Sample records for kappa statistics results

  1. Assessing agreement with multiple raters on correlated kappa statistics. (United States)

    Cao, Hongyuan; Sen, Pranab K; Peery, Anne F; Dellon, Evan S


    In clinical studies, it is often of interest to see the diagnostic agreement among clinicians on certain symptoms. Previous work has focused on the agreement between two clinicians under two different conditions or the agreement among multiple clinicians under one condition. Few have discussed the agreement study with a design where multiple clinicians examine the same group of patients under two different conditions. In this paper, we use the intraclass kappa statistic for assessing nominal scale agreement with such a design. We derive an explicit variance formula for the difference of correlated kappa statistics and conduct hypothesis testing for the equality of kappa statistics. Simulation studies show that the method performs well with realistic sample sizes and may be superior to a method that did not take into account the measurement dependence structure. The practical utility of the method is illustrated on data from an eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) study.

  2. Assessing agreement on classification tasks the kappa statistic

    CERN Document Server

    Carletta, J


    Currently, computational linguists and cognitive scientists working in the area of discourse and dialogue argue that their subjective judgments are reliable using several different statistics, none of which are easily interpretable or comparable to each other. Meanwhile, researchers in content analysis have already experienced the same difficulties and come up with a solution in the kappa statistic. We discuss what is wrong with reliability measures as they are currently used for discourse and dialogue work in computational linguistics and cognitive science, and argue that we would be better off as a field adopting techniques from content analysis.

  3. Observer variability in the assessment of type and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas, analyzed using kappa statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Krogsgaard, M R; Christiansen, J


    of adenomas were assessed twice by three experienced pathologists, with an interval of two months. Results were analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: For agreement between first and second assessment (both type and grade of dysplasia), kappa values for the three specialists were 0.5345, 0.9022, and 0....... The kappa values for Observer A vs. B and Observer C vs. B were 0.3480 and 0.3770, respectively (both type and dysplasia). Values for type were better than for dysplasia, but agreement was only fair to moderate. CONCLUSION: The interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect, but the intraobserver...... agreement was only fair to moderate. A simpler classification system or a centralization of assessments would probably increase kappa values....

  4. Kappa-Deformations: Historical Developments and Recent Results

    CERN Document Server

    Lukierski, Jerzy


    I shall recall in historical perspective some results from nineties and show further how $\\kappa$-deformed symmetries and $\\kappa$-Minkowski space inspired DSR (Doubly of Deformed Special Relativity) approach proposed after 2000. As very recent development I shall show how to describe quantum-covariant $\\kappa$-deformed phase spaces by passing from Hopf algebras to Hopf algebroids (arXiv:1507.02612) and I will briefly describe the $\\kappa$-deformations of $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring target spaces (arXiv:1510.030.83).

  5. Results of using permanent magnets to suppress Josephson noise in the KAPPa SIS receiver (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Neric, Marko; Groppi, Christopher E.; Underhill, Matthew; Mani, Hamdi; Weinreb, Sander; Russell, Damon S.; Kooi, Jacob W.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Walker, Christopher K.; Kulesa, Craig


    We present the results from the magnetic field generation within the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) instrument. The KAPPa instrument is a terahertz heterodyne receiver using a Superconducting-Insulating- Superconducting (SIS) mixers. To improve performance, SIS mixers require a magnetic field to suppress Josephson noise. The KAPPa test receiver can house a tunable electromagnet used to optimize the applied magnetic field. The receiver is also capable of accommodating a permanent magnet that applies a fixed field. Our permanent magnet design uses off-the-shelf neodymium permanent magnets and then reshapes the magnetic field using machined steel concentrators. These concentrators allow the use of an unmachined permanent magnet in the back of the detector block while two small posts provide the required magnetic field across the SIS junction in the detector cavity. The KAPPa test receiver is uniquely suited to compare the permanent magnet and electromagnet receiver performance. The current work includes our design of a `U' shaped permanent magnet, the testing and calibration procedure for the permanent magnet, and the overall results of the performance comparison between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet counterpart.

  6. Integrative decomposition procedure and Kappa statistics set up ATF2 ion binding module in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying SUN; Lin WANG; Lei LIU


    Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the ATF/cyclic AMP-responsive element bind-ing protein family of transcription factors. However, the information concerning ATF2 ion-mediated DNA binding module and function of ATF2 in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has never been addressed. In this study, by using GRNInfer and GVedit based on linear pro-gramming and a decomposition procedure, with integrated analysis of the function cluster using Kappa statistics and fuzzy heuristic clustering in MPM, we identified one ATF2 ion-mediated DNA binding module involved in invasive function including ATF2 inhibition to target genes FALZ, C20orf31, NME2, PLOD2, RNF10, and RNASEH1, upstream RNF10 and PLOD2 activation to ATF2, upstream RNASEH1 and FALZ inhibition to ATF2 from 40 MPM tumors and 5 normal pleural tissues. Remarkably, our results showed that the predominant effect of ATF2 occupancy is to suppress the activation of target genes on MPM. Importantly, the ATF2 ion-mediated DNA binding module reflects 'mutual' positive and negative feedback regulation mechanism of ATF2 with up-and down-stream genes. It may be useful for developing novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in MPM.

  7. IkappaBalpha deficiency results in a sustained NF-kappaB response and severe widespread dermatitis in mice. (United States)

    Klement, J F; Rice, N R; Car, B D; Abbondanzo, S J; Powers, G D; Bhatt, P H; Chen, C H; Rosen, C A; Stewart, C L


    The ubiquitous transcription factor NF-kappaB is an essential component in signal transduction pathways, in inflammation, and in the immune response. NF-kappaB is maintained in an inactive state in the cytoplasm by protein-protein interaction with IkappaBalpha. Upon stimulation, rapid degradation of IkappaBalpha allows nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. To study the importance of IkappaBalpha in signal transduction, IkappaBalpha-deficient mice were derived by gene targeting. Cultured fibroblasts derived from IkappaBalpha-deficient embryos exhibit levels of NF-kappaB1, NF-kappaB2, RelA, c-Rel, and IkappaBbeta similar to those of wild-type fibroblasts. A failure to increase nuclear levels of NF-kappaB indicates that cytoplasmic retention of NF-kappaB may be compensated for by other IkappaB proteins. Treatment of wild-type cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) resulted in rapid, transient nuclear localization of NF-kappaB. IkappaBalpha-deficient fibroblasts are also TNF-alpha responsive, but nuclear localization of NF-kappaB is prolonged, thus demonstrating that a major irreplaceable function Of IkappaBalpha is termination of the NF-kappaB response. Consistent with these observations, and with IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB's role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses, is the normal development Of IkappaBalpha-deficient mice. However, growth ceases 3 days after birth and death usually occurs at 7 to 10 days of age. An increased percentage of monocytes/macrophages was detected in spleen cells taken from 5-, 7-, and 9-day-old pups. Death is accompanied by severe widespread dermatitis and increased levels of TNF-alpha mRNA in the skin. PMID:8628301

  8. Statistics of assay validation in high throughput cell imaging of nuclear factor kappaB nuclear translocation. (United States)

    Morelock, Maurice M; Hunter, Edward A; Moran, Timothy J; Heynen, Susanne; Laris, Casey; Thieleking, Michael; Akong, Michael; Mikic, Ivana; Callaway, Scott; DeLeon, Rodney P; Goodacre, Angela; Zacharias, David; Price, Jeffrey H


    This report describes statistical validation methods implemented on assay data for inhibition of subcellular redistribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF kappaB) in HeLa cells. We quantified cellular inhibition of cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of NF kappaB in response to a range of concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist in the presence of IL-1alpha using eight replicate rows in each four 96-well plates scanned five times on each of 2 days. Translocation was measured as the fractional localized intensity of the nucleus (FLIN), an implementation of our more general fractional localized intensity of the compartments (FLIC), which analyzes whole compartments in the context of the entire cell. The NF kappaB antagonist assay (inhibition of IL-1- induced NF kappaB translocation) data were collected on a Q3DM (San Diego, CA) EIDAQtrade mark 100 high throughput microscopy system. [In 2003, Q3DM was purchased by Beckman Coulter Inc. (Fullerton, CA), which released the IC 100 successor to the EIDAQ 100.] The generalized FLIC method is described along with two-point (minimum-maximum) and multiple point titration statistical methods. As a ratio of compartment intensities that tend to change proportionally, FLIN was resistant to photobleaching errors. Two-point minimum-maximum statistical analyses yielded the following: a Z' of 0.174 with the data as n = 320 independent well samples; Z' by row data in a range of 0.393-0.933, with a mean of 0.766; by-plate Z' data of 0.310, 0.443, 0.545, and 0.794; and by-plate means of columns Z' data of 0.879, 0.927, 0.945, and 0.963. The mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for IL-1 receptor antagonist over all experiments was 213 ng/ml. The combined IC50 coefficients of variation (CVs) were 0.74%, 0.85%, 2.09%, and 2.52% for the four plates. Repeatability IC50 CVs were as follows: day to day 3.0%, row to row 8.0%, plate to plate 2.8%, and day to day 0.6%. The number of cells required for statistically resolvable

  9. Statistical combination of experimental results in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gadatsch, Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration


    The combination of experimental results requires a careful statistical treatment. We review the methods and tools used in ATLAS for the statistical combination of measurements and of limits on new physics. We highlight the methods used in the recent combination of ATLAS and CMS measurements of the Higgs boson production/decay rates and the constraints on the Higgs coupling parameters.

  10. Statistical literacy and sample survey results (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles


    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.

  11. Kappa and q Indices: Dependence on the Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis


    Full Text Available The kappa distributions, or their equivalent, the q-exponential distributions, are the natural generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Maxwell distributions, applied to the study of the particle populations in collisionless space plasmas. A huge step in the development of the theory of kappa distributions and their applications in space plasma physics has been achieved with the discovery that the observed kappa distributions are connected with the solid statistical background of non-extensive statistical mechanics. Now that the statistical framework has been identified, it is straightforward to improve our understanding of the nature of the kappa index (or the entropic q-index that governs these distributions. One critical topic is the dependence of the kappa index on the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we first show how this specific dependence is naturally emerged, using the formalism of the N-particle kappa distribution of velocities. Then, the result is extended in the presence of potential energies. It is shown that the kappa index is simply related to the kinetic and potential degrees of freedom. In addition, it is shown that various problems of non-extensive statistical mechanics, such as (i the correlation dependence on the total number of particles; and (ii the normalization divergence for finite kappa indices, are resolved considering the kappa index dependence on the degrees of freedom.

  12. Statistical analysis of concrete quality testing results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Dragica


    Full Text Available This paper statistically investigates the testing results of compressive strength and density of control concrete specimens tested in the Laboratory for materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, during 2012. The total number of 4420 concrete specimens were tested, which were sampled on different locations - either on concrete production site (concrete plant, or concrete placement location (construction site. To be exact, these samples were made of concrete which was produced on 15 concrete plants, i.e. placed in at 50 different reinforced concrete structures, built during 2012 by 22 different contractors. It is a known fact that the achieved values of concrete compressive strength are very important, both for quality and durability assessment of concrete inside the structural elements, as well as for calculation of their load-bearing capacity limit. Together with the compressive strength testing results, the data concerning requested (designed concrete class, matching between the designed and the achieved concrete quality, concrete density values and frequency of execution of concrete works during 2012 were analyzed.

  13. 688,112 statistical results : Content mining psychology articles for statistical test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.


    In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results reported according to the standards prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Articles published by the APA, Springer, Sage, and Taylor & Francis

  14. Subset of Kappa and Lambda Germline Sequences Result in Light Chains with a Higher Molecular Mass Phenotype. (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhang, Bo; Dasari, Surendra; Murray, David L; Zubarev, Roman A


    In our previous work, we showed that electrospray ionization of intact polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains isolated from normal serum generates two distinct, Gaussian-shaped, molecular mass distributions representing the light-chain repertoire. During the analysis of a large (>100) patient sample set, we noticed a low-intensity molecular mass distribution with a mean of approximately 24 250 Da, roughly 800 Da higher than the mean of the typical kappa molecular-mass distribution mean of 23 450 Da. We also observed distinct clones in this region that did not appear to contain any typical post-translational modifications that would account for such a large mass shift. To determine the origin of the high molecular mass clones, we performed de novo bottom-up mass spectrometry on a purified IgM monoclonal light chain that had a calculated molecular mass of 24 275.03 Da. The entire sequence of the monoclonal light chain was determined using multienzyme digestion and de novo sequence-alignment software and was found to belong to the germline allele IGKV2-30. The alignment of kappa germline sequences revealed ten IGKV2 and one IGKV4 sequences that contained additional amino acids in their CDR1 region, creating the high-molecular-mass phenotype. We also performed an alignment of lambda germline sequences, which showed additional amino acids in the CDR2 region, and the FR3 region of functional germline sequences that result in a high-molecular-mass phenotype. The work presented here illustrates the ability of mass spectrometry to provide information on the diversity of light-chain molecular mass phenotypes in circulation, which reflects the germline sequences selected by the immunoglobulin-secreting B-cell population.

  15. T1 VSAT Fade Compensation Statistical Results (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Acosta, Roberto; Ugweje, Oke


    New satellite communication systems are steadily seeking to use higher frequency bands to accommodate the requirements for additional capacity. At these higher frequencies, propagation impairments that did not significantly affect the signal at lower frequencies begin to have considerable impact. In Ka-band. the next logical commercial frequency band to be used for satellite communication, attenuation of the signal due to rain is a primary concern. An experimental satellite built by NASA, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). launched in September 1993, is the first U.S. communication satellite operating in the Ka-band. In addition to higher carrier frequencies, a number of other new technologies, including on-board baseband processing. multiple beam antennas, and rain fade detection and compensation techniques, were designed into the ACTS. Verification experiments have been conducted since the launch to characterize the new technologies. The focus of this paper is to characterize the method used by the ACTS TI Very Small Aperture Terminal (TI VSAT) ground stations in detecting the presence of fade in the communication signal and to adaptively compensate for it by the addition of burst rate reduction and forward error correction. Measured data obtained from the ACTS program was used to validate the compensation technique. A software process was developed and demonstrated to statistically characterize the increased availability achieved by the compensation techniques in terms of the bit error rate time enhancement factor. Several improvements to the ACTS technique are discussed and possible implementations for future Ka band system are offered.

  16. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.


    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.



    Adrian Stere PARIS; Gheorghe AMZA; Claudiu BABIŞ; Dan Niţoi


    The paper details the results of processing the fatigue data experiments to find the regression function. Application software for statistical processing like ANOVA and regression calculi are properly utilized, with emphasis on popular software like MSExcel and CurveExpert

  18. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals. (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M


    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature are incorrectly reported. Inconsistencies were more common in low-impact journals than in high-impact journals. Moreover, around 15% of the articles contained at least one statistical conclusion that proved, upon recalculation, to be incorrect; that is, recalculation rendered the previously significant result insignificant, or vice versa. These errors were often in line with researchers' expectations. We classified the most common errors and contacted authors to shed light on the origins of the errors.

  19. Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.


    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we...... consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales......, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS


    Full Text Available The paper details the results of processing the fatigue data experiments to find the regression function. Application software for statistical processing like ANOVA and regression calculi are properly utilized, with emphasis on popular software like MSExcel and CurveExpert

  1. New results in the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude


    We will describe the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions allowing to obtain simultaneously the unpolarized distributions and the helicity distributions. We will present some recent results, in particular related to the nucleon spin structure in QCD. Future measurements are challenging to check the validity of this novel physical framework.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.


    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  3. Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.


    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...

  4. $\\kappa$-Deformations and Extended $\\kappa$-Minkowski Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Borowiec, Andrzej


    We extend our previous study of Hopf-algebraic $\\kappa$-deformations of all inhomogeneous orthogonal Lie algebras ${\\rm iso}(g)$ as written in a tensorial and unified form. Such deformations are determined by a vector $\\tau$ which for Lorentzian signature can be taken time-, light- or space-like. We focus on some mathematical aspects related to this subject. Firstly, we describe real forms with connection to the metric's signatures and their compatibility with the reality condition for the corresponding $\\kappa$-Minkowski (Hopf) module algebras. Secondly, $h$-adic vs $q$-analog (polynomial) versions of deformed algebras including specialization of the formal deformation parameter $\\kappa$ to some numerical value are considered. In the latter the general covariance is lost and one deals with an orthogonal decomposition. The last topic treated in this paper concerns twisted extensions of $\\kappa$-deformations as well as the description of resulting noncommutative spacetime algebras in terms of solvable Lie alge...

  5. Processing of toxicological studies results in the statistical program R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoseeva Elena Vasilyevna


    Full Text Available The presented article is devoted to the analysis of the experimental values and the applicability of the toxicological studies results in the statistical environment R. This freely distributed program has great functional potential and well-designed algorithm, these make it "...the undisputed leader among the freely distributed systems for statistical analysis..." As the data, the experimental results to assess the toxicity of a highly- mineralized sample in the industrial production wastes were used. We evaluated two test-functions: the change in the population increase of cells and the fluorescence level of laboratory culture of the marine diatom algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The detailed algorithm of the analysis, namely: data initialization, evaluation of selective parameters of descriptive statistics, toxicity assessment, single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett multiple comparison tests, evaluation of correlation between the observed variable (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients are presented in the article. The complete list of scripts in the program R allows to reproduce a similar analysis.

  6. Statistics (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  7. Experimental Results on Statistical Approaches to Page Replacement Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper investigates the questions of what statistical information about a memory request sequence is useful to have in making page replacement decisions: Our starting point is the Markov Request Model for page request sequences. Although the utility of modeling page request sequences by the Markov model has been recently put into doubt, we find that two previously suggested algorithms (Maximum Hitting Time and Dominating Distribution) which are based on the Markov model work well on the trace data used in this study. Interestingly, both of these algorithms perform equally well despite the fact that the theoretical results for these two algorithms differ dramatically. We then develop succinct characteristics of memory access patterns in an attempt to approximate the simpler of the two algorithms. Finally, we investigate how to collect these characteristics in an online manner in order to have a purely online algorithm.

  8. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.


    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...... of the CMB that are compared to simulations using a fiducial $\\Lambda$CDM model and incorporating essential aspects of the \\Planck\\ measurement process. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask and frequency dependence. Many......, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. The dipolar power asymmetry is now found to persist to much smaller angular scales, and can be described in the low-$\\ell$ regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. Finally...

  9. Neutrino Oscillation Parameters After High Statistics KamLAND Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Goswami, Srubabati; Petcov, S T; Roy, D P


    We do a re-analysis to asses the impact of the results of the Borexino experiment and the recent 2.8 KTy KamLAND data on the solar neutrino oscillation parameters. The current Borexino results are found to have no impact on the allowed solar neutrino parameter space. The new KamLAND data causes a significant reduction of the allowed range of $\\Delta m^2_{21}$, determining it with an unprecedented precision of 8.3% at 3$\\sigma$. The precision of $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ is controlled practically by the KamLAND data alone. Inclusion of new KamLAND results also improves the upper bound on $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}$, but the precision of this parameter continues to be controlled by the solar data. The third mixing angle is constrained to be $\\sin^2\\theta_{13} < 0.063$ at $3\\sigma$ from a combined fit to the solar, KamLAND, atmospheric and CHOOZ results. We also address the issue of how much further reduction of allowed range of $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}$ is possible with increased statistics from KamLAND. We ...

  10. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.


    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E.


    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their

  12. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.


    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  13. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ade, P.A.R; Rachen, J.P; Zonca, A


    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite...

  14. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Wicherts, J.M.


    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generalit

  15. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G


    The parameter kappa was defined by Anderson and Hough (1984) to describe the high-frequency spectral roll-off of the strong motion seismic spectrum. In the work of Su et al., (1996) the numerical value of kappa estimated for sites near Yucca Mountain was small (~20 ms). The estimate obtained from these events has been applied through a rigorous methodology to develop design earthquake spectra with magnitude over 5.0. Smaller values of kappa lead to higher estimated ground motions in the methodology used by the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain. An increase of 10 ms in kappa could result in a substantial decrease in the high frequency level of the predicted ground motions. Any parameter that plays such a critical role deserves close examination. Here, we study kappa and its associated uncertainties. The data set used by Su et al (1996) consisted of 12 M 2.8 to 4.5 earthquakes recorded at temporary stations deployed after the June 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The kappa elements of that study were revisited by Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) and substantially confirmed. One weakness of those studies is the limited data used. Few of these stations were on tuff or on Yucca Mountain itself. A decade of Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) recording has now yielded a larger body of on-scale, well calibrated digital ground motion records suitable for investigating kappa. We use the SGBDSN data to check some of the original assumptions, improve the statistical confidence of the conclusions, and determine values of kappa for stations on or near Yucca Mountain. The outstanding issues in kappa analysis, as they apply to Yucca Mountain, include: 1. The number itself. The kappa estimate near 20 msec from Su et al. (1996) and Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) is markedly smaller than is considered typical in California (Silva, 1995). The low kappa value has engineering consequences because when it is applied in ground

  16. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rath, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3 sigma). However, we find little evidence for non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist to scales corresponding to about l=600, and can be described in the low-l regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial powe...

  17. Rigorous results of nonequilibrium statistical physics and their experimental verification (United States)

    Pitaevskii, Lev P.


    Rigorous relations of nonequilibrium statistical physics are discussed. An arbitrary system brought into a strongly nonequilibrium state by an external time-dependent impact is considered. Based on the Hamiltonian formalism of classical mechanics, the Bochkov-Kuzovlev equality, the Jarzynski equality, and Crooks reversal relations valid for fluctuations in the work done on a system are derived. Verification of these equalities in mechanical experiments with a torsion pendulum and biological objects (folded ribonucleic acids) is described.

  18. Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity. (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G


    In Ref. [Physica A 296, 405 (2001)], starting from the one parameter deformation of the exponential function exp(kappa)(x)=(sqrt[1+kappa(2)x(2)]+kappax)(1/kappa), a statistical mechanics has been constructed which reduces to the ordinary Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics as the deformation parameter kappa approaches to zero. The distribution f=exp(kappa)(-beta E+betamu) obtained within this statistical mechanics shows a power law tail and depends on the nonspecified parameter beta, containing all the information about the temperature of the system. On the other hand, the entropic form S(kappa)= integral d(3)p(c(kappa) f(1+kappa)+c(-kappa) f(1-kappa)), which after maximization produces the distribution f and reduces to the standard Boltzmann-Shannon entropy S0 as kappa-->0, contains the coefficient c(kappa) whose expression involves, beside the Boltzmann constant, another nonspecified parameter alpha. In the present effort we show that S(kappa) is the unique existing entropy obtained by a continuous deformation of S0 and preserving unaltered its fundamental properties of concavity, additivity, and extensivity. These properties of S(kappa) permit to determine unequivocally the values of the above mentioned parameters beta and alpha. Subsequently, we explain the origin of the deformation mechanism introduced by kappa and show that this deformation emerges naturally within the Einstein special relativity. Furthermore, we extend the theory in order to treat statistical systems in a time dependent and relativistic context. Then, we show that it is possible to determine in a self consistent scheme within the special relativity the values of the free parameter kappa which results to depend on the light speed c and reduces to zero as c--> infinity recovering in this way the ordinary statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The statistical mechanics here presented, does not contain free parameters, preserves unaltered the mathematical and epistemological structure of

  19. Staphylococcus aureus protein A binding to osteoblast tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 results in activation of nuclear factor kappa B and release of interleukin-6 in bone infection. (United States)

    Claro, Tânia; Widaa, Amro; McDonnell, Cormac; Foster, Timothy J; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kerrigan, Steven W


    Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen among the staphylococci and the most common cause of bone infections. These infections are mainly characterized by bone destruction and inflammation, and are often debilitating and very difficult to treat. Previously we demonstrated that S. aureus protein A (SpA) can bind to osteoblasts, which results in inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and mineralization, apoptosis, and activation of osteoclasts. In this study we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to demonstrate that osteoblast tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) is responsible for the recognition of and binding to SpA. TNFR-1 binding to SpA results in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). In turn, NFκB translocates to the nucleus of the osteoblast, which leads to release of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Silencing TNFR-1 in osteoblasts or disruption of the spa gene in S. aureus prevented both NFκB activation and IL-6 release. As well as playing a key role in proinflammatory reactions, IL-6 is also an important osteotropic factor. Release of IL-6 from osteoblasts results in the activation of the bone-resorbing cells, the osteoclasts. Consistent with our results described above, both silencing TNFR-1 in osteoblasts and disruption of spa in S. aureus prevented osteoclast activation. These studies are the first to demonstrate the importance of the TNFR-1-SpA interaction in bone infection, and may help explain the mechanism through which osteoclasts become overactivated, leading to bone destruction. Anti-inflammatory drug therapy could be used either alone or in conjunction with antibiotics to treat osteomyelitis or for prophylaxis in high-risk patients.

  20. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results. (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E


    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters.

  1. The role of NF-kappaB in endometriosis. (United States)

    Kaponis, Apostolos; Iwabe, Tomio; Taniguchi, Fuminori; Ito, Masayuki; Deura, Imari; Decavalas, George; Terakawa, Naoki; Harada, Tasuku


    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor playing vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. This review highlights the importance of NF-kappaB in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB has been shown in endometriotic lesions. Complex interactions of NF-kappaB with steroid receptors and apoptotic molecules in endometriosis resulting in opposing roles of NF-kappaB are discussed. NF-kappaB regulates the expression of cytokines mediating autocrine self-amplifying cycles of cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation, leading to maintenance of inflammatory reactions in endometriosis. NF-kappaB can contribute to the increased ability of endometriotic cells to invade and adhere to the peritoneal surface by regulating the expression of matrix metaloproteinases. We are presenting the role of NF-kappaB to regulate vascularization and oxidative stress in endometriotic cells. Effects of drugs used for the treatment of endometriosis on NF-kappaB pathway are presented and we show how drugs that inhibit the NF-kappaB can mediate the progression of endometriosis. Novel therapeutic strategies involving the NF-kappaB and applied in endometriosis are also discussed.

  2. Kappa distributions in the presence of a potential energy (United States)

    Livadiotis, George


    Classical particle systems reside at thermal equilibrium with their velocity distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell distribution. On the contrary, collisionless and correlated particle systems, such as geophysical, space, and astrophysical plasmas, are characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by the so-called kappa distributions, or combinations thereof. Empirical kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across plasma physics. A breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions to non-extensive statistical mechanics. Understanding the statistical origin of kappa distributions was the cornerstone of further theoretical developments and applications, one of which is the generalization to the phase-space kappa distributions of a Hamiltonian with non-zero potentials. We present the theory behind the phase-space kappa distributions and discuss three important applications in collisionless plasmas: (i) origin of polytropic relation; (ii) gravitational field; (iii) barometric relation (i.e., pressure vs. altitude); and (iv) plasma magnetization.

  3. Assessing the relative effectiveness of statistical downscaling and distribution mapping in reproducing rainfall statistics based on climate model results (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Mamalakis, Antonios; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino


    To improve the level skill of climate models (CMs) in reproducing the statistics of daily rainfall at a basin level, two types of statistical approaches have been suggested. One is statistical correction of CM rainfall outputs based on historical series of precipitation. The other, usually referred to as statistical rainfall downscaling, is the use of stochastic models to conditionally simulate rainfall series, based on large-scale atmospheric forcing from CMs. While promising, the latter approach attracted reduced attention in recent years, since the developed downscaling schemes involved complex weather identification procedures, while demonstrating limited success in reproducing several statistical features of rainfall. In a recent effort, Langousis and Kaleris () developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper-air variables, which is simpler to implement and more accurately reproduces several statistical properties of actual rainfall records. Here we study the relative performance of: (a) direct statistical correction of CM rainfall outputs using nonparametric distribution mapping, and (b) the statistical downscaling scheme of Langousis and Kaleris (), in reproducing the historical rainfall statistics, including rainfall extremes, at a regional level. This is done for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy, i.e., the Flumendosa catchment, using rainfall and atmospheric data from four CMs of the ENSEMBLES project. The obtained results are promising, since the proposed downscaling scheme is more accurate and robust in reproducing a number of historical rainfall statistics, independent of the CM used and the characteristics of the calibration period. This is particularly the case for yearly rainfall maxima.

  4. Statistical Results of Activities Categorization in Czech Agricultural Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.


    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, to identify and correctly adjust the individual components of the business model is an important strategic device for every entrepreneur. This paper (preliminary study deals with different types of business models applied to the sector of small and medium-size farms in the Czech Republic. The main objective was to identify and categorize activities undertaken by Czech farmers into homogeneous clusters and offer recommendations on possible business model modification. The research was based on data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (hereafter FADN. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were carried out as part of the assessment, under which farms are categorized into homogeneous groups. The results showed that the farms surveyed can be categorized according to similar economic characteristics, production plans, and implementation processes into three basic clusters. The first business model is elaborated for the classic field production and various kinds of vegetable or livestock production, the second model for the special crop and livestock production, and the third one for the animal production. The use of FADN data and the fact that most Czech agricultural companies are of small- and medium-size should be taken into account as limiting factors of the study.

  5. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T


    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  6. A statistical evaluation of factors influencing aerial survey results on brown bears (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a statistical evaluation of factors influencing aerial survey results on Brown Bears. The purpose of this study was to provide a statistical...

  7. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-kappa mediates homophilic binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; Jiang, Y P; Friedlander, D


    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) feature PTPase domains in the context of a receptor-like transmembrane topology. The R-PTPase R-PTP-kappa displays an extracellular domain composed of fibronectin type III motifs, a single immunoglobulin domain, as well as a recently defined MAM domain (Y.......-P. Jiang, H. Wang, P. D'Eustachio, J.M. Musacchio, J. Schlessinger, and J. Sap, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2942-2951, 1993). We report here that R-PTP-kappa can mediate homophilic intercellular interaction. Inducible expression of the R-PTP-kappa protein in heterologous cells results in formation of stable...... cellular aggregates strictly consisting of R-PTP-kappa-expressing cells. Moreover, the purified extracellular domain of R-PTP-kappa functions as a substrate for adhesion by cells expressing R-PTP-kappa and induces aggregation of coated synthetic beads. R-PTP-kappa-mediated intercellular adhesion does...

  8. Origins and properties of kappa distributions in space plasmas (United States)

    Livadiotis, George


    Classical particle systems reside at thermal equilibrium with their velocity distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell distribution. On the contrary, collisionless and correlated particle systems, such as the space and astrophysical plasmas, are characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by the so-called kappa distributions. Empirical kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across space and plasma physics. However, a breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions to the solid statistical framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics. Understanding the statistical origin of kappa distributions was the cornerstone of further theoretical developments and applications, some of which will be presented in this talk: (i) The physical meaning of thermal parameters, e.g., temperature and kappa index; (ii) the multi-particle description of kappa distributions; (iii) the phase-space kappa distribution of a Hamiltonian with non-zero potential; (iv) the Sackur-Tetrode entropy for kappa distributions, and (v) the new quantization constant, h _{*}˜10 ^{-22} Js.

  9. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.


    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  10. Recommendations for describing statistical studies and results in general readership science and engineering journals. (United States)

    Gardenier, John S


    This paper recommends how authors of statistical studies can communicate to general audiences fully, clearly, and comfortably. The studies may use statistical methods to explore issues in science, engineering, and society or they may address issues in statistics specifically. In either case, readers without explicit statistical training should have no problem understanding the issues, the methods, or the results at a non-technical level. The arguments for those results should be clear, logical, and persuasive. This paper also provides advice for editors of general journals on selecting high quality statistical articles without the need for exceptional work or expense. Finally, readers are also advised to watch out for some common errors or misuses of statistics that can be detected without a technical statistical background.

