sargassum aquifolium EXTRACTABSTRACTThis research purpose is to study the effect of adding Sargassum aquifolium extract dan time of submersion for growth performance and carrageenan content of Kappaphycus alvarezii. This research

  12. Determination of the functional properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjamsiah; Nazaruddin Ramli; Rusli Daik; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii powder prepared by spray drying (SD), freeze drying (FD) and sun drying(SND) were determined their functional properties such as swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), viscosity and gel strength. The study showed that the Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder obtained by FD and SND have the ability to swell to 25 mL/ g and 50 mL/ g respectively, while the SD powder formed a homogeneous solution and it exhibited highly viscous solution (SWC 100 mL/ g). The WHC of SND powder (30.67 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (21.33 g/ g) and SD (4.67 g/ g) powders. The OHC of FD powder (19.81 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the SD (5.11 g/ g) and SND (4.67 g/ g) powders. While the viscosity of the FD, SND and SD powders were 0.22, 0.17 and 0.06 Pa.s respectively. Meanwhile, the gel strength of the SD powder (82.77 gf) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (57.1 gf) and SND (35.01 gf) powders. These results on determination of functional properties shows that the SD powder had the most potential to be applied as a viscosity modifier in the manufacturing of beverages.(author)

  13. Antioxidant responses and photosynthetic behaviors of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) during low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao; Pang, Tong

    2016-12-01

    Kappaphycus are farmed in tropical countries as raw material for carrageenan, which is widely used in food industry. The sea area available for farming is one limiting factor in the production of seaweeds. Though cultivation is spreading into subtropical regions, the lower seawater temperature is an important problem encountered in subtropical regions for the farming of Kappaphycus. This research of physiological response to low temperature stress will be helpful for screening Kappaphycus strains for growth in a lower temperature environment. Responses of antioxidant systems and photosystem II (PSII) behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum were evaluated during low temperature treatments (23, 20, 17 °C). Compared with the controls at 26 °C, the H 2 O 2 concentrations increased in both species when the thalli were exposed to low temperatures (23, 20, 17 °C), but these increases were much greater in K. striatum than in K. alvarezii thalli, suggesting that K. striatum suffered more oxidative stress. The activities of some important antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) and the hydroxyl free radical scavenging capacity were substantially higher at 23, 20 and 17 °C than at the control 26 °C in K. alvarezii, indicating that the antioxidant system of K. alvarezii enhanced its resistance to low temperature. However, no significant increases of antioxidant enzymes activities were observed at 20 and 17 °C in K. striatum. In addition, both the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F V /F m ) and the performance index (PI ABS ) decreased significantly in K. striatum at 23 °C, indicating that the photosynthetic apparatus was damaged at 23 °C. In contrast, no significant decreases of either F V /F m or PI ABS were observed in K. alvarezii at 23 °C. It is concluded that K. alvarezii has greater tolerance to low temperature than K. striatum.

  14. ISOLASI DAN KULTUR PROTOPLAS RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii DI LABORATORIUM

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    Emma Suryati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolasi protoplas rumput laut K. alvarezii, telah dilakukan dalam rangka penyiapan protoplas untuk penyilangan melalui fusi protoplas. Metode yang digunakan antara lain melalui cara kimia dengan melisis tallus rumput laut dengan campuran enzim komersial, kemudian enzim yang berasal dari viscera keong mas baik yang segar maupun yang beku, dengan media kultur yang digunakan pada pemeliharaan makro algae antara lain Conwy, PES, dan air laut steril. Tallus rumput laut yang digunakan berasal dari bagian pangkal, tengah dan ujung. Protoplas yang hidup diuji menggunakan evans blue 0,1%, hormon perangsang tumbuh yang digunakan pada media pertumbuhan antara lain auxin, IAA, dan Kinetin. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap jumlah protoplas hidup, pertumbuhan, dan sintasan.  Hasil percobaan memperlihatkan bahwa enzim yang paling baik digunakan adalah campuran enzim komersial dengan media kultur Conwy dengan jumlah protoplas mencapai 19,8 x 106 sel/mL, bagian tallus yang paling baik adalah bagian pangkal berkisar antara 8,1x106 hingga 18,8 x 106 sel/ mL.  Perangsang tumbuh yang paling baik adalah auxin. Filamen terbentuk setelah 5 hari dengan fotoperiod L:D=12:12. Isolation of seaweed’s protoplast Kappaphycus alvarezii had been done to provide protoplast for crossbreeding purpose by protoplast fusion. The method was chemically done by lyses of tallus used commercial enzyme mixture, enzyme from viscera of snail both fresh and frozen, culture media were Conwy (CW, PES, and sterile sea water (SSW which were used to maintain the macro algae. Part of used tallus were upper, middle and tip of tallus. The viable protoplast was examined by using 0.1% evans blue and the growth-stimulating hormone were auxin, IAA, and Kinetin. Observation was concerned to the amount of viable protoplast, the growth, and the long live. Result showed that the best enzyme was commercial enzyme mixture with Conwy as the best culture media, provided protoplast until 19.8 x 106 cell/mL. The

  15. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Pang; Jianguo Liu; Qian Liu; Wei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on ...

  16. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Metanol Rumput Laut (Kappaphycus Alvarezii) Pada Berbagai Tingkat Konsentrasi Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Saifuddin, Agus; Raharjo, Sapto; Eso, Amiruddin

    2015-01-01

    Red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii contain flavonoids compound which has activity as an anti bacterial. This study aims to determine the difference of inhibition zone of the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by seaweed methanol extract (K. alvarezii) at each concentrations. This research was conducted by post–test only design (one-shot case study) with a variable treatment of the seaweed methanol extract (K. alvarezii) against S. mutans. Extracts were then divided into 7 concentration of 5...

  17. KARAKTERISTIK GENETIK Kappaphycus alvarezii SEHAT DAN TERINFEKSI PENYAKIT ICE-ICE DENGAN METODE Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Suryati; Lida Puspaningtyas; Utut Widyastuti; Suharsono Suharsono

    2013-01-01

    Infeksi penyakit ice-ice pada Kappaphycus alvarezii seringkali menyebabkan penurunan produksi yang sangat signifikan. K. alvarezii merupakan alga merah penghasil karaginan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi dan banyak dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai industri, seperti farmasi, makanan, stabilizer, dan kosmetik. Perbaikan genetik sangat diperlukan untuk meningkatkan produksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kemiripan genetik K. alvarezii sehat dan terinfeksi penyakit dari Ba...

  18. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  19. Potencial de cultivo da macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii no litoral de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alex Alves dos

    2014-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Aqüicultura, Florianópolis, 2014. Os cultivos da macroalga K. alvarezii em monocultivo ou integrados com moluscos (Crassostrea gigas e Perna perna) podem proporcionar benefícios ambientais e econômicos. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial de cultivo da macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii no parque aquícola de Santa Catarina. O primeiro trabalho identificou a capacidade do parque e...

  20. Laju Pertumbuhan SomatikKappaphycus alvarezii Di Perairan Desa Sathean Kecamatan Kei Kecil Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara

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    Nally Y.G.F. Erbabley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumput laut Kappaphycus alvareziidijadikan unggulan bagi pengembangan dan peningkatan komoditi sumber daya laut di Maluku Tenggara dan merupakan komoditas unggulan yang ditetapkan oleh PEMDA Maluku Tenggara. Aspek penting dan karakteristik menguntungkan yang berkaitan dengan pengembangan budidaya rumput laut ini antara lain meliputi aspek ekonomi, Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui laju pertumbuhan harian (pertumbuhan somatik Kappaphycus alvarezii varieatas hijau dan coklatdi perairan desa Sathean Kecamatan Kei Kecil Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara.Penelitian dilakukan di perairan desa Sathean pada bulan Januari-September 2013 dengan 2 (dua perlakuan bibit yang dipelihara selama 6 kali musim tanam.Pemeliharaan Kappaphycus alvarezii menggunakan metode longline. Hasil penelitian menunjukanparameter kualitas air diamati secara in-situ selama pemeliharaan berlangsung.Oksigen terlarut (DO pada stasiun I - III berkisar antara 3.4-4.58  ppm,  suhu  300C,  salinitas  antara  27-32  ppt,  pH  berkisara  antara  8.15-8.26. Sedangkan nilai nitrit (NO2 0.009 mg/L, nitrat (NO3 < 5 mg/L,  ammonia (NH3 berkisar antara 0.0010– 0.126mg/L dan phosphat (PO4 berkisar antara <0.25 mg/L.Laju pertumbuhan harian dan laju pertumbuhan rata-rata harian Kappaphycus alvarezii selama pemeliharaan (42 hari adalah nilai rata-rata pengukuran rumpur laut pada long line 1- long line 5, dengan periode penanaman I - IV di desa Sathean diperoleh untuk bibit varietas hijau (BHT berat rata-rata tertinggi ditemukan pada periode penanaman IV pada long line 4 dengan berat yaitu 407 gr sedangkan nilai rata-rata terendah ditemukan pada periode penanaman I pada long line 5 dengan berat 24 gr. Sebaliknya berat  rata-rata rumput laut dengan bibit varietas coklat (BCT ditemukan bahwa berat tertinggi masih pada periode ke IV long line ke 2, dengan berat 427 gr sedangkan berat terendah ditemukan pada periode penanaman I long line 5 dengan berat 52 gr. Waktu tanam pada bulan

  1. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

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    Stephen Wanyonyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6% and salt (predominantly potassium (K 20% with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats.

  2. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  3. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

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    Tong Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, decrease of active reaction centers (RCs, and the plastoquinone (PQ pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  4. The properties of red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and its effect on mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vi-Sion; Okechukwu, Patrick N; Teo, Swee-Sen

    2017-03-01

    The edible red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) is one of the algae species which was found to be rich in nutrients and nutraceutical. Hence, K. alvarezii may have the ability to suppress cancer through its antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential compounds of K. alvarezii, cytotoxicity properties of K. alvarezii extract on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), investigated toxicity effect of high dosage K. alvarezii extract in rats and determined the effect of K. alvarezii on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The method of LCMS/MS and MTT assay were used. For animal study, sub-chronic toxicity method was used, the rats were supplemented with 2000mg/kg body weight daily of K. alvarezii crude extracts by oral gavage. For the anticancer effect of K. alvarezii crude extracts, this study consisted of three groups of the experimental, untreated and normal group of rats. The experimental and untreated groups of rats were induced with mammary tumour with DMBA. The experimental group of rats was given with K. alvarezii crude extracts orally. The results were being used to compare with the untreated group of rats and normal group of rats. All the rats were fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behavior changes and tumour sizes were observed specifically. The differences between the three groups of rats were evaluated by using the ANOVA test. By using LCMS/MS method, six unknown compounds were analysed. K. alvarezii crude extract reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 from 84.91% to 0.81% and the IC 50 value is 4.1±0.69mg/mL. For sub-chronic and heavy metal toxicity studies, no significant difference was found in haematological and biochemical values of the control group and experimental group. The growth rate of tumours in the untreated group of rats was found significantly higher than the experimental group of rats. Besides that, the white blood cells level in untreated group was

  5. IN VITRO GROWTH RATE OF Kappaphycus alvarezii MICROPROPAGULE AND EMBRYO BY ENRICHMENT MEDIUM WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Suryati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of micropropagule and embryo of seaweed depend on nutrient and fertilizer used. Seaweed has been reported contain hormone regulators such as auxine, cytokinine, gibbereline, and various minerals applied in stimulating the growth ocra plant and wheat culture. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential of Kappaphycus alvarezii extract and its optimal concentration in accelerating of Kappaphycus alvarezii micropropagule and embryo growth. Micropropagule and embryo produced through callus induction were planted into PES 1/20 liquid medium supplemented with seaweed extract at the concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μL in 10 mL of medium. The results showed that medium enrichment with 50 μL of seaweed extract had the highest survival rate and growth of thallus. In addition, this concentration was also resulted in a good performance of K. alvarezii thallus with the lighter color. The advantage of this study for seaweed cultivation in Indonesia, among others, seaweed can be used as fertilizer, especially in the maintenance of seaweed seed, so that cultivation can be better develop.

  6. Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate-treated red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marcelo P; Granbom, Malena; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2003-12-01

    Algal cells have developed different strategies to cope with the common environmentally promoted generation of H(2)O(2), which include induction of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), massive H(2)O(2) release in seawater, and synthesis of volatile halocarbons by specific peroxidases. The antioxidant adaptability of the economically important carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty (Gigartinales: Rhodophyta) was tested here against exposure to clofibrate (CFB), a known promoter of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in mammals and plants. Possibly as a consequence of CFB-induced H2O2 peroxisomal production, the maximum concentration of H(2)O(2) in the seawater of red algae cultures was found to occur (120+/-17 min) after the addition of CFB, which was followed by a significant decrease in the photosynthetic activity of PSII after 24 h. Interestingly, 4 h after the addition of CFB, the total SOD activity was about 2.5-fold higher than in the control, whereas no significant changes were observed in lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS) or in CAT and APX activities. The two H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes were only induced later (after 72 h), whereupon CAT showed a dose-dependent response with increasing concentrations of CFB. A more pronounced increase of TBARS concentration than in the controls was evidenced when a 50 microM Fe(2+/3+) solution (3:2 ratio) was added to CFB-treated cultures, suggesting that the combination of exacerbated H(2)O(2) levels in the seawater-in this work, caused by CFB exposure-and Fenton-reaction catalyst (ferric/ferrous ions), imposes harsh oxidative conditions on algal cultures. The bulk of data suggests that K. alvarezii possesses little ability to promptly induce CAT and APX compared to the immediately responsive antioxidant enzyme SOD and, to avoid harmful accumulation of H(2)O(2), the red alga presumably releases H(2)O(2) into the surrounding medium as an alternative mechanism.

  7. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hayashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  8. Peningkatan kualitas karagenan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dengan metode budidaya keranjang jaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Failu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the quality of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed carrageenan cultured using methods basket nets in waters of Baruta, Sangia, Wambulu, District of Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. The study consisted of three treatments in triplicates. Seaweed culture used different cultivation net-basket forms i.e. net-basket box, net-basket lantern, and longline without net-basket (control. Quality of K. alvarezii seaweed obtained in this study varied from each treatments. Daily growth rate in each treatment were not significantly different. Production of seaweed with a net-basket box (201.61 g/m2 was higher than the net-basket lanterns (183.22 g/m2, but not significantly different from control (196.98 g/m2. Carageenan yield value of control (46.74% was the highest of all treatments. The water content of carrageenan in each treatment was not significantly different and it ranged from 17.20–17.39%. The viscosity of carrageenan in net-basket lantern (179.40 cPs was the highest of all treatments. Carrageenan gel strength was the best treatment (702.53 g/cm². As conclusion, using the net-basket lantern  as cultivation method provided quality improvement of carrageenan in K. alvarezii seaweed. Keywords: Kappaphycus alvarezii, cultivation methods, carrageenan quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kualitas karagenan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii yang dibudidaya menggunakan metode keranjang jaring di perairan Baruta, Kecamatan Sangia, Wambulu, Kabupaten Buton Sulawesi Tenggara. Penelitian terdiri atas tiga pelakuan dan tiga ulangan. Pemeliharaan rumput laut dilakukan dengan metode keranjang jaring berbeda yaitu metode keranjang jaring kotak, keranjang jaring lampion, dan longline tanpa menggunakan keranjang jaring (kontrol. Hasil pengamatan kualitas rumput laut K. alvarezii dalam penelitian ini bervariasi dari setiap perlakuan yang diberikan. Laju pertumbuhan harian pada setiap perlakuan tidak berbeda nyata

  9. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  10. ANALISIS POLA MUSIM TANAM RUMPUT LAUT, Kappaphycus alvarezii MELALUI PENDEKATAN KESESUAIAN LAHAN DI NUSA PENIDA, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Usaha budidaya rumput laut sangat dipengaruhi oleh lokasi dan iklim. Penyusunan pola musim tanam rumput laut yang benar dapat membantu dalam keberlanjutan usaha budidaya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pola musim tanam rumput laut, Kappaphycus alvarezii, berdasarkan pendekatan kesesuaian lahan pengembangan budidaya rumput laut di Nusa Penida, Bali. Data dikumpulkan pada bulan Mei dan September 2013. Kesesuaian lahan dianalisis secara spasial berdasarkan sistem informasi geografis, dengan memadukan antara faktor kualitas perairan dan sosialinfrastruktur. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa bulan Mei merupakan bulan yang sesuai untuk K. alvarezii dibandingkan dengan bulan September. Kawasan Pulau Nusa Lembongan dan Nusa Ceningan merupakan kawasan yang lebih sensitif terhadap perubahan kondisi perairan. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan acuan dalam penyusunan strategi musim tanam di Nusa Penida.

  11. Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ruf Kasim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5 kg was growth to 22.5 ± 1.40 kg and 38.8 ± 1.6 kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50 g was 107.8 ± 7.0 g and 152.5 ± 7.9 g during April, and 132.0 ± 8.0 g and 218.8 ± 8.6 g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43% day−1 and 3.69% day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

  12. Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii, seaweed waste biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K O; Ramli, Nazaruddin; Said, Mamot; Ahmad, Musa [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Suhaimi Mohd [School of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Sabah (Malaysia); Arbakariya Ariff, E-mail: naza@ukm.my [Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass were investigated. Metal sorption capacities were 0.82 mg Cr (III)/ g, 0.73 mg Ni (II)/ g, 0.67 mg Cd (II)/ g, 0.65 mg Cu( II)/ g and 0.64 mg Zn (II)/ g in multi metal system. Whereas, desorption efficiencies were 66.08 %, 71.50 % and 80.44 % using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, respectively. The metal sorption sequence were Cr(III) > Ni(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II), while metal desorption sequence were Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Cr(III). Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to characterize the seaweed waste biomass. FTIR analysis shown that carbonyl (-C-O) and nitrile (-C{identical_to}N) groups interact with the metal ions. The experiments result revealed that Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass represent an attractive candidate to remove multi metal ions. (author)

  13. Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasue, Anita; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits. As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration. The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder (SWP) and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. The fresh Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweeds were washed, soaked in distilled water overnight, dried in a cabinet dryer at 40°C for 24 hours and ground into fine powder using universal miller. There were five different percentages of SWP incorporated into bun that were formulation A - control (0% SWP), B (3% SWP), C (6% SWP), D (9% SWP) and E (12% SWP). All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis. Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC (35.07 GAE, mg/100g) and DPPH activity (49.02%) maximized when 12% SWP was incorporated into the flour (P<0.05). The incorporation of the SWP also gives significant effects towards the texture of the bun where the bun becomes harder and denser as compared to the control.

  14. Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii, seaweed waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.O.; Nazaruddin Ramli; Mamot Said; Musa Ahmad; Suhaimi Mohd Yasir; Arbakariya Ariff

    2011-01-01

    Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass were investigated. Metal sorption capacities were 0.82 mg Cr (III)/ g, 0.73 mg Ni (II)/ g, 0.67 mg Cd (II)/ g, 0.65 mg Cu( II)/ g and 0.64 mg Zn (II)/ g in multi metal system. Whereas, desorption efficiencies were 66.08 %, 71.50 % and 80.44 % using 0.1 M HNO 3 , 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 , respectively. The metal sorption sequence were Cr(III) > Ni(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II), while metal desorption sequence were Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Cr(III). Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to characterize the seaweed waste biomass. FTIR analysis shown that carbonyl (-C-O) and nitrile (-C≡N) groups interact with the metal ions. The experiments result revealed that Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass represent an attractive candidate to remove multi metal ions. (author)

  15. Karakteristik Fisika Kimia Karaginan Rumput Laut Jenis Kappaphycus Alvarezii Pada Umur Panen Yang Berbeda Di Perairan Desa Tihengo Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Harun, Maya; Montolalu, Roike Iwan; Suwetja, I Ketut

    2013-01-01

    Rumput laut merupakan salah satu komoditas unggulan di kabupaten Gorontalo Utara. Salah satu jenis rumput laut yang dibudidayakan di Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara adalah Kappaphycus alvarezii. K. Alvarezii memiliki nilai ekonomis penting karena menghasilkan karaginan. Karaginan banyak digunakan sebagai bahan tambahan industri farmasi, bahan tambahan kosmetik, pengatur keseimbangan, bahan pengental, pembentuk gel dan pengemulsi. Mutu karaginan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, antara lain jenis ru...

  16. Evaluation of hyper thermal acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii for enhanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    Hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a red seaweed, was optimized to 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content, 180mM H2SO4 at 140°C for 5min. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 38.3g/L and 66.7% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 57.6g/L with 120gdw/L K. alvarezii slurry were obtained from HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. HT acid hydrolysis at a severity factor of 0.78 efficiently converted the carbohydrates of seaweed to monosaccharides and produced a low concentration of inhibitory compounds. The levels of ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with non-adapted and adapted Kluyveromyces marxianus to high concentration of galactose were 6.1g/L with ethanol yield (YEtOH) of 0.19 at 84h and 16.0g/L with YEtOH of 0.42 at 72h, respectively. Development of the HT acid hydrolysis process and adapted yeast could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields of K. alvarezii seaweed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PEMANFAATAN RUMPUT LAUT NON-KOMERSIL SEBAGAI BIOKONTROL PENYAKIT ???ICE-ICE??? PADA BUDIDAYA RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI, SERTA KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS KARAGINAN

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah; . A. Manggau, Marianti; Badraeni

    2014-01-01

    Penyakit ???ice-ice??? pada budidaya rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii berdampak signifikan terhadap penurunan produksi rumput laut di Indonesia, khususnya di Sulawesi Selatan. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan ini maka telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mencegah penyakit ???ice-ice??? pada rumput laut K. alvarezii dengan menggunakan rumput laut non-komersil. Sampel dari rumput laut K. alvarezii yang berpenyakit ???ice-ice??? telah diambil dari beberapa lokasi budidaya rumput laut, sepe...

  18. KARAKTERISASI GENETIKA RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii YANG DIBUDIDAYAKAN DI SULAWESI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karakterisasi genetika rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui variasi genetika rumput laut K. alvarezii dari beberapa lokasi budi daya di Sulawesi Selatan yakni Polmas, Pinrang, Takalar, dan Bantaeng. Sampel dipreservasi dengan menggunakan larutan TNES-Urea sebelum ekstraksi DNA. Ekstraksi genom DNA dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode konvensional fenol-khloroform. Amplifikasi DNA dilakukan dengan teknik Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Untuk dokumentasi riset, hasil PCR dielektroforesis pada agarosa gel dengan menggunakan buffer TBE. Data dianalisis menggunakan program Tools for Population Genetic Analyses (TFPGA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelima “primers” (P-40, P-50, DALRP, Ca01, dan Ca-02 yang digunakan dapat menghasilkan beberapa fragmen spesifik yang mengindikasikan fragmen spesifik spesies dan lokasi budi daya K. alvarezii. Keragaan genetika intra dan inter lokasi rumput laut menunjukkan variasi yang relatif kecil yang ditandai dengan rendahnya perbedaan jumlah/ukuran fragmen DNA, polimorfisme, indeks similaritas, dan jarak genetikanya. Total fragmen yang didapatkan dari lima primer adalah 47—55 pada ukuran fragmen 175—2.600 bp, sedangkan polimorfisme dan indeks similaritas masing-masing adalah 3,6%—31,0% dan 0,79%—0,99%. Jarak genetika antar beberapa lokasi K. alvarezii berkisar antara 0,1758—0,5689 di mana kekerabatan yang terdekat didapatkan antara Takalar dan Bantaeng. Genetic characterization of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii was observed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique to reveal the genetic variability of seaweed from different locations in South Sulawesi. The sample of farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was collected from Polmas, Pinrang, Takalar, and Bantaeng. Genomic DNA was extracted by using the conventional method of phenol-chloroform. Sample was preserved by TNES-Urea buffer prior to

  19. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  20. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii DAN Eucheuma denticullatum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN Vibrio harveyii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Eucheuma denticullatum Terhadap Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii dilakukan, mengingat banyak dijumpai  penyakit pada usaha budidaya ikan dan udang, terutama bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas senyawa bioaktif rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol dan etanol sebagai antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii.  Penelitian dilakukan sebanyak dua tahap, yaitu: (1 Uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak rumput laut; dan (2 Analisa senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada ekstrak rumput laut, dimana masing-masing tahapan dianalisis menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dua jenis ekstrak rumput laut dengan pelarut metanol dan etanol, mempunyai daya antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekstrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap A. hydrophila (19.43±0,55 mm. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekastrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap V. harveyii (19.85±0,23 mm. Asam heksadekanoat merupakan senyawa paling dominan dijumpai pada ekstrak rumput laut K. alvarezii, dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol. Kata Kunci : Aktivitas Antibakteri, Rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum,  Bakteri A.  hydrophila dan V. harveyii. 

  1. Evaluation of Galactose Adapted Yeasts for Bioethanol Fermentation from Kappaphycus alvarezii Hydrolyzates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-07-28

    Bioethanol was produced from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed biomass using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Pretreatment was evaluated for 60 min at 121°C using 12% (w/v) biomass slurry with 364 mM H2SO4. Enzymatic saccharification was then carried out at 45°C for 48 h using Celluclast 1.5 L. Ethanol fermentation with 12% (w/v) K. alvarezii hydrolyzate was performed using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC1126, Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC7150, and Candida lusitaniae ATCC42720 with or without prior adaptation to high concentrations of galactose. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 11.5 g/l, 6.7 g/l, and 6.0 g/l of ethanol were produced, respectively. When adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 15.8 g/l, 11.6 g/l, and 13.4 g/l of ethanol were obtained, respectively. The highest ethanol concentration was 15.8 g/l, with YEtOH = 0.43 and YT% = 84.3%, which was obtained using adapted S. cerevisiae.

  2. Production of ethanol 3G from Kappaphycus alvarezii: evaluation of different process strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto; Pereira, Nei

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential of Kappaphycus alvarezii as feedstock for ethanol production, i.e. ethanol 3G. First, aquatic biomass was subjected to a diluted acid pretreatment. This acid pretreatment generated two streams--a galactose-containing liquid fraction and a cellulose-containing solid fraction, which were investigated to determine their fermentability with the following strategies: a single-stream process (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of both fractions altogether), which achieved 64.3 g L(-1) of ethanol, and a two-stream process (fractions were fermented separately), which resulted in 38 g L(-1) of ethanol from the liquid fraction and 53.0 g L(-1) from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the solid fraction. Based on the average fermentable carbohydrate concentration, it was possible to obtain 105 L of ethanol per ton of dry seaweed. These preliminaries results indicate that the use of the macro-algae K. alvarezii has a good potential feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Prebiotic evaluation of red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) using in vitro colon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajury, Dayang Marshitah; Rawi, Muhamad Hanif; Sazali, Iqbal Hakim; Abdullah, Aminah; Sarbini, Shahrul Razid

    2017-11-01

    Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivated from Sabah (RSS) and Langkawi (RSL) were digested using in vitro mouth, gastric and duodenal model. The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), were analysed using HPLC. Both RSS and RSL showed significant increase of Bifidobacterium sp.; from log 10 7.96 at 0 h to log 10 8.72 at 24 h, and from log 10 7.96 at 0 h to log 10 8.60 at 24 h, respectively, and shows no significant difference when compared to the Bifidobacterium sp. count at 24 h of inulin fermentation. Both seaweeds also showed significant increase in total SCFA production, particularly acetate and propionate. Overall, this data suggested that K. alvarezii might have the potential as a prebiotic ingredient.

  4. Green Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed ( Kappaphycus alvarezii) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Yen Pin; Shameli, Kamyar; Miyake, Mikio; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Bt Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah; Bt Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Lee, Kar Xin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) successfully. Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii ( K. alvarezii) was employed as a green reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The X-ray diffraction planes at (220), (311), (400), (422), (511), (440), and (533) were corresponding to the standard Fe3O4 patterns, which showed the high purity and crystallinity of Fe3O4-NPs had been synthesized. Based on FT-IR analysis, two characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 556 and 423 cm-1, which proved the existence of Fe3O4 in the prepared nanoparticles. TEM image displayed the synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were mostly in spherical shape with an average size of 14.7 nm.

  5. INTRODUKSI GEN METALLOTHIONEIN TIPE II KE DALAM RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii MENGGUNAKAN Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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    Ulia Fajriah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii adalah jenis alga merah yang memproduksi kappa karagenan yang sangat penting untuk industri makanan, farmasi, dan kosmetik. Untuk meningkatkan produksi, diperlukan ketersediaan bahan baku yang baik. Salah satu yang memengaruhi ketersediaan bahan baku adalah kondisi ingkungan perairan untuk budidaya. Metallothionein (MT adalah protein yang memiliki kemampuan untuk mengikat ion logam seperti Cd, Zn, dan Cu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengintroduksi gen Metallothionein Tipe II (MaMt2 ke dalam genom K. alvarezii menggunakan Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Talus rumput laut diinokulasi dengan A. tumefaciens mengandung plasmid pIG6-SMt2 yang membawa gen MaMt2, selanjutnya dilakukan seleksi bertingkat menggunakan higromisin 10 mg/L dan 20 mg/L. Hasil efisiensi transformasi yang diperoleh adalah 27,4%, efisiensi regenerasi tunas transgenik adalah 27,6%. Analisis molekuler dengan PCR menunjukkan bahwa 13 tunas transgenik mengandung gen MaMt2. Tunas transgenik putatif ditumbuhkan hingga menjadi talus baru dan dapat dilakukan uji tantang pada penelitian selanjutnya.

  6. Kualitas Karaginan dari Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii pada Lokasi Berbeda di Perairan Maluku Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu - kumayanjati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Rumput laut jenis Kappaphycus alvarezii merupakan jenis rumput laut yang dibudidayakan di Maluku Tenggara. Rumput laut jenis ini merupakan rumput laut penghasil karaginan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas karaginan dari rumput laut K. alvarezii yang dibudidayakan di tiga lokasi di Maluku Tenggara, yaitu Letman, Letvuan dan Revav. Kualitas karaginan yang diamati antara lain rendemen, kadar air, kadar abu, viskositas, gel strength, dan derajat putih. Rumput laut diekstrak dengan metode perlakuan alkali dengan larutan NaOH 9%. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis dengan program statistik IBM SPSS Statistics 24 untuk mengetahui perbedaan kualitas karaginan dari tiga lokasi tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas karaginan dari tiga lokasi berbeda nyata (<0,05 untuk semua parameter. Karaginan dari rumput laut Letvuan memiliki nilai rendemen dan gel strength terbaik dibandingkan rumput laut Letman dan Revav, yaitu 43,25% untuk rendemen dan 207,50 g/cm2 untuk gel strength. Karaginan dari rumput laut Revav memiliki nilai viskositas terbaik yaitu sebesar 54,39 cP. Karaginan dari rumput laut Letman memiliki kenampakan terbaik dibandingkan dengan Letvuan dan Revav dengan nilai derajat putih sebesar 68,22%. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian, maka hanya karaginan dari lokasi Revav yang memenuhi standar kualitas FAO.

  7. Pertumbuhan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii hasil kultur jaringan pada jarak tanam yang berbeda

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    Ayuningsih Ria Sapitri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this study is to determine the best planting space on the growth of regenerated tissue culture Kappaphycusalvarezii. The completely randomized design (CRD was utilized in this study, thre treatment was four different planting spaces; P1: 15cm, P2: 20 cm, P3: 25 cm, and P4: 30 cm with initial weight of 100g/hill. Every treatment has four replicates (four rafts. The data were subjected to one way of analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% of error levels and followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD test. The Anova test showed that planting space gave a significant affect on weight gain and growth rate where the best planting space was 25 cm with weight gain and growth rate of 331.4 g and 4.87% perday, respectively. Keywords: K.alvarezii;space; tissue culture regenerated;growth;photosynthesis   Abstrak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jarak tanam optimum untuk pertumbuhan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii hasil kultur jaringan. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan menggunakan bibit hasil kultur jaringan dengan jarak tanam yang berbeda yakni P1: jarak tanam 15cm , P2: jarak tanam 20 cm, P3: jarak tanam 25 cm, dan P4: jarak tanam 30 cm dengan berat awal 100 g/rumpun, masing-masing perlakuan dengan empat kali ulangan pada 4 rakit. Data penelitian yang diperoleh, ditabulasi menggunakan Microsoft excel dan dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam (ANOVA pada taraf kesalahan 5%, kemudian dilakukan uji lanjut dengan uji Least Significant Difference (LSD. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jarak tanam berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut (P<0,05, dimana jarak tanam terbaik adalah 25 cm dengan pertambahan bobot 331,4 g dan laju pertumbuhan 4,87% per hari. Kata Kunci: K. alvarezii; Jarak tanam; kultur jaringan; pertumbuhan; fotosintesis

  8. KARAKTERISTIK GENETIK Kappaphycus alvarezii SEHAT DAN TERINFEKSI PENYAKIT ICE-ICE DENGAN METODE Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP

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    Emma Suryati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Infeksi penyakit ice-ice pada Kappaphycus alvarezii seringkali menyebabkan penurunan produksi yang sangat signifikan. K. alvarezii merupakan alga merah penghasil karaginan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi dan banyak dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai industri, seperti farmasi, makanan, stabilizer, dan kosmetik. Perbaikan genetik sangat diperlukan untuk meningkatkan produksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kemiripan genetik K. alvarezii sehat dan terinfeksi penyakit dari Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Air Payau (BPPBAP, Maros dengan metode Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. Pada penelitian ini juga dianalisis K. alvarezii asal Bone (BNE, Gorontalo (GRL, Tambalang (TMB, dan Kendari (KND sebagai kontrol rumput laut sehat. Metode AFLP menggunakan enzim restriksi Psti dan Mset, preamplifikasi dan amplifikasi selektif diawali dengan isolsi DNA, uji genimoc DNA, restriksi dan ligasi. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan penggunaan marker AFLP dengan primer forward P11 dan primer reverse M48, M49 dan M50 terhadap K. alvarezii yang berasal dari Takalar (TKL, dan Mataram (MTR, tanpa infeksi (sehat dan terinfeksi penyakit Takalar ice (TKL+, Mataram ice (MTR+, serta K. alvarezii kontrol (BNE, (GRL, (TMB, dan (KND menghasilkan 519 fragmen dalam 122 lokus dengan ukuran 50 - ~370 pb. Kemiripan genetik K. alvarezii yang terinfeksi penyakit ice-ice lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan yang sehat. Kemiripan genetik K. alvarezii dari Takalar sehat (TKL dan terinfeksi ice-ice (TKL+ adalah 0,8176 dan MTR-MTR+ adalah 0,8033.