  11. Violations of the 12/23 rule at the mouse immunoglobulin kappa locus, including V kappa-V kappa rearrangement. (United States)

    Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Fesnak, Andrew D; Liu, Yang; Charan, Deepshikha; Prak, Eline T Luning


    Classically, recombination between immunoglobulin gene segments uses a pair of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) with dissimilar spacers (the "12/23 rule"). Using a series of different genotyping assays, four different kinds of atypical rearrangements were identified at the murine kappa locus: (1) V kappa to V kappa, (2) J kappa to J kappa, (3) V kappa to iRS, a heptameric sequence found in the J kappa C kappa intron, and (4) a possible by-product of a rearrangement between a V kappa and the hypothetical 12-RSS side of a pre-existing signal joint. The novel V kappa-V kappa structure prompted further characterization. Sequence analysis of 14 different V kappa-V kappa rearrangements cloned from murine splenocytes and hybridomas revealed a V kappa 4 family member as one participant in 13 rearrangements, but no rearrangements contained two V kappa 4 genes. The V kappa 4 partner in the V kappa-V kappa rearrangement exhibited more trimming of nucleotides at the V kappa-V kappa junction. A signal joint derived from the inversional rearrangement of two neighboring V kappas was also recovered. These data suggest that the V kappa-V kappa structures arise via RAG-mediated, intrachromosomal recombination.

  12. Measuring agreement of administrative data with chart data using prevalence unadjusted and adjusted kappa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmelgarn Brenda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kappa is commonly used when assessing the agreement of conditions with reference standard, but has been criticized for being highly dependent on the prevalence. To overcome this limitation, a prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK has been developed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the performance of Kappa and PABAK, and assess the agreement between hospital discharge administrative data and chart review data conditions. Methods The agreement was compared for random sampling, restricted sampling by conditions, and case-control sampling from the four teaching hospitals in Alberta, Canada from ICD10 administrative data during January 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003. A total of 4,008 hospital discharge records and chart view, linked for personal unique identifier and admission date, for 32 conditions of random sampling were analyzed. The restricted sample for hypertension, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, and case-control sample for those three conditions were extracted from random sample. The prevalence, kappa, PABAK, positive agreement, negative agreement for the condition was compared for each of three samples. Results The prevalence of each condition was highly dependent on the sampling method, and this variation in prevalence had a significant effect on both kappa and PABAK. PABAK values were obviously high for certain conditions with low kappa values. The gap between these two statistical values for the same condition narrowed as the prevalence of the condition approached 50%. Conclusion Kappa values varied more widely than PABAK values across the 32 conditions. PABAK values should usually not be interpreted as measuring the same agreement as kappa in administrative data, particular for the condition with low prevalence. There is no single statistic measuring agreement that captures the desired information for validity of administrative data. Researchers should report kappa, the

  13. Some Characterization Results based on Conditional Expectation of function of Dual Generalized Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Izhar Khan


    Full Text Available  Two families of probability distributions are characterized through the conditional expectations of dual generalized order statistics ( , conditioned on a non-adjacent dual generalized order statistics. Also a result based on the unconditional expectation and a conditional expectation of  is used to characterize family of distributions. Further, some of its deductions are also discussed.

  14. Comparison of exact and approximate results of the Tsallis statistics in ultrarelativistic $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Parvan, A S


    The Tsallis statistics was applied to describe the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions of hadrons for the first time. This result was achieved only for the massless Maxwell-Boltzmann particles. We considered the energy dependence of the parameters for both the Tsallis statistics and its zeroth term approximation for the pions produced in $pp$ collisions at high energies and found that the results of the zeroth term approximation deviate from the results of the Tsallis statistics only at low NA61/SHINE energies when the value of the parameter $q$ is close to unity. At higher energies, when the value of the parameter $q$ deviates essentially from the unity, the zeroth term approximation satisfactorily recovers the results of the Tsallis statistics.

  15. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard


    evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...

  16. Influence of uncertainty in delimitation of seismic statistical zone on results of PSHA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华; 黄玮琼


    The seismic hazard of research area is evaluated by probabilistic analysis method for three different seismic statistical zone scenarios. The influence of uncertainty in seismic statistical zone delimiting on the evaluation result is discussed too. It can be seen that for those local sites along zone's border or withinareas with vast change of upper bound magnitude among different scenarios the influence on seismic hazard result should not be neglected.

  17. The scalar kappa from D+ -> K- pi+ pi+: Further Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Göbel, C


    We briefly review the recent results obtained by Fermilab experiment E791 on the Dalitz plot analysis of the decay D+ -> K- pi+ pi+, where indication for a light Kpi scalar resonance, the kappa, was found. We also present preliminary studies providing further information on the phase behavior of the scalar components at low mass, supporting the previous indication for the kappa.

  18. Exploratory Visual Analysis of Statistical Results from Microarray Experiments Comparing High and Low Grade Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Moore


    Full Text Available The biological interpretation of gene expression microarray results is a daunting challenge. For complex diseases such as cancer, wherein the body of published research is extensive, the incorporation of expert knowledge provides a useful analytical framework. We have previously developed the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA software for exploring data analysis results in the context of annotation information about each gene, as well as biologically relevant groups of genes. We present EVA as a fl exible combination of statistics and biological annotation that provides a straightforward visual interface for the interpretation of microarray analyses of gene expression in the most commonly occurring class of brain tumors, glioma. We demonstrate the utility of EVA for the biological interpretation of statistical results by analyzing publicly available gene expression profi les of two important glial tumors. The results of a statistical comparison between 21 malignant, high-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumors and 19 indolent, low-grade pilocytic astrocytomas were analyzed using EVA. By using EVA to examine the results of a relatively simple statistical analysis, we were able to identify tumor class-specifi c gene expression patterns having both statistical and biological signifi cance. Our interactive analysis highlighted the potential importance of genes involved in cell cycle progression, proliferation, signaling, adhesion, migration, motility, and structure, as well as candidate gene loci on a region of Chromosome 7 that has been implicated in glioma. Because EVA does not require statistical or computational expertise and has the fl exibility to accommodate any type of statistical analysis, we anticipate EVA will prove a useful addition to the repertoire of computational methods used for microarray data analysis. EVA is available at no charge to academic users and can be found at

  19. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method. (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  20. Principles for Checking the Statistical Results Processing Correctness of the Cavendish Classic Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Tutubalin


    Full Text Available In teaching mathematical statistics it is desirable that students of engineering and natural sciences could study the methods of statistical processing based on data of real experiments. Conditions for these experiments are of critical importance to justify the application of statistical methods.The article considers a classic Henry Cavendish’s experiment to determine a mean density of the Earth from this point of view. The article gives a detailed description of the experimental Cavendish’s setup, ideas, his experiments are based on, and a method to determine the values used for assessment of the mean density of the Earth. It also concretizes the equation of a pendulum model with friction on which Cavendish implicitly (and neglecting a friction relied.It is shown that the formal use of methods of mathematical statistics is not always justified. Detailed records of all experiments, published by Cavendish, enable us to study these data in terms of mathematical statistics, convince us of their statistical inhomogeneity and impossibility to construct a confidence interval to estimate accuracy.The article proposes an alternative way for processing Cavendish's data implicitly using the pendulum model equation with friction to reduce an effect of systematic errors and improve matching the Cavendish results with modern data.

  1. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice. (United States)

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K


    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  2. $\\kappa$-generalized models of income and wealth distributions: A survey

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, F; Kaniadakis, G; Landini, S


    The paper provides a survey of results related to the "$\\kappa$-generalized distribution", a statistical model for the size distribution of income and wealth. Topics include, among others, discussion of basic analytical properties, interrelations with other statistical distributions as well as aspects that are of special interest in the income distribution field, such as the Gini index and the Lorenz curve. An extension of the basic model that is most able to accommodate the special features of wealth data is also reviewed. The survey of empirical applications given in this paper shows the $\\kappa$-generalized models of income and wealth to be in excellent agreement with the observed data in many cases.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering study on irradiated kappa carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines) and Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Okabe, Satoshi [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Koizumi, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shibayama, Mitsuhiro [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    The structure of gamma-ray-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan in aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of small-angle neutron scattering. The scattered intensity, I(q), of non-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan solutions (5 wt%) was well described with an Ornstein-Zernike (OZ)-type function with the correlation length of 85 A, indicating that the {kappa}-carrageenan solution behaves just as a polymer solution in the semi-dilute regime. By increasing the irradiation dose (100 kGy), I(q) changed to a power-law function with the scattering exponent of -1.84. Further increase in dose results in a recovery of OZ-type function. This indicates that a progressive cleavage of {kappa}-carrageenan chains takes place randomly, leading to a self-similar structure at 100 kGy. This is followed by further segmentation of {kappa}-carrageenan chains.

  4. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.


    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  5. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements (United States)

    Hansen, L. M.; Johansen, R. J.; Ulriksen, M. D.; Tcherniak, D.; Damkilde, L.


    The stochastic dynamic damage location vector (SDDLV) method utilizes the vectors from the kernel of a damaged-induced transfer function matrix change to localize damages in a structure. The kernel vectors associated with the lowest singular values are converted into static pseudo-loads and applied alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling's T2 statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study of the applicability of these methods is based on experimentally obtained accelerations of a cantilevered residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected to an unmeasured multi-impulse load. The characteristic stress resultants are derived by applying the static pseudo-loads to a representative finite element (FE) model of the actual blade.

  6. Schild (apparent pA2) analysis of a kappa-opioid antagonist in Planaria. (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Baron, David A; Tallarida, Ronald J


    Previous investigators have provided radioimmunological and immunocytochemical evidence for an enkephalinergic (opioid) system in Planaria and described naloxone-sensitive qualitative behavioral responses to kappa-opioid receptor agonists. We report the application of Schild-analysis to the antagonism of a selective kappa agonist (U-50,488H) by a selective kappa antagonist (nor-BNI) in a quantitative in vivo endpoint. The results provide further evidence of a kappa-opioid-like receptor in planarians.

  7. Dissociation between skeletal muscle inhibitor-{kappa}B kinase/nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway activity and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen


    Context: Several studies suggest a link between increased activity of the inflammatory inhibitor-kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) pathway in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. Objective: We aimed to study the regulation of skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity...... as well as the association with glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Methods: The study population included a metabolically well-characterized cohort of young and elderly predominantly nondiabetic twins (n = 181). Inhibitor-kappaBbeta (IkappaBbeta) protein levels are negatively...... associated with IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity and were used to evaluate pathway activity with p65 levels included as loading control. This indirect measure for IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity was validated by a p65 binding assay. Results: Evaluating the effects of heritability, age, sex, obesity, aerobic...

  8. Mustard NPR1, a mammalian I{kappa}B homologue inhibits NF-{kappa}B activation in human GBM cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesanakurti, Divya [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India); Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy [Department of Bio-technology and Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India); Babu, Phanithi Prakash, E-mail: [Department of Bio-technology and Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India); Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja, E-mail: [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India)


    NF-{kappa}B activity is tightly regulated by I{kappa}B class of proteins. I{kappa}B proteins possess ankyrin repeats for binding to and inhibiting NF-{kappa}B. The regulatory protein, NPR1 from Brassica juncea possesses ankyrin repeats with sequence similarity to I{kappa}B{alpha} subgroup. Therefore, we examined whether stably expressed BjNPR1 could function as I{kappa}B in inhibiting NF-{kappa}B in human glioblastoma cell lines. We observed that BjNPR1 bound to NF-{kappa}B and inhibited its nuclear translocation. Further, BjNPR1 expression down-regulated the NF-{kappa}B target genes iNOS, Cox-2, c-Myc and cyclin D1 and reduced the proliferation rate of U373 cells. Finally, BjNPR1 decreased the levels of pERK, pJNK and PKC{alpha} and increased the Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 activities. These results suggested that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation by BjNPR1 can be a promising therapy in NF-{kappa}B dependent pathologies.

  9. Dynamic stability of the Solar System: Statistically inconclusive results from ensemble integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Zeebe, Richard E


    Due to the chaotic nature of the Solar System, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ~1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (eM). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (eM ~= 0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is on average significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentricthan Jacobi coordinates and stricter er...

  10. Quantum Statistical Mechanics as an Exact Classical Expansion with Results for Lennard-Jones Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Attard, Phil


    The quantum states representing classical phase space are given, and these are used to formulate quantum statistical mechanics as a formally exact double perturbation expansion about classical statistical mechanics. One series of quantum contributions arises from the non-commutativity of the position and momentum operators. Although the formulation of the quantum states differs, the present results for separate averages of position operators and of momentum operators agree with Wigner (1932) and Kirkwood (1933). The second series arises from wave function symmetrization, and is given in terms of $l$-particle permutation loops in an infinite order re-summation. The series gives analytically the known exact result for the quantum ideal gas to all orders. The leading correction corrects a correction given by Kirkwood. The first four quantum corrections to the grand potential are calculated for a Lennard-Jones fluid using the hypernetted chain closure. For helium on liquid branch isotherms, the corrections range ...

  11. Statistically improved Analysis of Neutrino Oscillation Data with the latest KamLAND result

    CERN Document Server

    Aliani, P; Torrente-Lujan, E


    We present an updated analysis of all available solar and reactor neutrino data, emphasizing in particular the totality of the KamLAND (314d live time) results and including for the first time the solar $SNO$ (391d live time, phase II NaCl-enhanced) spectrum data. As a novelty of the statistical analysis, we study the variability of the KamLand results with respect the use of diverse statistics. A new statistic, not used before is proposed. Moreover, in the analysis of the SNO spectrum a novel technique is used in order to include full correlated errors among bins. Combining all data, we obtain the following best-fit parameters: we determine individual neutrino mixing parameters and their errors $ \\Delta m^2= 8.2\\pm 0.08\\times 10^{-5} \\eV^2,\\quad \\tan^2\\theta= 0.50^{+0.12}_{-0.07}.$ The impact of these results is discussed. We also estimate the individual elements of the neutrino mass matrix. In the framework of three neutrino oscillations we obtain the mass matrix: \\begin{eqnarray}M&=& eV \\pmatrix{1....

  12. GPA: a statistical approach to prioritizing GWAS results by integrating pleiotropy and annotation. (United States)

    Chung, Dongjun; Yang, Can; Li, Cong; Gelernter, Joel; Zhao, Hongyu


    Results from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have shown that complex diseases are often affected by many genetic variants with small or moderate effects. Identifications of these risk variants remain a very challenging problem. There is a need to develop more powerful statistical methods to leverage available information to improve upon traditional approaches that focus on a single GWAS dataset without incorporating additional data. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical approach, GPA (Genetic analysis incorporating Pleiotropy and Annotation), to increase statistical power to identify risk variants through joint analysis of multiple GWAS data sets and annotation information because: (1) accumulating evidence suggests that different complex diseases share common risk bases, i.e., pleiotropy; and (2) functionally annotated variants have been consistently demonstrated to be enriched among GWAS hits. GPA can integrate multiple GWAS datasets and functional annotations to seek association signals, and it can also perform hypothesis testing to test the presence of pleiotropy and enrichment of functional annotation. Statistical inference of the model parameters and SNP ranking is achieved through an EM algorithm that can handle genome-wide markers efficiently. When we applied GPA to jointly analyze five psychiatric disorders with annotation information, not only did GPA identify many weak signals missed by the traditional single phenotype analysis, but it also revealed relationships in the genetic architecture of these disorders. Using our hypothesis testing framework, statistically significant pleiotropic effects were detected among these psychiatric disorders, and the markers annotated in the central nervous system genes and eQTLs from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database were significantly enriched. We also applied GPA to a bladder cancer GWAS data set with the ENCODE DNase-seq data from 125 cell lines. GPA was able to detect cell lines that are

  13. Statistics of interacting networks with extreme preferred degrees: Simulation results and theoretical approaches (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.


    Network studies have played a central role for understanding many systems in nature - e.g., physical, biological, and social. So far, much of the focus has been the statistics of networks in isolation. Yet, many networks in the world are coupled to each other. Recently, we considered this issue, in the context of two interacting social networks. In particular, We studied networks with two different preferred degrees, modeling, say, introverts vs. extroverts, with a variety of ``rules for engagement.'' As a first step towards an analytically accessible theory, we restrict our attention to an ``extreme scenario'': The introverts prefer zero contacts while the extroverts like to befriend everyone in the society. In this ``maximally frustrated'' system, the degree distributions, as well as the statistics of cross-links (between the two groups), can depend sensitively on how a node (individual) creates/breaks its connections. The simulation results can be reasonably well understood in terms of an approximate theory.

  14. AGRO100 inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) by forming a complex with NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) and nucleolin. (United States)

    Girvan, Allicia C; Teng, Yun; Casson, Lavona K; Thomas, Shelia D; Jüliger, Simone; Ball, Mark W; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Barve, Shirish S; Bates, Paula J


    AGRO100, also known as AS1411, is an experimental anticancer drug that recently entered human clinical trials. It is a member of a novel class of antiproliferative agents known as G-rich oligonucleotides (GRO), which are non-antisense, guanosine-rich phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides that form stable G-quadruplex structures. The biological activity of GROs results from their binding to specific cellular proteins as aptamers. One important target protein of GROs has been previously identified as nucleolin, a multifunctional protein expressed at high levels by cancer cells. Here, we report that AGRO100 also associates with nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) essential modulator (NEMO), which is a regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) complex, and also called IKKgamma. In the classic NF-kappaB pathway, the IKK complex is required for phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We found that treatment of cancer cells with AGRO100 inhibits IKK activity and reduces phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. Using a reporter gene assay, we showed that AGRO100 blocks both tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced and constitutive NF-kappaB activity in human cancer cell lines derived from cervical, prostate, breast, and lung carcinomas. In addition, we showed that, in AGRO100-treated cancer cells, NEMO is coprecipitated by nucleolin, indicating that both proteins are present in the same complex. Our studies suggest that abrogation of NF-kappaB activity may contribute to the anticancer effects of AGRO100 and that nucleolin may play a previously unknown role in regulating the NF-kappaB pathway.

  15. Statistics information of rice EST mapping results - RGP estmap2001 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP estmap2001 Statistics information of rice EST mapping results Data detail Data name Statistics...of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Statistics information of rice EST mapping results - RGP estmap2001 | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Estimating the Error in Statistical HAMR Object Populations Resulting from Simplified Radiation Pressure Modeling (United States)

    Flegel, S.; Vörsmann, P.; Wiedemann, C.; Kebschull, C.; Braun, V.; Möckel, M.; Gelhaus, J.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.


    The high-area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) object population in ESA's MASTER-2009 software (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference) is dominated by Multi-Layer Insulation debris at large sizes. The underlying model employs two independent mechanisms whereby Multi-Layer Insulation debris is created. These mechanisms are fragmentation events on the one hand and a deterioration process leading to the continuous release of larger objects on the other hand. All debris source models used to create the MASTER debris population rely on a semi-analytical propagator to model the major secular and long periodic orbit perturbations. The orbit parameters of HAMR objects are highly susceptive to radiation pressure effects which can result in fast secular and periodic changes for area-to-mass ratios above about 1 square meter per kilogram. The implementation of radiation pressure in this propagator is limited to the effects of solar irradiation on a spherical object and using a cylindrical Earth shadow. The current paper discusses the applicability of such a simplified theory to large statistical HAMR object populations where the main objective is not to predict the exact future location of a single object but rather to give a correct representation of the overall distribution of all HAMR objects. The basis for the current study is given by a numerical propagator which is supported by published observation results. Initially, the effects of object orientation, Earth albedo and thermal radiation on the orbit evolution are discussed. Results from published observations and simulation results give insight into the validity of the implemented model. Fundamental differences between the orbit prediction of this refined numerical propagator and the semi-analytical propagator are looked at with a view towards large statistical populations. To this end, a plausible, statistical, population of HAMR objects is propagated over an extended time period using both propagation

  17. No difference found in time to publication by statistical significance of trial results: a methodological review (United States)

    Jefferson, L; Cooper, E; Hewitt, C; Torgerson, T; Cook, L; Tharmanathan, P; Cockayne, S; Torgerson, D


    Objective Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. Design Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine). Setting Methodological review of four general medical journals. Participants Original research articles presenting the primary analyses from phase 2, 3 and 4 parallel-group randomised controlled trials were included. Main outcome measures Time from trial completion to publication. Results The median time from trial completion to publication was 431 days (n = 208, interquartile range 278–618). A multivariable adjusted Cox model found no statistically significant difference in time to publication for trials reporting positive or negative results (hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.16, p = 0.32). Conclusion In contrast to previous studies, this review did not demonstrate the presence of time-lag bias in time to publication. This may be a result of these articles being published in four high-impact general medical journals that may be more inclined to publish rapidly, whatever the findings. Further research is needed to explore the presence of time-lag bias in lower quality studies and lower impact journals. PMID:27757242


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian Xu; Xinping Li; Meiyun Zhang


    The effect of washing temperature, washing stages and the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp had been investigated, and the reason for higher kappa number of the ethanol pulp was discussed. The results preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignin could re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiber classification technology and explained the questions found during the study. Some measures were taken to reduce the kappa number, the results had shown that there was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolved and the pulp with lower kappa number could be obtained at a higher temperature; the kappa number could reduce by increasing washing time; it could enable dissolved lignin to separate out from the ethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption by blowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  19. Determination of errors in derived magnetic field directions in geosynchronous orbit: results from a statistical approach (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cunningham, Gregory; Henderson, Michael


    This study aims to statistically estimate the errors in local magnetic field directions that are derived from electron directional distributions measured by Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous (LANL GEO) satellites. First, by comparing derived and measured magnetic field directions along the GEO orbit to those calculated from three selected empirical global magnetic field models (including a static Olson and Pfitzer 1977 quiet magnetic field model, a simple dynamic Tsyganenko 1989 model, and a sophisticated dynamic Tsyganenko 2001 storm model), it is shown that the errors in both derived and modeled directions are at least comparable. Second, using a newly developed proxy method as well as comparing results from empirical models, we are able to provide for the first time circumstantial evidence showing that derived magnetic field directions should statistically match the real magnetic directions better, with averaged errors ˜ 5°. In addition, our results suggest that the errors in derived magnetic field directions do not depend much on magnetospheric activity, in contrast to the empirical field models. Finally, as applications of the above conclusions, we show examples of electron pitch angle distributions observed by LANL GEO and also take the derived magnetic field directions as the real ones so as to test the performance of empirical field models along the GEO orbits, with results suggesting dependence on solar cycles as well as satellite locations. This study demonstrates the validity and value of the method that infers local magnetic field directions from particle spin-resolved distributions.

  20. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newberg Lee A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results.

  1. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results (United States)

    Newberg, Lee A


    Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results. PMID:19589158

  2. Curie law for systems described by kappa distributions (United States)

    Livadiotis, George


    We derive the magnetization of a system, Pierre Curie's law, for paramagnetic particles out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions. The analysis uses the theory and formulation of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems with a non-zero potential energy. Among other results, emphasis is placed on the effect of kappa distribution on the phenomenon of having strong magnetization at high temperatures. At thermal equilibrium, high temperature leads to weak magnetization. Out of thermal equilibrium, however, strong magnetization at high temperatures is rather possible, if the paramagnetic particle systems reside far from thermal equilibrium, i.e., at small values of kappa. The application of the theory to the space plasma at the outer boundaries of our heliosphere, the inner heliosheath, leads to an estimation of the ion magnetic moment for this space plasma, that is, μ ≈ 138+/-7 \\text{eV/nT} .

  3. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang


    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure that the system under test (SUT) satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, a new SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each test execution is saved in calculation memory unit and evaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantity of scenario test case for next test execution will be calculated according to the promised SUT's confidence level. The feedback data are generated to weight controller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally, a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates that this adaptive testing method can really work in practice. This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-based adaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testing much more effective.

  4. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang


    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highlydemand for dependability, which requires plenty ofresource to ensure that the system under test (SUT)satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, anew SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improveSCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each testexecution is saved in calculation memory unit andevaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantityof scenario test case for next test execution will becalculated according to the promised SUT's confidencelevel. The feedback data are generated to weightcontroller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally,a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates thatthis adaptive testing method can really work in practice.This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-basedadaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testingmuch more effective.

  5. A nonextensive entropy approach to kappa-distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Leubner, M P


    Most astrophysical plasmas are observed to have velocity distribution functions exhibiting non-Maxwellian suprathermal tails. The high energy particle populations are accurately represented by the family of kappa-distributions where the use of these distributions has been unjustly criticized because of a perceived lack of theoretical justification. We show that distributions very close to kappa-distributions are a consequence of the generalized entropy favored by nonextensive statistics, which provides the missing link for power-law models of non-thermal features from fundamental physics. With regard to the the physical basis supplied by the Tsallis nonextensive entropy formalism we propose that this slightly modified functional form, qualitatively similar to the traditional kappa-distribution, be used in fitting particle spectra in the future.

  6. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs. (United States)

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E


    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  7. Treatment of kappa in Recent Western US Seismic Nuclear Plant Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Studies (United States)

    Toro, G. R.; Di Alessandro, C.; Al Atik, L.


    The three operating nuclear plants (Diablo Canyon, Palo Verde, and Columbia Generating Station) in the western United States recently performed SSHAC Level 3 seismic hazard studies in response to a Request for Information by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear facility. The treatment of zero-distance kappa, referred to as kappa_0 and commonly attributed to material damping and scattering in the shallow crust, was given extensive consideration in these studies. Available ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) do not typically include kappa_0 as a prediction parameter and are developed for an average kappa_0 of the host region. Kappa scaling is routinely applied to adjust for the differences in average kappa between the GMPEs host regions and the target regions. The impact of kappa scaling on the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analyses is significant for nuclear and other facilities that are sensitive to high frequency ground motions (frequencies greater than about 10 Hz). There are several available approaches for deriving kappa scaling factors to GMPEs, which all require estimating kappa_0 at the target site. It is difficult to constrain the target kappa_0 empirically due to the scarcity of ground-motion data from hard-rock sites in ground-motion databases.The hazard studies for the three nuclear power plants had different data, faced different challenges in the estimation of kappa_0, and used different methods for the estimation of the effect of kappa_0 on the site-specific ground motions. This presentation summarizes the approaches used for the evaluation of kappa_0 and for their incorporation in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Emphasis is given to the quantification of the kappa_0 uncertainty, and on the evaluation of its impact to the resulting seismic hazard at the different sites.

  8. Exact statistical results for binary mixing and reaction in variable density turbulence (United States)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.


    We report a number of rigorous statistical results on binary active scalar mixing in variable density turbulence. The study is motivated by mixing between pure fluids with very different densities and whose density intensity is of order unity. Our primary focus is the derivation of exact mathematical results for mixing in variable density turbulence and we do point out the potential fields of application of the results. A binary one step reaction is invoked to derive a metric to asses the state of mixing. The mean reaction rate in variable density turbulent mixing can be expressed, in closed form, using the first order Favre mean variables and the Reynolds averaged density variance, ⟨ρ2⟩ . We show that the normalized density variance, ⟨ρ2⟩ , reflects the reduction of the reaction due to mixing and is a mix metric. The result is mathematically rigorous. The result is the variable density analog, the normalized mass fraction variance ⟨c2⟩ used in constant density turbulent mixing. As a consequence, we demonstrate that use of the analogous normalized Favre variance of the mass fraction, c″ ⁣2˜ , as a mix metric is not theoretically justified in variable density turbulence. We additionally derive expressions relating various second order moments of the mass fraction, specific volume, and density fields. The central role of the density specific volume covariance ⟨ρ v ⟩ is highlighted; it is a key quantity with considerable dynamical significance linking various second order statistics. For laboratory experiments, we have developed exact relations between the Reynolds scalar variance ⟨c2⟩ its Favre analog c″ ⁣2˜ , and various second moments including ⟨ρ v ⟩ . For moment closure models that evolve ⟨ρ v ⟩ and not ⟨ρ2⟩ , we provide a novel expression for ⟨ρ2⟩ in terms of a rational function of ⟨ρ v ⟩ that avoids recourse to Taylor series methods (which do not converge for large density differences). We have derived

  9. Exoplanet hosts reveal lithium depletion: Results from a homogeneous statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Figueira, P; Delgado-Mena, E; Adibekyan, V Zh; Sousa, S G; Santos, N C; Israelian, G


    Aims. We study the impact of the presence of planets on the lithium abundance of host stars and evaluate the previous claim that planet hosts exhibit lithium depletion when compared to their non-host counterparts. Methods. Using previously published lithium abundances, we remove the confounding effect of the different fundamental stellar parameters by applying a multivariable regression on our dataset. In doing so, we explicitly make an assumption made implicitly by different authors: that lithium abundance depends linearly on fundamental stellar parameters. Using a moderator variable to distinguish stars with planets from those without, we evaluate the existence of an offset in lithium abundances between the two groups. We perform this analysis first for stars that present a clear lithium detection exclusively and include in a second analysis upper lithium measurements. Results. Our analysis shows that under the above-mentioned assumption of linearity, a statistically significant negative offset in lithium a...

  10. Statistical Analysis of Deflation in Covariance and Resultant Pc Values for AQUA, AURA and TERRA (United States)

    Hasan, Syed O.


    This presentation will display statistical analysis performed for raw conjunction CDMs received for the EOS Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites within the period of February 2015 through July 2016. The analysis performed indicates a discernable deflation in covariance calculated at the JSpOC after the utilization of the dynamic drag consider parameter was implemented operationally in May 2015. As a result, the overall diminution in the conjunction plane intersection of the primary and secondary objects appears to be leading to reduced probability of collision (Pc) values for these conjunction events. This presentation also displays evidence for this theory with analysis of Pc trending plots using data calculated by the SpaceNav CRMS system.

  11. Statistical analysis of the inherent variability in the results of evolutionary debris models (United States)

    Lidtke, Aleksander A.; Lewis, Hugh G.; Armellin, Roberto


    Space debris simulations, e.g. those performed by the Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee (Liou et al., 2013), showed that the number of objects in orbit is likely to increase. This study analyses the uncertainty in the results of space debris simulations performed using semi-stochastic models that necessitate the use of Monte Carlo simulations, which are often used by the Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee, amongst other studies. Statistics of the possible numbers of objects in orbit and collisions over the next 200 years are generated for the ;mitigation only; scenario using a sample of 25,000 Monte Carlo runs. Bootstraps on the mean, median, variance, skewness and kurtosis of these distributions are performed. It is shown that the distribution of the objects predicted to be on-orbit becomes log-normal as collisions occur, and that Monte Carlo samples larger than traditionally used are needed to capture the debris simulation uncertainty.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeebe, Richard E., E-mail: [School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1000 Pope Road, MSB 629, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    Due to the chaotic nature of the solar system, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ∼1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (e{sub M}). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (e{sub M}≃0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is, on average, significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates and stricter error control. In contrast, starting at a possible future configuration (e{sub M}≃0.53), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over the subsequent 500 Myr is, on average, significantly lower using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates. For example, the probability for e{sub M} to increase beyond 0.53 over 500 Myr is >90% (Jacobi) versus only 40%-55% (heliocentric). This poses a dilemma because the physical evolution of the real system—and its probabilistic behavior—cannot depend on the coordinate system or the numerical algorithm chosen to describe it. Some tests of the numerical algorithms suggest that symplectic integrators using heliocentric coordinates underestimate the odds for destabilization of Mercury's orbit at high initial e{sub M}.

  13. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C


    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  14. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C


    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  15. A Novel "Maximizing Kappa" Approach for Assessing the Ability of a Diagnostic Marker and Its Optimal Cutoff Value. (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lee, Ming-Hsueh


    Threshold-dependent accuracy measures such as true classification rates in ordered multiple-class (k > 3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) hyper-surfaces have recently been used to assist with medical decision making. However, based on low power performance in some circumstances, we construct a new method that relies on the kappa coefficient to solve such diagnostic problems. Under the approach proposed in the present article, the statistics depend strongly on the [Formula: see text] cutoff threshold, which can be chosen to maximize the kappa statistics of true disease status and of the new biomarker. The Monte Carlo simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of its predictive power. The proposed design is then compared with the volume under the ROC hyper-surface by applying it to intracerebral hemorrhagic patients classified into five stroke classes using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.

  16. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haaland


    Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s−1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  17. "What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R" (United States)

    Ozturk, Elif


    The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

  18. Interpretation of the results of statistical measurements. [search for basic probability model (United States)

    Olshevskiy, V. V.


    For random processes, the calculated probability characteristic, and the measured statistical estimate are used in a quality functional, which defines the difference between the two functions. Based on the assumption that the statistical measurement procedure is organized so that the parameters for a selected model are optimized, it is shown that the interpretation of experimental research is a search for a basic probability model.

  19. The Statistical Analyses of the White-Light Flares: Two Main Results About Flare Behaviours

    CERN Document Server

    Dal, H A


    We present two main results, based on the models and the statistical analyses of 1672 U-band flares. We also discuss the behaviours of the white-light flares. In addition, the parameters of the flares detected from two years of observations on CR Dra are presented. By comparing with the flare parameters obtained from other UV Ceti type stars, we examine the behaviour of optical flare processes along the spectral types. Moreover, we aimed, using large white-light flare data,to analyse the flare time-scales in respect to some results obtained from the X-ray observations. Using the SPSS V17.0 and the GraphPad Prism V5.02 software, the flares detected from CR Dra were modelled with the OPEA function and analysed with t-Test method to compare similar flare events in other stars. In addition, using some regression calculations in order to derive the best histograms, the time-scales of the white-light flares were analysed. Firstly, CR Dra flares have revealed that the white-light flares behave in a similar way as th...

  20. Application of universal kriging for estimation of earthquake ground motion: Statistical significance of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J.R.; Roberts, K.P.


    Universal kriging is compared with ordinary kriging for estimation of earthquake ground motion. Ordinary kriging is based on a stationary random function model; universal kriging is based on a nonstationary random function model representing first-order drift. Accuracy of universal kriging is compared with that for ordinary kriging; cross-validation is used as the basis for comparison. Hypothesis testing on these results shows that accuracy obtained using universal kriging is not significantly different from accuracy obtained using ordinary kriging. Test based on normal distribution assumptions are applied to errors measured in the cross-validation procedure; t and F tests reveal no evidence to suggest universal and ordinary kriging are different for estimation of earthquake ground motion. Nonparametric hypothesis tests applied to these errors and jackknife statistics yield the same conclusion: universal and ordinary kriging are not significantly different for this application as determined by a cross-validation procedure. These results are based on application to four independent data sets (four different seismic events).

  1. Relationship between the Expression of NF-kappa B and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqun Ma; Zhenfa Zhang; Shidong Xu


    OBJECTIVE To study the expression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC),to explore the apoptotic ratio in NSCLC related to different NF-kappa Bs,and to understand the clinical significance of NF-kappa B in NSCLC apoptosis.METHODS NF-kappa B expression in 45 new samples of NSCLC,collected during a period from October to December,2005,was assayed using Western blots,and the apoptotic ratio of NSCLC was determined by the Tunel method.RESULTS Of the 45 patients,the average relative expressxon of NF-kappa B was 0.6047±0.3572.The expression of NF-kappa B was higher in the poorly differentiated lung cancer cells than in the well-differentiated tumors (P<0.05).The apoptotic ratio was 56.4%in the lung cancer cells with higher NF-kappa B expression,and was 76.7%in those with lower NF-kappa B expression(P<0.05).CONCLUSION The expression of NF-kappa B is correlated with the differentiation of NSCLC.NF-kappa B inhibits apoptosis in NSCLC.AS a transcription factor,NF-kappa B plays a very important role both in formation and in development of NSCLC.NF-kappa B might serve as a target for NSCLC gene therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maria BIJI


    Full Text Available The paper presents an introduction, in which is highlighted the importance of the time series analysis in the statistics studies, due to the multitude of information that can be detached from their calculation, the mode in which are used the statistical and econometrical analysis methods of the time series components in the foreign and Romanian specialized literature, as the statistical methodology used for the characterization of the tourism activity in Romania, in the period 1997-2011, consisting of: average ranks method used for the bi-criteria hierarchy of the territorial series, the time series analysis methods namely: graphical method, average indicators analysis of series comprised of total tourist arrivals, foreign and Romanian tourist arrivals, statistical methods of time series adjustment, grouped in two categories: mechanical methods (moving averages method, average spore method and average index method and analytical methods (linear function and 2nd degree parabola and statistical forecasting based on the above mentioned methods. Indicators taken in study were the tourist arrivals and overnight stays on total country, on foreign and Romanian tourists and, on their basis, it could be calculated and analyzed also the average length of stay. Considered horizon of prognosis was a medium one that is until the year 2015. Data source is represented by Anuarul statistic al României, published by the National Institute of Statistics.

  3. Neuroadaptations in human chronic alcoholics: dysregulation of the NF-kappaB system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Okvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-kappaB (p65/p50 heterodimer and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-kappaB proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant kappaB binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB target DNA sites, kappaB elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with kappaB elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-kappaB, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of kappaB regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism.

  4. Comparison of Statistical Multifragmentation Model simulations with Canonical Thermodynamical Model results: a few representative cases

    CERN Document Server

    Botvina, A; Gupta, S Das; Mishustin, I


    The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) has been widely used to explain experimental data of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. A later entrant in the field is the canonical thermodynamic model (CTM) which is also being used to fit experimental data. The basic physics of both the models is the same, namely that fragments are produced according to their statistical weights in the available phase space. However, they are based on different statistical ensembles, and the methods of calculation are different: while the SMM uses Monte-Carlo simulations, the CTM solves recursion relations. In this paper we compare the predictions of the two models for a few representative cases.

  5. An updated catalog of M33 clusters and candidates: $UBVRI$ photometry, and some statistical results

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jun


    We present $UBVRI$ photometry for 392 star clusters and candidates in the field of M33, which are selected from the most recent star cluster catalog. In this catalog, the authors listed star clusters' parameters such as cluster positions, magnitudes and colors in the $UBVRIJHK_s$ filters, and so on. However, a large fraction of objects in this catalog do not have previously published photometry. Photometry is performed using archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg$^2$ along the major axis of M33. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements. Positions (right ascension and declination) for some clusters are corrected here. Combined with previous literature, we constitute a large sample of M33 star clusters. Based on this cluster sample, we present some statistical results: none of the M33 youngest clusters ($\\sim 10^7$ yr) have masses approaching $10^5$ $M_{\\odot}$; roughly half the star clusters are consistent with the $...

  6. Influence of underwater light fields on pigment characteristics in the Baltic Sea - results of statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stoń-Egiert


    decreasing trend with increasing τ for Baltic data, which is characteristic of photoprotective pigments and the reverse of the trend in oceans. In the case of the Cchl c tot approximations, the logarithmic statistical error is lower for Baltic waters than for case 1waters: σ_ = 34.6% for Baltic data and σ_ = 39.4% for ocean data. In relation to photoprotective carotenoids (CPPC, σ_ takes a value of 38.4% forBaltic waters and 36.1% for ocean waters. The relative errors of the approximated concentrations of different pigment groups are larger than those obtainedfor ocean waters. The only exception is chlorophyll c, for which the logarithmic statistical error is about 8.8% lower (σ_ = 34.6% for Baltic waters and 38.2% for ocean waters. Analysis of the errors resulting from the approximations of the photoprotective carotenoid content, depending on the energy characteristicsof the underwater irradiance in the short-range part of PAR, showed that the relative errors are 1.3 times higher for Baltic waters than for ocean waters: σ_ = 38.4%for Baltic waters and 32.0% for ocean waters.

  7. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps (United States)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas


    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  8. Requirement of NF-kappaB/Rel for the development of hair follicles and other epidermal appendices. (United States)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Aebischer, T; Hülsken, J; Birchmeier, W; Klemm, U; Scheidereit, C


    NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors and IkappaB kinases (IKK) are essential for inflammation and immune responses, but also for bone-morphogenesis, skin proliferation and differentiation. Determining their other functions has previously been impossible, owing to embryonic lethality of NF-kappaB/Rel or IKK-deficient animals. Using a gene targeting approach we have ubiquitously expressed an NF-kappaB super-repressor to investigate NF-kappaB functions in the adult. Mice with suppressed NF-kappaB revealed defective early morphogenesis of hair follicles, exocrine glands and teeth, identical to Eda (tabby) and Edar (downless) mutant mice. These affected epithelial appendices normally display high NF-kappaB activity, suppression of which resulted in increased apoptosis, indicating that NF-kappaB acts as a survival factor downstream of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family member EDAR. Furthermore, NF-kappaB is required for peripheral lymph node formation and macrophage function.

  9. Effects of radiation on tumor hemodynamics and NF-kappaB in breast tumors (United States)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Cao, Ning; Liu, Bo; Cao, Minsong; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Mendonca, Marc; Li, Jian Jian


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to monitor in vivo the IR dose dependent response of NF-κB and tumor hemodynamics as a function of time. Material and Methods: An MDA-231 breast cancer cell line was stably transfected with a firefly luciferase gene within the NF-kappaB promoter. Tumors on the right flank irradiated with a single fractionated dose of 5Gy or 10Gy. Over two weeks, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PCT-S), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) was used to monitor hemoglobin status, NF-kappaB expression, and physiology, respectively. Results: From the BLI, an increase in NF-kappaB expression was observed in both the right (irradiation) and left (nonirradiated) tumors, which peaked at 8-12 hours, returned to basal levels after 24 hours, and increased a second time from 3 to 7 days. This data identifies both a radiation-induced bystander effect and a bimodal longitudinal response associated with NF-κB-controlled luciferase promoter. The physiological results from DCE-CT measured an increase in perfusion (26%) two days after radiation and both a decrease in perfusion and an increase in fp by week 1 (10Gy cohort). PCT-S measured increased levels of oxygen saturation two days post IR, which did not change after 1 week. Initially, NF-κB would modify hemodynamics to increase oxygen delivery after IR insult. The secondary response appears to modulate tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions: A bimodal response to radiation was detected with NF-kappaB-controlled luciferase reporter with a concomitant hemodynamic response associated with tumor hypoxia. Experiments are being performed to increase statistics.

  10. The coupling between enhancer activity and hypomethylation of kappa immunoglobulin genes is developmentally regulated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, D.E.; Pollok, B.A.; Atchison, M.L.; Perry, R.P.


    Previous studies have indicated that immunoglobulin enhancers are essential for establishing transcriptional competence but not for maintaining the activity of constitutively transcribed genes. To understand the basis for this developmental shift away from dependence on enhancer function, the authors investigated the relationship between transcriptional activity and methylation status of the immunoglobulin kappa-light-chain genes (kappa genes) in mouse cell lines representing different stages of B-cell maturation. Using pre-B-cell lines in which the level of a critical kappa enhancer-binding factor, NF-kappaB, was controlled by the administration of withdrawal of lipopolysaccharide and plasmacytoma lines that either contain or lack this factor, they studied the properties of endogenous kappa genes and of transfected kappa genes which were stably integrated into the genomes of these cells. In the pre-B cells, the exogenous (originally unmethylated) kappa genes, as well as the endogenous kappa genes, were fully methylated and persistently dependent on enhancer function, even after more than 30 generations in a transcriptionally active state. In plasmacytoma cells, the endogenous kappa genes were invariably hypomethylated, whereas exogenous kappa genes were hypomethylated only in cells that contain NF-kappaB and are thus permissive for kappa enhancer function. These results indicate that the linkage of hypomethylation to enhancer-dependent activation of kappa transcription occurs after the pre-B-cell stage of development. The change in methylation status, together with associated changes in chromatin structure, may suffice to eliminate or lessen the importance of the enhancer for the maintenance of the transcriptionally active state.

  11. Weighting of items in a tutorial performance evaluation instrument: Statistical analysis and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Becker


    Full Text Available Weighting of items in an evaluation instrument contributes to more meaningful and valid interpretations of student performance in respect of each learning outcome or item being assessed. It follows that the validity of instruments is important for meaningful inferences about students’ learning performance, including their performance in tutorial groups. The Delphi technique was used to elicit experts’ subjective judgement of the content validity of items in the tutorial performance evaluation instrument in rounds one and two. A sample of eight experts (n = 8 was selected by purposive, maximum variation sampling.

    In round three Delphi a weighted score was determined for each of the instrument items, subitems and Likert scale points through pairwise comparison by the experts. Mathematical modelling of experts’ weighting comparisons, recorded on visual analogue scales, resulted in proportional weights for each item; these weights are expressed as a percentage.

    The final instrument comprised weighted items measured on a rating scale with points that are not equidistant. A computerised tutorial performance evaluator (TPE was developed for accurate, economical and efficient calculation of student scores. The purpose of this article is to report on the statistical analysis and results of the weighting of items in an instrument to assess and evaluate baccalaureate nursing students’ performance in problem-based learning tutorials.


    Die waardebepaling van items in ‘n evalueringsinstrument dra by tot ‘n meer betekenisvolle en geldige interpretasie van studente se vermoë ten opsigte van elke leeruitkoms of item wat geassesseer word. Hieruit volg dit dat die geldigheid van instrumente belangrik is vir betekenisvolleafleidings betreffende studente se leervermoë, insluitend hulle prestasie in leergroepe. Die Delphi-tegniek is gebruik in rondtes een en twee om kundiges se subjektiewe oordeel oor die

  12. Appropriateness of reporting statistical results in orthodontics: the dominance of P values over confidence intervals. (United States)

    Polychronopoulou, Argy; Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore


    The purpose of this study was to search the orthodontic literature and determine the frequency of reporting of confidence intervals (CIs) in orthodontic journals with an impact factor. The six latest issues of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Angle Orthodontist were hand searched and the reporting of CIs, P values, and implementation of univariate or multivariate statistical analyses were recorded. Additionally, studies were classified according to the type/design as cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, and clinical trials, and according to the subject of the study as growth/genetics, behaviour/psychology, diagnosis/treatment, and biomaterials/biomechanics. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics followed by univariate examination of statistical associations, logistic regression, and multivariate modelling. CI reporting was very limited and was recorded in only 6 per cent of the included published studies. CI reporting was independent of journal, study area, and design. Studies that used multivariate statistical analyses had a higher probability of reporting CIs compared with those using univariate statistical analyses. Misunderstanding of the use of P values and CIs may have important implications in implementation of research findings in clinical practice.

  13. FES Training in Aging: interim results show statistically significant improvements in mobility and muscle fiber size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern


    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decline in muscle mass and performance. Several factors, including reduced exercise, poor nutrition and modified hormonal metabolism, are responsible for changes in the rates of protein synthesis and degradation that drive skeletal muscle mass reduction with a consequent decline of force generation and mobility functional performances. Seniors with normal life style were enrolled: two groups in Vienna (n=32 and two groups in Bratislava: (n=19. All subjects were healthy and declared not to have any specific physical/disease problems. The two Vienna groups of seniors exercised for 10 weeks with two different types of training (leg press at the hospital or home-based functional electrical stimulation, h-b FES. Demografic data (age, height and weight were recorded before and after the training period and before and after the training period the patients were submitted to mobility functional analyses and muscle biopsies. The mobility functional analyses were: 1. gait speed (10m test fastest speed, in m/s; 2. time which the subject needed to rise from a chair for five times (5x Chair-Rise, in s; 3. Timed –Up-Go- Test, in s; 4. Stair-Test, in s; 5. isometric measurement of quadriceps force (Torque/kg, in Nm/kg; and 6. Dynamic Balance in mm. Preliminary analyses of muscle biopsies from quadriceps in some of the Vienna and Bratislava patients present morphometric results consistent with their functional behaviors. The statistically significant improvements in functional testings here reported demonstrates the effectiveness of h-b FES, and strongly support h-b FES, as a safe home-based method to improve contractility and performances of ageing muscles.

  14. Statistical mechanics of two hard spheres in a spherical pore, exact analytic results in D dimension (United States)

    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek


    This work is devoted to the exact statistical mechanics treatment of simple inhomogeneous few-body systems. The system of two hard spheres (HSs) confined in a hard spherical pore is systematically analyzed in terms of its dimensionality D. The canonical partition function and the one- and two-body distribution functions are analytically evaluated and a scheme of iterative construction of the D +1 system properties is presented. We analyze in detail both the effect of high confinement, when particles become caged, and the low density limit. Other confinement situations are also studied analytically and several relations between the two HSs in a spherical pore, two sticked HSs in a spherical pore, and two HSs on a spherical surface partition functions are traced. These relations make meaningful the limiting caging and low density behavior. Turning to the system of two HSs in a spherical pore, we also analytically evaluate the pressure tensor. The thermodynamic properties of the system are discussed. To accomplish this statement we purposely focus in the overall characteristics of the inhomogeneous fluid system, instead of concentrate in the peculiarities of a few-body system. Hence, we analyze the equation of state, the pressure at the wall, and the fluid-substrate surface tension. The consequences of new results about the spherically confined system of two HSs in D dimension on the confined many HS system are investigated. New constant coefficients involved in the low density limit properties of the open and closed systems of many HS in a spherical pore are obtained for arbitrary D. The complementary system of many HS which surrounds a HS (a cavity inside of a bulk HS system) is also discussed.

  15. Purinergic signaling is required for fluid shear stress-induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genetos, Damian C., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Karin, Norman J. [Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Geist, Derik J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Donahue, Henry J. [Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Duncan, Randall L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)


    Fluid shear stress regulates gene expression in osteoblasts, in part by activation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. We examined whether this process was under the control of purinoceptor activation. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts under static conditions expressed the NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and exhibited cytosolic localization of NF-{kappa}B. Under fluid shear stress, I{kappa}B{alpha} levels decreased, and concomitant nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B was observed. Cells exposed to fluid shear stress in ATP-depleted medium exhibited no significant reduction in I{kappa}B{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B remained within the cytosol. Similar results were found using oxidized ATP or Brilliant Blue G, P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists, indicating that the P2X{sub 7} receptor is responsible for fluid shear-stress-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B. Pharmacologic blockage of the P2Y6 receptor also prevented shear-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation. These phenomena involved neither ERK1/2 signaling nor autocrine activation by P2X{sub 7}-generated lysophosphatidic acid. Our results suggest that fluid shear stress regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through the P2Y{sub 6} and P2X{sub 7} receptor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Nuriakhmetov


    Full Text Available Traditional methods of teaching in medical high school of informatics as computer sciences and statistics as a section of high mathematics contradict to requirements of modern applied medicine and a medical science. A research objective is revealing of the reasons of the given discrepancy and its elimination ways. Similar discrepancy was revealed earlier by foreign researchers studying efficiency of the statistic school programs. The revealed laws appeared to be extended to a technique of teaching of statistics in a high medical school. Pursuing this aim the tests of educational achievements developed by the author were applied on the students of medical and biologic department of the Siberian State Medical Universirty that trained on specialities of “biophysics" and “biochemistry". The fundamental problem of statistical education is that symbols used by these science concern to the objects, which students still have to design. As a substantiation of this conclusion serves the ontosemiotical approach to working out of the maintenance of a course. In the article there are considered the approaches to the permission of the given contradiction, based on the experience of teaching of statistics in foreign schools and on the wor­kings out of the author. In particular the conclusion about necessity of revision the tradition of using professional statistical packages and introduction of a special educational software. To working out the maintenance of a learning course it is offered to more widely apply the historical approach which concrete definition is represented by a principle of a guided reinvention.

  17. Inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) pathway by tetracyclic kaurene diterpenes in macrophages. Specific effects on NF-kappa B-inducing kinase activity and on the coordinate activation of ERK and p38 MAPK. (United States)

    Castrillo, A; de Las Heras, B; Hortelano, S; Rodriguez, B; Villar, A; Bosca, L


    The anti-inflammatory action of most terpenes has been explained in terms of the inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. Ent-kaurene diterpenes are intermediates of the synthesis of gibberellins and inhibit the expression of NO synthase-2 and the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in J774 macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide. These diterpenes inhibit NF-kappaB and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation in vivo but failed to affect in vitro the function of NF-kappaB, the phosphorylation and targeting of IkappaBalpha, and the activity of IKK-2. Transient expression of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) activated the IKK complex and NF-kappaB, a process that was inhibited by kaurenes, indicating that the inhibition of NIK was one of the targets of these diterpenes. These results show that kaurenes impair the inflammatory signaling by inhibiting NIK, a member of the MAPK kinase superfamily that interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors, and mediate the activation of NF-kappaB by these receptors. Moreover, kaurenes delayed the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and ERK2 MAPKs, but not that of JNK, in response to lipopolysaccharide treatment of J774 cells. The absence of a coordinate activation of MAPK and IKK might contribute to a deficient activation of NF-kappaB that is involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of these molecules.

  18. Interactions among oscillatory pathways in NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently

  19. Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamikhova, R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)


    We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.

  20. Mainstreaming Remedial Mathematics Students in Introductory Statistics: Results Using a Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Logue, Alexandra W.; Watanabe-Rose, Mari


    This study used a randomized controlled trial to determine whether students, assessed by their community colleges as needing an elementary algebra (remedial) mathematics course, could instead succeed at least as well in a college-level, credit-bearing introductory statistics course with extra support (a weekly workshop). Researchers randomly…

  1. Flipped Statistics Class Results: Better Performance than Lecture over One Year Later (United States)

    Winquist, Jennifer R.; Carlson, Keith A.


    In this paper, we compare an introductory statistics course taught using a flipped classroom approach to the same course taught using a traditional lecture based approach. In the lecture course, students listened to lecture, took notes, and completed homework assignments. In the flipped course, students read relatively simple chapters and answered…

  2. [Selection of a statistical model for the evaluation of the reliability of the results of toxicological analyses. II. Selection of our statistical model for the evaluation]. (United States)

    Antczak, K; Wilczyńska, U


    Part II presents a statistical model devised by the authors for evaluating toxicological analyses results. The model includes: 1. Establishment of a reference value, basing on our own measurements taken by two independent analytical methods. 2. Selection of laboratories -- basing on the deviation of the obtained values from reference ones. 3. On consideration of variance analysis, t-student's test and differences test, subsequent quality controls and particular laboratories have been evaluated.

  3. Hawking radiation in the kappa-spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Harikumar, E


    In this paper, we analyze the Hawking radiation of kappa-deformed Schwarzchild black hole and obtain the deformed Hawking temperature. For this, we first derive deformed metric for the kappa-spacetime, which in the generic case, is not a symmetric tensor and also has a momentum dependence. We show that the Schwarzchild metric obtained in the kappa-deformed spacetime has a dependence on energy. We use the fact that the deformed metric is conformally flat in the 1+1 dimensions, to solve the kappa-deformed Klein-Gordon equation in the background of the Schwarzchild metric. The method of Boguliobov coefficients is then used to calculate the thermal spectrum of kappa-deformed-Schwarzchild black hole and show that the Hawking temperature is modified by the non-commutativity of the kappa-spacetime.

  4. Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Hirukawa


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.

  5. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB. (United States)

    Staudt, Louis M


    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-kappaB signaling in cancer. NF-kappaB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-kappaB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IkappaB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-kappaB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-kappaB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-kappaB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IkappaB kinases to activate NF-kappaB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

  6. A model of modulated diffusion. II. Numerical results on statistical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzani, A.; Siboni, S.; Turchetti, G. [dell`Universita Bologna (Italy)] [and others


    We investigate numerically the statistical properties of a model of modulated diffusion for which we have already computed analytically the diffusion coefficient D. Our model is constructed by adding a deterministic or random noise to the frequency of an integrable isochronous system. We consider in particular the central limit theorem and the invariance principle and we show that they follow whenever D is positive and for any magnitude of the noise; we also investigate the asymptotic distribution in a case when D=0.

  7. Statistical Mechanics of Two Hard Spheres in a Spherical Pore, Exact Analytic Results in D Dimension


    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek


    This work is devoted to the exact statistical mechanics treatment of simple inhomogeneous few-body systems. The system of two Hard Spheres (HS) confined in a hard spherical pore is systematically analyzed in terms of its dimensionality >. The canonical partition function, and the one- and two-body distribution functions are analytically evaluated and a scheme of iterative construction of the system properties is presented. We analyse in detail both the effect of high confinement, when particl...

  8. Heat Shock Factor-1 and Nuclear Factor-kappaB Are Systemically Activated in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A O’Reilly


    Full Text Available Context :Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB is a transcription factor for a wide range of proinflammatory mediators while heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1 transcribes stress proteins that protect against cellular damage. Both are attractive therapeutic targets, undergoing investigation in other acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis. Objective :To evaluate the role of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and HSF-1 in human acute pancreatitis and their relationship to cytokine/chemokine production, disease severity and outcome. Patients :Twenty-four patients with acute pancreatitis and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures :Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. NF-kappaB and HSF-1 were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor II and interleukin-8 were measured by ELISA. Acute physiology scores (APS, APACHE II scores and final Atlanta designations of severity were also determined. Results: Systemic NF-kappaB activation occurs in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls (P=0.004. However, there was no significant difference between those with mild and severe disease (P=0.685. Systemic activation of HSF-1 was observed in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls although this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.053. Activation, however, was greatest in those who had a final Atlanta designation of mild pancreatitis compared to those who had a severe attack of acute pancreatitis (P=0.036. Furthermore, HSF-1 was inversely correlated with acute physiology score (APS; r=-0.49, P=0.019 and APACHE II score (r=-0.47, P=0.026. Conclusions: Both NF-kappaB and HSF-1 are systemically activated in human acute pancreatitis. HSF-1 activation may protect against severity of pancreatitis

  9. Ion-cyclotron instability in plasmas described by product-bi-kappa distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail:; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The dispersion relation for parallel propagating waves in the ion-cyclotron branch is investigated numerically by considering that the velocity distribution of the ion population is a function of type product-bi-kappa. We investigate the effects of the non-thermal features and of the anisotropy associated with this type of distribution on the ion-cyclotron instability, as well as the influence of different forms of the electron distribution, by considering Maxwellian distributions, bi-kappa distributions, and product-bi-kappa distributions. The cases of ions described by either Maxwellian or bi-kappa distributions are also considered, for comparison. The results of the numerical analysis show that the increase in the non-thermal character associated with the anisotropic kappa distributions for ions contributes to enhance the instability as compared to that obtained in the Maxwellian case, in magnitude and in wave number range, with more significant enhancement for the case of ion product-bi-kappa distributions than for the case of ion bi-kappa distributions. It is also shown that the ion-cyclotron instability is decreased if the electrons are described by product-bi-kappa distributions, while electrons described by bi-kappa distributions lead to growth rates which are very similar to those obtained considering a Maxwellian distribution for the electron population.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongjianXu; XinpingLi; MeiyunZhang


    The effect of washing temperature, washing stagesand the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp hadbeen investigated, and the reason for higher kappanumber of the ethanol pulp was discussed. Theresults preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignincould re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiberclassification technology and explained the questionsfound during the study. Some measures were taken toreduce the kappa number, the results had shown thatthere was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolvedand the pulp with lower kappa number could beobtained at a higher temperature; the kappa numbercould reduce by increasing washing time; it couldenable dissolved lignin to separate out fi'om theethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption byblowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  11. Anomalous skin effects in anisotropic kappa distributed plasmas (United States)

    Khokhar, Tajammal H.; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.


    Anomalous skin effects (ASEs) are studied for the transverse electromagnetic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma using anisotropic kappa distribution. The effects of the kappa spectral index (κ), temperature anisotropy ( A =T⊥/T||) , and the wave frequency (ω) on the ASEs are highlighted to be applicable for a wide range of plasma parameters. It is shown that the skin depth is reduced in a kappa distributed plasma as compared to the Maxwellian one. The anisotropy may enhance/reduce the skin depth depending upon the wave frequency to plasma frequency ratio ( ω/ωp ) and the regime of the anisotropy (i.e., A > 1 or A < 1). The results for the Maxwellian distribution ( κ→∞ ) are also retrieved. The possible applications to space and laboratory plasmas are also discussed.

  12. Modulating temporal control of NF-kappaB activation: implications for therapeutic and assay selection. (United States)

    Klinke, David J; Ustyugova, Irina V; Brundage, Kathleen M; Barnett, John B


    The activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) plays a central role in the induction of many inflammatory response genes. This process is characterized by either oscillations or stable induction of NF-kappaB nuclear binding. Changes in dynamics of binding result in the expression of distinct subsets of genes leading to different physiological outcomes. We examined NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IC-21 cells by electromobility shift assay and nonradioactive transcription factor assay and interpreted the results using a kinetic model of NF-kappaB activation. Both assays detected damped oscillatory behavior of NF-kappaB with differences in sensitivity and reproducibility. 3,4-Dichloropropionaniline (DCPA) was used to modulate the oscillatory behavior of NF-kappaB after LPS stimulation. DCPA is known to inhibit the production of two NF-kappaB-inducible cytokines, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, by reducing but not completely abrogating NF-kappaB-induced transcription. DCPA treatment resulted in a potentiation of early LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. The nonradioactive transcription factor assay, which has a higher signal/noise ratio than the electromobility shift assay, combined with in silico modeling, produced results that revealed changes in NF-kappaB dynamics which, to the best of our knowledge, have never been previously reported. These results highlight the importance of cell type and stimulus specificity in transcription factor activity assessment. In addition, assay selection has important implications for network inference and drug discovery.

  13. New statistical results on the optical IDV data of BL Lac S5 0716+714

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, B; Mocanu, G


    This paper reports on the statistical behaviour of the optical IntraDay Variability of BL Lac S5 0716+714. Available IntraDay Variability data in the optical is tested to see whether or not the magnitude is log-normally distributed. It was consistently found that this is not the case. This is in agreement with a previous discussion for data for the same object but in a different observational period. Simultaneously, the spectral slope of the light curves is calculated. The implications of these findings for models which discuss both the location and the source of IntraDay Variability are presented.