  9. REGENERASI DAN PERBANYAKAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii HASIL TRANSFORMASI GEN SUPEROKSIDA DISMUTASE (MaSOD

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    Emma Suryati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformasi gen superoxide dismutase (MaSOD pada rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii menggunakan Agrobacterium tumefacient telah dilakukan secara in vitro. Transformasi gen MaSOD ke dalam genom rumput laut diharapkan dapat mengurangi cekaman oksidatif terutama yang disebabkan oleh perubahan suhu, salinitas, dan cemaran logam di perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk regenerasi rumput laut hasil introduksi gen MaSOD dan non-transgenik pada labu kultur. Regenerasi dan perbanyakan rumput laut hasil transformasi gen MaSOD dilakukan di laboratorium pada labu kultur yang diletakkan dalam “culture chamber” yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi menggunakan media kultur yang diperkaya dengan pupuk PES, Grund, Conwy, dan SSW sebagai kontrol, salinitas 20, 25, 30, 35, dan 40 g/L, pH 4, 5, 6, 7, dan 8. Intensitas cahaya antara 500-2.000 lux dengan fotoperiode terang dan gelap 8:16; 12:12; dan 16:8. Untuk merangsang pertumbuhan eksplan dilakukan pemeliharaan dengan penambahan hormon tumbuh IAA dan BAP dengan perbandingan 1:1, 1:2, dan 2:1. Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap. Evaluasi transgenik dilakukan menggunakan teknik PCR. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa sintasan yang paling tinggi diperoleh menggunakan media PES (94%, salinitas 30 g/L (90%, pH 7 (96%, intensitas cahaya pada 1.500 lux (80%, fotoperiode 12:12 (84%, komposisi ZPT dengan campuran IAA dan BAP dengan perbandingan 2:1. Hasil analisis PCR memperlihatkan K. alvarezii transgenik putatif mengandung transgen MaSOD sebanyak 78% dari hasil transformasi. Superoxide dismutase transformation (MaSOD gene of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacient has been successfully done in vitro. MaSOD genes introduced into the seaweed genome is expected to reduce oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions such as changes in temperature, salinity and metal contamination of the water. This study aimed to regenerate both the MaSOD transformed seaweed and non-transgenic in a

  10. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SEAWEED (Kappaphycus alvarezii AQUACULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

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    Erlania Erlania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is an important aquaculture commodity that could contribute on climate change mitigation, related to its ability on absorbing CO2, as one of the green house gases, through photosynthesis. This study aimed to analyze seaweed potencies on carbon sequestration in the context of climate change mitigation while still resulting optimum production as primary purpose and to analyze the carrying capacity of Gerupuk Bay in order to manage sustainability of seaweed aquaculture. Seaweed, (Kappaphycus alvarezii was cultivated with long-line system in Gerupuk Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, during five months for three cultivation cycles. Samplings were conducted at days-15, 30, and 45 with CO2 absorption rates as main parameters. Water carrying capacity was calculated to determine the ability of Gerupuk Bay waters for supporting development of sustainable seaweed aquaculture. The results showed that absorption rates of CO2 by seaweed (K. alvarezii were different at each sampling days of cultivation periods; the highest value was at 10-20 days of cultivation. CO2 absorption analysis resulted based on sampling days of cultivation period could be appl ied to formulate the strategies for management of sustainable seaweed aquaculture, with optimal production and positively contributed to the environment. However, waters carrying capacity should also be considered as major aspect in the application of seaweed cultivation management, thus it can run continuously without causing conflicts with other interests.

  11. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by the three-color forms of Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh Kumar, K [Marine Algae and Marine Environment Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavangar 364 002, Gujarat (India); Ganesan, K [Marine Algae and Marine Environment Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavangar 364 002, Gujarat (India); Subba Rao, P V [Marine Algae and Marine Environment Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavangar 364 002, Gujarat (India)

    2007-05-08

    In the present investigation, three living color forms (brown, green and pale yellow) of Kappaphycus alvarezii were examined for their biosorption ability in the laboratory. The brown color form proved to be an excellent metal biosorbent, i.e. it could adsorb good amount of cadmium 3.064 mg/100 g f.wt. and cobalt 3.365 mg/100 g f.wt. It also removed 2.799 mg/100 g f.wt. of chromium. The green color form absorbed 2.684, 3.43 and 2.692 mg/100 g f.wt. of cadmium, cobalt and chromium, respectively. In contrast, the pale yellow form removed almost equal proportion of cadmium 0.961 mg/100 g f.wt. and chromium 0.942 mg/100 g f.wt. It also removed 1.403 mg/100 g f.wt. cobalt. Thus, the living color forms of this seaweed could form an effective biosorbent material for removal of heavy metals.

  12. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by the three-color forms of Kappaphycus alvarezii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, K.; Ganesan, K.; Subba Rao, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    In the present investigation, three living color forms (brown, green and pale yellow) of Kappaphycus alvarezii were examined for their biosorption ability in the laboratory. The brown color form proved to be an excellent metal biosorbent, i.e. it could adsorb good amount of cadmium 3.064 mg/100 g f.wt. and cobalt 3.365 mg/100 g f.wt. It also removed 2.799 mg/100 g f.wt. of chromium. The green color form absorbed 2.684, 3.43 and 2.692 mg/100 g f.wt. of cadmium, cobalt and chromium, respectively. In contrast, the pale yellow form removed almost equal proportion of cadmium 0.961 mg/100 g f.wt. and chromium 0.942 mg/100 g f.wt. It also removed 1.403 mg/100 g f.wt. cobalt. Thus, the living color forms of this seaweed could form an effective biosorbent material for removal of heavy metals

  13. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ-carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (Ik of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

  14. Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and their implications for light adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k) of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

  15. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k ) of this algal species was less than 115  μ mol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200  μ mol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increas...

  16. Pharmacological importance of sulphated polysaccharide carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii in comparison with commercial carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arumugampillai Manimehalai; Sanjivkumar, Muthusamy; Chandran, Manohar Navin; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological properties of native carrageenan (κ) extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii and commercial carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich) were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic studies. Phytochemical analysis of native and commercial carrageenans showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, gums & mucilages and carbohydrate. Both native and commercial carrageenans exhibited better antioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity (87±0.47 and 82.6±0.47μg A.A/g), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (61.4±0.27 and 58.66±0.31μg/ml), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (80.42±0.22 and 73.66±0.22μg/ml), DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.26±0.20 and 53.67±0.082μg/ml) and reducing power assay (46.57±0.32 and 42.54±0.27μg/ml) at the maximum concentration of 100μg/ml carrageenans. These results indicated that native carrageenan from K. alvarezii possessed better antioxidant potential in comparison with commercial carrageenan. Anticancer activities of both carrageenans showed excellent inhibition on the growth of breast, colon, liver and osteosarcoma cell lines at the maximum concentration of 150μg/ml. Native carrageenan exhibited an excellent anticancer activity on colon carcinoma cell lines (67.66±0.168%) with the IC 50 value of 73.87μg/ml and commercial carrageenan possessed a potent inhibition on the growth of breast cancer cell lines (67.33±0.077%) with the IC 50 value of 123.8μg/ml. These results clearly indicated the beneficial effect of native and commercial carrageenans as anticancer agents being a free radical scavenger. Anti-diabetic property of both carrageenans showed inhibition effect on α- glucosidase enzyme. The inhibitory effect depends on concentration of carrageenans and it was recorded that maximum (74.49±1.05 and 67.42±0.63) inhibitory effect of α- glucosidase enzyme at 500μg/ml concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

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    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  18. Alternative bioenergy through the utilization of Kappaphycus alvarezii waste as a substitution of substrate for biogas products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulita, R.; Agustono; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Alamsjah, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is one of the renewable energy resources which are able to be developed by providing some sufficient renewable substances and manufactured from the fermentation process of organic substances metabolized by anaerobic bacteria. In this research, Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed waste from carrageenan processing and contents of rumen were used. This research aims to comprehend the carrageenan processing waste of macroalga K. alvarezii can be used as alternative source generating biogas. The research method is P0 (100 % of the contents of rumen), P1 (75 % of the contents of rumen and 25 % of seaweed waste), P2 (50 % of the contents of rumen and 50 % of seaweed waste), and P3 (25 % of the contents of rumen and 75 % of seaweed waste), and P4 (100 % of seaweed waste). The result showed that according to the quality determination of biogas based on SNI (Indonesia National Standard) 8019:2014, the K. alvarezii seaweed waste from carrageenan processing can be utilized as the alternative source of manufacturing biogas and got the methane gas resulted from the comparison method is P2 (50 % of the contents of rumen and 50 % of seaweed waste), with value of 58.61 %.

  19. Growth rate analysis and protein identification of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales under pH induced stress culture

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    Mian Zi Tee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pH is one of the factors contributing to abiotic stress which in turn influences the growth and development of macroalgae. This study was conducted in order to assess the growth and physiological changes in Kappaphycus alvarezii under different pH conditions: pHs 6, ∼8.4 (control and 9. K. alvarezii explants exhibited a difference in the daily growth rate (DGR among the different pH treatments (p ≤ 0.05. The highest DGR was observed in control culture with pH ∼8.4 followed by alkaline (pH 9 and acidic (pH 6 induced stress cultures. Protein expression profile was generated from different pH induced K. alvarezii cultures using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by protein identification and analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS and Mascot software. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco large chain was identified to be up-regulated under acidic (pH 6 condition during the second and fourth week of culture. The findings indicated that Rubisco can be employed as a biomarker for pH induced abiotic stress. Further study on the association between the expression levels of Rubisco large chain and their underlying mechanisms under pH stress conditions is recommended.

  20. PENYERAPAN KARBON PADA BUDIDAYA RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Gracilaria gigas DI PERAIRAN TELUK GERUPUK, LOMBOK TENGAH, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

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    Erlania Erlania

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pengikatan karbon oleh algae fotoautotrofik berpotensi untuk mengurangi pelepasan CO2 ke atmosfer dan dapat membantu mencegah percepatan terjadinya pemanasan global. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis tingkat penyerapan karbon pada budidaya rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Gracilaria gigas berdasarkan aktivitas fotosintesis serta variabel-variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Budidaya rumput laut dilakukan dengan metode long-line di perairan Teluk Gerupuk, Lombok Tengah pada satu unit long-line dengan luas area 1.250 m2. Selama penelitian, dilakukan pengujian terhadap sampel rumput laut dan sampel air laut dari lokasi budidaya yang diambil pada hari ke-0, 10, 20, 30, dan 45 pemeliharaan. Laju penyerapan karbon total berdasarkan biomassa panen pada G. gigas hampir 300% lebih tinggi dibandingkan K. alvarezii. Selain itu, laju pertumbuhan dan produksi karbohidrat pada G. gigas juga lebih tinggi, yang mengindikasikan laju fotosintesis yang lebih tinggi, dan didukung oleh indeks percabangan yang juga lebih tinggi. Potensi penyerapan karbon di perairan Teluk Gerupuk mencapai 6.656,51 ton C/tahun untuk budidaya K. Alvarezii dan 19.339,02 ton C/tahun untuk budidaya G. gigas. Penyerapan karbon berhubungan dengan kandungan pigmen dan laju pertumbuhan rumput laut, serta konsentrasi CO2 dan kecerahan perairan.

  1. Antioxidant responses and photosynthetic behaviors of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) during low temperature stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hu; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao; Pang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Background Kappaphycus are farmed in tropical countries as raw material for carrageenan, which is widely used in food industry. The sea area available for farming is one limiting factor in the production of seaweeds. Though cultivation is spreading into subtropical regions, the lower seawater temperature is an important problem encountered in subtropical regions for the farming of Kappaphycus. This research of physiological response to low temperature stress will be helpful for screening Kapp...

  2. EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT (Kappaphycus alvarezii SEBAGAI CROSS LINKING AGENT PADA PEMBENTUKAN EDIBLE FILM GELATIN KULIT IKAN NILA HITAM (Oreochromis mossambicus

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    Doddy Sutono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus skin gelatin was potential material for edible film formation. However, it needs some modifications to improve the mechanical and barier properties. One of modification is by adding a cross linking agent. Seaweed extract Kappaphycus alvarezii containing phenol compounds was oxidized to be converted into quinone. It was expected to act as a cross linking agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of edible film from black tilapia skin gelatin by adding with oxidized K. alvarezii extract. Edible film was made by addition of K. alvarezii extract (E at concentration of 0%(E0; 2%(E1; 4%(E2; 6%(E3; 8%(E4 (v/w for each gelatin concentratios (G were 3g(G1; 6g(G2; 9g(G3; 12g(G4 into 150 ml destilled water containing 10% glycerol (w/w of gelatin. Gelatin film solution was agitated at 50oC for 30 min and dehydrated in a cabinet dryer at 50oC. The addition of oxidized K. alvarezii extract increased tensile Strength (TS and elongation at break properties. The highest TS was 3.08 MPa, shown by G4E1. The lowest water vapor permeability (WVP was ontained by G4E1 (0.01 x 10-10 g. H2O/m.s.Pa. Microstructure observation and FTIR spectra (SEM also showed an increased cross linking bonds in the G4E1 rather than in G4E0. The G4E1 seemd to be more compact than G4E0. The highest TS values and the lowest WVP on G4E1 were possibly caused by optimization concentration of the addition of oxidized K. alvarezii extract that could be optimum interaction with amino acid residues of polypeptide bond to form an optimal cross linking reaction. Keywords: Edible film, cross linking agent, oxidized  K. alvarezii extract, quinone, gelatin, O. mossambicus   ABSTRAK Gelatin kulit ikan nila hitam (Oreochromis mossambicus berpotensi sebagai pembentuk edible film namun perlu modifikasi untuk meningkatkan sifat mekanik dan bariernya terhadap uap air. Salah satu modifikasi adalah dengan penambahan cross linking agent

  3. Genetic diversity of the causative agent of ice-ice disease of the seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafitri, E.; Prayitno, S. B.; Ma'ruf, W. F.; Radjasa, O. K.

    2017-02-01

    An essential step in investigating the bacterial role in the occurrence of diseases in Kappaphycus alvarezii is the characterization of bacteria associated with this seaweed. A molecular characterization was conducted on the genetic diversity of the causative agents of ice-ice disease associated with K. alvarezii widely known as the main source of kappa carrageenan. K. alvrezii infected with ice-ice were collected from the Karimunjawa island, North Java Sea, Indonesia. Using Zobell 2216E marine agar medium, nine bacterial species were isolated from the infected seaweed. The molecular characterizations revealed that the isolated bacteria causing ice-ice disease were closely related to the genera of Alteromonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Glaciecola, Aurantimonas, and Rhodococcus. In order to identify the symptoms causative organisms, the isolated bacterial species were cultured and were evaluated for their pathogenity. Out of 9 species, only 3 isolates were able to cause the ice-ice symptoms and consisted of Alteromonas macleodii, Pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii and Aurantimonas coralicida. A. macleodii showed the highest pathogenity.

  4. INTRODUKSI GEN Sitrat Sintase KE DALAM RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii MENGGUNAKAN Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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    Ristanti Frinra Daud

    2013-08-01

    ekonomis penting. Ice-ice merupakan penyakit yang paling umum menyerang rumput laut dan menyebabkan menurunnya produksi rumput laut. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh perubahan salinitas, suhu, dan pencemaran logam berat. Asam sitrat digunakan sebagai pengkelat logam berat. Introduksi gen sitrat sintase ke dalam genom tanaman diketahui dapat mengurangi cekaman oksidatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengintroduksi gen sitrat sintase ke dalam genom K. alvarezii menggunakan perantara Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Berdasarkan eksplan yang tahan pada media seleksi higromisin, efisiensi transformasi pada K. alvarezii sebesar 7,5%. Efisiensi regenerasi tunas transgenik putatif sebesar 100%, efisiensi tunas non transgenik sebesar 100%. Analisis molekular menggunakan teknik PCR, satu dari lima K. alvarezii transgenik putatif mengandung transgen PaCS di bawah kendali promoter 35S CaMV.

  5. Assessment of four molecular markers as potential DNA barcodes for red algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Phang, Siew-Moi; Hong, Dang Diem; Sunarpi, H; Hurtado, Anicia Q

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment.

  6. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  7. REGENERASI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii HASIL TRANSFORMASI GEN Sitrat Sintase MENGGUNAKAN Agrobacterium tumefaciens SECARA IN VITRO

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    Emma Suryati

    2016-02-01

    seleksi 85%, dan efisiensi regenerasi thalus non transgenik sebesar 95% pada media non selektif. Media recovery dengan penambahan pupuk PES memperlihatkan sintasan yang paling baik pada regenerasi thalus transgenik. Hasil analisis PCR memperlihatkan K. alvarezii transgenik putatif mengandung transgen PaCS di bawah kendali promoter 35S CaMV.

  8. Comparison study of anti-microbial activity between crude extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Andrographis paniculata

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    Xin Qi Chuah

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Crude extract of K. alvarezii has zero inhibition in bacteria growth whereas A. paniculata exerted higher inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria. The bioactive compounds contained by A. paniculata can be evaluated in order to yield a better vision towards the mode of action.

  9. The effects of salinity and temperature shock on Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed spores release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwinda, F. K.; Satyantini, W. H.; Masithah, E. W.

    2018-04-01

    One of the reproductive aspects of development step that is considered as the solution of this issue is seaweed sporulation technique through which is induced through salinity and temperature shock. This study aims to determine the effect of combination and interaction of salinity and temperature shock on the release of K. alvarezii spores in order to produce superior seeds. This research was conducted using Complete Randomized Design Factorial which consists of nine combinations of treatments and three replications. The used treatment in this study is the combination of different environmental factors such as salinity shock and temperature shock. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that salinity (31 ppt, 33 ppt, and 35 ppt) and temperature (30°C, 32°C, and 34°C). shock affected the osmoregulation system and the release of K. alvarezii spores. The salinity shock and temperature shock had interaction with K. alvarezii spore release on the sixth and seventh day with the best treatment at 32°C temperature and 31 ppt salinity and released 5413 cells/ml spores on the seventh day.

  10. Hybrid thin films based on bilayer heterojunction of titania nanocrystals/polypyrrole/natural dyes (Kappaphycus alvarezii) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ali, Nik Aziz Nik; Rashid, Norlaily Abdul; Kamarulzaman, Nurul Huda; Ahmad, Wan Almaz Dhafina Che Wan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, hybrid thin films which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and polypyrrole (PPy) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials were fabricated. These hybrid thin films were fabricated accordingly with bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS via electrochemical method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of number of scans (thickness) of titania on optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films were studied. TiO2 NCs function as an electron acceptor and electronic conductor. Meanwhile, PPy acts as holes conductor and RS dye acts as a photosensitizer enhances the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. The UV absorption spectrum of TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS are characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while the functional group of RS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-900 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of these hybrid thin films were measured by using four point probes. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1)TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS thin film under the radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.062 Scm-1, hence this hybrid thin films can be applied in solar cell application.