  14. Crocodylian nuclear factor kappa B. (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Morkotinis, Vasileios; Hale, Amber; White, Mary; Moran, Chris


    We deduced the amino acid (aa) sequence of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein from genomic data for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A 105kDa protein, NFκB1 exhibits complex post-translational processing, multiple mechanisms of activation, and acts as precursor for a p50, a Rel homology transcription factor which influences the expression of key genes for developmental processes, apoptosis, and immune function. The aa sequences of the crocodylian proteins share very high identity with each other (97.2±0.7%), birds (81.0±1.1%, n=6), mammals (75.3±1.6%, n=4), reptiles (80.3±5.1%, n=2), and less identity with fish (55.5±5.5%, n=4) and one amphibian (66.1±0.8%). The crocodylian protein has a well-conserved Rel homology domain, a nuclear localization signal, and a glycine-rich region which facilitates proteasome-mediated generation of p50. The Rel homology domain contains sequences responsible for dimerization, DNA-binding, and nuclear translocation. In addition, seven ankyrin repeats were located, which putatively allow for inhibition of transcriptional regulation by mediating interaction with Inhibitor kappa B. Other features include a death domain, and conserved serine residues, near the C-terminal end, which act as potential phosphorylation sites for activation of the proteolytic generation of p50. Western blot analysis showed both the 105kDa precursor and the 50kDa mature NFκB were expressed in the alligator liver. Nuclear factor κB exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in alligator hepatocytes, and almost no cytoplasmic localization in infected animals. In addition, nuclear NFκB exhibited specific binding to the consensus NFκB promoter element. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Thermalized solutions, statistical mechanics and turbulence: An overview of some recent results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samriddhi Sankar Ray


    In this study, we examine the intriguing connection between turbulence and equilibrium statistical mechanics. There are several recent works which emphasize this connection. Thus in the last few years, the first manifestations of the thermalization, predicted by T D Lee in 1952, was seen and a theoretical understanding of this was developed through detailed studies of finite-dimensional, Galerkin-truncated equations of hydrodynamics. Furthermore, the idea of the Galerkin truncation can be generalized for studying turbulence in non-integer (fractal) dimensions to yield a new, critical dimension with an equilibrium Gibbs state coinciding with a Kolmogorov spectrum. In this paper, we discuss these very exciting and recent developments in turbulence as well as open problems for the future.

  16. Thermosphere and geomagnetic response to interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, S; Veronig, A M; Baur, O; Lammer, H


    For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in-situ by plasma and field instruments onboard the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the GRACE satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed, southward magnetic field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of eight compared to the pre-event level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (~0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (~0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H (~0.9), the l...

  17. Statistically-constrained shallow text marking: techniques, evaluation paradigm and results (United States)

    Murphy, Brian; Vogel, Carl


    We present three natural language marking strategies based on fast and reliable shallow parsing techniques, and on widely available lexical resources: lexical substitution, adjective conjunction swaps, and relativiser switching. We test these techniques on a random sample of the British National Corpus. Individual candidate marks are checked for goodness of structural and semantic fit, using both lexical resources, and the web as a corpus. A representative sample of marks is given to 25 human judges to evaluate for acceptability and preservation of meaning. This establishes a correlation between corpus based felicity measures and perceived quality, and makes qualified predictions. Grammatical acceptability correlates with our automatic measure strongly (Pearson's r = 0.795, p = 0.001), allowing us to account for about two thirds of variability in human judgements. A moderate but statistically insignificant (Pearson's r = 0.422, p = 0.356) correlation is found with judgements of meaning preservation, indicating that the contextual window of five content words used for our automatic measure may need to be extended.

  18. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Statnikov


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  19. Exploring 100+ Year Variability with DASCH: Statistical Methods and Recent Results. (United States)

    Miller, George Franklin; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Los, Edward


    The Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard (DASCH) project is currently digitizing the roughly 500,000 photographic plates maintained by the Harvard College Observatory. The Harvard plate collection covers each point of the sky roughly 500 to 3000 times from 1885 to 1992, with limiting magnitudes ranging from B=14-18 mag and photometric accuracy within ±0.1 mag. Production scanning (roughly 400 plates/day) is proceeding in Galactic coordinates from the North Galactic Pole and is currently at roughly 40 degrees galactic latitude. The vastness of these data makes DASCH unique in its ability to systematically study variability on decade-long time scales across the entire sky. We are developing new statistical mining techniques to predictively identify the many classes of stellar variability and explore their long-term behavior, as well as discover new unusual cases/classes of variability. Most recently, we are working to implement wavelet-based algorithms into our mining routines, better allowing us to analyze localized non-periodic signals. Here we report on the progress of our mining and machine learning routines, as well as share several of the exciting new discoveries that are being made with DASCH. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-0407380, AST-0909073 and AST-1313370.

  20. NF-kappaB regulatory mechanisms in alveolar macrophages from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Moine, P; McIntyre, R; Schwartz, M D; Kaneko, D; Shenkar, R; Le Tulzo, Y; Moore, E E; Abraham, E


    Activation of the nuclear regulatory factor NF-kappaB occurs in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may contribute to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in this setting. Because of the important role that NF-kappaB activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kapppaB counterregulatory mechanisms, involving IkappaB proteins, in alveolar macrophages obtained from 7 control patients without lung injury and 11 patients with established ARDS. Cytoplasmic levels of the NF-kappaB subunits p50, p65, and c-Rel were significantly decreased in alveolar macrophages from patients with ARDS, consistent with enhanced migration of liberated NF-kappaB dimers from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of IkappaBalpha were not significantly altered in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS, compared with controls. In contrast, nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were significantly decreased in patients with ARDS compared with controls (P = 0.02). No IkappaBgamma, IkappaBbeta, or p105 proteins were detected in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages from control patients or patients with ARDS. The presence of activated NF-kappaB in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS implies the presence of an ongoing stimulus for NF-kappaB activation. In this setting, appropriate counterregulatory mechanisms to normalize nuclear levels of NF-kappaB and to suppress NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, such as increased cytoplasmic and nuclear IkappaBalpha levels or decreased Bcl-3 levels, appeared to be induced. Nevertheless, even though counterregulatory mechanisms to NF-kappaB activation are activated in lung macrophages of patients with ARDS, NF-kappaB remains activated. These results suggest that fundamental abnormalities in transcriptional mechanisms involving NF-kappaB and important in the

  1. Dumb-bell galaxies in southern clusters: Catalog and preliminary statistical results (United States)

    Vettolani, G.; Gregorini, L.; Parma, P.; Deruiter, H. R.


    The dominant galaxy of a rich cluster is often an object whose formation and evolution is closely connected to the dynamics of the cluster itself. Hoessel (1980) and Schneider et al. (1983) estimate that 50 percent of the dominant galaxies are either of the dumb-bell type or have companions at projected distances less than 20 kpc, which is far in excess of the number expected from chance projection (see also Rood and Leir 1979). Presently there is no complete sample of these objects, with the exception of the listing of dumb-bell galaxies in BM type I and I-II clusters in the Abell statistical sample of Rood and Leir (1979). Recent dynamical studies of dumb-bell galaxies in clusters (Valentijn and Casertano, 1988) still suffer from inhomogeneity of the sample. The fact that it is a mixture of optically and radio selected objects may have introduced an unknown biases, for instance if the probability of radio emission is enhanced by the presence of close companions (Stocke, 1978, Heckman et al. 1985, Vettolani and Gregorini 1988) a bias could be present in their velocity distribution. However, this situation is bound to improve: a new sample of Abell clusters in the Southern Hemisphere has been constructed (Abell et al., 1988 hereafter ACO), which has several advantages over the original northern catalog. The plate material (IIIaJ plates) is of better quality and reaches fainter magnitudes. This makes it possible to classify the cluster types with a higher degree of accuracy, as well as to fainter magnitudes. The authors therefore decided to reconsider the whole problem constructing a new sample of dumb-bell galaxies homogeneously selected from the ACO survey. Details of the classification criteria are given.

  2. How to interpret the results of medical time series data analysis: Classical statistical approaches versus dynamic Bayesian network modeling (United States)

    Onisko, Agnieszka; Druzdzel, Marek J.; Austin, R. Marshall


    Background: Classical statistics is a well-established approach in the analysis of medical data. While the medical community seems to be familiar with the concept of a statistical analysis and its interpretation, the Bayesian approach, argued by many of its proponents to be superior to the classical frequentist approach, is still not well-recognized in the analysis of medical data. Aim: The goal of this study is to encourage data analysts to use the Bayesian approach, such as modeling with graphical probabilistic networks, as an insightful alternative to classical statistical analysis of medical data. Materials and Methods: This paper offers a comparison of two approaches to analysis of medical time series data: (1) classical statistical approach, such as the Kaplan–Meier estimator and the Cox proportional hazards regression model, and (2) dynamic Bayesian network modeling. Our comparison is based on time series cervical cancer screening data collected at Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center over 10 years. Results: The main outcomes of our comparison are cervical cancer risk assessments produced by the three approaches. However, our analysis discusses also several aspects of the comparison, such as modeling assumptions, model building, dealing with incomplete data, individualized risk assessment, results interpretation, and model validation. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Bayesian approach is (1) much more flexible in terms of modeling effort, and (2) it offers an individualized risk assessment, which is more cumbersome for classical statistical approaches. PMID:28163973

  3. Polar observations of electron density distribution in the Earth’s magnetosphere. 1. Statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laakso

    Full Text Available Forty-five months of continuous spacecraft potential measurements from the Polar satellite are used to study the average electron density in the magnetosphere and its dependence on geomagnetic activity and season. These measurements offer a straightforward, passive method for monitoring the total electron density in the magnetosphere, with high time resolution and a density range that covers many orders of magnitude. Within its polar orbit with geocentric perigee and apogee of 1.8 and 9.0 RE, respectively, Polar encounters a number of key plasma regions of the magnetosphere, such as the polar cap, cusp, plasmapause, and auroral zone that are clearly identified in the statistical averages presented here. The polar cap density behaves quite systematically with season. At low distance (~2 RE, the density is an order of magnitude higher in summer than in winter; at high distance (>4 RE, the variation is somewhat smaller. Along a magnetic field line the density declines between these two altitudes by a factor of 10–20 in winter and by a factor of 200–1000 in summer. A likely explanation for the large gradient in the summer is a high density of heavy ions that are gravitationally bound in the low-altitude polar cap. The geomagnetic effects are also significant in the polar cap, with the average density being an order of magnitude larger for high Kp; for an individual case, the polar cap density may increase even more dramatically. The plasma density in the cusp is controlled primarily by the solar wind variables, but nevertheless, they can be characterized to some extent in terms of the Kp index. We also investigate the local time variation of the average density at the geosynchronous distance that appears to be in accordance with previous geostationary observations. The average density decreases with increasing Kp at all MLT sectors

  4. The role of the dynorphin-kappa opioid system in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F


    Initial hypotheses regarding the role of the kappa opioid system in drug addiction suggested that kappa receptor stimulation had anti-addictive effects. However, recent research suggests that kappa receptor antagonists may reverse motivational aspects of dependence. In the present review, we revisit the studies that measured the effects of kappa receptor ligands on the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs and postulate underlying neurobiological mechanisms for these effects to elaborate a more complex view of the role of kappa receptor ligands in drug addiction. The review of studies indicates that kappa receptor stimulation generally antagonizes the acute reinforcing/rewarding effects of drugs whereas kappa receptor blockade has no consistent effect. However, in a drug dependent-like state, kappa receptor blockade was effective in reducing increased drug intake. In animal models of reinstatement, kappa receptor stimulation can induce reinstatement via a stress-like mechanism. Results in conditioned place preference/aversion and intracranial self-stimulation indicate that kappa receptor agonists produce, respectively, aversive-like and dysphoric-like effects. Additionally, preclinical and postmortem studies show that administration or self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and heroin activate the kappa opioid system. kappa receptor agonists antagonize the reinforcing/rewarding effects of drugs possibly through punishing/aversive-like effects and reinstate drug seeking through stress-like effects. Evidence suggests that abused drugs activate the kappa opioid system, which may play a key role in motivational aspects of dependence. Kappa opioid systems may have an important role in driving compulsive drug intake.

  5. Twist deformations leading to kappa-Poincare Hopf algebra and their application to physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurić, Tajron; Samsarov, Andjelo


    We consider two twist operators that lead to kappa-Poincare Hopf algebra, the first being an Abelian one and the second corresponding to a light-like kappa-deformation of Poincare algebra. The advantage of the second one is that it is expressed solely in terms of Poincare generators. In contrast to this, the Abelian twist goes out of the boundaries of Poincare algebra and runs into envelope of the general linear algebra. Some of the physical applications of these two different twist operators are considered. In particular, we use the Abelian twist to construct the statistics flip operator compatible with the action of deformed symmetry group. Furthermore, we use the light-like twist operator to define a star product and subsequently to formulate a free scalar field theory compatible with kappa-Poincare Hopf algebra and appropriate for considering the interacting phi^4 scalar field model on kappa-deformed space.

  6. Good cop, bad cop: the different faces of NF-kappaB. (United States)

    Perkins, N D; Gilmore, T D


    Complexes formed from the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed and are induced by a diverse array of stimuli. This results in their becoming activated in a wide variety of different settings. While the functions of NF-kappaB in many of these contexts have been the subject of intense research and are now well established, it is also clear that there is great diversity in the effects and consequences of NF-kappaB activation. NF-kappaB subunits do not necessarily regulate the same genes, in an identical manner, in all of the different circumstances in which they are induced. This review will discuss the different functions of NF-kappaB, the pathways that modulate NF-kappaB subunit activity and, in contrast to its more commonly thought of role as a promoter of cancer cell growth and survival, the ability of NF-kappaB, under some circumstances, to behave as a tumor suppressor.

  7. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)


    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  8. How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: Using an ARIMA time series approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fransman, W.; Brouwer, D.H.


    Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each ot

  9. Derivation and Applicability of Asymptotic Results for Multiple-Subtest Person-Fit Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Casper J.; Meijer, Rob R.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.

    In high-stakes testing, it is important to verify the validity of individual test scores. Although a test, in general, results in valid test scores for most test takers, there may be individual test takers with unusual answer patterns for whom test score validity is questionable. One example of such

  10. $\\kappa$-deformed Landau levels and implications on the integer quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Fabiano M; Assafrão, Denise; Filgueiras, Cleverson


    In this letter the $\\kappa$-deformed Dirac equation is used to study the relativistic generalization of the $\\kappa$-deformed Landau levels and the consequences of the deformation on the Hall conductivity. The isolated solutions for the first order differential equations, excluded from the Sturm-Liouville problem, are investigated. They do exist, but are independent of the deformation parameter. An expression for the $\\kappa$-deformed relativistic Landau levels is obtained. It is observed that the deformation parameter breaks the Landau levels degeneracy. Considering the $\\kappa$-deformed Landau levels in the nonrelativistic regime the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron system is obtained. The expression obtained recovers the well-known result for the usual Hall conductivity in the limit $\\varepsilon=\\kappa^{-1}\\to 0$. It is also observed that deformation generates new plateaus of conductivity in a such way that the plateaus widths of the deformed system are less than the undeformed one.

  11. On the mechanisms of kappa-opioid-induced diuresis. (United States)

    Blackburn, T. P.; Borkowski, K. R.; Friend, J.; Rance, M. J.


    In conscious saline loaded rats, the kappa-opioid agonists tifluadom, U50488, and ethylketocyclazocine, given subcutaneously, induced a characteristic diuresis which could be antagonized by naloxone. Bilateral adrenal demedullation significantly reduced adrenal gland catecholamine content and plasma adrenaline levels, but did not significantly affect plasma corticosterone levels, indicating that the adrenal cortex remained both intact and functional. Seven days following bilateral adrenal demedullation, the subcutaneous administration of the kappa-agonists no longer induced diuresis. However, demedullation did not affect the diuretic response to frusemide or clonidine, nor did it affect the antidiuretic response induced by the mu-opioid agonists morphine and buprenorphine. Adrenal catecholamines do not appear to be involved in kappa-opioid-induced diuresis, since pretreatment with propranolol, prazosin and idazoxan did not affect the diuretic response in intact animals. The results indicate a link between the adrenal medulla and kappa-opioid-induced diuresis and suggest that a peripheral mechanism may also be involved in mediating this effect. PMID:3542107

  12. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))


    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  13. Remarks on differential calculus over $\\kappa$-Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Juric, Tajron; Strajn, Rina


    Unified graded differential algebra, generated by $\\kappa$-Minkowski noncommutative (NC) coordinates, Lorentz generators and anticommuting one-forms, is constructed. It is compatible with $\\kappa$-Poncar\\'e-Hopf algebra. For time- and space-like deformations, the super-Jacobi identities are not satisfied. By introducing additional generator, interpreted as exterior derivative, we find a unique algebra that satisfies all super-Jacobi identities. It is universal and valid for all type of deformations (time-, space-, and light-like). For time-like deformations this algebra coincides with the one in [hep-th/9409014]. Different realizations of our algebra in terms of super-Heisenberg algebra are presented. For light-like deformations we get 4D bicovariant calculus, with $\\kappa$-Poncar\\'e-Hopf algebra and present the corresponding twist, which is written in a covariant way, using Poncar\\'e generators only. In the time- and space-like case this twist leads to $\\kappa$-Snyder space. Our results might lead to applica...

  14. Combination of statistical approaches for analysis of 2-DE data gives complementary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Harald; Jørgensen, Bo; Jessen, Flemming;


    from a time-series experiment exploring the changes in metabolic enzymes in bovine muscle at five time-points after slaughter. The data set consisted of 1377 protein spots, and for each analysis, the data set were preprocessed to fit the requirements of the chosen method. The generated results were one......Five methods for finding significant changes in proteome data have been used to analyze a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis data set. We used both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (Partial Least Squares with jackknife, Cross Model Validation, Power-PLS and CovProc) methods. The gels were taken...

  15. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Lloyd A. [Leading Solutions, LLC.; Paresol, Bernard [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.


    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  16. Results of wavelet processing of the 2K-capture Kr-78 experiment statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S


    Results of a search for Kr-78 double K-capture with the large low-background proportional counter (2005-2008 years) at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory are presented. An experimental method and characteristics of detectors are described. Basic features of the digitized pulses processing using wavelet transform are considered. With due account taken of the analysis of individual noise characteristic it has been shown that the appropriate choice of both wavelet characteristics and sequence of processing algorithms allows one to decrease the background in the energy region of useful events with a unique set of characteristics by ~2000 times. New limit on the half-life of Kr-78 with regard to 2K-capture has been found: T_{1/2} >= 2.4E21 yrs (90% C.L.).

  17. Statistical Analysis of State Tests Results for Admission to Higher Education in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Oswaldo Pérez Pulido


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Saber 11 common core scores obtained by the A-2016’s incoming students of the University of Santander. This diagnostic of the students’s background is proposed as a classification criterion to identify students with high risk of dropout based on their scores on each area evaluated. Besides the scores, variables such as type of high school, gender, selected program and region were considered. A multiple correspondence analysis was conducted to characterize the students. A factor analysis is proposed, which ended up being numerical, verbal and English. Finally, quantile regression is applied to measure the impact of some covariates on different levels of the factors. The results indicate that students from private schools and from Santander perform better in English and quantitative analysis, respectively.

  18. Novel asymptotic results on the high-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan


    The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework for the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels. As such, this novel framework for the higher-order statistics results in simple, closed-form expressions which are shown to be asymptotically tight bounds in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime of a variety of fading environment. In addition, it reveals the existence of differences (i.e., constant capacity gaps in log-domain) among different fading environments. By asymptotically tight bound we mean that the high SNR limit of the difference between the actual higher-order statistics of the channel capacity and its asymptotic bound (i.e., lower bound) tends to zero. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2012 IEEE.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article emphasizes aspects regarding the evaluation of the higher education's quality. In certain countries, the questionnaires regarding quality of the activity of HEIs (Higher Education Institutions are administrated by specialized institutions led by the Ministry of Education or the university associations. The evaluation principles derive from well-known economic and social theories, evolving even evaluation models (see the SERVQUAL model. As a result of the Bologna Treaty (1999, the European Union has the objective to become an international reference concerning the higher education quality and to be more attractive than in the present for students, professors and researchers from other regions of the world. So as to fulfill these objectives ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education recommends HEIs to include in their development plans regarding quality aspects five principles described in the article. The practical study refers to the results of a questionnaire applied to the master business students from a Romanian university. In order to assess the level of satisfaction of students in relation to the master programme they are involved in, a questionnaire was applied on a sample of 200 such persons. The responses were then analyzed using multidimensional data analysis methods. Out of these, the present research is based on multiple response analysis. In the questionnaire, students were asked to return their level of satisfaction for different aspects related to the educational process they are involved in. The questions were constructed as five-level Likert items. In this way was insured a connection between answers given at each of the questions assessing the quality of the programme. Only 0.2% of the answers given relate to aspects about which the students were not satisfied at all. These answers represent 3.2% of the number of respondents. 30% of the students were slightly satisfied, returning 57 choices

  20. Statistics of dark matter substructure - II. Comparison of model with simulation results (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jiang, Fangzhou


    We compare subhalo mass and velocity functions obtained from different simulations with different subhalo finders among each other, and with predictions from the new semi-analytical model presented in Paper I. We find that subhalo mass functions (SHMFs) obtained using different subhalo finders agree with each other at the level of ˜20 per cent, but only at the low-mass end. At the massive end, subhalo finders that identify subhaloes based purely on density in configuration space dramatically underpredict the subhalo abundances by more than an order of magnitude. These problems are much less severe for subhalo velocity functions (SHVFs), indicating that they arise from issues related to assigning masses to the subhaloes, rather than from detecting them. Overall the predictions from the semi-analytical model are in excellent agreement with simulation results obtained using the more advanced subhalo finders that use information in six-dimensional phase-space. In particular, the model accurately reproduces the slope and host-mass-dependent normalization of both the subhalo mass and velocity functions. We find that the SHMFs and SHVFs have power-law slopes of 0.86 and 2.77, respectively, significantly shallower than what has been claimed in several studies in the literature.

  1. Radiolysis studies of aqueous kappa-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Kudo, H. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Saiki, S. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, N.; Tamada, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fu, H.; Muroya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Lin, M.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; DeLaRosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)


    The effects on N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} gas on the radiation degradation yield of aqueous kappa (kappa-) carrageenan were investigated. The G{sub d} of solution saturated with N{sub 2}O solution was expectedly much higher than in air (1.7 and 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}). On the other hand, a lower G{sub d} of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1} was obtained from kappa-carrageenan solution saturated with N{sub 2}. The rate constant of reaction of OH radicals with sonicated and irradiated kappa-carrageenan were determined using e-beam pulse radiolysis. The rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with sonicated kappa-carrageenan decreased with decreasing molecular weight. On the other hand, the OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with irradiated kappa-carrageenan decreased but did not vary significantly with decreasing molecular weight. Metal ion (Na{sup +}) induced conformational transition into helical form decreased the rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot reaction with kappa-carrageenan. Likewise, the G{sub d} in aqueous form was affected by the conformational state of kappa-carrageenan. The helical conformation gave a lower G{sub d} (7 x 10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}) than the coiled conformation (G{sub d} = 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}).

  2. Characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish and their involvement in notochord development. (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo G; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Ng, Jennifer K; Dubova, Ilir; Izpisua-Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Verma, Inder M


    Although largely involved in innate and adaptive immunity, NF-kappa B plays an important role in vertebrate development. In chicks, the inactivation of the NF-kappa B pathway induces functional alterations of the apical ectodermal ridge, which mediates limb outgrowth. In mice, the complete absence of NF-kappa B activity leads to prenatal death and neural tube defects. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish. Despite being ubiquitously expressed among the embryonic tissues, NF-kappa B/I kappa B members present distinct patterns of gene expression during the early zebra fish development. Biochemical assays indicate that zebra fish NF-kappa B proteins are able to bind consensus DNA-binding (kappa B) sites and inhibitory I kappa B alpha proteins from mammals. We show that zebra fish I kappa B alphas are degraded in a time-dependent manner after induction of transduced murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and that these proteins are able to rescue NF-kappa B activity in I kappa B alpha(-/-) MEFs. Expression of a dominant-negative form of the murine I kappa B alpha (mI kappa B alpha M), which is able to block NF-kappa B in zebra fish cells, interferes with the notochord differentiation, generating no tail (ntl)-like embryos. This phenotype can be rescued by coinjection of the T-box gene ntl (Brachyury homologue), which is typically required for the formation of posterior mesoderm and axial development, suggesting that ntl lies downstream of NF-kappa B . We further show that ntl and Brachyury promoter regions contain functional kappa B sites and NF-kappa B can directly modulate ntl expression. Our study illustrates the conservation and compatibility of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins among vertebrates and the importance of NF-kappa B pathway in mesoderm formation during early embryogenesis.

  3. KAPPA: A Package for Synthesis of optically thin spectra for the non-Maxwellian kappa-distributions based on the CHIANTI database

    CERN Document Server

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Kotrč, Pavel; Fárník, František; Zemanová, Alena


    The non-Maxwellian $\\kappa$-distributions have been detected in the solar transition region and flares. These distributions are characterized by a high-energy tail and a near-Maxwellian core and are known to have significant impact on the resulting optically thin spectra arising from collisionally dominated astrophysical plasmas. We developed the KAPPA package ( for synthesis of such line and continuum spectra. The package is based on the freely available CHIANTI database and software, and can be used in a similar manner. Ionization and recombination rates together with the ionization equilibria are provided for a range of $\\kappa$ values. Distribution-averaged collision strengths for excitation are obtained by an approximate method for all transitions in all ions available within CHIANTI. The validity of this approximate method is tested by comparison with direct calculations. Typical precisions of better than 5% are found, with all cases being within 10%. Tools for calculation of syn...

  4. Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvia Abramson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.

  5. [Selection of a statistical model for evaluation of the reliability of the results of toxicological analyses. I. Discussion on selected statistical models for evaluation of the systems of control of the results of toxicological analyses]. (United States)

    Antczak, K; Wilczyńska, U


    2 statistical models for evaluation of toxicological studies results have been presented. Model I. after R. Hoschek and H. J. Schittke (2) involves: 1. Elimination of the values deviating from most results-by Grubbs' method (2). 2. Analysis of the differences between the results obtained by the participants of the action and tentatively assumed value. 3. Evaluation of significant differences between the reference value and average value for a given series of measurements. 4. Thorough evaluation of laboratories based on evaluation coefficient fx. Model II after Keppler et al. As a criterion for evaluating the results the authors assumed the median. Individual evaluation of laboratories was performed on the basis of: 1. Adjusted test "t" 2. Linear regression test.

  6. Evaluating the statistical conclusion validity of weighted mean results in meta-analysis by analysing funnel graph diagrams. (United States)

    Elvik, R


    The validity of weighted mean results estimated in meta-analysis has been criticized. This paper presents a set of simple statistical and graphical techniques that can be used in meta-analysis to evaluate common points of criticism. The graphical techniques are based on funnel graph diagrams. Problems and techniques for dealing with them that are discussed include: (1) the so-called 'apples and oranges' problem, stating that mean results in meta-analysis tend to gloss over important differences that should be highlighted. A test of the homogeneity of results is described for testing the presence of this problem. If results are highly heterogeneous, a random effects model of meta-analysis is more appropriate than the fixed effects model of analysis. (2) The possible presence of skewness in a sample of results. This can be tested by comparing the mode, median and mean of the results in the sample. (3) The possible presence of more than one mode in a sample of results. This can be tested by forming a frequency distribution of the results and examining the shape of this distribution. (4) The sensitivity of the mean to the possible presence of atypical results (outliers) can be tested by comparing the overall mean to the mean of all results except the one suspected of being atypical. (5) The possible presence of publication bias can be tested by visual inspection of funnel graph diagrams in which data points have been sorted according to statistical significance and direction of effect. (6) The possibility of underestimating the standard error of the mean in meta-analyses by using multiple, correlated results from the same study as the unit of analysis can be addressed by using the jack-knife technique for estimating the uncertainty of the mean. Brief examples, taken from road safety research, are given of all these techniques.

  7. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, Antonio J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Benilde F O [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J O, E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.p [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)


    Magnetic hydrogel {kappa}-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter () of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g{sup -1}, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the {kappa}-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 {sup 0}C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  8. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral


    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  9. Testing Patterned Hypotheses in Multi-Way Contingency Tables Using Weighted Kappa and Weighted Chi Square (United States)

    Ross, Donald C.


    The kappa coefficient and the chi square statistic are used as indices of agreement between two judges' ratings of a set of stimuli on a nominal scale. In this article, the logic of these indices is extended to weighted multi-way cases. (Author/JKS)

  10. $\\kappa$-Deformation and Spectral Triples

    CERN Document Server

    Iochum, B; Schücker, Th; Sitarz, A; 10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.4.305


    The aim of the paper is to answer the following question: does $\\kappa$-deformation fit into the framework of noncommutative geometry in the sense of spectral triples? Using a compactification of time, we get a discrete version of $\\kappa$-Minkowski deformation via $C^*$-algebras of groups. The dynamical system of the underlying groups (including some Baumslag--Solitar groups) is used in order to construct \\emph{finitely summable} spectral triples. This allows to bypass an obstruction to finite-summability appearing when using the common regular representation.

  11. Strong Langmuir turbulence in Kappa distributed plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Sanqiu [Department of Physics and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047 (China); Chen Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)


    Superthermal electrons are often observed in space and astrophysics and can be appropriate modeled by the family of Kappa distribution functions. Taking the nonlinear wave-wave, wave-particle interactions and the effect of superthermal electrons into account, the strong Langmuir turbulence is investigated in kinetic regime. The modified Zakharov equations are obtained for the case of no damping or driving terms. On the basis of these equations, dynamics of collapse have been studied by the means of the general virial theorem, and the collapse thresholds which are strong modified by superthermal index {kappa}{sub e} are given.

  12. Impact of Assimilation on Heavy Rainfall Simulations Using WRF Model: Sensitivity of Assimilation Results to Background Error Statistics (United States)

    Rakesh, V.; Kantharao, B.


    Data assimilation is considered as one of the effective tools for improving forecast skill of mesoscale models. However, for optimum utilization and effective assimilation of observations, many factors need to be taken into account while designing data assimilation methodology. One of the critical components that determines the amount and propagation observation information into the analysis, is model background error statistics (BES). The objective of this study is to quantify how BES in data assimilation impacts on simulation of heavy rainfall events over a southern state in India, Karnataka. Simulations of 40 heavy rainfall events were carried out using Weather Research and Forecasting Model with and without data assimilation. The assimilation experiments were conducted using global and regional BES while the experiment with no assimilation was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of data assimilation. The simulated rainfall is verified against high-resolution rain-gage observations over Karnataka. Statistical evaluation using several accuracy and skill measures shows that data assimilation has improved the heavy rainfall simulation. Our results showed that the experiment using regional BES outperformed the one which used global BES. Critical thermo-dynamic variables conducive for heavy rainfall like convective available potential energy simulated using regional BES is more realistic compared to global BES. It is pointed out that these results have important practical implications in design of forecast platforms while decision-making during extreme weather events

  13. Algebraic Statistics


    Norén, Patrik


    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  14. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses. (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert


    This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.

  15. Asymptotic results and statistical procedures for time-changed L\\'evy processes sampled at hitting times

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, Mathieu


    We provide asymptotic results and develop high frequency statistical procedures for time-changed L\\'evy processes sampled at random instants. The sampling times are given by first hitting times of symmetric barriers whose distance with respect to the starting point is equal to $\\varepsilon$. This setting can be seen as a first step towards a model for tick-by-tick financial data allowing for large jumps. For a wide class of L\\'evy processes, we introduce a renormalization depending on $\\varepsilon$, under which the L\\'evy process converges in law to an $\\alpha$-stable process as $\\varepsilon$ goes to $0$. The convergence is extended to moments of hitting times and overshoots. In particular, these results allow us to construct consistent estimators of the time change and of the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the underlying L\\'evy process. Convergence rates and a central limit theorem are established under additional assumptions.

  16. Radio Emissions from Plasma with Electron Kappa-Distributions (United States)

    Fleishman, G. D.; Kuznetsov, A. A.


    Gregory Fleishman (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, USA)Alexey Kuznetsov (Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk, Russia), Currently there is a concern about the ability of the classical thermal (Maxwellian) distribution to describe quasisteady-state plasma in the solar atmosphere, including active regions. In particular, other distributions have been proposed to better fit observations, for example, kappa-distributions. If present, these distributions will generate radio emissions with different observable properties compared with the classical gyroresonance (GR) or free-free emission, which implies a way of remotely detecting these kappa distributions in the radio observations. Here we present analytically derived GR and free-free emissivities and absorption coefficients for the kappa-distribution, and discuss their properties, which are in fact remarkably different from the classical Maxwellian plasma. In particular, the radio brightness temperature from a gyrolayer increases with the optical depth τ for kappa-distribution. This property has a remarkable consequence allowing a straightforward observational test: the GR radio emission from the non-Maxwellian distributions is supposed to be noticeably polarized even in the optically thick case, where the emission would have strictly zero polarization in the case of Maxwellian plasma. This offers a way of remote probing the plasma distribution in astrophysical sources, including solar active regions as a vivid example. In this report, we present analytical formulae and computer codes to calculate the emission parameters. We simulate the gyroresonance emission under the conditions typical of the solar active regions and compare the results for different electron distributions. We discuss the implications of our findings for interpretation of radio observations. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-1250374 and AGS-1262772, NASA grant NNX14AC87G to New Jersey Institute of Technology

  17. Making Statistical Data More Easily Accessible on the Web Results of the StatSearch Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Rajman, M; Boynton, I M; Fridlund, B; Fyhrlund, A; Sundgren, B; Lundquist, P; Thelander, H; Wänerskär, M


    In this paper we present the results of the StatSearch case study that aimed at providing an enhanced access to statistical data available on the Web. In the scope of this case study we developed a prototype of an information access tool combining a query-based search engine with semi-automated navigation techniques exploiting the hierarchical structuring of the available data. This tool enables a better control of the information retrieval, improving the quality and ease of the access to statistical information. The central part of the presented StatSearch tool consists in the design of an algorithm for automated navigation through a tree-like hierarchical document structure. The algorithm relies on the computation of query related relevance score distributions over the available database to identify the most relevant clusters in the data structure. These most relevant clusters are then proposed to the user for navigation, or, alternatively, are the support for the automated navigation process. Several appro...

  18. Synaptic localization of. kappa. opioid receptors in guinea pig neostriatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomary, C.; Beaudet, A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Gairin, J.E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France))


    Distribution of {kappa} opioid receptors was examined by EM radioautography in sections of guinea pig neostriatum with the selective {sup 125}I-labeled dynorphin analog (D-Pro{sup 10})dynorphin-(1-11). Most specifically labeled binding sites were found by probability circle analysis to be associated with neuronal membrane appositions. Because of limitations in resolution of the method, the radioactive sources could not be ascribed directly to either one of the apposed plasma membranes. Nevertheless, three lines of evidence favored a predominant association of ligand with dendrites of intrinsic striatal neurons: (1) the high frequency with which labeled interfaces implicated a dendrite, (2) the enrichment of dendrodendritic interfaces, and (3) the occurrence of dendritic profiles labeled at several contact points along their plasma membranes. A small proportion of labeled sites was associated with axo-axonic interfaces, which may subserve the {kappa} opioid-induced regulation of presynaptic dopamine and acetylcholine release documented in guinea pig neostriatum. These results support the hypothesis that in mammalian brain {kappa} opioid receptors are conformationally and functionally distinct from {mu} and {delta} types.

  19. Some Features of Scattering Problem in a $\\kappa$-Deformed Minkowski Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Khodadi, Mohsen


    The doubly special relativity (DSR) theories are suggested in order to incorporate an observer-independent length scale in special theory of relativity. The Magueijo-Smolin proposal of DSR is realizable through a particular form of the noncommutative (NC) spacetime (known as $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime) in which the Lorentz symmetry is preserved. In this framework, the NC parameter $\\kappa$ provides the origin of natural cutoff energy scale. Using a nonlinear deformed relativistic dispersion relation along with the Lorentz transformations, we investigate some phenomenological facets of two-body collision problem (without creation of new particles) in a $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime. By treating an elastic scattering problem, we study effects of the Planck scale energy cutoff on some relativistic kinematical properties of this scattering problem. The results are challenging in the sense that as soon as one turns on the $\\kappa$-spacetime extension, the nature of the two-body collision alters from elastic to in...

  20. Whistler-Mode Waves Growth by a Generalized Relativistic Kappa-Type Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qing-Hua; JIANG Bin; SHI Xiang-Hua; LI Jun-Qiu


    The instability of field-aligned Whistler-mode waves in space plasmas is studied by using a recently developed generalized relativistic kappa-type (KT) distribution. Numerical calculations are performed for a direct compar-ison between the new KT distribution and the current kappa distribution. We show that the wave growth for the KT distribution tends to occur in the lower wave frequency (e.g., ω 0.1Ωe) due to a larger fractional num-ber of the resonant electrons ηrel (which controls the wave growth), while primarily locating in the higher wave frequency for the kappa distribution. Moreover, the relativistic anisotropy Arel by the KT distribution is found to be smaller than that by the kappa distribution, leading to a smaller peak of wave growth. The results present a further understanding of plasma wave instability particularly in those plasmas where relativistic electrons are present.

  1. NF-kappaB signaling mediates vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B receptor expression in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars


    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptor upregulation results in strong vasoconstriction and reduction of local blood flow. We hypothesizes that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. ET(B) receptor...

  2. Measurement of Interobserver Disagreement: Correction of Cohen’s Kappa for Negative Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald O. Kvålseth


    Full Text Available As measures of interobserver agreement for both nominal and ordinal categories, Cohen’s kappa coefficients appear to be the most widely used with simple and meaningful interpretations. However, for negative coefficient values when (the probability of observed disagreement exceeds chance-expected disagreement, no fixed lower bounds exist for the kappa coefficients and their interpretations are no longer meaningful and may be entirely misleading. In this paper, alternative measures of disagreement (or negative agreement are proposed as simple corrections or modifications of Cohen’s kappa coefficients. The new coefficients have a fixed lower bound of −1 that can be attained irrespective of the marginal distributions. A coefficient is formulated for the case when the classification categories are nominal and a weighted coefficient is proposed for ordinal categories. Besides coefficients for the overall disagreement across categories, disagreement coefficients for individual categories are presented. Statistical inference procedures are developed and numerical examples are provided.

  3. Statistical theory of turbulent incompressible multimaterial flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwa, B.


    Interpenetrating motion of incompressible materials is considered. ''Turbulence'' is defined as any deviation from the mean motion. Accordingly a nominally stationary fluid will exhibit turbulent fluctuations due to a single, slowly moving sphere. Mean conservation equations for interpenetrating materials in arbitrary proportions are derived using an ensemble averaging procedure, beginning with the exact equations of motion. The result is a set of conservation equations for the mean mass, momentum and fluctuational kinetic energy of each material. The equation system is at first unclosed due to integral terms involving unknown one-point and two-point probability distribution functions. In the mean momentum equation, the unclosed terms are clearly identified as representing two physical processes. One is transport of momentum by multimaterial Reynolds stresses, and the other is momentum exchange due to pressure fluctuations and viscous stress at material interfaces. Closure is approached by combining careful examination of multipoint statistical correlations with the traditional physical technique of kappa-epsilon modeling for single-material turbulence. This involves representing the multimaterial Reynolds stress for each material as a turbulent viscosity times the rate of strain based on the mean velocity of that material. The multimaterial turbulent viscosity is related to the fluctuational kinetic energy kappa, and the rate of fluctuational energy dissipation epsilon, for each material. Hence a set of kappa and epsilon equations must be solved, together with mean mass and momentum conservation equations, for each material. Both kappa and the turbulent viscosities enter into the momentum exchange force. The theory is applied to (a) calculation of the drag force on a sphere fixed in a uniform flow, (b) calculation of the settling rate in a suspension and (c) calculation of velocity profiles in the pneumatic transport of solid particles in a

  4. NF kappa B activity and target gene expression in the rat brain after one and two exposures to ionizing radiation. (United States)

    Raju, U; Gumin, G J; Tofilon, P J


    The central nervous system injury that can result after radiotherapy has been suggested to involve induced gene expression and cytokine production. We have previously shown that irradiation of primary cultures of rat astrocytes results in the activation of NF kappa B. To determine whether such an effect also occurs in vivo, NF kappa B activity was analyzed in the cerebral cortex of the rat brain after whole body irradiation. After a single dose of 15 Gy, NF kappa B activity was increased by 2 h postirradiation, returning to unirradiated levels by 8 hours. The increase was dose-dependent beginning at 2 Gy and continuing to at least 22.5 Gy. NF kappa B activity in the irradiated cortex was not accompanied by I kappa B alpha degradation. When 7.5 Gy was delivered 24 h before the 15 Gy, the increase in NF kappa B activity after 15 Gy was significantly reduced. These results suggest that an initial exposure to radiation induced a refractory period in the brain during which the susceptibility of NF kappa B to activation by subsequent irradiation was significantly reduced. This period of reduced sensitivity to radiation was also apparent for the induction of the NF kappa B-regulated cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF alpha.

  5. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring vs. Flare-Quiet Active Regions I: Data, General Approach, and Statistical Results (United States)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.


    Photospheric vector magnetic field data from the U. Hawai`i Imaging Vector Magnetograph are examined for pre-event signatures unique to solar energetic phenomena. Parameters are constructed from B(x,y) to describe (for example) the distributions of the field, spatial gradients of the field, vertical current, current helicity, ''twist'' parameter α and magnetic shear angles. A quantitative statistical approach employing discriminant analysis and Hotelling's T2-test is applied to the magnitude and temporal evolution of parameters from 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs from seven active regions. We demonstrate that (1) when requiring a flare-unique signature, numerous candidate parameters are nullified by considering flare-quiet epochs, (2) a more robust method exists for estimating error rates than conventional ''truth tables'', (3) flaring and flare-quiet populations do not necessarily have low error rates for classification even when statistically distinguishable, and that (4) simultaneous consideration of a large number of variables is required to produce acceptable error rates. That is, when the parameters are considered individually, they show little ability to differentiate between the two populations; multi-variable combinations can discriminate the populations and/or result in perfect classification tables. In lieu of constructing a single all-variable discriminant function to quantify the flare-predictive power of the parameters considered, we devise a method whereby all permutations of the four-variable discriminant functions are ranked by Hotelling's T2. We present those parameters (e.g. the temporal increase of the kurtosis of the spatial distribution of the vertical current density) which consistently appear in the best combinations, indicating that they may play an important role in defining a pre-event photospheric state. While no single combination is clearly the best discriminator, we demonstrate here the requisite approach: include flare

  6. Using spirometry results in occupational medicine and research: Common errors and good practice in statistical analysis and reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner N


    Full Text Available Spirometry appears to be a simple and inexpensive method to measure disorders of the respiratory tract. In reality however, a simple spirometry test requires knowledge and skill to correctly conduct and evaluate the test and its results. This review addresses common misunderstandings in using, evaluating and reporting spirometry results in Occupational Health practice, clinical medicine and research. Results of spirometry need to be evaluated in relation to reference values. The factory medical officer has to decide first whether the test was technically correctly executed and is acceptable for medical interpretation. The next step is to compare results of the individual to published reference values. A 10% reduction of reference values for North Indians and Pakistanis and a 12 to 13% reduction for South Indians is recommended when Caucasian reference tables are used. In occupational health practice the worker′s spirometry performance over time needs to be considered. Common errors in reporting summarized results, for instance from groups of workers, are the incorrect use of tests of significance and incorrect presentation of aggregated spirometry results. The loss of respiratory function is recommended as an indicator of difference between two groups. That way, early changes in function can seen without waiting for a drop of function below the usually used 80%-of-predicted limit. This procedure increases the sensitivity of medical surveillance. In research the more precise Lower Limit of Normal should be calculated and used. Correct reference equations, good patient coaching, decision on the technical quality (acceptability of each spirometry test and critical re-evaluation of the machine′s readout are essential parts of a correct spirometry test. A good understanding how results are calculated is crucial for further statistical evaluation.

  7. Role of nuclear factor-kappaB in interleukin-1-induced collagen degradation by corneal fibroblasts. (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Fukuda, Ken; Li, Qin; Kumagai, Naoki; Nishida, Teruo


    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is implicated in corneal ulceration. The role of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in the IL-1-induced degradation of collagen by corneal fibroblasts that underlies corneal ulceration was investigated. Rabbit corneal fibroblasts were cultured in three-dimensional gels of type I collagen with or without IL-1 and sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation. Collagen degradation was assessed from the amount of hydroxyproline generated by acid-heat hydrolysis of culture supernatants. The release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) into culture supernatants was examined by immunoblot analysis and gelatin zymography, and the cellular abundance of MMP and TIMP mRNAs was determined by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The phosphorylation and degradation of the NF-kappaB-inhibitory protein IkappaB-alpha were examined by immunoblot analysis. The subcellular localization and DNA binding activity of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB were evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis and with a colorimetric assay, respectively. The transactivation activity of NF-kappaB was assessed with a reporter gene assay. Sulfasalazine inhibited IL-1-induced collagen degradation by corneal fibroblasts in a concentration-dependent manner. It also inhibited the stimulatory effects of IL-1 on the synthesis or activation of various MMPs in a concentration-dependent manner. IL-1 induced the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB-alpha, the nuclear translocation and up-regulation of the DNA binding activity of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, and the activation of NF-kappaB in a manner sensitive to sulfasalazine. These results suggest that NF-kappaB contributes to the IL-1-induced degradation of collagen by corneal fibroblasts and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for treatment of corneal ulcers.

  8. Development of a cell death-based method for the screening of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors. (United States)

    Chopra, Puneet; Bajpai, Malini; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit


    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) plays a significant role in immunity and inflammation and represents a first choice as pharmacological target for anti-inflammatory therapy. However, research in this field has been hampered by the fact that no convenient assay suitable for large-scale screening procedures is available. The present study provides a cell death-based assay method for screening of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors. In this study, we observed that four distinct pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-kappaB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), N-tosyl-L-lysyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), genistein and BAY11-7082, resulted in the cell death of murine macrophages, J774A.1. DNA-binding experiments showed that lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF-kappaB inhibition. DNA fragmentation analysis showed that cell death is apoptotic in nature. Further studies suggested that NF-kappaB inhibitors induced apoptosis is independent of the involvement of other markers of cell death such as caspases and p38 MAP (Mitogen activated protein) kinase. From this study, we conclude that NF-kappaB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages. This study also provides a new cell-based screening method, as any compound that will inhibit NF-kappaB activity will result in the death of macrophages.

  9. Assessing Fun Items' Effectiveness in Increasing Learning of College Introductory Statistics Students: Results of a Randomized Experiment (United States)

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Weber, John J., III


    There has been a recent emergence of scholarship on the use of fun in the college statistics classroom, with at least 20 modalities identified. While there have been randomized experiments that suggest that fun can enhance student achievement or attitudes in statistics, these studies have generally been limited to one particular fun modality or…

  10. The effects of clinical and statistical heterogeneity on the predictive values of results from meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, W G; Rovers, M M; Bonten, M J M; Bootsma, M C J


    Variance between studies in a meta-analysis will exist. This heterogeneity may be of clinical, methodological or statistical origin. The last of these is quantified by the I(2) -statistic. We investigated, using simulated studies, the accuracy of I(2) in the assessment of heterogeneity and the effec

  11. HIV gp120 induces, NF-kappaB dependent, HIV replication that requires procaspase 8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D Bren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes cellular activation resulting in anergy, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokine production, and through an unknown mechanism, enhanced HIV replication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe that the signals which promote apoptosis are also responsible for the enhanced HIV replication. Specifically, we demonstrate that the caspase 8 cleavage fragment Caspase8p43, activates p50/p65 Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB, in a manner which is inhibited by dominant negative IkappaBalpha. This caspase 8 dependent NF-kappaB activation occurs following stimulation with gp120, TNF, or CD3/CD28 crosslinking, but these treatments do not activate NF-kappaB in cells deficient in caspase 8. The Casp8p43 cleavage fragment also transactivates the HIV LTR through NF-kappaB, and the absence of caspase 8 following HIV infection greatly inhibits HIV replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Gp120 induced caspase 8 dependent NF-kappaB activation is a novel pathway of HIV replication which increases understanding of the biology of T-cell death, as well as having implications for understanding treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

  12. The dynamic relationship between mu and kappa opioid receptors in body temperature regulation. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; McClatchy, Daniel B; Geller, Ellen B; Tallarida, Ronald J; Adler, Martin W


    Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a kappa opioid receptor agonist decreased, and a mu agonist increased, body temperature (Tb) in rats. A dose-response study with the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) showed that a low dose (1.25 nmol, icv) alone had no effect, although a high dose (25 nmol, icv) increased Tb. It was hypothesized that the hyperthermia induced by nor-BNI was the result of the antagonist blocking the kappa opioid receptor and releasing its inhibition of mu opioid receptor activity. To determine whether the Tb increase caused by nor-BNI was a mu receptor-mediated effect, we administered the selective mu antagonist CTAP (1.25 nmol, icv) 15 min after nor-BNI (25 nmol, icv) and measured rectal Tb in unrestrained rats. CTAP significantly antagonized the Tb increase induced by icv injection of nor-BNI. Injection of 5 or 10 nmol of CTAP alone significantly decreased the Tb, and 1.25 nmol of nor-BNI blocked that effect, indicating that the CTAP-induced hypothermia was kappa-mediated. The findings strongly suggest that mu antagonists, in blocking the basal hyperthermia mediated by mu receptors, can unmask the endogenous kappa receptor-mediated hypothermia, and that there is a tonic balance between mu and kappa opioid receptors that serves as a homeostatic mechanism for maintaining Tb.

  13. 7-Ketocholesterol Induces Cell Apoptosis by Activation of Nuclear Factor kappa B in Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of apoptosis in mouse monocytic macrophage cell line J774A.1 stimulated by 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI staining. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Results showed that 7-KC-stimulation in J774A.1 cells activated NF-kappaB, which is involved in cell apoptosis, in a time- and dose-dependent manners. 7-KC was also found to increase the binding activity of NF-kappaB to specific DNA binding sites, a possible mechanism for the induction of the cell apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were partially inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-kappaB inhibitor. Taken together, 7-KC may be an important factor in atherosclerosis due to the ability of 7-KC to induce cell apoptosis, which is at least partially mediated through the activation of NF-kappaB.

  14. Hemorrhage activates NF-kappa B in murine lung mononuclear cells in vivo. (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Schwartz, M D; Terada, L S; Repine, J E; McCord, J; Abraham, E


    Hemorrhage rapidly increases the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines in the lungs. Binding elements for the nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors (NF)-kappa B and NF-IL6 (C/EBP beta) are present in the promoter regions of multiple cytokine genes, including those whose expression is increased after blood loss. In the present experiments, we found increased activation in vivo of NF-kappa B in lung mononuclear cells, but not in splenocytes, taken from mice 1 h after hemorrhage. In contrast, hemorrhage did not activate NF-IL6 in lung cells or splenocytes. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by prior feeding of a tungsten-enriched diet prevented hemorrhage-induced activation in lung cells of NF-kappa B. Incubating splenocytes in vitro with xanthine oxidase activated NF-kappa B but not NF-IL6. Xanthine oxidase-induced activation of NF-kappa B was inhibited by manganese superoxide dismutase, but not by catalase. These results suggest that xanthine oxidase-mediated superoxide anion-dependent activation of NF-kappa B occurs in vivo and in vitro. This mechanism may contribute to increased lung cytokine responses after hemorrhage.

  15. Improvement of Pulping Uniformity by Measurement of Single Fiber Kappa Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Gustafson; James B. Callis


    A method to measure the kappa of single fibers by staining with a fluorescent dye, Acridine Orange (AO), has been developed. This method is now applied to develop and automated flow-through instrument that permits routine kappa analysis on thousands of images of AO stained fibers to give the fiber kappa number distribution of a pulp sample in a few minutes. The design and operation of the instrument are similar to that of a flow cytometer but with the addition of extensive fiber imaging capability. Fluorescence measurements in the flow-through instrument are found to be consistent with those made with fluorescence microscope provided the signal processing in the flow-thou instrument is handled propertly. The kappa distributions of pulps that were analyzed by means of a density gradient column are compared to those measured with the flow-through instrument with good results. The kappa distributions of various laboratory pulps and commercial pulps have been measured. It has been found that all pulps are non-uniform but that ommercial pulps generally have broader kappa distributions thatn their laboratory counterparts. The effects of different pulping methods and chip pretreatments on pulp uniformity are discussed in the report. Finally, the application of flow-through fluorescence technology to other single fiber measurements are presented.

  16. TUCAN/CARDINAL and DRAL participate in a common pathway for modulation of NF-kappaB activation. (United States)

    Stilo, Romania; Leonardi, Antonio; Formisano, Luigi; Di Jeso, Bruno; Vito, Pasquale; Liguoro, Domenico


    Proteins containing the caspase recruiting domain (CARD) have emerged as critical regulators of different signal transduction pathways, including those controlling apoptosis and activation of necrosis factor (NF)-kappaB transcription factor. TUCAN/CARDINAL is a recently identified CARD-containing protein involved in regulation of caspases and NF-kappaB activation. We find that TUCAN/CARDINAL associates with DRAL, a p53-responsive gene implicated in induction of apoptosis. We also show that, whereas TUCAN/CARDINAL exerts a suppressive effect on NF-kappaB activity, expression of DRAL results in enhancement of NF-kappaB activation. Thus, our observations suggest that DRAL and TUCAN/CARDINAL may participate in a regulatory mechanism that coordinates cellular responses controlled by NF-kappaB transcription factor.

  17. Properties of sigma and kappa Production Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, M; Ishida, Muneyuki; Ishida, Shin


    Our method of analysis, which led to existence of sigma and kappa mesons, is reviewed and examined from a viewpoint of general S-matrix. It is shown that the method is consistent with the constraints from chiral symmetry and unitarity. Accordingly the long-believed common analyses of pipi (Kpi) scattering and production processes, based on elastic unitarity, prove to lose its theoretical base. The observed phase motion by 180 degrees of sigma shows also the validity of our method.

  18. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics


    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.


    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  19. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.


    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  20. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.


    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  1. Differential forms and {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime from extended twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juric, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Strajn, Rina [Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany)


    We analyze bicovariant differential calculus on {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime. It is shown that corresponding Lorentz generators and noncommutative coordinates compatible with bicovariant calculus cannot be realized in terms of commutative coordinates and momenta. Furthermore, {kappa}-Minkowski space and NC forms are constructed by twist related to a bicrossproduct basis. It is pointed out that the consistency condition is not satisfied. We present the construction of {kappa}-deformed coordinates and forms (super-Heisenberg algebra) using extended twist. It is compatible with bicovariant differential calculus with {kappa}-deformed igl(4)-Hopf algebra. The extended twist leading to {kappa}-Poincare-Hopf algebra is also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Application of Kappa (κ) index in clinical training for eight-year program medical students%应用Kappa(κ)指数辅助长学制妇产科临床技能培训的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 田莉; 刘春兰; 王建六; 魏丽惠


    Objective To screened out items with large proportion of technical analysis in obstetrics and gynecology physical examination by using statistical parameters Kappa index and to evaluate effect and clinical significance of Kappa index based on objective data and students' and teachers' subjective feeling.Methods We made Kappa index screening with double-blind method and established the Kappa index table for teachers and students.Students were randomly divided into conventional teaching group (n =26) and teaching reform group (n =29).Students in conventional teaching group traditionally followed the teacher to carry on the practice while those in teaching reform group received training according to the numerical value index and had examination after training.We paid attention to each student's weak points,provided personalized guidance and communicated with students actively.Results We found that it was uneasy for beginners to quickly grasp four step obstetrics palpation in-spection according to Kappa index.There were statistical differences in operation of gynecological physical examination between two groups (P =0.016).Conclusions Application of Kappa index can help us screen out skills in the operation suitable for training for eight-year program medical students.With quantitative evaluation,we can improve quality of clinical practice teaching in department of obstetrics and gynecology and guide educational reform.%目的 运用统计学参数Kappa指数筛查出妇产科专科体检和操作中技术因素比重较大的体检项目,根据客观数据,结合学生与教师的主观感受综合评价Kappa指数应用于长学制妇产科临床教学的效果和意义.方法 应用双盲法对妇产科专科体检和操作分项目进行Kappa指数筛查.建立教师水平体检操作的Kappa指数表,并对首轮实习的长学制医学生建立Kappa指数表.将实习医学生随机分为常规教学组(26人)及教改组(29人).常规教学组按照传统跟随

  3. Cardiorenal Effects of Kappa Opioid Peptides During Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi


    Full Text Available This review focuses on the physiological roles for kappa opioid receptors (KORs in adult animals and humans, as well as in the developing newborn animal. Our recent findings have provided new information that under physiological conditions in conscious newborn animals, activation of KORs with the selective agonist, U-50488H, results in an aquaresis, as previously observed in adult animals and humans. In addition, we have shown in conscious lambs that KORs modulate systemic and renal haemodynamics as well as the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate, providing a previously unidentified role for KORs.

  4. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK) mediates Bcl10-independent NF-kappa B activation induced by phorbol ester. (United States)

    Muto, Akihiro; Ruland, Jürgen; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C; Yamaoka, Shoji; Chen, Felicia F; Lin, Amy; Mak, Tak W; Núñez, Gabriel; Inohara, Naohiro


    Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK) is a recently described kinase of unknown function that was identified on the basis of its specific interaction with PKC beta. PKK contains N-terminal kinase and C-terminal ankyrin repeats domains linked to an intermediate region. Here we report that the kinase domain of PKK is highly homologous to that of two mediators of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation, RICK and RIP, but these related kinases have different C-terminal domains for binding to upstream factors. We find that expression of PKK, like RICK and RIP, induces NF-kappa B activation. Mutational analysis revealed that the kinase domain of PKK is essential for NF-kappa B activation, whereas replacement of serine residues in the putative activation loop did not affect the ability of PKK to activate NF-kappa B. A catalytic inactive PKK mutant inhibited NF-kappa B activation induced by phorbol ester and Ca(2+)-ionophore, but it did not block that mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, or Nod1. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by dominant negative PKK was reverted by co-expression of PKC beta I, suggesting a functional association between PKK and PKC beta I. PKK-mediated NF-kappa B activation required IKK alpha and IKK beta but not IKK gamma, the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. Moreover, NF-kappa B activation induced by PKK was not inhibited by dominant negative Bimp1 and proceeded in the absence of Bcl10, two components of a recently described PKC signaling pathway. These results suggest that PKK is a member of the RICK/RIP family of kinases, which is involved in a PKC-activated NF-kappa B signaling pathway that is independent of Bcl10 and IKK gamma.

  5. Neutrino statistics and big bang nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D; Smirnov, A Yu


    Neutrinos may possibly violate the spin-statistics theorem, and hence obey Bose statistics or mixed statistics despite having spin half. We find the generalized equilibrium distribution function of neutrinos which depends on a single fermi-bose parameter, \\kappa, and interpolates continuously between the bosonic and fermionic distributions when \\kappa changes from -1 to +1. We consider modification of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the presence of bosonic or partly bosonic neutrinos. For pure bosonic neutrinos the abundances change (in comparison with the usual Fermi-Dirac case) by -3.2% for He4 (which is equivalent to a decrease of the effective number of neutrinos by \\Delta N_\

  6. Uncaria tomentosa acts as a potent TNF-alpha inhibitor through NF-kappaB. (United States)

    Allen-Hall, Lisa; Arnason, John T; Cano, Pablo; Lafrenie, Robert M


    Uncaria tomentosa, commonly known as Cat's Claw or Uña de gato, is a medicinal plant that has been shown to have effective anti-inflammatory activities. We have previously shown that treatment of monocyte-like THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha while augmenting the production of IL-1beta. Since TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are usually regulated similarly and share a number of common promoter elements, including NF-kappaB and AP-1, the ability of Uncaria tomentosa to differentially regulate these inflammatory cytokines is of particular interest. To determine the mechanism of action of Uncaria tomentosa, we investigated the effects of specific inhibitors of NF-kappaB on cellular responses including transcription factor activation using TransAM assays, the expression of cytokines as measured by ELISA, and cell survival as measured by changes in cell number following treatment. Treatment with Uncaria tomentosa inhibited the LPS-dependent activation of specific NF-kappaB and AP-1 components. In addition, treatment with Uncaria tomentosa enhanced cell death when NF-kappaB was inhibited. The ability of Uncaria tomentosa to inhibit TNF-alpha production was diminished when NF-kappaB activation was prevented by drugs that mask NF-kappaB subunit nuclear localization signals, while IL-1beta expression was unchanged. These results demonstrate that Uncaria tomentosa is able to elicit a response via an NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism. Further studies to characterize the mechanism by which Uncaria tomentosa can affect this pathway could provide a means to develop anti-TNF-alpha therapies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov


    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alexander Molina Cote


    Full Text Available El presente estudio determinó el efecto que sobre la viscosidad y la tixotropía de una salmuera de masajeo para jamones picados cocidos de cerdo, tiene la adición de carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara, cuando son usadas a un nivel del 1% en la salmuera. Para tal efecto se incorporaron seis mezclas distintas de hidrocoloides provenientes de la carragenina kappa, kappa I.II y goma tara (individualmente, en mezclas binarias y mezclas terciarias, en una salmuera de inyección y masajeo para jamones; a las cuales se les determinó su comportamiento viscoso y tixotrópico a 4 ºC. Los datos obtenidos de índice de tixotropía (máximos, se analizaron mediante un modelo cuadrático derivado de un arreglo de mezclas. Los resultados mostraron que todas las salmueras se comportaron tixotrópicamente, presentando mayor área de histéresis, las mezclas que contenían goma tara. El modelo usado para el índice de tixotropía arrojó, con un nivel de significancia de 0,05, que la relación óptima, es la que contiene la mezcla de carragenina kappa I.II-goma tara (79% y 21%. Adicionalmente, las salmueras que contenían carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y carragenina kappa-carragenina kappa I.II presentaron menor viscosidad que las mezclas que contenían goma tara.The aim of this study was to determine the thixotropy´s effect of a massage brine in cooked chopped pork hams with addition of kappa, kappa I.II carrageenan, tara gum and their mixtures, when were used at 1% injection level of brine to meat. Six mixtures were evaluated. A protocol for thixotropy measurement adjusted to the conditions of brines used taking in account salinity, pH, temperature and shear stress. Data obtained from thixotropy index (maximum were analyzed with quadratic model derived from blends array. Results showed thixotropic measurement to brines presented a very small area, showing structural changes, but with very fast recovery. It was observed

  9. Plasma Dispersion Function for the Kappa Distribution (United States)

    Podesta, John J.


    The plasma dispersion function is computed for a homogeneous isotropic plasma in which the particle velocities are distributed according to a Kappa distribution. An ordinary differential equation is derived for the plasma dispersion function and it is shown that the solution can be written in terms of Gauss' hypergeometric function. Using the extensive theory of the hypergeometric function, various mathematical properties of the plasma dispersion function are derived including symmetry relations, series expansions, integral representations, and closed form expressions for integer and half-integer values of K.