  11. Comparison of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids as catalysts in hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydrolysis of marine algal biomass Kappaphhycus alvarezii using two different acid catalysts was examined with the goal of identifying optimal reaction conditions for the formation of sugars and by-products. K. alvarezii were hydrolyzed by autoclave using sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as catalyst with different acid concentrations (0.1-1.0 M), substrate concentrations (1.0-13.5%), hydrolysis time (10-90 min) and hydrolysis temperatures (100-130 (°)C). A difference in galactose, glucose, reducing sugar and total sugar content was observed under the different hydrolysis conditions. Different by-product compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid were also observed under the different reaction conditions. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis were achieved at a sulfuric acid concentration, temperature and reaction time of 0.2 M, 130 °C and 15 min, respectively. These results may provide useful information for the development of more efficient systems for biofuel production from marine biomass.

  12. KAJIAN INDUKSI KALUS RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii UNTUK PRODUKSI EMBRIO SOMATIK

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    Muh. Alias L. Rajamuddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendukung program transgenesis pada rumput laut, embrio somatik dapat digunakan sebagai material untuk transfer gen baik secara individu sel ataupun kluster sel embriogenik, sehingga mempercepat keberhasilan dengan peluang transformasi yang lebih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji induksi kalus rumput laut K. alvarezii untuk produksi sel embrio somatik (e.s. dengan beberapa rasio zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT dan konsentrasi agar media induksi, sampai sel menjadi filamen. Penelitian terdiri atas dua tahap: Tahap (1 induksi kalus, dengan rasio ZPT asam indol asetat (IAA:kinetin = 0,5:0,0 mg/L; 1,0:1,0 mg/L; dan 2,0:0,2 mg/L dengan konsentrasi agar media induksi = 0,6%; 0,8%; 1,0%; dan 1,5%. Tahap (2 regenerasi massa sel e.s., dengan rasio IAA:kinetin = 0,1:1,0 mg/L; 0,0:0,1 mg/L dan tanpa ZPT dengan konsentrasi agar media = 0,4%; 0,6%; dan 0,8%. Untuk perkembangan sel-sel e.s. lebih lanjut dipelihara pada kultur cair. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada tahap induksi kalus, rasio IAA: kinetin = 1:1 mg/L dengan konsentrasi agar media 0,8% dan 1,0% menghasilkan persentase induksi kalus tertinggi (90%. Pada tahap regenerasi massa sel e.s., ZPT tidak berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan massa sel e.s., di mana tanpa ZPT dengan konsentrasi agar 0,6% memperlihatkan perkembangan tertinggi (rata-rata diameter massa sel 5 mm. Pada media cair, perkembangan sel e.s. dari single cell ukuran 3-4 mm menjadi filamen-filamen ukuran rata-rata 0,5 mm dapat dicapai dalam satu bulan kultur. Keberhasilan produksi sel e.s. K. alvarezii, selain sebagai material untuk transfer gen juga dapat dijadikan acuan dalam produksi benih rumput laut kultur jaringan. To support the program of seaweed transgenesis, somatic embryo can be used as a materials for gene transfer purpose either by individual or cluster of cells in accelerating the higher rate of transformation. This research aims to study the callus induction of seaweed K. alvarezii for production of somatic

  13. Changes in ultrastructure and histochemistry of two red macroalgae strains of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), as a consequence of ultraviolet B radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Scariot, Lidiane Angela; Rover, Ticiane; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects macroalgae in many important ways, including reduced growth rate, reduction of primary productivity and changes in cell biology and ultrastructure. Among red macroalgae, Kappaphycus alvarezii is of economic interest by its production of kappa carrageenan. Only a few reports have examined the changes in macroalgae ultrastructure and cell biology resulting from UVB radiation exposure. Therefore, we examined two strains of K. alvarezii (green and red) exposed to UVB for 3 h per day during 28 days and then processed them for histochemical and electron microscopy analysis. Reaction with Toluidine Blue showed an increase in the thickness of the cell wall and Periodic Acid-Schiff stain showed a decrease in the number of starch grains. UVBR also caused changes in the ultrastructure of cortical and subcortical cells, which included increased thickness of the cell wall and number of free ribosomes and plastoglobuli, reduced intracellular spaces, changes in the cell contour, and destruction of chloroplast internal organization. Based on these lines of evidence, it was evident by the ultrastructural changes observed that UVBR negatively affects intertidal macroalgae and, by extension, their economic viability.

  14. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.

  15. Effect of process conditions on the gel viscosity and gel strength of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC produced from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii

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    Awang Bono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii or commonly known Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the coastal areas of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Currently, the Southeast Asian region is producing semi refined carrageenan (SRC. There are various works in producing SRC; however, there are limited efforts to develop the optimization of cooking process parameters. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process (alkaline treatment where the parameters (concentration of potassium hydroxide solution, cooking time and cooking temperature and the ranges are identified experimentally. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The optimization of cooking process parameters and the experimental design was conducted based on the Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The experimental result showed that gel viscosity increases with the decrease of cooking time, cooking temperature and potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration (% w/w. In contrast, gel strength increases as cooking time, cooking temperature and KOH concentration (% w/w increases. From the optimization, the best conditions for alkaline treatment found were cooking temperature 80 °C, cooking time 30 min and KOH concentration 10 (% w/w which are similar to current practice in industry.

  16. Kinetic study of the plastoquinone pool availability correlated with H2O2 release in seawater and antioxidant responses in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii exposed to single or combined high light, chilling and chemical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marcelo P; Necchi, Orlando; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    Under biotic/abiotic stresses, the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii reportedly releases massive amounts of H(2)O(2) into the surrounding seawater. As an essential redox signal, the role of chloroplast-originated H(2)O(2) in the orchestration of overall antioxidant responses in algal species has thus been questioned. This work purported to study the kinetic decay profiles of the redox-sensitive plastoquinone pool correlated to H(2)O(2) release in seawater, parameters of oxidative lesions and antioxidant enzyme activities in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii under the single or combined effects of high light, low temperature, and sub-lethal doses of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which are inhibitors of the thylakoid electron transport system. Within 24 h, high light and chilling stresses distinctly affected the availability of the PQ pool for photosynthesis, following Gaussian and exponential kinetic profiles, respectively, whereas combined stimuli were mostly reflected in exponential decays. No significant correlation was found in a comparison of the PQ pool levels after 24 h with either catalase (CAT) or ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, although the H(2)O(2) concentration in seawater (R=0.673), total superoxide dismutase activity (R=0.689), and particularly indexes of protein (R=0.869) and lipid oxidation (R=0.864), were moderately correlated. These data suggest that the release of H(2)O(2) from plastids into seawater possibly impaired efficient and immediate responses of pivotal H(2)O(2)-scavenging activities of CAT and APX in the red alga K. alvarezii, culminating in short-term exacerbated levels of protein and lipid oxidation. These facts provided a molecular basis for the recognized limited resistance of the red alga K. alvarezii under unfavorable conditions, especially under chilling stress.

  17. Efeito dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da rodofícea Kappaphycus alvarezii em pós-larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus submetidas a situações de estresse=Effect of sulfated polysaccharides from the Rodophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii in post larva of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a stress situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lustosa Maciel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou o efeito da administração oral dos polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS extraídos da macroalga marinha Kappaphycus alvarezii na sobrevivência e ganho de peso de pós-larvas da tilápia do Nilo, durante a reversão sexual em situação de estresse. Os PS foram extraídos por digestão enzimática e incorporados à ração antes da adição do hormônio 17-α-metiltestosterona, sendo administrados nas doses de 0,05; 0,1 e 0,2 mg g-1 de peso vivo e um controle (sem PS, durante 28 dias. Na última semana da reversão sexual foi estabelecida uma situação de estresse, pela supressão da aeração e renovações de água. Os dados de sobrevivência e ganhos de peso foram submetidos à análise de variância (Anova e teste de Tukey para diferenciação das médias, aos níveis de significância de 1 e 5%. Os ganhos de peso foram maiores nos animais que receberam os PS, independente da dose utilizada e as melhores sobrevivências obtidas quando os PS foram administrados nas doses de 0,05 e 0,1 mg g-1, com valores de 79,90 ± 5,68 e 77,60 ± 1,80%, respectivamente. O estudo revelou que pequenas doses dos PS, foram capazes de melhorar a sobrevivência, o ganho de peso diário e o peso médio final das tilápias submetidas a situações de estresse.The study evaluated the effect of oral administration of sulfated polysaccharides (SP extracted from the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii on survival and weight gain of Nile tilapia post larvae during sex reversal in a stress situation. SP were extracted from the seaweed by enzymatic digestion and incorporated into the diet before the addition of the hormone 17-α-methyltestosterone, and administered at the doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg g-1 of body weight and a control (without SP, for 28 days. In the last week of sex reversal a stress situation was established by removing the aeration and water renewal. Survival and weight gains data were subjected to a variance analysis (ANOVA and

  18. High-Mannose Specific Lectin and Its Recombinants from a Carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii Represent a Potent Anti-HIV Activity Through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Imamura, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hori, Kanji

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a high-mannose binding lectin KAA-2 from the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, which is an economically important species and widely cultivated as a source of carrageenans, had a potent anti-influenza virus activity. In this study, the full-length sequences of two KAA isoforms, KAA-1 and KAA-2, were elucidated by a combination of peptide mapping and complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning. They consisted of four internal tandem-repeated domains, which are conserved in high-mannose specific lectins from lower organisms, including a cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii and a red alga Eucheuma serra. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, an active recombinant form of KAA-1 (His-tagged rKAA-1) was successfully generated in the yield of 115 mg per liter of culture. In a detailed oligosaccharide binding analysis by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method with 27 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, His-tagged rKAA-1 and rKAA-1 specifically bound to high-mannose N-glycans with an exposed α1-3 mannose in the D2 arm as the native lectin did. Predicted from oligosaccharide binding specificity, a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the recombinants exhibit strong interaction with gp120, a heavily glycosylated envelope glycoprotein of HIV with high association constants (1.48 - 1.61 × 10(9) M(-1)). Native KAAs and the recombinants inhibited the HIV-1 entry at IC50s of low nanomolar levels (7.3-12.9 nM). Thus, the recombinant proteins would be useful as antiviral reagents targeting the viral surface glycoproteins with high-mannose N-glycans, and the cultivated alga K. alvarezii could also be a good source of not only carrageenans but also this functional lectin(s).

  19. FORMULASI AUKSIN (INDOLE ACETIC ACID DAN SITOKININ (KINETIN, ZEATIN UNTUK MORFOGENESIS SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, SINTASAN DAN LAJU REGENERASI KALUS RUMPUT LAUT, Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaksi auksin dan sitokinin dianggap penting untuk mengatur pertumbuhan dan perkembangan dalam kultur jaringan tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan komposisi auksin dan sitokinin yang optimum untuk morfogenesis kalus rumput laut K. alvarezii, dan mengevaluasi pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan, sintasan, dan laju regenerasi kalus. Kultur kalus dilakukan pada media cair dengan formulasi zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT indole acetic acid (IAA : kinetin : zeatin, dengan komposisi konsentrasi sebagai berikut: A 0,4:0:1 mg/L; B 0,4:0,25:0,75 mg/L; C 0,4:0,5:0,5 mg/L; D 0,4:0,75: 0,25 mg/L; E 0,4:1:0 mg/L; kontrol (tanpa ZPT. Desain penelitian adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan pengulangan tiga kali untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Parameter yang diamati adalah laju pertumbuhan harian, sintasan, laju regenerasi, panjang tunas, dan morfologi tunas. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji keragaman (ANOVA dan hasil yang diperoleh disajikan dalam bentuk grafik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula optimum untuk morfogenesis rumput laut K. alvarezii adalah formula A dengan komposisi IAA : zeatin = 0,4:1 mg/L. Penggunaan formula zat pengatur tumbuh yang berbeda berpengaruh nyata (P0,05 terhadap sintasan kalus. Tunas rumput laut K. alvarezii mulai terbentuk pada hari ke-15 masa kultur.

  20. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  1. Effect of sulfated polysaccharides from the Rodophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii in post larva of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a stress situation - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13213 Efeito dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da rodofícea Kappaphycus alvarezii em pós-larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus submetidas a situações de estresse - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13213

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lustosa Maciel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of oral administration of sulfated polysaccharides (SP extracted from the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii on survival and weight gain of Nile tilapia post larvae during sex reversal in a stress situation. SP were extracted from the seaweed by enzymatic digestion and incorporated into the diet before the addition of the hormone 17-α-methyltestosterone, and administered at the doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg g-1 of body weight and a control (without SP, for 28 days. In the last week of sex reversal a stress situation was established by removing the aeration and water renewal. Survival and weight gains data were subjected to a variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test for averages differentiation at significance levels of 1 and 5%. Weight gains were greater in animals that received SP, regardless of the used dose and better survivals were obtained when SP were administered at the doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mg g-1, with values of 79.90 ± 5.68 and 77.60 ± 1.80%, respectively. The study revealed that small doses of the SP were able to improve survival, daily weight gain and final average weight of tilapias submitted to a stress situation.O trabalho avaliou o efeito da administração oral dos polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS extraídos da macroalga marinha Kappaphycus alvarezii na sobrevivência e ganho de peso de pós-larvas da tilápia do Nilo, durante a reversão sexual em situação de estresse. Os PS foram extraídos por digestão enzimática e incorporados à ração antes da adição do hormônio 17-α-metiltestosterona, sendo administrados nas doses de 0,05; 0,1 e 0,2 mg g-1 de peso vivo e um controle (sem PS, durante 28 dias. Na última semana da reversão sexual foi estabelecida uma situação de estresse, pela supressão da aeração e renovações de água. Os dados de sobrevivência e ganhos de peso foram submetidos à análise de variância (Anova e teste de Tukey para diferenciação das médias, aos n

  2. Molecular identification based on ITS sequences for Kappaphycus and Eucheuma cultivated in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sufen; He, Peimin

    2011-11-01

    The systematic classification of the Eucheumatoideae is difficult because of their variable morphology and interpretation of reproductive structures. Kappaphycus and Eucheuma specimens cultivated on the Hainan and Fujian coast of China were introduced from Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia. Combined with morphological characteristics, all Kappaphycus and Eucheuma cultivated strains were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. The results indicate that different ITS sequence lengths occurred in the different genera and species. An obvious difference in morphology could be found in the protuberance shape between Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. The protuberance in Eucheuma was thorn-like and in Kappaphycus was wartlike or papillate. Their ITS sequence lengths differed significantly in nucleotide variation rates up to 58.55%-63.90%. All nucleotide variations occurred in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions except for five nucleotide transversions in the 5.8S rDNA region. In addition, the difference was at the branches among congeneric species. Kappaphycus sp. had branches with small buds, while K. alvarezii did not have such a feature. The nucleotide variation rates varied from 7.02% to 7.48% among species; within the same species of the clades it was K. alvarezii, Kappaphycus sp., and E. denticulatum. The results indicate that ITS sequence analysis was an effective way for identification of interspecies and intraspecies phylogenetic relationships and might provide a clue for molecular identification of algal Eucheumatoideae.

  3. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3451 - 3500 of 11090 ... Vol 11, No 73 (2012), Effect of AgNO3 on androgenesis of ... seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty (Doty) farmed in Indian .... synthesis by Bacillus subtilis 25 and Bacillus megaterium 12, Abstract PDF ... Vol 5, No 10 (2006), Effect of carbon source on the antimicrobial activity of Corynebacterium ...

  4. Reply: Is Kappaphycus alvarezii heading towards marine bioinvasion ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Pereira, N.

    absorbs high amounts of n u- tr i ents from sea wat er. The Central Salt and Marine Chemicals R e search Institute (CSMCRI), Bhavnagar pr o cured a few fragments of the above alga more than a decade ago, o b serving all protocols of introduction...

  5. Phenotypic and mtDNA variation in Philippine Kappaphycus cottonii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumilag, Richard V; Gallardo, William George M; Garcia, Christian Philip C; You, YeaEun; Chaves, Alyssa Keren G; Agahan, Lance

    2017-11-09

    Members of the carrageenan-producing seaweeds of the genus Kappapphycus have a complicated taxonomic history particularly with regard to species identification. Many taxonomic challenges in this group have been currently addressed with the use of mtDNA sequences. The phylogenetic status and genetic diversity of one of the lesser known species, Kappaphycus cottonii, have repeatedly come into question. This study explored the genetic variation in Philippine K. cottonii using the mtDNA COI-5P gene and cox2-3 spacer sequences. The six phenotypic forms in K. cottonii did not correspond to the observed genetic variability; hinting at the greater involvement of environmental factors in determining changes to the morphology of this alga. Our results revealed that the Philippine K. cottonii has the richest number of haplotypes that have been detected, so far, for any Kappaphycus species. Our inferred phylogenetic trees suggested two lineages: a lineage, which exclusively includes K. cottonii and another lineage comprising the four known Kappaphycus species: K. alvarezii, K. inermis, K. malesianus, and K. striatus. The dichotomy supports the apparent synamorphy for each of these lineages (the strictly terete thalli, lack of protuberances, and the presence of a hyphal central core in the latter group, while the opposite of these morphologies in K. cottonii). These findings shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of the genus. Assessing the breadth of the phenotypic and genetic variation in K. cottonii has implications for the conservation and management of the overall Kappaphycus genetic resources, especially in the Philippines.

  6. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    of Phycology 36, 680?685. Crossland, C.J., Hatcher, B.G., Smith, S.V., 1991. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production. Coral Reefs 10, 55-64. Danilo, Dy. T., Yap, H.T., 2001. Surge ammonium uptake of the cultured seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty...