  10. Colloidal gas-liquid condensation of polystyrene latex particles with intermediate kappa a values (5 to 160, a > kappa(-1)). (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masamichi; Kitano, Ryota


    Polystyrene latex particles showed gas-liquid condensation under the conditions of large particle radius (a > kappa(-1)) and intermediate kappa a, where kappa is the Debye-Hückel parameter and a is the particle radius. The particles were dissolved in deionized water containing ethanol from 0 to 77 vol %, settled to the bottom of the glass plate within 1 h, and then laterally moved toward the center of a cell over a 20 h period in reaching a state of equilibrium condensation. All of the suspensions that were 1 and 3 microm in diameter and 0.01-0.20 vol % in concentration realized similar gas-liquid condensation with clear gas-liquid boundaries. In 50 vol % ethanol solvent, additional ethanol was added to enhance the sedimentation force so as to restrict the particles in a monoparticle layer thickness. The coexistence of gas-liquid-solid (crystalline solid) was microscopically recognized from the periphery to the center of the condensates. A phase diagram of the gas-liquid condensation was created as a function of KCl concentration at a particle diameter of 3 microm, 0.10 vol % concentration, and 50:50 water/ethanol solvent at room temperature. The miscibility gap was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 250 microM. There was an upper limit of salt concentration where the phase separation disappeared, showing nearly critical behavior of macroscopic density fluctuation from 250 microM to 1 mM. These results add new experimental evidence to the existence of colloidal gas-liquid condensation and specify conditions of like-charge attraction between particles.

  11. Interactions between CBP, NF-kappaB, and CREB in the lungs after hemorrhage and endotoxemia. (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Yum, H K; Arcaroli, J; Kupfner, J; Abraham, E


    The transcriptional regulatory factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has a central role in modulating expression of proinflammatory mediators that are important in acute lung injury. In vitro studies have shown that competition between NF-kappaB and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) for binding to the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) is important in regulating transcriptional activity of these factors. In the present study, we examined in vivo interactions between CBP, CREB, and NF-kappaB in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury. Association of CBP with CREB or the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB increased in the lungs after hemorrhage or endotoxemia. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase before hemorrhage, but not before endotoxemia, decreased p65-CBP interactions while increasing those between CREB and CBP. These alterations in CREB-CBP and p65-CBP interactions were functionally significant because xanthine oxidase inhibition before hemorrhage resulted in increased expression of the CREB-dependent gene c-Fos and decreased expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2, a NF-kappaB-dependent gene. The present results show that the coactivator CBP has an important role in modulating transcription in vivo under clinically relevant pathophysiological conditions.

  12. Use of the results of statistical processing of information on a computer and designing and constructing boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezch' ikov, V.B.; Bagautdinov, G.M.; Gerasimova, L.F.; Sayfullina, L.I.


    A program functional algorithm has been developed which is called ''analysis of statistical information on the operation of drill bits and bottomhole motors'', which was developed at IVTS institute TatNIPINEFT' as a problem of an automated system for designing the construction of boreholes. Possibility of introducing this program into operation before developing a system as a whole is indicated.

  13. Willingness to share research data is related to the strength of the evidence and the quality of reporting of statistical results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte M Wicherts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The widespread reluctance to share published research data is often hypothesized to be due to the authors' fear that reanalysis may expose errors in their work or may produce conclusions that contradict their own. However, these hypotheses have not previously been studied systematically. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We related the reluctance to share research data for reanalysis to 1148 statistically significant results reported in 49 papers published in two major psychology journals. We found the reluctance to share data to be associated with weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect and a higher prevalence of apparent errors in the reporting of statistical results. The unwillingness to share data was particularly clear when reporting errors had a bearing on statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on the basis of psychological papers suggest that statistical results are particularly hard to verify when reanalysis is more likely to lead to contrasting conclusions. This highlights the importance of establishing mandatory data archiving policies.

  14. Inflammation and NF-kappa B in Alzheimer's Disease and Diabetes


    Granic, Ivica; Dolga, Amalia; Ingrid M. Nijholt; van Dijk, Gertjan; Eisel, Ulrich L.M.


    Inflammatory processes are a hallmark of many chronic diseases including Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus. Fairly recent statistical evidence indicating that type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease has led to investigations of the potential common processes that could explain this relation. Here, we review the literature on how inflammation and the inducible nuclear factor NF-kappa B might be involved in both diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease and ...

  15. Nonlinear plasma processes and the formation of electron kappa distribution (United States)

    Yoon, Peter


    The goal of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is to establish fundamental relationship between the time irreversible macroscopic dynamics and the underlying time reversible behavior of microscopic system. The paradigm of achieving this seemingly paradoxical goal is through the concept of probability. For classical systems Boltzmann accomplished this through his H theorem and his kinetic equation for dilute gas. Boltzmann's H function is the same as classical extensive entropy aside from the minus sign, and his kinetic equation is applicable for short-range molecular interaction. For plasmas, the long-range electromagnetic force dictates the inter-particular interaction, and the underlying entropy is expected to exhibit non-extensive, or non-additive behavior. Among potential models for the non-additive entropy, the celebrated Tsallis entropy is the most well known. One of the most useful fundamental kinetic equations that governs the long-range plasma interaction is that of weak turbulence kinetic theory. At present, however, there is no clear-cut connection between the Tsallis entropy and the kinetic equations that govern plasma behavior. This can be contrasted to Boltzmann's H theorem, which is built upon his kinetic equation. The best one can do is to show that the consequences of Tsallis entropy and plasma kinetic equation are the same, that is, they both imply kappa distribution. This presentation will overview the physics of electron acceleration by beam-generated Langmuir turbulence, and discuss the asymptotic solution that rigorously can be shown to correspond to the kappa distribution. Such a finding is a strong evidence, if not water-tight proof, that there must be profound inter-relatioship between the Tsallis thermostatistical theory and the plasma kinetic theory.

  16. Deletion of the immunoglobulin kappa chain intron enhancer abolishes kappa chain gene rearrangement in cis but not lambda chain gene rearrangement in trans.


    Takeda, S; Zou, Y R; Bluethmann, H; Kitamura, D; Muller, U.; Rajewsky, K


    Immunoglobulins (Ig) secreted from a plasma cell contain either kappa or lambda light chains, but not both. This phenomenon is termed isotypic kappa-lambda exclusion. While kappa-producing cells have their lambda chain genes in germline configuration, in most lambda-producing cells the kappa chain genes are either non-productively rearranged or deleted. To investigate the molecular mechanism for isotypic kappa-lambda exclusion, in particular the role of the Ig kappa intron enhancer, we replac...

  17. Morin modulates the oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB pathway through its anti-oxidant activity. (United States)

    Kim, Ji Min; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Park, Gwangli; Kim, Mi Kyung; Yokozawa, Takako; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young


    Morin is a flavone that has anti-inflammatory effects through a mechanism that is not well understood. Based on the extreme sensitive nature of the transcription factor, NF-kB to redox change, it is postulated that morin's anti-NF-kappaB activation likely depends on its ability to scavenge excessive reactive species [RS]. The present study assessed the extent of morin's ability to modulate RS-induced NF-kappaB activation through its scavenging activity. Results indicate that morin neutralized RS in vitro and inhibited t-BHP-induced RS generation. It also examined morin for suppressed redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappaB activation via reduced DNA binding activity, I kappaB alpha phosphorylation and p65/p50 nuclear translocation. The more important finding was that suppression of the NF-kappaB cascade by morin was modulated through the ERK and p38 MAPKs signal transduction pathways in endothelial cells. As a consequence, morin's anti-oxidant effect extended expression level of NF-kappaB dependent pro-inflammatory genes, thereby reducing COX-2, iNOS and 5-LOX. The data indicate that morin has strong anti-oxidative power against RS-induced NF-kappaB modulation through the ERK and p38 MAPKs signalling pathways by its RS scavenging activity. The significance of the current study is the new revelation that morin may have potential as an effective anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent.

  18. The 33rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools. (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.


    Presents results of the 33rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll on the public's attitudes toward the public schools. Includes a summary of key findings and tables showing percentage distributions of responses to each question. (PKP)

  19. Effect of kappa elastin on melanogenesis in A375 human melanoma cells and its related mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shan; HE Pei-ying; ZHANG Jian-zhong; CHEN Zhou


    Background Elastin derived peptides can regulate melanocyte precursor development.Ultraviolet irradiation,infrared radiation and heat can increase the synthesis of tropoelastin in human skin epidermis.The aim of this study was to investigate whether the over expressed tropoelastin in epidermis has some role in melanogenesis of melanocytes.Methods A375 human melanoma cells were treated with different concentrations of kappa elastin for 24 hours.A375 human melanoma cells were randomly assigned to control,kappa elastin,and lactose pre-incubated groups.The cell viabilities were detected by the methyl thiazoleterazolium assay.Melanin content and tyrosinase activity in A375 melanoma cells were measured.The expressions of endothelin B receptor(ETBR)mRNA and c-kit mRNA in A375 melanoma cells were measured by quantative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Results Fifty μg/ml of kappa elastin significantly increased the melanin content by 56.64% compared with the control(P<0.05).Kappa elastin increased cellular tyrosinase activity by 46.73% compared with the control at 24 hours(P<0.05).Kappa elastin increased the expressions of ETBR and c-kit mRNA levels by 2.13-fold and 2.47-fold compared with the controls,respectively.When pre-incubating cells with a lactose solution(10 mmol/L),the inhibition on melanin production was 34.96% compared with the kappa elastin group(P<0.05),tyrosinase activity was inhibited by 29.93% compared with kappa elastin group(P<0.05),and the expressions of ETBR mRNA and c-kit mRNA were decreased by 1.56-fold and 0.82-fold compared with kappa elastin group,respectively.Conclusion Kappa elastin increased the melanogenesis in A375 melanoma cells via the stimulation of tyrosinase activity and the expression of ETBR and c-kit.The over expressed tropoelastin produced by keratinocytes might play a role in melanogenesis of epidermal melanocytes.

  20. Binding of kappa- and sigma-opiates in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolozin, B.L.; Nishimura, S.; Pasternak, G.W.


    Detailed displacements of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine by ketocyclazocine and SKF 10,047, (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine by SKF 10,047, and (/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 by ketocyclazocine are all multiphasic, suggesting multiple binding sites. After treating brain tissue in vitro with naloxazone, all displacements lose the initial inhibition of /sup 3/H-ligand binding by low concentrations of unlabeled drugs. Together with Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments, these studies suggest a common site which binds mu-, kappa, and sigma-opiates and enkephalins equally well and with highest affinity (KD less than 1 nM). The ability of unlabeled drugs to displace the low affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine (KD . 3 nM), (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine (KD . 4 nM), (/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 (KD . 6 nM), and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-(/sup 3/H)enkephalin (KD . 5 nM) remaining after treating tissue with naloxazone demonstrates unique pharmacological profiles for each. These results suggest the existence of distinct binding sites for kappa- and sigma-opiates which differ from those sites which selectively bind morphine (mu) and enkephalin (delta).

  1. Improving Interferometric Null Depth Measurements using Statistical Distributions: Theory and First Results with the Palomar Fiber Nuller

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, Hanot; Stefan, Martin; Kurt, Liewer; Frank, Loya; Dimitri, Mawet; Pierre, Riaud; Olivier, Absil; Eugene, Serabyn; 10.1088/0004-637X/729/2/110


    A new "self-calibrated" statistical analysis method has been developed for the reduction of nulling interferometry data. The idea is to use the statistical distributions of the fluctuating null depth and beam intensities to retrieve the astrophysical null depth (or equivalently the object's visibility) in the presence of fast atmospheric fluctuations. The approach yields an accuracy much better (about an order of magnitude) than is presently possible with standard data reduction methods, because the astrophysical null depth accuracy is no longer limited by the magnitude of the instrumental phase and intensity errors but by uncertainties on their probability distributions. This approach was tested on the sky with the two-aperture fiber nulling instrument mounted on the Palomar Hale telescope. Using our new data analysis approach alone-and no observations of calibrators-we find that error bars on the astrophysical null depth as low as a few 10-4 can be obtained in the near-infrared, which means that null depths...

  2. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  3. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Guoping [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dongxu [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Gao, Hui [Department of Orthodontics, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin 300041 (China); Yuan, Xiao, E-mail: [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Shen, Gang, E-mail: [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China)


    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  4. Proinflammatory effects of pancreatic elastase are mediated through TLR4 and NF-kappaB. (United States)

    Hietaranta, Antti; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Haapiainen, Reijo; Kemppainen, Esko


    Pancreatic elastase has been implicated in the pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis, characterized by systemic inflammatory response, distant organ failure, and high mortality. Here we show that pancreatic elastase activates transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, and NFAT in human myeloid cells (U-937 and THP-1) in culture. Pancreatic elastase also induces TNF-alpha secretion and increased expression of CD11b in THP-1 cells which can be inhibited by neutralizing anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibodies. NF-kappaB blocking agents (MG-132, PGA1) prevented elastase-induced TNF-alpha secretion from THP-1 cells. Our results suggest that pancreatic elastase-induced proinflammatory effects are mediated by TLR4 and NF-kappaB in human myeloid cells.

  5. Spironolactone induces apoptosis and inhibits NF-kappaB independent of the mineralocorticoid receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønder, Søren Ulrik Salling; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels


    10 and 1000 muM, respectively, significantly increased both apoptosis and cell death. Production of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced by 3 to 30 muM SPIR and by 300 to 1000 muM SFZ. We also found that 0.4 muM SPIR and 300 muM SFZ significantly reduced the activity of NF-kappa......B, a transcription factor involved in both apoptosis and immunoinflammation. ALDO, the MR antagonist, eplerenone, and the SPIR metabolite, 7alpha-thiomethyl-spironolactone, slightly reduced NF-kappaB activity, but they did not interfere with SPIR's effect, showing that MR binding is not involved in SPIR......-induced suppression of NF-kappaB activity. Finally, phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha was also significantly reduced by SPIR. These results provide new insight into the apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of SPIR....

  6. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  7. Fradkin-Bacry-Ruegg-Souriau vector in kappa-deformed space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Partha; S, Zuhair N


    We study presence of an additional symmetry of a generic central potential in the $\\kappa$-space-time. An explicit construction of Fradkin and Bacry, Ruegg, Souriau (FBRS) for a central potential is carried out and the piece-wise conserved nature of the vector is established. We also extend the study to Kepler systems with a drag term, particularly Gorringe-Leach equation is generalized to the $\\kappa$-deformed space. The possibility of mapping Gorringe-Leach equation to an equation with out drag term is exploited in associating a similar conserved vector to system with a drag term. An extension of duality between two class of central potential is introduced in the $\\kappa$-deformed space and is used to investigate the duality existing between two class of Gorringe-Leach equations. All the results obtained can be retraced to the correct commutative limit as we let $a \\rightarrow 0$.

  8. Literature review of some selected types of results and statistical analyses of total-ozone data. [for the ozonosphere (United States)

    Myers, R. H.


    The depletion of ozone in the stratosphere is examined, and causes for the depletion are cited. Ground station and satellite measurements of ozone, which are taken on a worldwide basis, are discussed. Instruments used in ozone measurement are discussed, such as the Dobson spectrophotometer, which is credited with providing the longest and most extensive series of observations for ground based observation of stratospheric ozone. Other ground based instruments used to measure ozone are also discussed. The statistical differences of ground based measurements of ozone from these different instruments are compared to each other, and to satellite measurements. Mathematical methods (i.e., trend analysis or linear regression analysis) of analyzing the variability of ozone concentration with respect to time and lattitude are described. Various time series models which can be employed in accounting for ozone concentration variability are examined.

  9. Precipitation Results for AN-102: A Statistically Designed Approach to Evaluate Filterability and Sr/TRU Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosencrance, S.W.; Dewberry, R.A.; DiPrete, D.P.; Edwards, T.B.; Emory, S.J.; Nash, C.A.; Smith, S.C.; Wilmarth, W.R.


    The work reported in this document is a series of statistically designed tests to examine the relationship between the four responses of interest and five precipitation parameters affiliated with the new precipitation scheme. The four responses are precipitate filterability, strontium decontamination, americium decontamination, and plutonium decontamination. The precipitation parameters were the initial sodium concentration of the waste, the initial hydroxide level of the waste, and the amounts of calcium, strontium, and permanganate introduced. Experiments were also performed to evaluate the impact of other process parameters such as temperature, timing of permanganate addition, and presence of entrained solids on the proposed precipitation scheme. The objective of these experiments was to determine the primary variables that influence filterability, Sr-90 decontamination, and TRU decontamination using actual 241-AN-102 waste.

  10. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.


    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched...... with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (l thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (l > 500) the clustered cosmic......-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on sigma(8)....

  11. Effects of kappa opioid receptor-selective agonists on responses of pelvic nerve afferents to noxious colorectal distension. (United States)

    Su, X; Sengupta, J N; Gebhart, G F


    study, U50,488 (10(-4) M) did not produce any significant change in the tension of colonic smooth muscle. These results document that responses of mechanosensitive pelvic nerve afferent fibers innervating the colon are inhibited by kappa-opioid receptor agonists having varying affinities for putative kappa-opioid receptor subtypes. The inhibitory effects of these drugs likely are mediated by an action at receptors associated with the afferent fibers. The receptor at which these effects are produced is kappa-opioid-like but clearly different from the kappa-opioid receptor characterized in the CNS and is perhaps an orphan receptor.

  12. Electron-ion collisional effect on Weibel instability in a Kappa distributed unmagnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Kuri, Deep, E-mail:; Das, Nilakshi, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India)


    Weibel instability has been investigated in the presence of electron-ion collisions by using standard Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The presence of suprathermal electrons has been included here by using Kappa distribution for the particles. The growth rate γ of Weibel instability has been calculated for different values of spectral index κ, collision frequency ν{sub ei}, and temperature anisotropy parameter β. A comparative study between plasma obeying Kappa distribution and that obeying Maxwellian distribution shows that the growth of instability is higher for the Maxwellian particles. However, in the presence of collisions, the suprathermal particles result in lower damping of Weibel mode.

  13. Foxp3 represses retroviral transcription by targeting both NF-kappaB and CREB pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Forkhead box (Fox/winged-helix transcription factors regulate multiple aspects of immune responsiveness and Foxp3 is recognized as an essential functional marker of regulatory T cells. Herein we describe downstream signaling pathways targeted by Foxp3 that may negatively impact retroviral pathogenesis. Overexpression of Foxp3 in HEK 293T and purified CD4+ T cells resulted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent decrease in basal levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB activation. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal forkhead (FKH domain, critical for nuclear localization and DNA-binding activity, abrogated the ability of Foxp3 to suppress NF-kappaB activity in HEK 293T cells, but not in Jurkat or primary human CD4+ T cells. We further demonstrate that Foxp3 suppressed the transcription of two human retroviral promoters (HIV-1 and human T cell lymphotropic virus type I [HTLV-I] utilizing NF-kappaB-dependent and NF-kappaB-independent mechanisms. Examination of the latter identified the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB pathway as a target of Foxp3. Finally, comparison of the percent Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ T cells to the HTLV-I proviral load in HTLV-I-infected asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis suggested that high Foxp3 expression is associated with low proviral load and absence of disease. These results suggest an expanded role for Foxp3 in regulating NF-kappaB- and CREB-dependent cellular and viral gene expression.

  14. SEER Statistics (United States)

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  15. Statistics Clinic (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James


    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  16. Neutrophil volume, conductivity and scatter parameters with effective modeling of molecular activity statistical program gives better results in neonatal sepsis. (United States)

    Celik, I H; Demirel, G; Sukhachev, D; Erdeve, O; Dilmen, U


    Neonatal sepsis remains an important clinical syndrome despite advances in neonatology. Current hematology analyzers can determine cell volume (V), conductivity for internal composition of cell (C) and light scatter for cytoplasmic granularity and nuclear structure (S), and standard deviations which are effective in the diagnosis of sepsis. Statistical models can be used to strengthen the diagnosis. Effective modeling of molecular activity (EMMA) uses combinatorial algorithm of the selection parameters for regression equation based on modified stepwise procedure. It allows obtaining different regression models with different combinations of parameters. We investigated these parameters in screening of neonatal sepsis. We used LH780 hematological analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA). We combined these parameters with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and developed models by EMMA. A total of 304 newborns, 76 proven sepsis, 130 clinical sepsis and 98 controls, were enrolled in the study. Mean neutrophil volume (MNV) and volume distribution width (VDW) were higher in both proven and clinical sepsis groups. We developed three models using MNV, VDW, IL-6, and CRP. These models gave more sensitivity and specificity than the usage of each marker alone. We suggest to use the combination of MNV and VDW with markers such as CRP and IL-6, and use diagnostic models created by EMMA. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Planck early results: Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Brown, M L; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Finelli, F; Flores, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sunyaev, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A


    All-sky data from the Planck survey and the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC) are combined to investigate the relationship between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and X-ray luminosity. The sample comprises ~ 1600 X-ray clusters with redshifts up to ~ 1 and spanning a wide range in X-ray luminosity. The SZ signal is extracted for each object individually and the statistical significance of the measurement is maximised by averaging the SZ signal in bins of X-ray luminosity, total mass or redshift. The SZ signal is detected at very high significance over more than 2 decades in X-ray luminosity (10^43 erg/s < L_500 E(z)^-7/3 < 2 X 10^45 erg/s). The relation between intrinsic SZ signal and X-ray luminosity is investigated and the measured SZ signal is compared to values predicted from X-ray data. Planck measurements and X-ray based predictions are found to be in excellent agreement over the whole explored luminosity range. No significant deviation from standard evolution ...

  18. A statistical approach for site error correction in lightning location networks with DF/TOA technique and its application results (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Chen, Mingli; Du, Yaping; Qiu, Zongxu


    Lightning location network (LLN) with DF/TOA (direction-finder/time-of-arrival) combined technique has been widely used in the world. However, the accuracy of the lightning data from such LLNs has still been restricted by "site error", especially for those detected only by two DF/TOA sensors. In this paper we practice a statistical approach for evaluation and correction of "site error" for DF/TOA type LLN based on its lightning data. By comparing lightning locations recorded by at least 4 sensors between DF and TOA techniques, the spatial characteristics of "site error" for each sensor in the network can be obtained. The obtained "site error" then can be used to improve the accuracy of lightning locations especially those recorded by only 2 sensors. With this approach, the "site error" patterns for 23 sensors in Yunnan LLN are obtained. The features of these site error patterns are in good consistency with those in literature. Significant differences in lightning locations before and after "site error" corrections indicate that the proposed approach works effectively.

  19. Planck early results. X. Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;


    in the luminosity - mass relation from X-ray studies. There is no evidence of any deficit in SZ signal strength in Planck data relative to expectations from the X-ray properties of clusters, underlining the robustness and consistency of our overall view of intra-cluster medium properties. © ESO, 2011....... a wide range in X-ray luminosity. The SZ signal is extracted for each object individually, and the statistical significance of the measurement is maximised by averaging the SZ signal in bins of X-ray luminosity, total mass, or redshift. The SZ signal is detected at very high significance over more than...... two decades in X-ray luminosity (1043ergs-1 L 500E(z)-7/3 2 × 1045ergs-1). The relation between intrinsic SZ signal and X-ray luminosity is investigated and the measured SZ signal is compared to values predicted from X-ray data. Planck measurements and X-ray based predictions are found...

  20. Toward Complete Statistics of Massive Binary Stars: Penultimate Results from the Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, Daniel C.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M.


    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P power law provides a statistically compelling prescription, but if features are ignored, a power law with exponent β ~= -0.22 provides a crude approximation over P = 1.4-2000 days, as does a piece-wise linear function with a break near 45 days. The cumulative period distribution flattens at P > 45 days, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P period P < 45 days. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 days. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2 < q < 1 is consistent with uniform, while the observed distribution of eccentricities 0.1 < e < 0.6 is consistent with uniform plus an excess of e ~= 0 systems. We identify six stars, all supergiants, that exhibit aperiodic velocity variations of ~30 km s-1 attributed to atmospheric fluctuations.

  1. An evaluation of the quality of statistical design and analysis of published medical research: results from a systematic survey of general orthopaedic journals. (United States)

    Parsons, Nick R; Price, Charlotte L; Hiskens, Richard; Achten, Juul; Costa, Matthew L


    The application of statistics in reported research in trauma and orthopaedic surgery has become ever more important and complex. Despite the extensive use of statistical analysis, it is still a subject which is often not conceptually well understood, resulting in clear methodological flaws and inadequate reporting in many papers. A detailed statistical survey sampled 100 representative orthopaedic papers using a validated questionnaire that assessed the quality of the trial design and statistical analysis methods. The survey found evidence of failings in study design, statistical methodology and presentation of the results. Overall, in 17% (95% confidence interval; 10-26%) of the studies investigated the conclusions were not clearly justified by the results, in 39% (30-49%) of studies a different analysis should have been undertaken and in 17% (10-26%) a different analysis could have made a difference to the overall conclusions. It is only by an improved dialogue between statistician, clinician, reviewer and journal editor that the failings in design methodology and analysis highlighted by this survey can be addressed.

  2. Women in Leadership Roles in Phi Delta Kappa. (United States)

    Harder, Martha B.; And Others

    The professional and personal characteristics of the men and women in Phi Delta Kappa who hold the top elected positions in local chapters were compared, and the perceptions of these leaders of the impact of allowing women to be members of Phi Delta Kappa were assessed. A 43-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to 1,340 chapter presidents…

  3. Immunoglobulin gene expression and regulation of rearrangement in kappa transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, K.A.


    Transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of the functionally rearranged immunoglobulin kappa gene from the myeloma MOPC-21 into the male pronucleus of fertilized mouse eggs, and implantation of the microinjected embryos into foster mothers. Mice that integrated the injected gene were detected by hybridizing tail DNA dots with radioactively labelled pBR322 plasmid DNA, which detects pBR322 sequences left as a tag on the microinjected DNA. Mice that integrated the injected gene (six males) were mated and the DNA, RNA and serum kappa chains of their offspring were analyzed. A rabbit anti-mouse kappa chain antiserum was also produced for use in detection of mouse kappa chains on protein blots. Hybridomas were produced from the spleen cells of these kappa transgenic mice to immortalize representative B cells and to investigate expression of the transgenic kappa gene, its effect on allelic exclusion, and its effect on the control of light chain gene rearrangement and expression. The results show that the microinjected DNA is integrated as concatamers in unique single or, rarely, two separate sites in the genome. The concatamers are composed of several copies (16 to 64) of injected DNA arranged in a head to tail fashion. The transgene is expressed into protein normally and in a tissue specific fashion. For the first time in these transgenic mice, all tissues contain a functionally rearranged and potentially expressible immunoglobulin gene. The transgene is expressed only in B cells and not in hepatocytes, for example. This indicates that rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes is necessary but not sufficient for the tissue specific expression of these genes by B cells.

  4. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik


    Complex wireless transmission systems require multi-dimensional joint statistical techniques for performance evaluation. Here, we first present the exact closed-form results on order statistics of any arbitrary partial sums of Gamma random variables with the closedform results of core functions specialized for independent and identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels based on a moment generating function-based unified analytical framework. These both exact closed-form results have never been published in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels as an application of our method. Note that these analysis results are directly applicable to several applications, such as millimeter-wave communication systems in which an antenna diversity scheme operates using an finger replacement schemes-like combining scheme, and other fading scenarios. Note also that the statistical results can provide potential solutions for ordered statistics in any other research topics based on Gamma distributions or other advanced wireless communications research topics in the presence of Nakagami fading.

  5. NF-kappaB signaling mediates vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B receptor expression in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars


    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptor upregulation results in strong vasoconstriction and reduction of local blood flow. We hypothesizes that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. ET(B) receptor...... upregulation and activation of NF-kappaB were studied at functional contraction (in vitro myograph), mRNA (real-time PCR), and protein (Western blot and immunocytochemistry) levels during organ culture of rat mesenteric arteries. Organ culture of the artery segments induced a time-dependent strong contractile...... response to sarafotoxin 6c in parallel with enhanced expression of ET(B) receptor mRNA and protein in the SMC. Western blot experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 was time-dependently induced during organ culture starting at 1h. In addition, cytoplasmic IkB degradation occurred...

  6. A20 is a negative regulator of BCL10- and CARMA3-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. (United States)

    Stilo, Romania; Varricchio, Ettore; Liguoro, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Vito, Pasquale


    The molecular complex containing CARMA proteins, BCL10 and TRAF6 has been identified recently as a key component in the signal transduction pathways that regulate activation of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor. Here, we report that the inducible protein A20 negatively regulates these signaling cascades by means of its deubiquitylation activity. We show that A20 perturbs assembly of the complex containing CARMA3, BCL10 and IKKgamma/NEMO, thereby suppressing activation of NF-kappaB. Together, our results further define the molecular mechanisms that control activation of NF-kappaB and reveal a function for A20 in the regulation of CARMA and BCL10 activity in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells.

  7. Influence of 2000-2050 climate change on particulate matter in the United States: results from a new statistical model (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Murray, Lee T.


    We use a statistical model to investigate the effect of 2000-2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) air quality across the contiguous United States. By applying observed relationships of PM2. 5 and meteorology to the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparision Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archives, we bypass some of the uncertainties inherent in chemistry-climate models. Our approach uses both the relationships between PM2. 5 and local meteorology as well as the synoptic circulation patterns, defined as the singular value decomposition (SVD) pattern of the spatial correlations between PM2. 5 and meteorological variables in the surrounding region. Using an ensemble of 19 global climate models (GCMs) under the RCP4.5 scenario, we project an increase of 0.4-1.4 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2. 5 in the eastern US and a decrease of 0.3-1.2 µg m-3 in the Intermountain West by the 2050s, assuming present-day anthropogenic sources of PM2. 5. Mean summertime PM2. 5 increases as much as 2-3 µg m-3 in the eastern United States due to faster oxidation rates and greater mass of organic aerosols from biogenic emissions. Mean wintertime PM2. 5 decreases by 0.3-3 µg m-3 over most regions in the United States, likely due to the volatilization of ammonium nitrate. Our approach provides an efficient method to calculate the potential climate penalty on air quality across a range of models and scenarios. We find that current atmospheric chemistry models may underestimate or even fail to capture the strongly positive sensitivity of monthly mean PM2. 5 to temperature in the eastern United States in summer, and they may underestimate future changes in PM2. 5 in a warmer climate. In GEOS-Chem, the underestimate in monthly mean PM2. 5-temperature relationship in the east in summer is likely caused by overly strong negative sensitivity of monthly mean low cloud fraction to temperature in the assimilated meteorology ( ˜ -0.04 K-1) compared to the weak sensitivity implied by satellite

  8. Statistical analysis of results of carcinogenicity studies of synthetic vitreous fibres at Research and Consulting Company, Geneva. (United States)

    Rossiter, C E; Chase, J R


    Five inhalation studies of synthetic vitreous fibres have recently investigated experimental tumorigenic responses to four different refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), two fibre glasses, one stone (rock) wool and one slag wool. Except for one RCF, the source materials were typical commercial products. Three studies included positive control groups exposed to chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos. The studies were conducted using state-of-the-art technologies for fibre size separation, fibre lofting and nose-only inhalation exposure. The target average fibre size was 20 microns long by 1 micron diameter. Hamsters exposed to a kaolin RCF yielded a mesothelioma rate of 38%, but no lung cancers. There were no tumours among the chrysotile-exposed hamsters. At the highest dose of 30 mg m-3 in rat studies, the commercial RCF all produced significant numbers of lung tumours, and some mesotheliomas. The fourth RCF, which had been heat-treated to simulate an after-service fibre, did not produce a significant excess of lung cancers, but did produce one mesothelioma. A rat multi-dose experiment with three lower doses of the kaolin RCF yielded one mesothelioma among 379 rats, but no excess of lung tumours. The overall dose-response relation for lung cancer did not appear to be linear, consistent with the possibility of a threshold close to the Maximum Tolerated Dose. No insulation wool (glass, stone or slag) exposure group had a lung tumour rate that differed statistically significantly from the tumour rate for the respective concurrent control groups, sham-exposed to filtered air. There was no significant difference in the total tumour rates between the four insulation wool groups and the control animals, and no significant dose-response relation above the respective sham-exposed control tumour rates. The total lung tumour rates for rats in both chrysotile and crocidolite exposure groups were significantly raised. One animal in each asbestos-exposed group developed a mesothelioma

  9. Measuring nebular temperatures: the effect of new collision strengths with equilibrium and kappa-distributed electron energies

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S; Kewley, Lisa J; Palay, Ethan


    In this paper we develop tools for observers to use when analysing nebular spectra for temperatures and metallicities, with two goals: to present a new, simple method to calculate equilibrium electron temperatures for collisionally excited line flux ratios, using the latest atomic data; and to adapt current methods to include the effects of possible non-equilibrium '{\\kappa}' electron energy distributions. Adopting recent collision strength data for [O iii], [S iii], [O ii], [S ii], and [N ii], we find that existing methods based on older atomic data seriously overestimate the electron temperatures, even when considering purely Maxwellian statistics. If {\\kappa} distributions exist in H ii regions and planetary nebulae as they do in solar system plasmas, it is important to investigate the observational consequences. This paper continues our previous work on the {\\kappa} distribution (Nicholls et al. 2012). We present simple formulaic methods that allow observers to (a) measure equilibrium electron temperature...

  10. [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic: a novel radioligand for {kappa}-opioid receptor positron emission tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisnel, Geraldine; Oueslati, Farhana; Dhilly, Martine; Delamare, Jerome [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France); Perrio, Cecile [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Debruyne, Daniele [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Barre, Louisa [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)


    Introduction: Radiopharmaceuticals that can bind selectively the {kappa}-opioid receptor may present opportunities for staging clinical brain disorders and evaluating the efficiency of new therapies related to stroke, neurodegenerative diseases or opiate addiction. The N-methylated derivative of JDTic (named MeJDTic), which has been recently described as a potent and selective antagonist of {kappa}-opioid receptor in vitro, was labeled with carbon-11 and evaluated for in vivo imaging the {kappa}-opioid receptor in mice. Methods: [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic was prepared by methylation of JDTic with [{sup 11}C]-methyl triflate. The binding of [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic to {kappa}-opioid receptor was investigated ex vivo by biodistribution and competition studies using nonfasted male CD1 mice. Results: [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic exhibited a high and rapid distribution in peripheral organs. The uptake was maximal in lung where the {kappa} receptor is largely expressed. [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic rapidly crossed the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain regions of interest (hypothalamus). The parent ligand remained the major radioactive compound in brain during the experiment. Chase studies with U50,488 (a {kappa} referring agonist), morphine (a {mu} agonist) and naltrindole (a {delta} antagonist) demonstrated that this uptake was the result of specific binding to the {kappa}-opioid receptor. Conclusion: These findings suggested that [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic appeared to be a promising selective 'lead' radioligand for {kappa}-opioid receptor PET imaging.

  11. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  12. The essential guide to effect sizes: statistical power, meta-analysis, and the interpretation of research results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellis, Paul D


    .... Using a class-tested approach that includes numerous examples and step-by-step exercises, it introduces and explains three of the most important issues relating to the practical significance of research results...

  13. NBBA, a synthetic small molecule, inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced angiogenesis by suppressing the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shibasaki, Futoshi [Translation Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    Nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is a crucial transcription factor that contributes to cancer development by regulating a number of genes involved in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here, we describe (Z)-N-(3-(7-nitro-3-oxobenzo[d][1,2]selenazol-2(3H)-yl)benzylidene) propan-2-amine oxide (NBBA) as a new anti-angiogenic small molecule that targets NF-{kappa}B activity. NBBA showed stronger growth inhibition on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than on the cancer cell lines we tested. Moreover, NBBA inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha})-induced tube formation and invasion of HUVECs. In addition, NBBA suppressed the neovascularization of chorioallantonic membrane from growing chick embryos in vivo. To address the mode of action of the compound, the effect of NBBA on TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B transcription activity was investigated. NBBA suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which resulted in suppression of transcription of NF-{kappa}B and its target genes, including interleukin-8, interleukin-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor. Collectively, these results demonstrated that NBBA is a new anti-angiogenic small molecule that targets the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

  14. Persistent activation of NF-kappaB related to IkappaB's degradation profiles during early chemical hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Román Rebeca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To define the NF-kappaB activation in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and its IkappaB's degradation profiles in comparison to sole liver regeneration. Methods Western-blot and EMSA analyses were performed for the NF-kappaB activation. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was determined by RT-PCR of the IkappaB-α mRNA. The IkappaB's degradation proteins were determined by Western-blot assay. Results We demonstrated the persistent activation of NF-kappaB during early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, which reached maximal level 30 min after partial hepatectomy. The DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB, were sustained during early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis in comparison to only partial hepatectomy, which displayed a transitory NF-kappaB activation. In early stages of hepatocarconogenesis, the IkappaB-α degradation turned out to be acute and transitory, but the low levels of IkappaB-β persisted even 15 days after partial hepatectomy. Interestingly, IkappaB-β degradation is not induced after sole partial hepatectomy. Conclusion We propose that during liver regeneration, the transitory stimulation of the transcription factor response, assures blockade of NF-kappaB until recovery of the total mass of the liver and the persistent NF-kappaB activation in early hepatocarcinogenesis may be due to IkappaB-β and IkappaB-α degradation, mainly IkappaB-β degradation, which contributes to gene transcription related to proliferation required for neoplasic progression.

  15. NF-kappaB links innate immunity to the hypoxic response through transcriptional regulation of HIF-1alpha. (United States)

    Rius, Jordi; Guma, Monica; Schachtrup, Christian; Akassoglou, Katerina; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Nizet, Victor; Johnson, Randall S; Haddad, Gabriel G; Karin, Michael


    The hypoxic response is an ancient stress response triggered by low ambient oxygen (O2) (ref. 1) and controlled by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1), whose alpha subunit is rapidly degraded under normoxia but stabilized when O2-dependent prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) that target its O2-dependent degradation domain are inhibited. Thus, the amount of HIF-1alpha, which controls genes involved in energy metabolism and angiogenesis, is regulated post-translationally. Another ancient stress response is the innate immune response, regulated by several transcription factors, among which NF-kappaB plays a central role. NF-kappaB activation is controlled by IkappaB kinases (IKK), mainly IKK-beta, needed for phosphorylation-induced degradation of IkappaB inhibitors in response to infection and inflammation. IKK-beta is modestly activated in hypoxic cell cultures when PHDs that attenuate its activation are inhibited. However, defining the relationship between NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha has proven elusive. Using in vitro systems, it was reported that HIF-1alpha activates NF-kappaB, that NF-kappaB controls HIF-1alpha transcription and that HIF-1alpha activation may be concurrent with inhibition of NF-kappaB. Here we show, with the use of mice lacking IKK-beta in different cell types, that NF-kappaB is a critical transcriptional activator of HIF-1alpha and that basal NF-kappaB activity is required for HIF-1alpha protein accumulation under hypoxia in cultured cells and in the liver and brain of hypoxic animals. IKK-beta deficiency results in defective induction of HIF-1alpha target genes including vascular endothelial growth factor. IKK-beta is also essential for HIF-1alpha accumulation in macrophages experiencing a bacterial infection. Hence, IKK-beta is an important physiological contributor to the hypoxic response, linking it to innate immunity and inflammation.

  16. Statistical analysis of results from the quantitative mapping of fracture minerals in Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling - complementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Niressa AB, Norsborg (Sweden)); Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Within the Laxemar site investigation campaign, quantitative mapping of different fracture minerals has been performed. This has been done by studying fracture surfaces of drill core sections from many different boreholes at the Laxemar site /Eklund and Mattsson 2008/. The drill core mapping was focused on the rock in the vicinity of flow anomalies detected by the Posiva Flow Log (PFL). The quantitative mapping was performed only on open fractures. The fracture minerals that were mapped are calcite, chlorite, clay minerals (as a group), hematite, and pyrite. In this present report, data from the quantitative mineral mapping campaign are refined, sorted into different data subsets, and analysed by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The data subsets are associated with 17 different rock volumes, representing different elevations, rock domains, fracture domains, and groups of deformation zones. In total 1,852 fractures were mapped at the site, and the most frequent mineral was calcite. Its amount could be quantitatively estimated in 51% of the mapped fractures. Of the other minerals, chlorite was quantitatively estimated in 46%, pyrite in 19%, clay minerals in 16%, and hematite in 0.05% of the mapped fractures. For fractures where the averaged fracture mineral thickness, d{sub mean} [mm], and visible coverage, C{sub vis} [%], could be quantitatively estimated, the following arithmetic means were found: calcite = 0.25 mm and 22%, chlorite = 0.29 mm and 41%, pyrite =1.3 mum and 0.2%, and clay minerals = 0.15 mm and 35%. These quantities are based on visual inspection of fracture surfaces and do not include the contribution from non-consolidated fracture fillings. It is shown that there is significant spatial variability of d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} within the examined rock volumes. Furthermore, the non-parametric analyses indicate that there are differences in d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} between the different rock volumes. Even so, the differences are

  17. NF-kappa B activity in T cells stably expressing the Tax protein of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, J.; Cohen, L.; Hiscott, J. (Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))


    The effect of constitutive Tax expression on the interaction of NF-{kappa} B with its recognition sequence and on NF-{kappa} B-dependent gene expression was examined in T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines (19D and 9J) stably transformed with a Tax expression vector. Tax expressing T cell lines contained a constitutive level of NF-{kappa} B binding activity, detectable by mobility shift assay and uv cross-linking using a palindromic NF-{kappa} B probe homologous to the interferon beta PRDII site. In Jurkat and NC2.10 induction with phorbol esters resulted in the appearance of new DNA binding proteins of 85, 75, and 54 kDa, whereas in Tax expressing cells the 85-kDa protein and a 92-kDa DNA binding protein were constitutively induced. Expression of Tax protein in 19D and 9J resulted in transcription of the endogenous NF-kappa B-dependent granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene and increased basal level expression of transfected NF-kappa B-regulated promoters. Nonetheless transcription of both the endogenous and the transfected gene was inducible by PMA treatment. Tax expression in Jurkat T cells may alter the stoichiometry of NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins and thus change the expression of NF-kappa B-regulated promoters.

  18. B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes.


    J. Chen(Florida State University, Tallahassee, U.S.A.); Trounstine, M; Kurahara, C.; Young, F.; Kuo, C C; Y. Xu; Loring, J.F.; Alt, F W; Huszar, D


    We have generated mice that lack the ability to produce immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by targeted deletion of J kappa and C kappa gene segments and the intervening sequences in mouse embryonic stem cells. In wild type mice, approximately 95% of B cells express kappa light chains and only approximately 5% express lambda light chains. Mice heterozygous for the J kappa C kappa deletion have approximately 2-fold more lambda+ B cells than wild-type littermates. Compared with normal mice, ...

  19. Imaging and Spectroscopic Observations of a Transient Coronal Loop: Evidence for the Non-Maxwellian $\\kappa$-Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Dzifcakova, Elena; Del Zanna, Giulio; Williams, David R; Karlicky, Marian; Mason, Helen E; Lorincik, Juraj; Kotrc, Pavel; Farnik, Frantisek; Zemanova, Alena


    We report on the SDO/AIA and Hinode/EIS observations of a transient coronal loop. The loop brightens up in the same location after the disappearance of an arcade formed during a B8.9-class microflare three hours earlier. EIS captures this loop during its brightening phase as observed in most of the AIA filters. We use the AIA data to study the evolution of the loop, as well as to perform the DEM diagnostics as a function of $\\kappa$. Fe XI--XIII lines observed by EIS are used to perform the diagnostics of electron density and subsequently the diagnostics of $\\kappa$. Using ratios involving the Fe XI 257.772\\AA selfblend, we diagnose $\\kappa$ $\\lesssim$ 2, i.e., an extremely non-Maxwellian distribution. Using the predicted Fe line intensities derived from the DEMs as a function of $\\kappa$, we show that, with decreasing $\\kappa$, all combinations of ratios of line intensities converge to the observed values, confirming the diagnosed $\\kappa$ $\\lesssim$ 2. These results represent the first positive diagnostics ...

  20. Brane Effective Actions, Kappa-Symmetry and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Simón


    Full Text Available This is a review on brane effective actions, their symmetries and some of their applications. Its first part covers the Green–Schwarz formulation of single M- and D-brane effective actions focusing on kinematical aspects: the identification of their degrees of freedom, the importance of world volume diffeomorphisms and kappa symmetry to achieve manifest spacetime covariance and supersymmetry, and the explicit construction of such actions in arbitrary on-shell supergravity backgrounds. Its second part deals with applications. First, the use of kappa symmetry to determine supersymmetric world volume solitons. This includes their explicit construction in flat and curved backgrounds, their interpretation as Bogomol’nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS states carrying (topological charges in the supersymmetry algebra and the connection between supersymmetry and Hamiltonian BPS bounds. When available, I emphasise the use of these solitons as constituents in microscopic models of black holes. Second, the use of probe approximations to infer about the non-trivial dynamics of strongly-coupled gauge theories using the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT correspondence. This includes expectation values of Wilson loop operators, spectrum information and the general use of D-brane probes to approximate the dynamics of systems with small number of degrees of freedom interacting with larger systems allowing a dual gravitational description. Its final part briefly discusses effective actions for N D-branes and M2-branes. This includes both Super-Yang-Mills theories, their higher-order corrections and partial results in covariantising these couplings to curved backgrounds, and the more recent supersymmetric Chern–Simons matter theories describing M2-branes using field theory, brane constructions and 3-algebra considerations.

  1. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell


    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  2. Origin of heavy tail statistics in equations of the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger type: an exact result

    CERN Document Server

    Onorato, M; El, G; Randoux, S; Suret, P


    We study the formation of extreme events in incoherent systems described by envelope equations, such as the Nonliner Schr\\"odinger equation. We derive an identity that relates the evolution of the kurtosis (a measure of the relevance of the tails in a probability density function) of the wave amplitude to the rate of change of the width of the Fourier spectrum of the wave field. The result is exact for all dispersive systems characterized by a nonlinear term of the form of the one contained in the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. Numerical simulations are also performed to confirm our findings. Our work sheds some light on the origin of rogue waves in incoherent dispersive nonlinear media ruled by local cubic nonlinearity.

  3. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  4. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.


    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  5. Changes of mu and kappa opioid receptors in cathartic colon of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-hua; MO Ping; JIA Hou-jun; LI Chun-xue; ZHANG Sheng-ben


    Objective: To oberve the changes of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the cathartic colon of rat, and to clarify that whether opioid receptors accounts for the occurrence of slow trait constipation (STC). Methods: The cathartiic colon model of rat was made by feeding with laxatives. The activity of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the cathartic colon of rat was measured by radio-ligand binding assay. Results: Compared with the control group, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and affinity(Kd) of mu opioid receptor in cathartic colon group were significantly increased (207. 00 ± 22. 90 fmol/mg·p vs 82. 00 ± 14.23 fmol/mg· p, P < 0.01 ;3.30 ± 0.45 mmol/L vs 2.40 ± 0.57 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The maximal binding capacity of kappa opioid receptor also showed a great increase (957. 00 ± 102. 41 fmol/mg· p vs 459.00 ± 52.41 fmol/mg·p, P < 0.01 ), but no significant difference of affinity was found between the two groups. Conclsion: The mu and kappa opioid receptors may be involved in the functional disorders of cathartic colon.

  6. Modulation of age-related NF-kappaB activation by dietary zingerone via MAPK pathway. (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Sang Woon; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Ji Min; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Ji Young; Ha, Young Mi; Kim, Yun Hee; No, Jae-Kyung; Chung, Hye Sun; Park, Kun-Young; Rhee, Sook Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Yu, Byung Pal; Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Hae Young


    Zingerone, a major component found in ginger root, has been known as anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activities that are often associated with its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In recent studies, we examined molecular mechanism of zingerone treatment on pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB activation via the redox-related NIK/IKK and MAPK pathways. Action mechanism of zingerone on NF-kappaB signaling was investigated in aged rat kidney and endothelial cells. The results showed that zingerone had not only the antioxidant effect by constitutive suppression of ROS, but also anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in aged rat. In addition, zingerone treatment suppressed gene activation of pro-inflammatory enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS, which were upregulated with aging through NF-kappaB activation and IKK/MAPK signaling pathway. These experiments strongly indicate that zingerone treatment exerts a beneficial efficacy by suppressing both oxidative stress and age-related inflammation through the modulation of several key pro-inflammatory genes and transcription factors. Thus, the significance of our findings is that the zingerone treatment may provide some preventive measure against chronic inflammatory conditions that underlie many age-related inflammatory diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, dementia, arthritis, diabetes, osteoprosis, and cancers.

  7. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaladze, T. [Department of Physics, Government College University (GCU), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); I.Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Georgia (United States); Mahmood, S., E-mail: [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH P.O. Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

  8. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons (United States)

    Kaladze, T.; Mahmood, S.


    Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

  9. The Nuclear Factor kappaB Pathway: A Link to the Immune System in the Radiation Response (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Reitz, Guenther; Chishti, Arif Ali; Koch, Kristina; Manchanda, Kashish

    Understanding the cellular radiation response is an essential prerequisite for the risk assessment of astronauts’ space radiation exposure during long-term space missions and for effective countermeasure development. In addition to the space radiation effects, other environmental factors during space missions such as microgravity have profound effects on the body, e.g. suppression of the innate and acquired immune response. Exposure to ionizing radiation modulates immune responses in a complex dose-dependent pattern, with possible anti-inflammatory effects in the low dose range, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines at moderate doses and immunosuppression after exposure to higher doses due to precursor cell death together with concomitant exacerbated innate immune responses. A central regulator in the immune system is the transcription factor Nuclear Factor kB (NF-kappaB). In this work, the role of NF-kappaB in the cellular response to space relevant radiation qualities was analyzed. It was shown with a recombinant human NF-kappaB reporter cell line that heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 100-300 keV/µm have a nine times higher potential to activate the NF-kappaB pathway compared to X-rays (150 kV). ATM was essential for NF-kappaB activation in response to X-rays and heavy ions. Knockdown of the NF-kappaB subunit RelA (p65) resulted in higher sensitivity towards X-rays. Reverse Transcriptase real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments showed that after exposure to radiation, NF-kappaB predominantly upregulates genes involved in intercellular communication processes, especially genes coding for chemokines, suggesting an important contribution of NF-kappaB in the molecular profile of the reaction to radiation, which can comprise features of inflammation and wound healing processes. This is process is strictly NF-kappaB dependent as this response is completely absent in RelA knockdown cells. These results show that the role of NF-kappaB in

  10. Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rithidech, K.N.; Rusek, A.; Reungpatthanaphong, P.; Honikel, L.; Simon, S.R.


    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory [i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min{sup -1}, the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays (10 mGy min{sup -1}). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays, delivered at 10 mGy min{sup -1}, was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-{kappa}B activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student's t-test, p < 0.05 or < 0.01) were induced by either dose rate, these levels varied over time for each protein. Further, only a dose rate of 5 mGy min{sup -1} induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

  11. Bioenergy. Data base for the statistics of the renewable energy and emissions balance. Report of results; Bioenergie. Datengrundlagen fuer die Statistik der erneuerbaren Energien und Emissionsbilanzierung. Ergebnisbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, Marion; Memmler, Michael; Rother, Stefan; Schneider, Sven [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Boehme, Dieter [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)


    The constantly growing importance of biomass for heat and power generation in Germany needs more adequate statistical data acquisition and emissions balances. This data is needed for policy consultancy and for the compliance to European reporting commitments. But, how is it possible to statistically portray the biomass-fired plant park in its growing complexity in an adequate manner, in order to gain reliable data for national and international reporting commitments? These were the questions debated among 60 experts from scientific institutions, industry and administration during a workshop jointly organized by the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU), the Working Group Renewable Energy Statistics (AGEE-Stat) and the Germany Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) on 5 and 6 July 2011 in Dessau-Rosslau. To that end, the whole biomass-fired plant stock in Germany, including solid, liquid and gaseous biomass was looked at. In a first step, the current level of knowledge concerning efficiency and emission parameters was discussed. In a second step, a core input data set for statistical use was agreed upon. Moreover, the workshop detected a need for further research on several aspects. The Federal Environment Agency publishes this workshop report in order to document the results of this event. It gives an overview of the publically available data source for biomass installations and usage in Germany and it also depict the need for further research. This shall be used as basis for further work in this area in the years to come. (orig.)

  12. “Lagrangian Temperature”: Derivation and Physical Meaning for Systems Described by Kappa Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis


    Full Text Available The paper studies the “Lagrangian temperature” defined through the entropy maximization in the canonical ensemble, which is the negative inverse Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the constraint of internal energy. The Lagrangian temperature is derived for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions such as space plasmas. The physical meaning of temperature is manifested by the equivalency of two different definitions, that is, through Maxwell’s kinetic theory and Clausius’ thermodynamics. The equivalency of the two definitions is true either for systems at thermal equilibrium described by Maxwell distributions or for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions, and gives the meaning of the actual temperature, that is, the real or measured temperature. However, the third definition, that of the Lagrangian temperature, coincides with the primary two definitions only at thermal equilibrium, and thus, in the general case of systems out of thermal equilibrium, it does not represent the actual temperature, but it is rather a function of this. The paper derives and examines the exact expression and physical meaning of the Lagrangian temperature, showing that it has essentially different content to what is commonly thought. This is achieved by: (i maximizing the entropy in the continuous description of energy within the general framework of non-extensive statistical mechanics, (ii using the concept of the “N-particle” kappa distribution, which is governed by a special kappa index that is invariant of the degrees of freedom and the number of particles, and (iii determining the appropriate scales of length and speed involved in the phase-space microstates. Finally, the paper demonstrates the behavior of the Lagrangian against the actual temperature in various datasets of space plasmas.

  13. Injury Statistics (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  14. NF-kappaB activity marks cells engaged in receptor editing. (United States)

    Cadera, Emily J; Wan, Fengyi; Amin, Rupesh H; Nolla, Hector; Lenardo, Michael J; Schlissel, Mark S


    Because of the extreme diversity in immunoglobulin genes, tolerance mechanisms are necessary to ensure that B cells do not respond to self-antigens. One such tolerance mechanism is called receptor editing. If the B cell receptor (BCR) on an immature B cell recognizes self-antigen, it is down-regulated from the cell surface, and light chain gene rearrangement continues in an attempt to edit the autoreactive specificity. Analysis of a heterozygous mutant mouse in which the NF-kappaB-dependent IkappaB alpha gene was replaced with a lacZ (beta-gal) reporter complementary DNA (cDNA; IkappaB alpha(+/lacZ)) suggests a potential role for NF-kappaB in receptor editing. Sorted beta-gal(+) pre-B cells showed increased levels of various markers of receptor editing. In IkappaB alpha(+/lacZ) reporter mice expressing either innocuous or self-specific knocked in BCRs, beta-gal was preferentially expressed in pre-B cells from the mice with self-specific BCRs. Retroviral-mediated expression of a cDNA encoding an IkappaB alpha superrepressor in primary bone marrow cultures resulted in diminished germline kappa and rearranged lambda transcripts but similar levels of RAG expression as compared with controls. We found that IRF4 transcripts were up-regulated in beta-gal(+) pre-B cells. Because IRF4 is a target of NF-kappaB and is required for receptor editing, we suggest that NF-kappaB could be acting through IRF4 to regulate receptor editing.

  15. Effects of age and sedentary lifestyle on skeletal muscle NF-kappaB signaling in men. (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Cooke, Matthew B; Manini, Todd M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Willoughby, Darryn S


    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a critical signaling molecule of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. However, few studies have carefully investigated whether similar pathways are modulated with physical activity and age. The present study examined lean mass, maximal force production, and skeletal muscle NF-kappaB signaling in 41 men categorized as sedentary (OS, N = 13, 63.85 +/- 6.59 year), physically active (OA, N = 14, 60.71 +/- 5.54 year), or young and sedentary (YS, N = 14, 21.35 +/- 3.84 year). Muscle tissue from the vastus lateralis was assayed for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the beta subunit of IkB kinase (IKKbeta), cytosolic protein content of phosphorylated inhibitor of kappa B alpha (pIKBalpha), and nuclear content of NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65. When compared with YS, OS demonstrated age-related muscle atrophy and reduced isokinetic knee extension torque. Physical activity in older individuals preserved maximal isokinetic knee extension torque. OS muscle contained 50% more pIKBalpha than OA and 61% more pIKBalpha than YS. Furthermore, nuclear p65 was significantly elevated in OS compared with YS. OS muscle did not differ from either of the other two groups for nuclear p50 or for mRNA expression of IKKbeta. These results indicate that skeletal muscle content of nuclear-bound p65 is elevated by age in humans. The elevation in nuclear-bound p65 appears to be at least partially due to significant increases in pIKBalpha. A sedentary lifestyle appears to play some role in increased IKBalpha; however, further research is needed to identify downstream effects of this increase.

  16. Zinc oxide particles induce inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells via NF-{kappa}B signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun, E-mail: [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Lin, Ho-Jane [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Tai, Lin-Ai [Center for Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)


    This study investigated inflammatory effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles on vascular endothelial cells. The effects of 50 and 100-nm ZnO particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were characterized by assaying cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and glutathione levels. A marked drop in survival rate was observed when ZnO concentration was increased to 45 {mu}g/ml. ZnO concentrations of {<=}3 {mu}g/ml resulted in increased cell proliferation, while those of {<=}45 {mu}g/ml caused dose-dependent increases in oxidized glutathione levels. Treatments with ZnO concentrations {<=}45 {mu}g/ml were performed to determine the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein, an indicator of vascular endothelium inflammation, revealing that ZnO particles induced a dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression and marked increases in NF-{kappa}B reporter activity. Overexpression of I{kappa}B{alpha} completely inhibited ZnO-induced ICAM-1 expression, suggesting NF-{kappa}B plays a pivotal role in regulation of ZnO-induced inflammation in HUVECs. Additionally, TNF-{alpha}, a typical inflammatory cytokine, induced ICAM-1 expression in an NF-{kappa}B-dependent manner, and ZnO synergistically enhanced TNF-{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 expression. Both 50 and 100-nm ZnO particles agglomerated to similar size distributions. This study reveals an important role for ZnO in modulating inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells via NF-{kappa}B signaling, which could have important implications for treatments of vascular disease.

  17. The Importance of the Ubiquitous 'Kappa' Distributions in Space Plasmas (Invited) (United States)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.


    The kappa model for f(v) was originally derived by Olbert (1966) to provide frugal but informative fits to observed particle fluxes from which moments of the underlying plasma could be extracted. Olbert's new fit parameter (kappa) allowed for the ambient plasma to possess reduced kurtosis, which a Gaussian does not. The universality of kappa can easily be overstated, since it cannot fit distributions with a heat flux which is generally important in astrophysical plasmas. Geophysically the frequent use of such a parametrization for the zeroth order energy distribution in the comoving frame acknowledges that the observed plasmas of nature are generally non-thermal, hence kurtotic, which for this author is their principal significance. A key question remains whether the analytically convenient kappa function's kurtotic form is required by the laws of physics, or rather a deft representative of all possible distributions with non-negligible kurtosis and other higher moments. This paper develops why the non-thermal kurtotic f(v) should generally be expected in astrophysical plasmas structured by gravity, driven by their tendency to achieve quasi-neutrality. It will demonstrate the essential role of runaway phenomena in the origin of this kurtosis while showing consistency with observables. This approach provides a rationale why such kurtotic distributions should occur without arguing what its precise shape should be, beyond possessing non-zero skewness and kurtosis. Initial results will be shown that the kappa model for such kurtotic distributions, while better than an Gaussian, may be too rigid to describe the non-thermal distributions of nature at all radial distances from the sun.

  18. On kappa-deformed D=4 quantum conformal group

    CERN Document Server

    Kosi'nski, P; Maslanka, P


    This paper is presented on the occasion of 60-th birthday of Jose Adolfo de Azcarraga who in his very rich scientific curriculum vitae has also a chapter devoted to studies of quantum-deformed symmetries, in particular deformations of relativistic and Galilean space-time symmetries [1-4]. In this paper we provide new steps toward describing the $\\kappa$-deformed D=4 conformal group transformations. We consider the quantization of D=4 conformal group with dimensionful deformation parameter $\\kappa$. Firstly we discuss the noncommutativity following from the Lie-Poisson structure described by the light-cone $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'{e} $r$-matrix. We present complete set of D=4 conformal Lie-Poisson brackets and discuss their quantization. Further we define the light-cone $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'{e} quantum $R$-matrix in O(4,2) vector representation and discuss the inclusion of noncommutative conformal translations into the framework of $\\kappa$-deformed conformal quantum group. The problem with real structure of $\\kappa$-d...

  19. Kappa Opioids, Salvinorin A and Major Depressive Disorder. (United States)

    Taylor, George T; Manzella, Francesca


    Opioids are traditionally associated with pain, analgesia and drug abuse. It is now clear, however, that the opioids are central players in mood. The implications for mood disorders, particularly clinical depression, suggest a paradigm shift from the monoamine neurotransmitters to the opioids either alone or in interaction with monoamine neurons. We have a special interest in dynorphin, the last of the major endogenous opioids to be isolated and identified. Dynorphin is derived from the Greek word for power, dynamis, which hints at the expectation that the neuropeptide held for its discoverers. Yet, dynorphin and its opioid receptor subtype, kappa, has always taken a backseat to the endogenous b-endorphin and the exogenous morphine that both bind the mu opioid receptor subtype. That may be changing as the dynorphin/ kappa system has been shown to have different, often opposite, neurophysiological and behavioral influences. This includes major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have undertaken a review of dynorphin/ kappa neurobiology as related to behaviors, especially MDD. Highlights include the unique features of dynorphin and kappa receptors and the special relation of a plant-based agonist of the kappa receptor salvinorin A. In addition to acting as a kappa opioid agonist, we conclude that salvinorin A has a complex pharmacologic profile, with potential additional mechanisms of action. Its unique neurophysiological effects make Salvinorina A an ideal candidate for MDD treatment research.

  20. Kappa-opioid receptor-mediated effects of the plant-derived hallucinogen, salvinorin A, on inverted screen performance in the mouse. (United States)

    Fantegrossi, William E; Kugle, Kelly M; Valdes, Leander J; Koreeda, Masato; Woods, James H


    Salvinorin A is a pharmacologically active diterpene that occurs naturally in the Mexican mint Ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum) and represents the first naturally occurring kappa-opioid receptor agonist. The chemical structure of salvinorin A is novel among the opioids, and thus defines a new structural class of kappa-opioid-receptor selective drugs. Few studies have examined the effects of salvinorin A in vivo, and fewer still have attempted to assess the agonist actions of this compound at mu-opioid, delta-opioid, and kappa-opioid receptors using selective antagonists. In the mouse, salvinorin A disrupted climbing behavior on an inverted screen task, indicating a rapid, but short-lived induction of sedation/motor incoordination. Similar effects were observed with the mu-agonist remifentanil and the synthetic kappa-agonist U69,593. When behaviorally equivalent doses of all three opioids were challenged with antagonists at doses selective for mu-opioid, delta-opioid, or kappa-opioid receptors, results suggested that the motoric effects of remifentanil were mediated by mu-receptors, whereas those of salvinorin A and U69,593 were mediated via kappa-receptors. Despite similar potencies and degrees of effectiveness, salvinorin A and U69,593 differed with regard to their susceptibility to antagonism by the kappa-antagonist nor-binaltorphamine. This later finding, coupled with the novel chemical structure of the compound, is consistent with recent findings that the diterpene salvinorin A may bind to the kappa-receptor in a manner that is qualitatively different from that of more traditional kappa-agonists such as the benzeneacetamide U69,593. Such pharmacological differences among these kappa-opioids raise the possibility that the development of other diterpene-based opioids may yield important therapeutic compounds.