  7. SELEKSI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus striatum DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN LAJU PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT UNTUK BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya rumput laut di Indonesia semakin berkembang seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan bahan baku industri untuk pasar domestik dan eksport. Rumput laut Kappaphycus striatum, salah satu spesies rumput laut komersil, telah intensif dibudidayakan di perairan pantai. Saat ini, masalah utama yang dihadapi pembudidaya adalah rendahnya kualitas bibit yang berasal dari hasil budidaya. Seleksi varietas merupakan salah satu metode yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan rumput laut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh seleksi varietas terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut sehingga dapat dilakukan produksi bibit unggul untuk keperluan budidaya. Budidaya rumput laut K. striatum telah dilakukan di Teluk Laikang, Kabupaten Takalar, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan dengan menggunakan metode long line. Seleksi varietas dilakukan berdasarkan parameter laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH dan metode seleksi mengacu pada protokol seleksi yang telah dikembangkan pada rumput laut K. alvarezii. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LPH bibit hasil seleksi lebih tinggi (P

  8. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  9. The axenic treatments for Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta) seedling in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adharini, R. I.; Setyawan, A. R.; Jayanti, A. D.; Suadi; Suyono, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Obtaining an algae axenic culture in the culture medium are challenging. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the application of several methods to reduce bacterial contamination in culture medium. The study was conducted using a complete randomized design in 3 stages, stage 1 using iodine immersion method with 4 treatments, stage 2 using immersion of antibiotics mixture with 3 different concentrations, stage 3 using mixture of antibiotic and medium with 3 concentration. The results showed that in stage 1, the lowest bacteria density was in treatment 4 (15 % betadine with 60’) (675.27 idv·mm-2), stage 2 showed that treatment 1 (50 mg·L-1) had the lowest bacteria density (265.62 idv·mm-2). Stage 3 showed that treatment 3 (10 mg·L-1) had the lowest density of bacteria (24.78 idv·mm-2). Based on the ANOVA test, stage 1 has no significant difference (> 0.05), in stage 2 there was a significant difference with treatment 1 was the best treatment, in stage 3 there was a significant difference and treatment 4 was the best result. Iodine 15 % with 60' immersion time; immersion with 50 mg·L-1 antibiotic, and mixture of medium with 10 mg·L-1 antibiotic gave the best results in reducing bacterial contamination.

  10. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology Otimização da extração de carragenana de Kappaphycus alvarezii utilizando metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.Este estudo tem como objetivo otimizar um método alternativo para extração de carragenana sem tratamento alcalino prévio e sem precipitação com etanol através da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta (RSM. A fim de inovar a etapa de isolamento, a secagem por atomização foi adaptada, o que reduziu o tempo para a obtenção do pó seco. Os efeitos da temperatura e do tempo de extração sobre o rendimento, força do gel e de viscosidade foram avaliados. Além disso, o material extraído foi submetido a análises estruturais por espectroscopia de infravermelho e de ressonância magnética nuclear, e composição química. Os resultados mostraram que os modelos de regressão gerados explicam adequadamente a variação de dados. Apenas a temperatura de extração afetou o rendimento e a viscosidade do gel. Entretanto, a força do gel foi influenciada tanto pelo tempo como pela temperatura de extração. As condições ótimas de extração foram 74 ºC durante 4 horas. Nessas condições, as propriedades da carragenana bruta determinadas pelo modelo polinomial foram 31,17%, 158,27 g.cm-2 e 29,5 cP, para rendimento, força do gel e viscosidade, respectivamente, enquanto que em condições experimentais foram 35,8 ± 4,68%, 112,50 ± 4,96 g.cm-2 e 16,01 ± 1,03 cP. A composição química e as análises estruturais mostraram que a carragenana extraída é principalmente κ-carragenana.

  11. Autokinase activity of alpha-crystallin inhibits its specific interaction with the DOTIS element in the murine gamma D/E/F-crystallin promoter in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Graw, J

    1997-10-01

    In a previous report we demonstrated the in vitro interaction of alpha-crystallin with an element downstream of the transcriptional initiation site (DOTIS) of the murine gamma E-crystallin promoter (Pietrowski et al., 1994, Gene 144, 171-178). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of phosphorylation on this particular interaction. We could demonstrate that the autophosphorylation of alpha-crystallin leads to a complete loss of interaction with the DOTIS element, however, PKA-dependent phosphorylation of alpha-crystallin is without effect on the interaction. It is hypothesized that the autophosphorylation of alpha-crystallin might be involved in regulatory mechanisms of the murine gamma D/E/F-crystallin gene expression.

  12. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  13. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

    2015-01-01

    Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

  14. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  15. PERFORMA FOTOSINTESIS Kappaphycus sp. (strain Sumba) YANG DIUKUR BERDASARKAN EVOLUSI OKSIGEN TERLARUT PADA BEBERAPA TINGKAT SUHU DAN CAHAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Lideman Lideman; Asda Laining

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan cahaya terhadap laju fotosintesis Kappaphycus sp. (strain Sumba) yang diukur berdasarkan perubahan oksigen terlarut. Pengukuran laju fotosintesis Kappaphycus sp. pertama-tama dilakukan pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, 28oC, dan 32oC pada tingkat cahaya 353 μmol photons m-2 s-1 untuk mendapatkan kurva fotosintesis versus suhu (kurva P-T). Selanjutnya, pengukuran laju fotosintesis dilakukan pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, dan 28oC dengan intensitas cahaya ...

  16. Effect of the Presence of Seagrass and Nutrients on Growth Rates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 129-135, 2011 .... seaweeds at low tide, allowing 2-3 h for the seaweeds to take up the nutrients. Fertilised .... Kappaphycus alvarezii in tidal pools with and without seagrass; c) unfertilised Eucheuma denticulatum and d) Kappaphycus alvarezii in tidal pools with and ...

  17. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae) growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae)seaweed sap

    OpenAIRE

    Kotiya Anil S.; Gunalan Balakrishanan; Jetani Kanji L.; Solanki Jitesh B.; Ramchandran Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T) region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both th...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encinas, Angelica Marie E.

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to synthesize and characterize kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use. The superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), KCSW: PAA hydrogels were synthesized by using gamma radiation technique from Cobalt-60 source at absorbed dose 0f 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The effect of absorbed dose, seaweed concentration, and concentration of acrylic acid on the degree of swelling was studied and optimum swelling conditions were established. Irradiated samples of 3% KCSW, 50% neutralized AAC at an absorbed dose of 10kGy gave the highest degree of swelling and gel fraction and were found to be suitable for application in the agriculture. Samples with different concentrations of acrylic acid were characterized using FTIR and TGA. The water retention experiment in sandy soil showed high water retention capacity of KCSW: PAA hydrogel at a value of 92% for a period of 7 days. Effect of the germination of mung bean showed very promising result of 78% germination.(author)

  19. Antibacterial activity of extracts of marine algae from the Red Sea of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanan

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureu) and ... algae have been shown to have antibacterial activity ..... of Sargassum Ilicifolium and Kappaphycus alvarezii.

  20. PERFORMA FOTOSINTESIS Kappaphycus sp. (strain Sumba YANG DIUKUR BERDASARKAN EVOLUSI OKSIGEN TERLARUT PADA BEBERAPA TINGKAT SUHU DAN CAHAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lideman Lideman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan cahaya terhadap laju fotosintesis Kappaphycus sp. (strain Sumba yang diukur berdasarkan perubahan oksigen terlarut. Pengukuran laju fotosintesis Kappaphycus sp. pertama-tama dilakukan pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, 28oC, dan 32oC pada tingkat cahaya 353 μmol photons m-2 s-1 untuk mendapatkan kurva fotosintesis versus suhu (kurva P-T. Selanjutnya, pengukuran laju fotosintesis dilakukan pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, dan 28oC dengan intensitas cahaya 9, 22, 46, 58, 87, 137, 245, 353, 487, 608, dan 789 μmol photons m-2 s-1 dan juga pengukuran laju respirasi pada tingkat cahaya 0 μmol photons m-2 s-1 untuk menghasilkan kurva fotosintesis versus cahaya (kurva P-I. Beberapa parameter fotosintesis yaitu: laju fotosintesis maksimum (Pmax, koefisien fotosintesis (α, intensitas cahaya jenuh (Ek, dan intensitas cahaya kompensasi (Ec dihitung dengan cara memplotkan kurva P-I terhadap model persamaan regresi non linear P = {Pmax x tanh (α / Pmax x I} + Rd. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa laju fotosintesis tertinggi sebesar 6,92 μg O2 gww-1 min-1 dicapai pada suhu 28oC dengan tingkat cahaya 353 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, dan 28oC, laju fotosintesis mencapai tingkat maksimum (Pmax pada intensitas cahaya (Ek 86,1; 154,2; dan 162,4 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Suhu yang optimum untuk aktivitas fotosintesis berkorelasi erat dengan suhu pada lingkungan budidaya di alam.

  1. Purification and characterization of a protease produced by Bacillus megaterium RRM2: application in detergent and dehairing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Renganathan; Jayappriyan, Kothilmozhian Ranishree; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2011-12-01

    An alkaline serine protease produced by Bacillus megaterium RRM2 isolated from the red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva was studied for the first time and the same analyzed for the production of protease in the present study. Identification of the bacterium was done on the basis of both biochemical analysis and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The extracellular protease obtained from B. megaterium RRM2 was purified by a three-step process involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration (Sephadex G100) and Q-Sepharose column chromatography. The purity was found to be 30.6-fold with a specific activity of 3591.5 U/mg protein with a molecular weight of 27 kDa. The metal ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) and Na(+) marginally enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme while Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), CO(2+) and Zn(2+), had reduced the activity. The enzyme was found to be active in the pH range of 9.0-10.0 and remained active up to 60 °C. Phenyl Methyl Sulfonyl Fluoride (PMSF) inhibited the enzyme activity, thus, confirming that this enzyme is an alkaline serine protease. Likewise, DTT also inhibited the enzyme thus confirming the disulfide nature of the enzyme. The enzyme exhibited a high degree of tolerance to Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). The partially purified protease when used as an additive in the commercial detergents was found to be a suitable source for washing clothes especially those stained with blood. Further, it showed good dehairing activity within a short duration in goat skin without affecting its collagen component. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT ON THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS MEASURED BY CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF CULTURED Kappaphycus sp. (SAKOL STRAIN FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidemen Lidemen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of carrageenophyte (Solieriaceae; Rhodophyta cultured in Indonesia, Kappaphycus sp. (Sakol strain, was investigated at various temperature and light conditions related to their cultivation performance. A “pulse-amplitude modulatedchlorophyll fluorometer” (Diving-PAM was used to generate a rapid light curves (RLCs to provide estimates relative electron transport rates (rETR for over 10 temperatures (i.e., 16oC to 34oC and at nine photosynthetic active radiation (PAR levels, which ranged from 0 to 1,000 mol photons m-2 s-1. The initial slope (α, photo-inhibition coefficient (β, and the coefficient of maximum photosynthesis assuming no photo-inhibition (γ is calculated by fitting the RLCs on a nonlinear model by using a two-level hierarchical Bayesian model. The experimental results showed that Kappaphycus sp. required temperatures ranging from 26oC to 34oC to maintain their high levels of photosynthetic activity. Saturating irradiace (Ek at the temperature range occured ranging from 120 to 150 μmol photons m-2 s-1. The model equation that have been derived from this series experiment can be used to determine the requirement of temperature and light intensity (irradiance of any seaweed species.

  3. Heavy Metal Adsorption onto Kappaphycus sp. from Aqueous Solutions: The Use of Error Functions for Validation of Isotherm and Kinetics Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Sayedur; Sathasivam, Kathiresan V

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption process is a promising technology for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastes and effluents using low-cost and effective biosorbents. In the present study, adsorption of Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) onto dried biomass of red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by four isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and four kinetic models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models). The adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Functional groups in the biomass involved in metal adsorption process were revealed as carboxylic and sulfonic acids and sulfonate by Fourier transform infrared analysis. A total of nine error functions were applied to validate the models. We strongly suggest the analysis of error functions for validating adsorption isotherm and kinetic models using linear methods. The present work shows that the red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. can be used as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Further study is warranted to evaluate its feasibility for the removal of heavy metals from the real environment.

  4. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoo-Singh, Paramjeet Kaur; Keng, Fiona S-L; Phang, Siew-Moi; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C; Sturges, William T; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibro-momethane (CH 2 Br 2 ), iodomethane (CH 3 I), diiodomethane (CH 2 I 2 ), bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI), bromochlorometh-ane (CH 2 BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ), and dibro-mochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH 2 I 2 and CH 3 I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis . The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ( F v ∕ F m ) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum

  5. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  6. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Ali, M. K., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Unit Penyelidikan Rumpai Laut (UPRL), Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Sulaiman, J., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  7. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-01-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m 2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R 2 ), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested

  8. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  9. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... compositions of these five industrial red seaweeds were evaluated. Protein, lipid and total phenolic content, total amino acid and composition, fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and pigment composition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is potential possibility to develop a method...

  10. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis on the hydrocolloids extracted from H. musciformis (and K. alvarezii) indicated κ-carrageenan, C. crenulata hydrocolloids were mainly ι-carrageenan, and the H. dentata hydrocolloids were agar. Gelling temperatures ranged from 32 to 36 °C for the κ-carrageenan hydrocolloid samples...... comparable with κ-carrageenan from K. alvarezii, whereas the H. dentata agar properties were different from those of a commercial agar sample. This work shows that certain red seaweed species in Ghana contain hydrocolloids with desirable properties for high value applications....... and Cryptonemia crenulata, expected to hold carrageenan, contained 21–26% by weight of galactose. A commercial Kappaphycus alvarezii carrageenan sample had 30% galactose residues by weight. Hydropuntia dentata, expected to contain agar, contained 15% by weight of galactose-monomers. Fourier transform infrared...

  11. Porosity structure of green polybag of medium density fiberboard from seaweed waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, M. A.; Subekti, S.; Lamid, M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Kurnia, H.; Rifadi, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    The last decade shown that the needs Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) rapidly growing in Asia Pacific and Europe up to more 15 % per year. MDF made up of fibers lignoselulosa which combined with synthetic resin or tied other suitable but high temperatures and pressure. Technology engineering for green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria verrucosa is an alternative effort for ecosystem stability and technological innovations that is environmentally friendly. Structure porosity from the shape of green polybag shows that performance seaweed waste of K. alvarezii is better than seaweed waste of G. verrucosa. The circulation of water happened more optimal in green polybag formed from MDF of seaweed waste of K. alvarezii with size porosity 3.976 µm, while size porosity of seaweed waste of G. verrucosa measurable 4.794 µm. Structure of green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste showed that C components greater 50 % to K. alvarezii while C components less than 50 % to G. verrucosa. This resulted in the ties to structure of MDF stronger found in green polybag derived from seaweed waste of K. alvarezii than G. verrucosa.

  12. Evaluation of ethanol production and bioadsorption of heavy metals by various red seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, In Yung; Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ethanol production and bioadsorption with four red seaweeds, Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum. To produce ethanol, thermal acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification and fermentation was carried out. After pretreatment, 38.5, 39.9, 31.0 and 27.5 g/L of monosaccharides were obtained from G. amansii, G. verrucosa, K. alvarezii and E. denticulatum, respectively. Ethanol fermentation was performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129 adapted to 80 g/L galactose. The ethanol productions by G. amansii, G. verrucosa, K. alvarezii and E. denticulatum were 18.8 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.49, 19.1 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.48, 14.5 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.47 and 13.0 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.47, respectively. The waste seaweed slurries after the ethanol fermentation were reused to adsorb Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II). Using langmuir isotherm model, Cu(II) had the highest affinity for waste seaweeds with the highest q max and electronegativity values among three heavy metals.

  13. TINGKAT PENYERAPAN NITROGEN DAN FOSFOR PADA BUDIDAYA RUMPUT LAUT BERBASIS IMTA (INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE DI TELUK GERUPUK, LOMBOK TENGAH, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Yuniarsih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan budidaya laut berbasis IMTA (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture merupakan suatu metode yang dirancang untuk mengatasi masalah lingkungan yang terkait dengan penggunaan pakan pada kegiatan akuakultur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis tingkat penyerapan nitrogen dan fosfor pada budidaya rumput laut berbasis IMTA di Teluk Gerupuk Kabupaten Lombok Tengah. Rumput laut jenis Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Eucheuma spinosum dibudidayakan dengan metode rawai (long line. Pengamatan terhadap rumput laut dan kondisi perairan dilakukan setiap 15 hari; mulai hari ke-0 sampai hari ke-45. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya perbedaan tingkat penyerapan nitrogen dan fosfor antara dua jenis rumput laut yang dibudidayakan. Total penyerapan nitrogen rumput laut K. alvarezii di lokasi IMTA mencapai 86,95 ton N/ha/tahun atau lebih tinggi 24,6% dibandingkan dengan E. spinosum yang mencapai 69,78 ton N/ha/tahun. Sedangkan untuk tingkat penyerapan fosfor, K. alvarezii mencapai 20,56 ton P/ha/tahun atau lebih tinggi 136,7% dibandingkan dengan E. spinosum yang hanya mencapai 8,69 ton P/ha/tahun. Berdasarkan luasan kawasan potensial budidaya rumput laut di Teluk Gerupuk, maka potensi penyerapan nitrogen dan fosfor untuk rumput laut K. alvarezii di kawasan ini masing-masing mencapai 27.996,93 ton N/tahun dan 6.619,16 ton P/tahun. Sedangkan untuk E. spinosum potensi penyerapan nitrogen dan fosfor masing-masing mencapai 22.470,02 ton N/tahun dan 2.796,82 ton P/tahun. Penerapan budidaya rumput laut berbasis IMTA secara jelas memberikan keuntungan ekonomi dan ekologi dengan adanya peningkatan biomassa dan perbaikan kondisi lingkungan budidaya.

  14. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenawaty Limantara3

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Sargassum sp, and Caulerpa sp. Carotenoids from algae has been proven as a powerful antioxidant and may prevent some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and cancer. Carotenoid also has been applied as a natural dye and dietary supplements. Biotechnology has been developed to increase the production of carotenoids from micro- and macroalgae. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae, either in open or closed system are shown to increase carotenoid production. During cultivation, some stress conditions can be specifically manipulated to optimize carotenoid production from microalgae.

  15. Organoleptic Characteristics and Chemicals Ilabulo Catfish Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marsuci Harmain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of traditional food ilabulo made from raw catfish (Pangasius sp. has the potential to be developed in Gorontalo province to substitute chicken viscera. The research aimed to make ilabulo substitute the raw material of chicken viscera with the catfish fortified Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed and catfish bone meal and to determine the organoleptic and chemical characteristics of ilabulo catfish fortification. Fortified treatment is K. alvarezii  and catfish bone (5 dan 10% ,  B (10 and 15% and  C (15 dan 20%. The organoleptic analysis used a hedonic scale of favorite criteria on the appearance, texture, color, flavor, and taste. The results of organoleptic analysis continued with Bayes test. The chemical analysis used the Association of Official Analytical Chemist method. The result of the hedonic characteristic of ilabulo catfish fortification was on the appearance  neutral criteria – like (5.53–7.03, texture neutral criteria – rather like (5.8–7.1, aroma rather like (6.3–6.73, color neutral – like (6.1–7.03 and taste (6.07–6.53 neutral criteria – rather like. The result of Bayes test obtained by a texture of importance value 5, appearance importance value 5, aroma of importance value 4, color of interest value 3 and taste of importance value 2. Characteristic of ilabulo culture of selected fortified catfish that was the fortification of K. alvarezii seaweed 15% and catfish  bone flour (20% (fortification C obtained by water content 56.46%, ash 11.54%, protein 7.78%, fat 8.91%, coarse fiber 0.61%, carbohydrate 22.07% and calcium 0.315 %.

  16. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  17. Trend in coral-algal phase shift in the Mandapam group of islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machendiranathan, M.; Senthilnathan, L.; Ranith, R.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhry, S. B.; Sasamal, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present study revealed proliferation of macro-algae modifying coral reef ecosystems in a different manner due to diseases and sedimentations in the Mandapam group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar. Benthic surveys were conducted with major attack of seven coral reefs diseases with high sedimentation rate, nine species of fleshy macro-algae ( Turbinaria ornata, Turbinaria conaides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Padina gymnosphora, Sargassum wightii, Ulva reticulata and Calurpa lentillifera) proliferation against major corals life forms (Acropora branching, Acropora digitate, Acropora tabulate, coral massive, coral submassive, coral foliose and coral encrusting). The results confirm that diseased corals most favor to macro-algae growth (15.27%) rather than the sedimentation covered corals (8.24 %). In the degradation of coral life forms, massive corals were more highly damaged (7.05%) than any other forms. Within a short period of time (May to September), coral coverage shrank to 17.4% from 21.9%, macro-algae increased 23.51% and the average sedimentation rate attained 77.52 mg cm-2d-1 with persisting coral reef diseases of 17.59%. The Pearson correlation showed that the coral cover decreased with increasing macro-algae growth, which was statistically significant ( r = -0.774, n = 100, P K. alvarezii, P. gymnosphora and C. lentillifera increased with percentages of 6.0, 5.8, 5.7, 4.9, 4.2, 3.7, 2.7 and 1.9, respectively. If this trend continues, the next generation of new recruit corals will undoubtedly lead to a phase shift in Gulf of Mannar corals.

  18. In vitro bioactive analysis and antioxidant activity of two species of seaweeds from the Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2017-09-25

    Evaluation of in vitro standard antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS + ) radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibitory (or thiobarbituric acid formation inhibitory activity) and ferrous ion (Fe +2 ) chelating activities of different solvent extracts of seaweeds, Jania rubens and Kappaphycus alvarezii collected from the Gulf of Mannar of the Peninsular India, were carried out. The methodology utilised bioactivity-guided extraction of seaweed with effective solvent comprised classical chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The ethyl acetate extraction of seaweeds displayed significantly greater antioxidant activity than dichloromethane and n-hexane extraction. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds with potentially greater antioxidant activities, yielded 6α-methoxy-4bβ-methyl-7β-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9-dodecahydro-2β-phenanthrenol (1) from J. rubens, whereas K. alvarezii yielded 2β-ethyl-9-oxo-5α-vinyl-1,2,5,5a,6,7,8,9-octahydroheptalene-10,1-carbolactone (2) and methyl-2-ethyl-9-oxo-5α-vinyl-1,2,5,5a,6,7,10,10a-octahydroheptalene-1α-carboxylate (3). Compound 1 displayed significantly greater DPPH scavenging activities (IC 50 0.22 mg/mL) than α-tocopherol (IC 50 0.63 mg/mL). The order of DPPH radical-scavenging activities were compounds 1 > 2 > 3.

  19. Life history and culture studies of Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty (Monostromataceae, Chlorophyceae) growing in estuarine conditions along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The specimen of Monostroma oxyspermum (Chlorophyceae) were collected in Indian waters from mangrove ecosystem of Shirgao Creek, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra; Terekhol Creek, Goa; and Kali Estuary, Karwar Karnataka. The life history of these were studied...

  20. PERBEDAAN MUSIM TANAM TERHADAP PERFORMA BUDIDAYA EMPAT VARIAN RUMPUT LAUT EUCHEUMATOIDS DI TELUK GERUPUK, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania Erlania

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Musim tanam rumput laut di perairan Teluk Gerupuk dikelompokkan menjadi musim produktif dan non-produktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perbedaan performa budidaya dari empat varian rumput laut: Kappaphycus alvarezii varian Tambalang dan Maumere, Eucheuma denticulatum, dan K. striatum yang dibudidayakan di perairan Teluk Gerupuk dengan metode long line pada musim tanam yang berbeda. Pengamatan terhadap parameter performa budidaya meliputi laju pertumbuhan harian, pertambahan biomassa, dan produksi rumput laut, yang dilakukan setiap 15 hari sekali selama masa budidaya yaitu 45 hari per siklus. Pengamatan dilakukan selama tiga siklus tanam dari bulan Juli-Desember. Analisis ragam (ANOVA dengan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dan uji lanjut Tukey Test dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan varian rumput laut dan periode musim tanam terhadap parameter yang diamati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa musim tanam (produktif dan non-produktif merupakan salah satu aspek penting yang berpengaruh nyata terhadap performa budidaya rumput laut (P<0,05. Dari keempat varian yang dibudidayakan, E. denticulatum merupakan varian yang memiliki performa terbaik yang berbeda nyata dengan ketiga varian lainnya (P<0,05, baik pada musim produktif maupun musim non-produktif. Pemilihan varian rumput laut yang tepat dengan tingkat pertumbuhan dan daya adaptasi yang lebih baik terhadap perbedaan kondisi lingkungan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan dan keberlanjutan budidaya rumput laut.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Extracellular Protease Isolated From an Algicolous Fungus Xylaria psidii KT30 Against Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Indarmawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases became more serious problem for public health in recent years. Although existing antibacterial drugs have been relatively effective, they do not rule out the emergence of resistance to the drug. Therefore, the intensive exploration of new bioactive compounds from natural, especially peptide compounds began in recent decades in order-handling infection. This study aimed to isolate, purify and test the potential application of Xylaria psidii KT30 extracellular protease as antibacterial agent against Gram-positive bacteria. X. psidii KT30, a marine fungus isolated from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial compounds of this fungus were predicted as a group of proteases. Extracellular protease exhibited an optimum activity when potato dextrose broth was used as cultivation medium. Furthermore, the highest activity of these proteases was found on fungal extract after day 15 of cultivation with value of 2.33 ± 0.19 U/mL. The partial purification of proteases using G-75 column chromatography resulted in 2 groups of fractions and showed protease activity based on zymogram assay. The extracellular proteases obtained from those fractions have 3 patterns of molecular mass based on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which are 56.62, 89.12, 162.18 kDa.

  2. FRAKSINASI PROTEIN KAPANG LAUT Xylaria psidii KT30 DAN SITOTOKSISITASNYA TERHADAP SEL HeLa [Fractionation of Proteins of Marine Fungus Xylaria psidii KT30 and their Cytotoxicity against HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Gebriella Inthe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common cause of death for Indonesian women after human breast cancer. One of the efforts of cancer treatment is the utilization of natural compounds. One of the microorganisms having the potential as anticancer agent is endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi from the marine habitat can be isolated from sea weeds, sea grasses, sponges, and mangroves. Xylaria psidii KT30, a marine fungus used in this study was isolated from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. Xylaria psidii KT30 was cultivated in potato dextrose broth medium for nine days at room temperature 27-29°C in shaking condition. This study aimed to obtain protein fractions from X. psidii KT30 and determine their toxicity againt Chang and HeLa cells. The fractionation process was conducted using DEAE Sephadex A-50 column chromatography and the toxicity was determined by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. The metabolites excreted in the culture broth was extracted using 90% of ammonium sulphate. The extract was then tested for their toxicity against HeLa and Chang cells by Microculture Tetrazolium Technique (MTT assay.The results revealed that LC50 of the protein extract of X. psidii KT30 was 104.95 ppm and IC50 was 69.9 ppm. Based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI, this value showed moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cells.

  3. Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Semi Refined Kappa Carrageenan-based Composite Edible Film and Its Application on Minimally Processed Chicken Breast Fillet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Maimuni, B. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (KC) is one of the most interesting biopolymers that is composed of a linear chain of sulfated galactans and extracted from red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It shows good potential for development as a source of biodegradable or edible films. However, KC films do not have good water vapor barrier properties, as they are intrinsically hydrophilic. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined kappa-carrageenan (SRKC) edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. In this study, composite films based on SRKC incorporating PA were prepared and their applications on minimally processed chicken breast fillet were evaluated. Composite SRKC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused an increase in thickness, but decrease in water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as the concentration of PA increased (from 5% to 15% w/w). Composite SRKC-based edible film incorporating 15% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 5% and 10% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 15% w/w PA was used as a wrapping material for film application on minimally processed chicken breast fillet. The application results showed that the incorporation of PA in film caused an effect (p 0.05) change the color of minimally processed chicken breast fillet.

  4. BINARY VECTOR CONSTRUCTION OF KAPPA(κ-CARRAGEENASE GENE AND TRANSFORMATION TO Agrobacterium tumefaciens AS MEDIATOR FOR SEAWEED TRANSGENIC GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Alias L. Rajamuddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of kappa (κ-carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed is potentially be achieved by applying transgenesis technology. This study was performed to obtain a construction of  κ-Carrageenase gene and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carry those construction genes.  The κ-Carrageenase (κ-Car gene was involved in κ-carrageenan biosynthesis. The κ-Car gene sequence was ligated between the 35S CaMV promoter and tNos terminator sequences to generate pMSH/κ-Car expression vector. Transformation of pMSH/κ-Car plasmid to Escherichia coli was performed by heat-shock method, and to Agrobacterium tumefaciens by tri-parental mating method. The results showed that several colonies of E. coli and A. tumefaciens grew in the selective culture mediums containing antibiotic. PCR analysis using primers 35S-Forward and tNos-Reverse with DNA template from those bacterial colonies resulted DNA fragment of about 2,000 bp, the same as the total length of 35S CaMV promoter, κ-Car gene and tNos terminator sequences. Therefore, the construction of pMSH/κ-Car gene was succeeded and a colony of A. tumefaciens transformant carrying pMSH/κ-Car plasmid was successfully produced.                                                                                   Keywords:  Agrobacterium tumefaciens, kappa(κ-Carrageenase gene, transgenesis, vector

  5. The Application of Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA Using Stratified Double Net Rounded Cage (SDFNC for Aquaculture Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto P. Putro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of fishery production nationally and internationally may impact on the potential emergence of a variety of environmental problems. The application of sustainable aquaculture is urgently needed by breeding fish for commercial purposes in a manner such that it has a minimum impact on the environment, contributing to the development of local communities and generating economic benefits. The design of the cage and farming practice in aquaculture activities are the important steps to ensure that farming activity is still observed in order to anticipate the risk of organic enrichment caused by the activities. The application of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  (IMTA on the Stratified Double Floating Net Cage  (SDFNC integrated with biomonitoring are an appropriate solution to the ongoing productive farming practices. IMTA is an aquaculture practice using more than one species of biotas which have ecologically mutual relationship as a part of the food chain in the area at the same time. The application of IMTA allows farmers to get several aquaculture products in the same area without increasing the horizontal area of the farms. At first, the SDFNC has been applied for farming Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia niloticus as polyculture system in freshwater ecosystem of Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Its operation has been able to increase the production capacity of at least 75% of conventional cages. The application of SDFNC-IMTA using milkfish (Chanos Chanos, seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii, and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been able to minimize the impact and maintain the water ecosystem in the Gulf Awerange, South Sulawesi.

  6. Fermentation of seaweed flour with various fermenters to improve the quality of fish feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of fermentor for dry matter digestibility (DMD, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and the chemical composition of fermented seaweed. Five types of seaweed were used as substrates included green strain of Kappaphycus alvarezii, brown strain of K. alvarezii, Gracilaria gigas, Sargassum sp., and Caulerpa sp. The treatments were four fermentors, namely Bacillus sp. 2 mL/100 g of seaweed flour; 1.5% of tape yeast as a source of Rhizopus sp.; 1.5% of baker’s yeast as a source of Saccharomyces sp.; a mix of Bacillus sp., tape yeast of Rhizopus sp. and baker’s yeast of Saccharomyces sp. with compositions of 1 mL+1 g+1 g/100 g of seaweed flour; and control treatment. The results showed an increase in the percentage of DMD (21.94–27.76% and OMD (8.35–11.66% of all seaweed fermented using fermentor compared to control (DMD of 17.65–20.36% and OMD of 4.36–5.98%. Moreover, the highest result was obtained by the fermentor mix (DMD of 24.86–27.76% and OMD of 10.02–11.66%. Similar result was also found in the chemical composition of fermented seaweed, there was increase in protein content of 9.23–15.93% and nitrogen free extract (NFE of 56.05–70.26% in each seaweed treated with fermentation using fermentors, compared to controls (protein of 8.82–11.54% and NFE of 52.26–65.72%. Furthermore, the highest value was shown by seaweed fermented with mixed fermentors (protein of 9.92–15.93% and NFE of 58.47–70.26%. Yet, the opposite result was present in the ash, crude fiber, and fat content of seaweed fermented using fermentors of which the lowest value was found in treatment of mixed fermentor. Keywords: fermentation, fermentor, seaweed, quality, feed ingredients  ABSTRAK  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi berbagai jenis fermentor terhadap kecernaan bahan kering (KBK, kecernaan bahan organik (KBO, dan komposisi kimia rumput laut terfermentasi. Lima jenis rumput

  7. 76 FR 40262 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This action corrects an omission in the regulatory text of the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Doty, Environmental Scientist, Attainment Planning and...

  8. Quantitave Biomass and Time Required to Remove Gracliaria Salicornia and Kappaphycus from 1-Meter-Squared Plots in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in Spring 2002, (NODC Accession 0001011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primarily from the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative, yet also support from The Nature Conservancy of Hawai'i, State Division of Aquatic Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  9. Quantitative biomass and time required to remove Gracliaria Salicornia and Kappaphycus from 1-meter-squared plots in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in Spring 2002 (NODC Accession 0001011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primarily from the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative, yet also support from The Nature Conservancy of Hawai'i, State Division of Aquatic Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  10. Photoquadrat Analysis of how Sea Urchins Reduce Abundance of Kappaphycus and Analysis of Regrowth of Coral on Plots in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment was performed to assess the potential to use native sea urchins as biocontrols for alien/invasive seaweeds. One species of urchin, tripneustes...

  11. Photoquadrat analysis of how sea urchins reduce abundance of Kappaphycus and analysis of regrowth of coral on plots in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment was performed to assess the potential to use native sea urchins as biocontrols for alien/invasive seaweeds. One species of urchin, tripneustes...

  12. STUDI PERTUMBUHAN LAMUN Enhalus sp DALAM UPAYA PENGELOLAAN PESISIR DI PULAU TANAKEKE

    OpenAIRE

    Syarifuddin Kune

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental yang dilakukan dengan membandingkan pertumbuhan E. acoroides pada satu perlakukan dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Perlakuan A = lamun E. acoroides tanpa kegiatan budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii,  B = lamun E. acoroides dengan kegiatan budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii di atasnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa laju pertumbuhan E. acoroides pada semua hamparan baik dengan dan tanpa aktivitas budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii tidak berbeda nyata...

  13. PERFORMA KOMODITAS BUDIDAYA LAUT PADA SISTEM INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA DI TELUK GERUPUK, LOMBOK TENGAH, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Radiarta

    2016-11-01

    ikan bawal bintang sebesar 161,27 ± 30,05 g/ekor. Pertumbuhan rumput laut selama tiga siklus menunjukkan bahwa siklus pertama (Juni-Juli dan siklus kedua (Agustus-September menghasilkan pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan siklus ketiga (Oktober–November. Laju pertumbuhan harian rumput laut di sekitar keramba jarring apung (KJA ikan sebesar 4,22%-6,09%/hari lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (jarak 2-3 km dari KJA ikan yaitu 3,90%-5,53%/hari. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan efektivitas sistem IMTA dalam hal peningkatan produktivitas budidaya rumput laut. Model IMTA dapat diterapkan sebagai model pengembangan budidaya laut yang berwawasan lingkungan melalui peningkatan produksi, sistem produksi bersih, dan berkelanjutan. Mariculture activity with Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA is an aquaculture development technique which in line with environment conservation concept. This study was aimed to analyze perfomance of mariculture commodities that cultured under integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system. The study was conducted in Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara during June-November 2015. The IMTA model was combined between tiger grouper fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, silver pompano fish (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede, and seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii. The result showed that during 150 days of cultured periods, both of grouper and pompano indicated a good growth performance, with mean body weight at the end of culture period about 173.45 ± 36.61 g/ind. and 161.27 ± 30.05 g/ind., respectively. Seaweed growth performance from three cultivation cycles showed that cycle-1 (June- July and cycle-2 (August-September had better growth performance than cycle-3 (October November. Daily growth rate of seaweed that cultured near fish cages was higher (4.22%-6.09% than control, 2-3 km distance to fish cages (3.90%-5.53%. This study indicated the effectiveness of IMTA system to increase seaweed culture production. IMTA

  14. Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Porous 3D Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syamimi Che Johari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00–9.20 and 0.047–1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment. The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day. The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p2 weeks. In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be

  15. Pole vaja palju, vaid väärt esemeid / Julia Maria Künnap ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnap, Julia Maria

    2010-01-01

    Julia Maria Künnapi disainitud lastetool "Mari" pälvis Red Doti disainipreemia. Auhind antakse üle Esseni Aalto teatris 5. juulil, tunnustatud töid eksponeeritakse näitusel Esseni Disainimuuseumis 6.07.-1.08.2010. Kunstnik ehtekunstist, disainist, enda loodud ehetest, Red Doti konkursist, tooli "Mari" tootmise võimalustest

  16. STUDI PERTUMBUHAN LAMUN Enhalus sp DALAM UPAYA PENGELOLAAN PESISIR DI PULAU TANAKEKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifuddin Kune

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental yang dilakukan dengan membandingkan pertumbuhan E. acoroides pada satu perlakukan dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Perlakuan A = lamun E. acoroides tanpa kegiatan budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii,  B = lamun E. acoroides dengan kegiatan budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii di atasnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa laju pertumbuhan E. acoroides pada semua hamparan baik dengan dan tanpa aktivitas budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii tidak berbeda nyata. Secara kuantitatif pada hamparan tanpa aktivitas budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii (A, rata-rata pertumbuhan E. acoroides 1,1695 cm/hari, dan pada kawasan dengan aktivitas budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii dan hutan mangrove (B, rata-rata pertumbuhan 1,1365 cm/hari.  Hasil pengukuran kualitas air menunjukan  bahwa suhu air, salinitas, pH, kecepatan arus, DO dan kecerahan tidak berbeda nyata antara area lamun E. acoroides dengan maupun tanpa aktivitas budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii.  Nitrat dan fosfat lebih banyak terdeteksi pada perlakuan lamun E. acoroides dengan budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii di atasnya (B dibandingkan tanpa kegiatan budidaya rumput laut K. alvarezii (A

  17. 76 FR 25762 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .... Berglund, Sr. Eric E. Myers Robert A. Casson Kenneth L. Nau Charles C. Chapman David W. Peterson Jeffery W. Cotner Randel G. Pierce Everett A. Doty Timmy J. Pottenbaum John K. Fank Manuel H. Sanchez Bobby G...

  18. Jura espressomasin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Šveitsi firma Jura Impressa J5 espressomasin tunnistati juba kolmandat korda järjest parimaks täisautomaatsete kohvimasinate testiga. 2007. a. on J5 saanud ka tootedisaini auhinna ja Red Doti disainiauhinna

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    as the only one that could be regarded as offering some .... training in the USA and supported my applications, for we ... Marmur and Doty (1959) provided also a good support. As ... the meantime, Jacques Monod's “Service de Biochimie”.

  20. Effect of alkaline treatment on the sulfate content and quality of semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... quality of semi-refined carrageenan prepared from seaweed Kappaphycus ... importance for industry to deliver a standard product and to develop new ..... alkaline extraction media (compared to pure water) have also been ...

  1. High Performance Work Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this

  2. Developing Senior Leaders’ Family and Social Strength in the Operational Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    April 2007): 87. 19 Joe Doty & Jeff Fenlason, “ Narcissism and Toxic Leaders,” Military Review Online, (January-February 2013): 55-60. 20...Generations at Work (New York, NY: Amacom, 2010). 40Justin Menkes, “ Narcissism : The Difference Between High Achievers and Leaders,” Harvard Business

  3. Restoran Kaerajaan = Kaerajaan Restaurant / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinnas Raekoja plats 17 asuva restorani rahvuslikel motiividel baseeruvast sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Arhitektuuriajaloolised eritingimused koostas Aleksandr Pantelejev. Lakke ja seinale maalitud muster (Loovool) pälvis Red Dot'i auhinna. Žürii hinnang kultuurikapitali aastapreemiale esitatud sisekujundusele

  4. 78 FR 53467 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... inaccuracy of the original base maps, and the manual cartographic techniques used to create the current set..., as well as historical and current aerial imagery, to determine where natural changes (e.g., eroded... Broadkill River, Doty Glade, Old Mill Creek, and Canary Creek. The name of this unit has been changed from...

  5. Directory of Manufacturing Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Martin W. 51 Graff, Karl 176 Dornfeld, David 88 Gray, James 76 Doty, Keith 119 Gray, Vic 6 Driels, Morris 142 Green Jr., Robert E. 51 Drury , Colin 39...Buffalo Dr. Colin Drury , Executive Director Mr. Brian Kleiner, Administrative Director Technical areas include cost analysis, strategic planning

  6. Alpha-crystallins are involved in specific interactions with the murine gamma D/E/F-crystallin-encoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Durante, M J; Liebstein, A; Schmitt-John, T; Werner, T; Graw, J

    1994-07-08

    The promoter of the murine gamma E-crystallin (gamma E-Cry) encoding gene (gamma E-cry) was analyzed for specific interactions with lenticular proteins in a gel-retardation assay. A 21-bp fragment immediately downstream of the transcription initiation site (DOTIS) is demonstrated to be responsible for specific interactions with lens extracts. The DOTIS-binding protein(s) accept only the sense DNA strand as target; anti-sense or double-stranded DNA do not interact with these proteins. The DOTIS sequence element is highly conserved among the murine gamma D-, gamma E- and gamma F-cry and is present at comparable positions in the orthologous rat genes. Only a weak or even no protein-binding activity is observed if a few particular bases are changed, as in the rat gamma A-, gamma C- and gamma E-cry elements. DOTIS-binding proteins were found in commercially available bovine alpha-Cry preparations. The essential participation of alpha-Cry in the DNA-binding protein complex was confirmed using alpha-Cry-specific monoclonal antibody. The results reported here point to a novel function of alpha-Cry besides the structural properties in the lens.

  7. Engineering of High-Toughness Carbon Nanotubes Hierarchically Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Bernsmann, F.; Ersen, O.; Voegel, J.-C.; Jan, E.; Kotov, N. A.; Ball, V. Melanin -Containing Films: Growth from Dopamine Solutions versus Layer-by-Layer...Chen, Wei; Doty, Chris; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A.. Smart Electronic Yarns and Wearable Fabrics for Human Biomonitoring made by Carbon Nanotube

  8. Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

    2012-01-01

    When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

  9. Self-Initiated Development of Leadership Capabilities: Toward Establishing the Validity of Key Motivational Constructs and Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    the responses of participants between waves (Doty & Glick, 1998; Podsakoff & Organ, 1986), and it allows test-retest measurements to be done on new...behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 327–340. 113 Podsakoff , P., & Organ, D. (1986). Self

  10. Pattern overlap implies runaway growth in hierarchical tile systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Doty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the hierarchical tile assembly model, if there is a producible assembly that overlaps a nontrivial translation of itself consistently (i.e., the pattern of tile types in the overlap region is identical in both translations, then arbitrarily large assemblies are producible. The significance of this result is that tile systems intended to controllably produce finite structures must avoid pattern repetition in their producible assemblies that would lead to such overlap.This answers an open question of Chen and Doty (SODA 2012, who showed that so-called "partial-order" systems producing a unique finite assembly and avoiding such overlaps must require time linear in the assembly diameter. An application of our main result is that any system producing a unique finite assembly is automatically guaranteed to avoid such overlaps, simplifying the hypothesis of Chen and Doty's main theorem.

  11. Verification of Design and Construction Techniques for Gaillard Island Dredged Material Disposal Area, Mobile, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    the dike centerline. Small pen-lite flashlight bulbs and dry cell batteries were taped to the bamboo poles so the spill and haul barges could work at...fDY 01TO .3 0 1000 200 300 ------ -STATION 35+00 9.0: ... .4.. ... 3 ~~ U. -- "I-- 2IU MY STAMIN 30+D0 BI DOTI O ............ ......4 ..+.0

  12. Surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis in children with williams syndrome: a 30-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Tyson A; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Wheaton, Gavin; Weintraub, Robert G; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2015-04-01

    Williams syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) in childhood. We reviewed outcomes of children with Williams syndrome who underwent repair of SVAS during a 30-year period at a single institution. Between 1982 and 2012, 28 patients with Williams syndrome were operated on for SVAS. Mean age at operation was 5.2 years (range, 3 months to 13 years), and mean weight at operation was 18.6 kg (range, 4.1 to 72.4 kg). Associated cardiac lesions in 11 patients (39.3%) were repaired at the time of the SVAS repair. The most common associated cardiac lesion was main pulmonary artery stenosis (8 of 28 [28%]). A 3-patch repair was performed in 10 patients, a Doty repair in 17, and a McGoon repair in 1 (3.6%). There were no early deaths. Follow-up was 96% complete (27 of 28). Overall mean follow-up was 11.2 years (range, 1 month to 27.3 years). Mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 1 month to 14.3 years) for the 3-patch repair patients and 14.7 years (range, 6 weeks to 27 years) for the Doty repair patients. Of the 17 Doty patients, there were 4 (24%) late deaths, occurring at 6 weeks, 3.5 years, 4 years, and 16 years after the initial operation. There were no late deaths in the 3-patch repair patients. Overall survival was 86% at 5, 10, and 15 years after repair. Survival was 82% at 5, 10 and 15 years for the Doty repair patients. Overall, 6 of 27 patients (22%) patients required late reoperation at a mean of 11.2 years (range, 3.6 to 23 years). No 3-patch repair patients required reoperation. Overall freedom from reoperation was 91% at 5 years and 73% at 10 and 15 years. Freedom from reoperation for the Doty repair patients was 93% at 5 years and 71% at 10 and 15 years. Surgical repair of SVAS in children Williams syndrome has excellent early results. However, significant late mortality and morbidity warrants close follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Leenawaty Limantara3); Budhi Prasetyo1); AB. Susanto2); Helly de Fretes1)*

    2012-01-01

    Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarez...

  14. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  15. Industrija 4.0 - sadašnjost ili budućnost u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Matejak, Nedeljko

    2017-01-01

    Tehnološki razvoj generator je dinamičnih promjena gotovo u svim područjima koje dotiče. Jedno od područja koje prolazi kroz intenzivnu tranziciju je industrijska proizvodnja. U prilog tome govori transformacija iz treće industrijske revolucije u četvrtu, dok zapravo dio globalne ekonomije nije napravio potpunu transformaciju u treću industrijsku revoluciju. Pojam Industrija 4.0 opisuje što se nalazi na putu transformacije postojeće industrijske proizvodnje u novu, primarn...

  16. Genotype × environment interaction of quality protein maize grain yield in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Jiban Shrestha; Chitra Bahadur Kunwar; Jharana Upadhyaya; Maiya Giri; Ram Bahadur Katuwal; Ramesh Acharya; Suk Bahadur Gurung; Bhim Nath Adhikari; Amrit Prasad Paudel; Ram Babu Paneru

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine G × E interaction of quality protein maize grain yield, six maize genotypes were evaluated under different environments of three Terai (Chitwan, Surkhet and Doti) and four mid hill (Dhankuta, Lalitpur, Dolakha and Kaski) districts of Nepal during summer seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design along with three replications. The genotypes namely S99TLYQ-B, S99TLYQ-HG-AB and S03TLYQ-AB-01 were identified high yielding ...

  17. Performance evaluation of early maize genotypes in far western hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Kumar Prasai; Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha; Bishnu Prasad Joshi; Jiban Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Initial evaluation trial of maize (early) genotypes was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Doti, Nepal in 2013 and 2014. Total fourteen and fifteen genotypes of early maize were included in initial evaluation experiment of the year 2013 and 2014 respectively. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in each year. Out of the tested genotypes, SO3TEY/LN, ZM 423 and SO3TEY-FM (ER) identified as promising from statistical a...

  18. Endomorphism Rings of Some Young Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Kochhar, Jasdeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Let $\\Sigma_r$ be the symmetric group acting on $r$ letters, $K$ be a field of characteristic 2 and $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ be partitions of $r$ in at most two parts. Denote the permutation module corresponding to the Young subgroup $\\Sigma_\\lambda$ in $\\Sigma_r$ by $M^\\lambda$, and the indecomposable Young module by $Y^\\mu$. We give an explicit presentation of the endomorphism algebra ${\\rm End}_{K[\\Sigma_r]}(Y^\\mu)$, using the idempotents found by Doty, Erdmann and Henke in [1].

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Menstrual Hygiene Management among School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram Naresh; Joshi, Shrijana; Poudel, Rajesh; Pandeya, Pawan

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management remains a taboo in many communities in Nepal. Cultural beliefs about menstruation such as food taboos and untouchability have negative impact on dignity, health and education of adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Doti District in Far-Western Nepal. This cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2016 at seven village development committees in Doti district, Nepal. This study was done among 276 students from grade seven and eight of 11 schools. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from school students. Descriptive analysis was done to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management. 67.4% respondents had fair knowledge and 26.4% respondents had good knowledge on menstrual hygiene management. However, out of 141 female adolescent respondents, only 56 (40%) were engaged in good menstrual hygiene practices. Around half of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene management related issues. Although knowledge on menstrual hygiene management among school adolescents is fair, still attitude and practice need to improve. Findings indicate the need of behavior change communication campaigns along with frequent reinforcement of school health education programs.

  20. Vērtspapīru tirgus attīstība Baltijas valstīs

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis bija noteikt vērtspapīra tirgus attīstības tendences, salīdzināt Baltijas akciju tirgus rādītājus un pamatojoties uz iegūtajiem rezultātiem, novērtēt Baltijas akciju tirgus attīstības tendences. Darba pamatuzdevumos ietilpa pašreizējā Baltijas akciju tirgus stāvokļa analīze. Izstrādātais darbs sastāv no trim daļām. Pirmajā daļā tiek dots īss vērtspapīra tirgus vispārīgais raksturojums un vērtspapīru tirgus instrumentu raksturojums. Darba otrajā daļā tiek doti Baltij...

  1. Stakleni strop. Granice u napredovanju žena na radnom mjestu

    OpenAIRE

    Jergovski, Antonija

    2010-01-01

    Koliko god društvo u kojem živimo bilo razvijeno i osviješteno, čini se da neki oblici diskriminacije još uvijek nisu iščezli te pogađaju različite skupine ljudi. Oblik diskriminacije o kojemu će biti riječi u ovom radu odnosi se na diskriminaciju koja se pojavljuje na radnom mjestu, a dotiče se isključivo žena. Radi se o obliku diskriminacije za koji se uvriježio naziv „glass ceiling“ („stakleni strop“), i kojim se pokušava oslikati situacija u kojoj se mnoge žene nađu tijekom svoje karijere...

  2. Supersymmetric particles in N=2 superspace: phase space variables and Hamilton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcarraga, J.A. de; Lukierski, J.

    1982-10-01

    We consider a reparametrization invariant model recently proposed based on the N-extended superPoincare group with central charges, which leads to trajectories on the N-extended Salam-Strathdee superspace. The case N=2 is discussed in detail. We show that the N=2 model is invariant under four real supergauge transformations generated by first class odd constraints which imply the Dirac equation. We introduce one bosonic (which fixes the reparametrization) and four real spinorial (which fix the supergauges) gauge conditions and calculate the Dirac brackets for the remaining unconstrained variables (x-vector,p-vector,thetasup(α),theta-barsup(α-dot)). The equations of motion are written in Hamiltonian form, with H varies as to Tr set containing Qsub(αi),Q-barsub(β-doti) and correspond to the Heisenberg equations of the (first) quantized theory. (author)

  3. Genotype × environment interaction of quality protein maize grain yield in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine G × E interaction of quality protein maize grain yield, six maize genotypes were evaluated under different environments of three Terai (Chitwan, Surkhet and Doti and four mid hill (Dhankuta, Lalitpur, Dolakha and Kaski districts of Nepal during summer seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design along with three replications. The genotypes namely S99TLYQ-B, S99TLYQ-HG-AB and S03TLYQ-AB-01 were identified high yielding and better adapted genotypes for Terai environments with grain yield of 4199 kg ha-1, 3715 kg ha-1, and 3336 kg ha-1 respectively and S99TLYQ-B and S03TLYQ-AB-01 for mid hill environments with grain yield of 4547 kg ha-1 and 4365 kg ha-1 respectively. Therefore, these genotypes can be suggested for cultivation in their respective environments in the country.

  4. Performance evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes across various maize production agro ecologies of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior quality protein maize genotypes for grain yield under different agro climatic conditions of terai and hill districts in Nepal, the coordinated varietal trials (CVT were conducted at Dailekh, Doti, Salyan, Lumle and Pakhribas in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Kabre in 2014 during summer season and coordinated farmer’s field trials (CFFT at Surkhet and Dailekh in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Khumaltar in 2014 during summer season. The experiment was carried out using randomized complete block design with three replications for CVT and CFFT. Across the locations and years the superior genotypes found under CVT were S01SIYQ, S01SIWQ-2 and Poshilo Makai-1 where as S99TLYQ-HG-AB, S99TLYQ-B and Poshilo Makai-1 were found superior genotypes under CFFT. The superior genotypes derived from CFFT will be promoted further for similar environments across the country.

  5. Survivorship and feeding preferences among size classes of outplanted sea urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, and possible use as biocontrol for invasive alien algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charley E. Westbrook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the survivorship, growth and diet preferences of hatchery-raised juvenile urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, to evaluate the efficacy of their use as biocontrol agents in the efforts to reduce alien invasive algae. In flow-through tanks, we measured urchin growth rates, feeding rates and feeding preferences among diets of the most common invasive algae found in Kāneʻohe Bay, Hawaiʻi: Acanthophora spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus clade B. Post-transport survivorship of outplanted urchins was measured in paired open and closed cages in three different reef environments (lagoon, reef flat and reef slope for a month. Survivorship in closed cages was highest on the reef flat (∼75%, and intermediate in the lagoon and reef slope (∼50%. In contrast, open cages showed similar survivorship on the reef flat and in the lagoon, but only 20% of juvenile urchins survived in open cages placed on the reef slope. Urchins grew significantly faster on diets of G. salicornia (1.58 mm/week ± 0.14 SE and Kappaphycus clade B (1.69 ± 0.14 mm/wk than on E. denticulatum (0.97 ± 0.14 mm/wk, with intermediate growth when fed on A. spicifera (1.23 ± 0.11 mm/wk. Interestingly, urchins display size-specific feeding preferences. In non-choice feeding trials, small urchins (17.5–22.5 mm test diameter consumed G. salicornia fastest (6.08 g/day ± 0.19 SE, with A. spicifera (4.25 ± 0.02 g/day and Kappaphycus clade B (3.83 ± 0.02 g/day intermediate, and E. denticulatum was clearly the least consumed (2.32 ± 0.37 g/day. Medium-sized (29.8–43.8 mm urchins likewise preferentially consumed G. salicornia (12.60 ± 0.08 g/day, with less clear differences among the other species in which E. denticulatum was still consumed least (9.35 ± 0.90 g/day. In contrast, large urchins (45.0–65.0 mm showed no significant preferences among the different algae species at all (12.43–15.24 g/day. Overall consumption rates in non

  6. Mācību līdzeklis skaitļu teorijā pamatskolas skolēniem

    OpenAIRE

    Sirica, Dmitrijs

    2009-01-01

    Maģistra darbā ir izstrādāts mācību līdzeklis skaitļu teorijā pamatskolas skolēniem. Darbā apkopoti pēdējo gadu dažādu līmeņu Latvijas matemātikas olimpiāžu uzdevumi skaitļu teorijā un doti izvērsti to atrisinājumi. Darbs paredzēts galvenokārt šādiem mērķiem: - palīgmateriāls matemātikas skolotājiem, gatavojot skolēnus matemātikas olimpiādēm ; - palīgmateriāls skolēniem, lai apgūtu nestandarta uzdevumu risināšana metodes skaitļu teorijā. Darbs satur arī mate...

  7. Android mobilo telefonu drošība un tās palielināšanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Koņkovs, Nikolajs

    2015-01-01

    Kā vispopulārākā mobilā operētājsistēma Android ir lietotāju, izstrādātāju un datorlaužu kopienas ciešā uzmanībā. Kā katrai operētājsistēmai, Android platformai ir problēmas un drošības ievainojamības. Popularitātes un izplatības dēļ Android cieš no uzbrukumiem vairāk, nekā tā konkurenti iOS un Windows Phone. Darbā ir apskatīti operētājsistēmas Android drošības mehānismi un dažu drošības problēmu risinājuma metodes, lai noskaidrotu Android visievainotākās vietas un ir doti ieteikumi, kā ir...

  8. Evaluation of early maize genotypes for grain yield and agromorphological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishal Dhakal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the variation on agro-morphological traits and grain yield. A set of 14 early maize genotypes were studied at research field of Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Doti, Nepal in summer seasons of 2015 and 2016. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications in each year. The variation among genotypes was observed for grain yield and flowering. The genotype SO3TEY-PO-BM produced the highest grain yield (4.33 t/ha in 2015 whereas Rajahar Local Variety produced the highest grain yield (2.52 t/ha in 2016. The combined analysis over years showed that Farmer’s variety was found earlier in tasseling (36 days and silking (39 days, followed by S97TEYGHAYB(3 in tasseling (45 days and by S97TEYGHAYB(3 and Arun-4 in silking (48 days. EEYC1 produced the highest grain yield (3.17 t/ha, followed by COMPOL-NIBP (3.09 t/ha, SO3TEY-PO-BM (2.90 t/ha, S97TEYGHAYB(3 (2.78 t/ha and Rajahar Local variety (2.77 t/ha, respectively. The information on variation for the agro-morphological traits among studied early maize genotypes will be helpful to plant breeders in constructing their breeding materials and implementing selection strategies.

  9. Performance evaluation of early maize genotypes in far western hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Kumar Prasai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Initial evaluation trial of maize (early genotypes was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Doti, Nepal in 2013 and 2014. Total fourteen and fifteen genotypes of early maize were included in initial evaluation experiment of the year 2013 and 2014 respectively. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each year. Out of the tested genotypes, SO3TEY/LN, ZM 423 and SO3TEY-FM (ER identified as promising from statistical analysis over year. All the tested characters were found statistically significant. Similarly, the coordinated varietal trial of maize (early was also carried out in the same station at 2013 and 2014. Total fourteen genotypes in 2013 and fifteen genotypes in 2015 of maize (early were included in the experiment. The RCB design was applied and the experiment was replicated three times in every year. ZM 627 and ZM 621/Pool -15 genotypes identified as superior next to Arun-2 from the analysis of two year data. All the tested traits were found statistically significant in over year analysis.

  10. Resenha do livro "Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror", de Lee Jarvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo de Toledo Gomes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os ataques terroristas de 11 de setembro de 2001 foram alvo de intenso debate ao longo dos últimos anos. Diversos foram os analistas que, por meio dos mais distintos vieses teóricos e metodológicos, procuraram avaliar o que aconteceu, o que mudou e o que se manteve inalterado no sistema internacional. Todavia, retomando a profícua distinção proposta por Lynn-Doty (1993 entre perguntas do tipo por que (why-questions - interessadas em investigar porque determinadas ações e/ou decisões foram tomadas - e perguntas do tipo como (how-questions, cuja meta é entender como sentidos são produzidos e dados aos mais diversos sujeitos sociais, podemos argumentar com certa segurança que este ultimo tipo de pesquisa associado à Guerra ao Terror se desenvolveu apenas mais recentemente na área de Relações Internacionais. O livro ora resenhado é uma valiosa tentativa nessa segunda linha.

  11. Environmental And Area Support Capability Analysis For Seaweed Mariculture Development In Hading Bay Of East Flores Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus K. Da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract East Flores regency has adequate marine resources potentials to develop seaweed aquaculture area. Animportant aspect of seaweed aquaculture is the site selection. Site selection is based on the marine area extent and its ecological quality. The objectives of the study were to analyze the water ecology and its support capability and to determine the best site for continuous seaweed mariculture in Hading Bay of East Flores Regency. The study used descriptive method. It was conducted in Hading Bay Lewolema District East Flores Regency in March 2015. Data analysis was done using GIS based on area suitability value and the method applied in the mariculture was long line method. Total Hading Bay water territory was864676 ha. Site Awas135345 ha site B was 474222 ha and site C was 255108 ha. Area with S1 category was 729331 ha extended in Site B and C. Area with S2 category was 135345 ha as extended in Site A. Water territory support capability was 778208 ha. The number of seaweed mariculture units was 194552 units and seaweed territory capacity was 99. Hading Bay waster has the capacity and area support capability for K. alvareziiseaweed mariculture site. Site A was categorized S2 on suitability class and site B and C were categorized S1 on suitability class. The results showed different quality of water territory in those three sites was not significant and still in normal range of K. alvarezii seaweed mariculture development.

  12. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  13. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  14. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  15. Implications of drying temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Majid Khan Majahar; Fudholi, Ahmad; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, Jumat; Yasir, Suhaimi Md

    2017-11-01

    A Low Temperature and Humidity Chamber Test tested in the Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Experiments are attempted to study the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed Kappaphycus species Striatum besides to develop a model to estimate the drying curves. Simple method using a excel software is used in the analysis of raw data obtained from the drying experiment. The values of the parameters a, n and the constant k for the models are determined using a plot of curve drying models. Three different drying models are compared with experiment data seaweed drying at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C and relative humidity 20, 30 and 40% for seaweed. The higher drying temperatures and low relative humidity effects the moisture content that will be rapidly reduced. The most suitable model is selected to best describe the drying behavior of seaweed. The values of the coefficient of determination (R2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are used to determine the goodness or the quality of the fit. The Page model is showed a better fit to drying seaweed. The results from this study crucial for solar dryer development on pilot scale in Malaysia.

  16. Sexual behavior and condom use among seasonal Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: a qualitative study.

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    Kiran Bam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West, Nepal. The study's objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. METHODS: The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs. The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread.

  17. Sexual behavior and condom use among seasonal Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bam, Kiran; Thapa, Rajshree; Newman, Marielle Sophia; Bhatt, Lokesh Prasad; Bhatta, Shree Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West), Nepal. The study's objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs) from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs). The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread.

  18. Sexual Behavior and Condom Use among Seasonal Dalit Migrant Laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bam, Kiran; Thapa, Rajshree; Newman, Marielle Sophia; Bhatt, Lokesh Prasad; Bhatta, Shree Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West), Nepal. The study’s objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. Methods The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs) from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. Results Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs). The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. Conclusions Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread. PMID:24040359

  19. Design, implementation, and demographic differences of HEAL: a self-report health care leadership instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy KR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly R Murphy, John E McManigle, Benjamin M Wildman-Tobriner, Amy Little Jones, Travis J Dekker, Barrett A Little, Joseph P Doty, Dean C Taylor Duke Healthcare Leadership Program, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL] to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016. When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the

  20. Self assembly of rectangular shapes on concentration programming and probabilistic tile assembly models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2012-06-01

    Efficient tile sets for self assembling rectilinear shapes is of critical importance in algorithmic self assembly. A lower bound on the tile complexity of any deterministic self assembly system for an n × n square is [Formula: see text] (inferred from the Kolmogrov complexity). Deterministic self assembly systems with an optimal tile complexity have been designed for squares and related shapes in the past. However designing [Formula: see text] unique tiles specific to a shape is still an intensive task in the laboratory. On the other hand copies of a tile can be made rapidly using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) experiments. This led to the study of self assembly on tile concentration programming models. We present two major results in this paper on the concentration programming model. First we show how to self assemble rectangles with a fixed aspect ratio ( α:β ), with high probability, using Θ( α + β ) tiles. This result is much stronger than the existing results by Kao et al. (Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008) and Doty (Randomized self-assembly for exact shapes. In: proceedings of the 50th annual IEEE symposium on foundations of computer science (FOCS), IEEE, Atlanta. pp 85-94, 2009)-which can only self assembly squares and rely on tiles which perform binary arithmetic. On the other hand, our result is based on a technique called staircase sampling . This technique eliminates the need for sub-tiles which perform binary arithmetic, reduces the constant in the asymptotic bound, and eliminates the need for approximate frames (Kao et al. Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008). Our second result applies staircase sampling on the equimolar concentration programming model (The tile complexity of linear assemblies. In: proceedings of the 36th international colloquium automata, languages and programming: Part I on ICALP '09, Springer-Verlag, pp 235

  1. Geographical heterogeneity and inequality of access to improved drinking water supply and sanitation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Jun; Lai, Ying-Si; Karmacharya, Biraj M; Dai, Bo-Feng; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Xu, Dong Roman

    2018-04-02

    Per United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, Nepal is aspiring to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and provide access to adequate and equitable sanitation for all by 2030. For these goals to be accomplished, it is important to understand the country's geographical heterogeneity and inequality of access to its drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) so that resource allocation and disease control can be optimized. We aimed 1) to estimate spatial heterogeneity of access to improved WSS among the overall Nepalese population at a high resolution; 2) to explore inequality within and between relevant Nepalese administrative levels; and 3) to identify the specific administrative areas in greatest need of policy attention. We extracted cluster-sample data on the use of the water supply and sanitation that included 10,826 surveyed households from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, then used a Gaussian kernel density estimation with adaptive bandwidths to estimate the distribution of access to improved WSS conditions over a grid at 1 × 1 km. The Gini coefficient was calculated for the measurement of inequality in the distribution of improved WSS; the Theil L measure and Theil T index were applied to account for the decomposition of inequality. 57% of Nepalese had access to improved sanitation (range: 18.1% in Mahottari to 100% in Kathmandu) and 92% to drinking-water (range: 41.7% in Doti to 100% in Bara). The most unequal districts in Gini coefficient among improved sanitation were Saptari, Sindhuli, Banke, Bajura and Achham (range: 0.276 to 0.316); and Sankhuwasabha, Arghakhanchi, Gulmi, Bhojpur, Kathmandu (range: 0.110 to 0.137) among improved drinking-water. Both the Theil L and Theil T showed that within-province inequality was substantially greater than between-province inequality; while within-district inequality was less than between-district inequality. The inequality of several districts was

  2. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should

  3. Book review. Un veterinario a spasso per il mondo tra guerre, colonialismo e apartheid. Attilio Pini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2014-12-01

    fascista, del fratello maggiore Tebaldo come il padre militare di carriera e poi veterinario. E ancora, le prime docce con l'acqua di mare, la "festa delle bastonate" (una vera battaglia tra somali con finalità propiziatorie di fertilità, fino al viaggio in nave con Filippo Tommaso Marinetti che pare si fosse invaghito della madre Anna. Quello del dott. Pini è un libro ben scritto, dallo stile lineare, fatto di parole pesate col misurino, a volte anche musicali ("Non c'era più il fascio, ma si assisteva all'inizio dello sfascio" e argute (si legga pag. 35 sugli italiani "popolo plaudente" che rendono la lettura assai godibile. Nonostante l'autore si schernisca dicendo di non aver ereditato nessuna delle doti paterne, evidentemente ha ereditato eccome la verve narrativa dal padre Ugo autore, tra l'altro, del libro di memorie Sotto le ceneri dell'impero. Dalle rive del Giuba alle falde del monte Kenya, edito nel 1967 e ancora oggi nel catalogo dell'Editore Mursia.

  4. The wounded male persona and the mysterious feminine in the poetry of James Wright: a study in the transformation of the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, M; Schermer, V L

    1998-12-01

    known about Wright's childhood to attempt to reconstruct such a trauma, and a definitive biography is long overdue. (Wright died in 1980). However, the concept of "soul murder" as used by Shengold (1989) with respect to psychological trauma does seem pertinent. For example, Wright's powerful identification with the downtrodden, and especially with certain murderers (Doty, Judas) echoes the paranoiac Schreber's identification with his abusive father as "soul murderer": "I, myself, have been 'represented' as the one who had committed soul murder" (Shengold, 1989, p. 22, quoting Schreber). Certainly, the theme of damage to the self is prominent in Wright, and the poet's striving for reparation, restitution, and the restoration of lost goodness is not only characteristic of Melanie Klein's "depressive position" (Segal, 1980, pp. 76-89), which she saw as a normal developmental process, but also of the character structures of profoundly traumatized individuals. In addition, the rapid, "leaping" shifts of imagery in Wright's poems bear some resemblance to the shifts in mood and the dissociated and "autohypnotic" states (Shengold, 1989, pp. 138-154) of posttraumatic stress and related disorders. However much that may be the case, Wright's work moves toward healing and integration, and forces us to reconsider the psychoanalytic shibboleth that all that represents a lack of distinctiveness between self and other is pathological. This assumption denies the richness of that part of the psyche which originates in the symbiotic union of mother and infant. Wright's work does not so much force us to doubt our own perceptions of reality as it gently yet forthrightly guides us into other realms where feeling and thought are in dialogue, where the uniquely human and the universal mythos converge, and where--perhaps most importantly--possibility and transformation are imminent. The abandoned male persona and the mysterious feminine are part of that world, that cosmos, that Wright has cr

  5. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    was conducted by inserting the net PE.MA.M. between the water flow and the clod cards; the second was performed without the net. We calculated the dry weight of the clod cards in two steps: before placing them in water (Wi) and after 6 hours under the flow (Wf). We used the formula (Doty, 1971 Thompson & Gleen, 1994), to calculate the flow attenuation capacity of the PE.MA.M net. The experiments showed that the PE.MA.M. is in equilibrium with the external environment after 4 hours; it isolates constant concentration of chlorophyll a and attenuates the flow of currents of about 30% .The PE.MA.M. is a potential tool in the phytoplankton community, in the absence of natural hydrodynamics,that can provide useful informations for the understanding of physical phenomena and how their changes affect biological processes.

  6. Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  7. A New Technique for Determining the Distribution of Radium and Thorium in Living Persons; Determination de la Repartition du Radium et du Thorium chez les Personnes Vivantes: Une Methode Nouvelle; Novyj metod opredeleniya raspredeleniya radiya i toriya u patsientov; Nueva Tecnica para Determinar la Distribucion del Radio y del Torio en Pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Health Division, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    -uniformity of distribution of Tl{sup 208} (ThC''), of Ac{sup 228} (MsTh{sup 2}), and possibly of Pb{sup 212} along the axis of the body. (author) [French] En regle generale, on se sert d'anthropogammametres pour doser l'activite du corps humain, sans se preoccuper de sa repartition. Dans le cas des radioisotopes osteotropes comme le radium, il importe d'avoir une idee au moins approximative de leur repartition dans le squelette pour etudier la nature de la reponse a la dose. Les techniques decrites dans le memoire ont pour objet de deceler toute inhomogeneite importante dans la repartition du radium chez des malades qui ne peuvent pas ou ne veulent pas rester allonges et immobilises pendant plus d'une heure. Un cristal de conception nouvelle, en forme de cylindre droit, mesurant 15 cm de diametre sur 20 cm de long, est situe a 30 cm au-dessus de la surface d'un lit rigide, l'axe du cristal etant horizontal et orthogonal par rapport a la colonne vertebrale du malade en supination. Ce cristal horizontal allonge est utilise de preference au cylindre vertical court de type courant, de maniere que la surface et les sections du cristal aient la meme forme, quel que soit le point du corps d'oti on les observe. Le cristal etant place a un nombre x de positions regulierement espacees le long du lit,, on determine les spectres des rayons gamma emis par le malade en supination et par des sources radioactives ponctuelles placees au centre de fantomes en bois artificiel (Presdwood). Les taux de comptage obtenus pour des pics photoelectriques determines provenant des spectres du malade et du fantome sont transmis a une calculatrice electronique, laquelle est programmee de maniere a calculer une serie de sources ponctuelles qui fourniraient le meme profil de rayons gamma. Les resultats obtenus chez un-certain nombre de malades traites au radium montrent que, si la repartition du radioisotope est souvent essentiellement uniforme, chez certaines personnes sa concentration est deux ou trois fois