  1. Pinitol targets nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway leading to inhibition of gene products associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis. (United States)

    Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B


    Pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), a component of traditional Ayurvedic medicine (talisapatra), has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities through undefined mechanisms. Because the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been linked with inflammatory diseases, including insulin resistance, we hypothesized that pinitol must mediate its effects through modulation of NF-kappaB activation pathway. We found that pinitol suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by inflammatory stimuli and carcinogens. This suppression was not specific to cell type. Besides inducible, pinitol also abrogated constitutive NF-kappaB activation noted in most tumor cells. The suppression of NF-kappaB activation by pinitol occurred through inhibition of the activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, leading to sequential suppression of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression. Pinitol also suppressed the NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-associated death domain, TNFR-associated factor-2, transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1)/TAK1-binding protein-1, and IkappaBalpha kinase but not that induced by p65. The inhibition of NF-kappaB activation thereby led to down-regulation of gene products involved in inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2), proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-myc), invasion (matrix metalloproteinase-9), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), and cell survival (cIAP1, cIAP2, X-linked inhibitor apoptosis protein, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL). Suppression of these gene products by pinitol enhanced the apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents and suppressed TNF-induced cellular invasion. Our results show that pinitol inhibits the NF-kappaB activation pathway, which may explain its ability to suppress inflammatory cellular responses.

  2. Glutathione transferases kappa 1 and kappa 2 localize in peroxisomes and mitochondria, respectively, and are involved in lipid metabolism and respiration in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Petit, Elise; Michelet, Xavier; Rauch, Claudine; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tercé, François; Legouis, Renaud; Morel, Fabrice


    To elucidate the function of kappa class glutathione transferases (GSTs) in multicellular organisms, their expression and silencing were investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast with most vertebrates, which possess only one GST kappa gene, two distinct genes encoding GSTK-1 and GSTK-2 are present in the C. elegans genome. The amino acid sequences of GSTK-1 and GSTK-2 share around 30% similarity with the human hGSTK1 sequence and, like the human transferase, GSTK-1 contains a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence. gstk-1 and gstk-2 genes show distinct developmental and tissue expression patterns. We show that GSTK-2 is localized in the mitochondria and expressed mainly in the pharynx, muscles and epidermis, whereas GSTK-1 is restricted to peroxisomes and expressed in the intestine, body wall muscles and epidermis. In order to determine the potential role(s) of GST kappa genes in C. elegans, specific silencing of the gstk-1 and gstk-2 genes was performed by an RNA interference approach. Knockdown of gstk-1 or gstk-2 had no apparent effect on C. elegans reproduction, development, locomotion or lifespan. By contrast, when biological functions (oxygen consumption and lipid metabolism) related to peroxisomes and/or mitochondria were investigated, we observed a significant decrease in respiration rate and a lower concentration of the monounsaturated fatty acid cis-vaccenic acid (18:1omega7) when worms were fed on bacteria expressing RNA interference targeting both gstk-1 and gstk-2. These results demonstrate that GST kappa, although not essential for the worm's life, may be involved in energetic and lipid metabolism, two functions related to mitochondria and peroxisomes.

  3. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. (United States)

    Kitamei, Hirokuni; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Namba, Kenichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Mizuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Onoé, Kazunori


    Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a T helper type 1 cell-mediated autoimmune disease, which serves as a model of human chronic uveitis. In this model, cells of a monocyte/macrophage lineage and retinal antigen (Ag)-specific T cells infiltrate into the retina and cause inflammatory lesion, where proinflammatory cytokines and various stimuli activate a transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which modulates inflammation and enhances immune responses. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), was examined in a murine EAU model. It was shown that PDTC ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAU mice and significantly reduced the histopathological score compared with those in untreated mice. mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta were suppressed in eyes of PDTC-treated EAU mice. However, when T cells from PDTC-treated EAU mice, Ag-presenting cells (APC), and the retinal Ag peptides were cocultured, these T cells showed the same level of proliferation as those from control mice. Furthermore, addition of PDTC in the culture of T cells from EAU mice, Ag, and APC completely abrogated the T cell-proliferative response and cytokine production. Pretreatment of Ag-primed T cells or APC with PDTC in vitro also reduced these responses. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of PDTC is attributed mainly to the suppression of effector-phase responses including inflammation but not to the inhibition of T cell priming. Regulation of NF-kappaB pathway in the lesion could be a novel target for the successful control of uveoretinitis.

  4. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K


    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  5. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J


    Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a

  6. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann;


    standard measured by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (the “M.I.N.I.”). Results Overall, the three instruments identified depression with excellent accuracy and validity (area under the curve [AUC]>0.9) and good reliability (Kappa statistics: 0.71–0.79; Cronbach’s alpha: 0.87–0.93). We did...

  7. Statistical comparison of the results from six analytical chemistry laboratories of the mercury content of muscle tissue of two species of sharks. (United States)

    Walker, T I


    Statistical tests were carried out on the results of chemical analysis for total mercury concentrations of replicate samples of muscle tissue of school shark Galeorhinus australis (Macleay) and gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus Guenther from six independent analytical laboratories. These tests showed that one laboratory produced results 9% below the overall average of all results, another 1% below average while the other four were all 5% above average. Moreover, one laboratory had significantly lower scatter of results than the others, and the percentage scatter (standard error expressed as a percentage of the mean) in two of the laboratories tended to diminish as the magnitude of the results increased. Correction for what were concluded to be wild points indicated that the scatter for all laboratories was below 14%.

  8. Statistical comparison of the results from six analytical chemistry laboratories of the mercury content of muscle tissue of two species of sharks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, T.I.


    Statistical tests were carried out on the results of chemical analysis for total mercury concentrations of replicate samples of muscle tissue of school shark Galeorhinus australis (Macleay) and gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus Guenther from six independent analytical laboratories. These tests showed that one laboratory produced results 9% below the overall average of all results, another 1% below average while the other four were all 5% above average. Moreover, one laboratory had significantly lower scatter of results than the others, and the percentage scatter (standard error expressed as a percentage of the mean) in two of the laboratories tended to diminish as the magnitude of the results increased. Correction for what were concluded to be wild points indicated that the scatter for all laboratories was below 14%.

  9. DNA polymerase kappa from Trypanosoma cruzi localizes to the mitochondria, bypasses 8-oxoguanine lesions and performs DNA synthesis in a recombination intermediate. (United States)

    Rajão, M A; Passos-Silva, D G; DaRocha, W D; Franco, G R; Macedo, A M; Pena, S D J; Teixeira, S M; Machado, C R


    DNA polymerase kappa (Pol kappa) is a low-fidelity polymerase that has the ability to bypass several types of lesions. The biological role of this enzyme, a member of the DinB subfamily of Y-family DNA polymerases, has remained elusive. In this report, we studied one of the two copies of Pol kappa from the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (TcPol kappa). The role of this TcPol kappa copy was investigated by analysing its subcellular localization, its activities in vitro, and performing experiments with parasites that overexpress this polymerase. The TcPOLK sequence has the N-terminal extension which is present only in eukaryotic DinB members, but its C-terminal region is more similar to prokaryotic and archaeal counterparts since it lacks C(2)HC motifs and PCNA interaction domain. Our results indicate that in contrast to its previously described orthologues, this polymerase is localized to mitochondria. The overexpression of TcPOLK increases T. cruzi resistance to hydrogen peroxide, and in vitro polymerization assays revealed that TcPol kappa efficiently bypasses 8-oxoguanine lesions. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the DinB subfamily of polymerases can participate in homologous recombination, based on our findings that TcPol kappa increases T. cruzi resistance to high doses of gamma irradiation and zeocin and can catalyse DNA synthesis within recombination intermediates.

  10. Automation of a procedure to find the polynomial which best fits (kappa, c1, c2, T) data of electrolyte solutions by non-linear regression analysis using MATHEMATICA software. (United States)

    Cortazar, E; Usobiaga, A; Fernández, L A; de, Diego A; Madariaga, J M


    A MATHEMATICA package, 'CONDU.M', has been developed to find the polynomial in concentration and temperature which best fits conductimetric data of the type (kappa, c, T) or (kappa, c1, c2, T) of electrolyte solutions (kappa: specific conductivity; ci: concentration of component i; T: temperature). In addition, an interface, 'TKONDU', has been written in the TCL/Tk language to facilitate the use of CONDU.M by an operator not familiarised with MATHEMATICA. All this software is available on line (UPV/EHU, 2001). 'CONDU.M' has been programmed to: (i) select the optimum grade in c1 and/or c2; (ii) compare models with linear or quadratic terms in temperature; (iii) calculate the set of adjustable parameters which best fits data; (iv) simplify the model by elimination of 'a priori' included adjustable parameters which after the regression analysis result in low statistical significance; (v) facilitate the location of outlier data by graphical analysis of the residuals; and (vi) provide quantitative statistical information on the quality of the fit, allowing a critical comparison among different models. Due to the multiple options offered the software allows testing different conductivity models in a short time, even if a large set of conductivity data is being considered simultaneously. Then, the user can choose the best model making use of the graphical and statistical information provided in the output file. Although the program has been initially designed to treat conductimetric data, it can be also applied for processing data with similar structure, e.g. (P, c, T) or (P, c1, c2, T), being P any appropriate transport, physical or thermodynamic property.

  11. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  12. Radio-isotopic assays of vitamin B12: interest of Kappa index in a multicentric study. Dosages radio-isotopiques de la vitamine B12: interet du test Kappa dans une evaluation multicentrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourre, C. (Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)); Guiraud-Vitaux, F. (Hopital de Montfermeil, 93 (France)); Labriolle-Vaylet, C. de (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)); Colas-Linhart, N. (Hopital Beaujon, 92 - Clichy (France))


    Owing to the lack of a reference technique and of an international cobalamin (vitamin B12) standard, and the large discrepancy between laboratory norms, the authors performed a multicentric study to compare five RIA kits usually used. First, classical tests were used to evaluate the analytical performances of each kit. Results did not demonstrate any superiority of one kit over another. Secondly, B12 values were classified among three categories (low, normal and high) characterized by laboratory and then manufacturer norms. The concordance between these two ''judgments'' was evaluated with the Kappa coefficient. In addition, the Kappa index proved that the norms supplied by the manufacturer were better than those of laboratories. But mean Kappa coefficient established for each norm gave us an insatisfactory result. Third, clinical informations allowed to improve the classification of the patients. New limits were defined for each technique and should be tested further, routinely in each laboratory. (author).

  13. MESS (Multi-purpose Exoplanet Simulation System): A Monte Carlo tool for the statistical analysis and prediction of exoplanets search results

    CERN Document Server

    Bonavita, M; Desidera, S; Gratton, R; Janson, M; Beuzit, J L; Kasper, M; Mordasini, C


    The high number of planet discoveries made in the last years provides a good sample for statistical analysis, leading to some clues on the distributions of planet parameters, like masses and periods, at least in close proximity to the host star. We likely need to wait for the extremely large telescopes (ELTs) to have an overall view of the extrasolar planetary systems. In this context it would be useful to have a tool that can be used for the interpretation of the present results,and also to predict what the outcomes would be of the future instruments. For this reason we built MESS: a Monte Carlo simulation code which uses either the results of the statistical analysis of the properties of discovered planets, or the results of the planet formation theories, to build synthetic planet populations fully described in terms of frequency, orbital elements and physical properties. They can then be used to either test the consistency of their properties with the observed population of planets given different detectio...

  14. Light scattering studies of irradiated {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)]. E-mail:; Nasimova, I.R. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Shibayama, M. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    The relationships between the molecular weight (Mw) and the characteristic decay time distribution function G({gamma}) of irradiated kappa ({kappa}-) and iota ({iota}-) carrageenan were studied by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Mw and the characteristic decay time ({gamma}{sup -1}) are both steep decreasing exponential function with radiation dose. The dynamic behavior of irradiated {iota}-carrageenan was compared to irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan by DLS. The intensity correlation function of both carrageenans shifted towards shorter relaxation times with increasing radiation dose. Irradiated {iota}-carrageenan like {kappa}-carrageenan exhibits power law behavior at 0-50 kGy (at 0.05-0.1M KCl) indicating similar gelation behaviors. The temperature at which transition from coil to helix takes place (conformational transition temperature) decreases with increasing irradiation dose. A new faster relaxation mode appears at around 0.1-1 ms for both carrageenans between 100 and 150 kGy. Maximum peak height for this mode is at 100 kGy which corresponds to the optimum biological activity of {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan.

  15. H to Zn Ionization Equilibrium for the Non-Maxwellian Electron kappa-distributions: Updated Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dzifcakova, Elena


    New data for calculation of the ionization and recombination rates have have been published in the past few years. Most of these are included in CHIANTI database. We used these data to calculate collisional ionization and recombination rates for the non-Maxwellian kappa-distributions with an enhanced number of particles in the high-energy tail, which have been detected in the solar transition region and the solar wind. Ionization equilibria for elements H to Zn are derived. The kappa-distributions significantly influence both the ionization and recombination rates and widen the ion abundance peaks. In comparison with Maxwellian distribution, the ion abundance peaks can also be shifted to lower or higher temperatures. The updated ionization equilibrium calculations result in large changes for several ions, notably Fe VIII--XIV. The results are supplied in electronic form compatible with the CHIANTI database.

  16. Xanthoangelol D isolated from the roots of Angelica keiskei inhibits endothelin-1 production through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB. (United States)

    Sugii, Masato; Ohkita, Mamoru; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Kawai, Yu; Tahara, Chiyoko; Takaoka, Masanori; Matsumura, Yasuo


    Transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) has been demonstrated to be important in regulating various gene expressions such as cytokines, adhesion molecules, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we show the effects of xanthoangelol, xanthoangelol D, E, and F, which isolated from the root of Angelica keiskei KOIDZUMI (Umbelliferae), on NF-kappaB activation and ET-1 gene expression in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs). Treatments of xanthoangelol D but not xanthoangelol, xanthoangelol E and F markedly suppressed both of basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation in PAECs. To clarify the mechanism of xanthoangelol D-induced suppression on NF-kappaB activation, we evaluated the effects of xanthoangelol D on phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, an inhibitory protein bound to NF-kappaB, and obtained evidence that xanthoangelol D selectively suppresses the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha rather than the degradation of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha. In addition, xanthoangelol D significantly attenuated basal and TNF-alpha-induced prepro ET-1 mRNA expression in PAECs. These results suggest that xanthoangelol D may be useful for the treatment of various vascular diseases involved NF-kappaB activation.

  17. RBP-J kappa repression activity is mediated by a co-repressor and antagonized by the Epstein-Barr virus transcription factor EBNA2. (United States)

    Waltzer, L; Bourillot, P Y; Sergeant, A; Manet, E


    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein EBNA2 is a transcriptional activator that can be targeted to its DNA responsive elements by direct interaction with the cellular protein RBP-J kappa. RBP-J kappa is a ubiquitous factor, highly conserved between man, mouse and Drosophila, whose function in mammalian cells is largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that RBP-J kappa is a transcriptional repressor and, more importantly, that RBP-J kappa repression is mediated by a co-repressor. The function of the co-repressor could be counterbalanced by making a fusion protein (RBP-VP16) between RBP-J kappa and the VP16 activation domain. This RBP-VP16-mediated activation could be strongly increased by an EBNA2 protein deprived of its activation domain, but not by an EBNA2 protein incapable of making physical contact with RBP-J kappa. Our results suggest that EBNA2 activates transcription by both interfering with the function of a co-repressor recruited by RBP-J kappa and providing an activation domain. Images PMID:8559649

  18. Kappa-肌动蛋白与细胞核增殖抗原在舌肿瘤组织中表达的相关性%Study on the correlation of Kappa-actin and proliferation cell nuclear antigen in tongue carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔彬; 谢卫红; 高宁; 付坤; 方政


    目的 探讨Kappa-肌动蛋白(Kappa-actin)与细胞核增殖抗原(Ki-67)在舌肿瘤组织中表达的相关性及其意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学法分别检测80例舌癌组织中Kappa-actin与Ki-67的表达,探讨其表达的相关性,分析Kappa-actin表达与临床病理特征的关系.结果 Kappa-actin及Ki-67在舌癌组织中的高表达率分别为62.5%、78.8%,两者表达呈正相关(P<0.05).同时,Kappa-actin表达与肿瘤的分化程度、分期及淋巴结转移密切相关(P<0.05),而与年龄、性别及肿瘤大小无相关(P>0.05).结论 Kappa-actin参与舌癌进展过程,其表达与Ki-67表达呈正相关.%Objective To investigate the significance and correlation of Kappa-actin expression and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (Ki-67) expression in tongue carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Kappa-actin and Ki-67 in 80 cases of tongue carcinoma tissues,then the correlation between Kappa-actin and Ki-67 and relationship of Kappa-actin and clinicopathological characters were assessed.Results The rates of high Kappa-actin and Ki-67 expression were 62.5%,78.8%,respectively,with a significant correlation (P <0.05).Meanwhile,Kappa-actin expression was associated with differentiation,stages and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05),but not with age,gender and tumor size.Conclusion Kappa-actin is involved in the progress and significantly correlates with Ki-67 expression in tongue carcinoma.

  19. Analgesia produced by exposure to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) is mediated by brain mu- and kappa-opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, G.; Park, E.J.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))


    This study was conducted to identify the opioid receptor subtype(s) responsible for RFR-induced analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 20 mW/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested 15 min later in the abdominal constriction paradigm which detects {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid activity. Immediately following RFR exposure, different groups of mice were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with different opioid receptor blockers with selectivity for {mu}- or {kappa}-opioid receptors. Results show that RFR-induced analgesia was attenuated by higher but not lower doses of the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but the selective {mu}-opioid antagonist {beta}-funaltrexamine and by the selective {kappa}-opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine. RFR-induced analgesia was also reduced by subcutaneous pretreatment with 5.0 mg/kg of the {mu}-/{kappa}-opioid antagonist({minus})-5,9-diethyl-{alpha}-5,9-dialkyl-2{prime}-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan(MR-2266). These findings suggest that RFR-induced analgesia may be mediated by both {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid mechanisms.

  20. The Central Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol Are Mediated by Endogenous Opioid Systems: Effects of Mu and Kappa Opioid Antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. Spear


    Full Text Available Endogenous opioid systems are implicated in the reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating the central reinforcing effects of ethanol early in ontogeny. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an olfactory conditioning paradigm with centrally administered ethanol serving as an unconditioned stimulus (US. In Experiment 1, newborn rat pups were treated with either a selective mu antagonist CTOP or kappa selective antagonist nor-BNI prior to olfactory conditioning. Experiment 2 tested the effectiveness of an alternative, shorter-duration kappa opioid antagonist GNTI in altering ethanol reinforcement. Experiment 3 investigated whether the effectiveness of pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors was due to the disruption of learning per se using an olfactory aversive conditioning paradigm with intraoral quinine serving as a US. Central administration of either mu or kappa opioid antagonists prior to conditioning disrupted the reinforcing effects of ethanol in newborn rats. The kappa opioid antagonist GNTI was as effective as nor-BNI. These effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol reinforcement are unlikely to be due to a disruption of all types of conditioning, since CTOP did not affect aversive reinforcement to intraoral infusions of quinine. The present results support the hypothesis that in newborn rats, the reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the endogenous activity at mu and kappa opioid receptors.

  1. Effect of GNTI,a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, on MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypy in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ting QI; Hong ZOU; Chen-hao ZHANG; Qing-lian XIE; Mei-lei JIN; Lei YU


    Aim:To examine the effect of GNTI[5'-guanidinyl-17-(cyclopropylmethyl)-6,7-dehydro-4,-5α-epoxy-3-14-dihydroxy-6,7-2',3'-indolomorphinan],a selective antagonist for the kappa opioid receptor,in the MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate)-induced behavioral model of psychosis in schizophrenia as a way to explore the involvement of the kappa opioid receptor in modulating psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.Methods:Two doses 0f MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg) were administered by systemic injection in mice to induce psychosis-like behavior as a rodent schizophrenia model, preceded by an injection of different doses of GNTI. Both locomotion and stereotypy were measured as the behavioral endpoints for quantitative analysis.Results:GNTI inhibited MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypy.In particular,GNTI showed differential modulation of stereotypy induced by 0.3 mg/kg VS 0.6 mg/kg MK-801.Conclusion:Antagonism of kappa opioid receptors attenuates MK-801-induced behavior,suggesting a potential involvement of the kappa opioid receptor in psychosis-like symptoms of schizophrenia.GNTI aDpears to be a useful pharmacological tool to explore the kappa opioid receptor function in vivo.

  2. Genomic structure and expression analysis of the RNase kappa family ortholog gene in the insect Ceratitis capitata. (United States)

    Rampias, Theodoros N; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Sideris, Diamantis C


    Cc RNase is the founding member of the recently identified RNase kappa family, which is represented by a single ortholog in a wide range of animal taxonomic groups. Although the precise biological role of this protein is still unknown, it has been shown that the recombinant proteins isolated so far from the insect Ceratitis capitata and from human exhibit ribonucleolytic activity. In this work, we report the genomic organization and molecular evolution of the RNase kappa gene from various animal species, as well as expression analysis of the ortholog gene in C. capitata. The high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, in combination with the fact that exon sizes and intronic positions are extremely conserved among RNase kappa orthologs in 15 diverse genomes from sea anemone to human, imply a very significant biological function for this enzyme. In C. capitata, two forms of RNase kappa mRNA (0.9 and 1.5 kb) with various lengths of 3' UTR were identified as alternative products of a single gene, resulting from the use of different polyadenylation signals. Both transcripts are expressed in all insect tissues and developmental stages. Sequence analysis of the extended region of the longer transcript revealed the existence of three mRNA instability motifs (AUUUA) and five poly(U) tracts, whose functional importance in RNase kappa mRNA decay remains to be explored.

  3. Generation and functional characterization of a BCL10-inhibitory peptide that represses NF-kappaB activation. (United States)

    Marasco, Daniela; Stilo, Romania; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Monti, Simona Maria; Tizzano, Barbara; de Capua, Antonia; Varricchio, Ettore; Liguoro, Domenico; Zotti, Tiziana; Formisano, Silvestro; Ruvo, Menotti; Vito, Pasquale


    The molecular complex containing BCL10 and CARMA [CARD (caspase recruitment domain)-containing MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase)] proteins has recently been identified as a key component in the signal transduction pathways that regulate activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. Assembly of complexes containing BCL10 and CARMA proteins relies on homophilic interactions established between the CARDs of these proteins. In order to identify BCL10-inhibitory peptides, we have established a method of assaying peptides derived from the CARD of BCL10 in binding competition assays of CARD-CARD self-association. By this procedure, a short peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 91-98 of BCL10 has been selected as an effective inhibitor of protein self-association. When tested in cell assays for its capacity to block NF-kappaB activation, this peptide represses activation of NF-kappaB mediated by BCL10, CARMA3 and PMA/ionomycin stimulation. Collectively, these results indicate that residues 91-98 of BCL10 are involved in BCL10 self-association and also participate in the interaction with external partners. We also show that blocking of the CARD of BCL10 may potentially be used for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with inappropriate NF-kappaB activation.

  4. Studies Toward the Pharmacophore of Salvinorin A, a Potent Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist


    Munro, Thomas A.; Mark A. Rizzacasa; Roth, Bryan L.; Toth, Beth A.; Yan, Feng


    Salvinorin A (1), from the sage Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. We screened other salvinorins and derivatives for binding affinity and functional activity at opioid receptors. Our results suggest that the methyl ester and furan ring are required for activity, but that the lactone and ketone functionalities are not. Other salvinorins showed negligible binding affinity at the KOR. None of the compounds bound to mu or delta opioid receptors.

  5. Studies toward the pharmacophore of salvinorin A, a potent kappa opioid receptor agonist. (United States)

    Munro, Thomas A; Rizzacasa, Mark A; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth A; Yan, Feng


    Salvinorin A (1), from the sage Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. We screened other salvinorins and derivatives for binding affinity and functional activity at opioid receptors. Our results suggest that the methyl ester and furan ring are required for activity but that the lactone and ketone functionalities are not. Other salvinorins showed negligible binding affinity at the KOR. None of the compounds bound to mu or delta opioid receptors.

  6. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin, E-mail: [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Heine, Guido, E-mail: [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, Bjoern, E-mail: [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgrass, Ria, E-mail: [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Radbruch, Andreas, E-mail: [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Worm, Margitta, E-mail: [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)


    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  7. Activation of the Akt-NF-kappaB pathway by subtilase cytotoxin through the ATF6 branch of the unfolded protein response. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroaki; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Tagawa, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Maro; Ogata, Ryouji; Huang, Tao; Nakajima, Shotaro; Yao, Jian; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Kitamura, Masanori


    Shiga toxin has the potential to induce expression of inflammation-associated genes, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We examined the effects of subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), an AB(5) toxin produced by some Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli, on the activation of NF-kappaB. SubAB is known to be a protease which selectively degrades GRP78/Bip. Treatment of NRK-52E cells with SubAB caused rapid cleavage of GRP78. Following the degradation of GRP78, transient activation of NF-kappaB was observed with a peak at 6-12 h; the activation subsided within 24 h despite the continuous absence of intact GRP78. The activation of NF-kappaB was preceded by transient phosphorylation of Akt. Treatment of the cells with a selective inhibitor of Akt1/2 or an inhibitor of PI3K attenuated SubAB-induced NF-kappaB activation, suggesting that activation of Akt is an event upstream of NF-kappaB. Degradation of GRP78 caused the unfolded protein response (UPR), and inducers of the UPR mimicked the stimulatory effects of SubAB on Akt and NF-kappaB. SubAB triggered the three major branches of the UPR including the IRE1-XBP1, PERK, and ATF6 pathways. Dominant-negative inhibition of IRE1alpha, XBP1, or PERK did not attenuate activation of NF-kappaB by SubAB. In contrast, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of ATF6 significantly suppressed SubAB-triggered Akt phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. These results suggested that loss of GRP78 by SubAB leads to transient phosphorylation of Akt and consequent activation of NF-kappaB through the ATF6 branch of the UPR.

  8. KAPPA GOLF继续时尚活力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    中国动向(集团)有限公司旗下的Kappa GOLF作为高尔夫运动服装领军品牌再次成为2012年汇丰冠军赛唯一服装合作伙伴。中国动向集团董事长陈义作为代表参加了汇丰冠军赛的职业业余配对赛。Kappa GOLF与世锦赛-汇丰冠军赛的合作进入第四年,本届赛事,Kappa GOLF为所有赛事官员、裁判、贵宾、志愿者提供专用

  9. Quantum Measurements and the kappa--Poincare Group

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, A; Camacho, Abel


    The possible description of the vacuum of quantum gravity through the so called kappa--Poincare group is analyzed considering some of the consequences of this symmetry in the path integral formulation of nonrelativistic quantum theory. This study is carried out with two cases, firstly, a free particle, and finally, the situation of a particle immersed in a homogeneous gravitational field. It will be shown that the kappa--Poincare group implies the loss of some of the basic properties associated to Feynman's path integral. For instance, loss of the group characteristic related to the time dependence of the evolution operator, or the breakdown of the composition law for amplitudes of events occurring successively in time. Additionally some similarities between the present idea and the so called restricted path integral formalism will be underlined. These analogies advocate the claim that if the kappa--Poincare group contains some of the physical information of the quantum gravity vacuum, then this vacuum could ...

  10. Electron acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanandhan, S; Singh, S V; Lakhina, G S, E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai (India)


    Electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a three-component, unmagnetized plasma composed of hot electrons, fluid cold electrons and ions having finite temperatures. Hot electrons are assumed to have kappa distribution. The Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to study the arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is found that inclusion of cold electron temperature shrinks the existence regime of the solitons, and soliton electric field amplitude decreases with an increase in cold electron temperature. A decrease in spectral index, {kappa}, i.e. an increase in the superthermal component of hot electrons, leads to a decrease in soliton electric field amplitude as well as the soliton velocity range. The soliton solutions do not exist beyond T{sub c}/T{sub h}>0.13 for {kappa}=3.0 and Mach number M=0.9 for the dayside auroral region parameters.

  11. A study of morphology-based wavelet features and multiple-wavelet strategy for EEG signal classification: results and selected statistical analysis. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Schalkoff, Robert J; Dean, Brian C; Halford, Jonathan J


    Automatic detection and classification of Epileptiform transients is an open and important clinical issue. In this paper, we test 5 feature sets derived from a group of morphology-based wavelet features and compare the results with that of a Guler-suggested feature set. We also implement a multiple-mother-wavelet strategy and compare performance with the usual single-mother-wavelet strategy. The results indicate that both the derived features and the multiple-mother-wavelet strategy improved classifier performance, using a variety of performance measures. We assess the statistical significance of the performance improvement of the new feature sets/strategy. In most cases, the performance improvement is either significant or highly significant.

  12. Resolving the electron temperature discrepancies in HII Regions and Planetary Nebulae: kappa-distributed electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S


    The measurement of electron temperatures and metallicities in H ii regions and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) has-for several decades-presented a problem: results obtained using different techniques disagree. What it worse, they disagree consistently. There have been numerous attempts to explain these discrepancies, but none has provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. In this paper, we explore the possibility that electrons in H ii regions and PNe depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution. We adopt a "kappa-distribution" for the electron energies. Such distributions are widely found in Solar System plasmas, where they can be directly measured. This simple assumption is able to explain the temperature and metallicity discrepancies in H ii regions and PNe arising from the different measurement techniques. We find that the energy distribution does not need to depart dramatically from an equilibrium distribution. From an examination of data from Hii regions and PNe it appears that kappa ~ ...

  13. Ion acoustic shock waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Hafeez Ur-Rehman [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan and Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    The monotonic and oscillatory ion acoustic shock waves are investigated in electron-positron-ion plasmas (e-p-i) with warm ions (adiabatically heated) and nonthermal kappa distributed electrons and positrons. The dissipation effects are included in the model due to kinematic viscosity of the ions. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived containing dispersion, dissipation, and diffraction effects (due to perturbation in the transverse direction) in e-p-i plasmas. The analytical solution of KPB equation is obtained by employing tangent hyperbolic (Tanh) method. The analytical condition for the propagation of oscillatory and monotonic shock structures are also discussed in detail. The numerical results of two dimensional monotonic shock structures are obtained for graphical representation. The dependence of shock structures on positron equilibrium density, ion temperature, nonthermal spectral index kappa, and the kinematic viscosity of ions are also discussed.

  14. Coherently amplified negative feedback loop as a model for NF-kappaB oscillations (United States)

    Joo, Jaewook


    The cells secrets various signaling molecules as a response to an external signal and modulate its own signaling processes. The precise role of this autocrine and/or paracrine signaling on cell information processing is mostly unknown. We will present the effect of TNF alpha autocrine signaling on NF-kappaB oscillations, using a simplified model of coherently amplified negative feedback loop. We will discuss the bifurcation diagram (i.e., dose-response curve), especially the robustness and the tenability of the period of NF-kappaB oscillations. Finally, we will compare the results from the above model with those from a previous model of time-delayed negative feedback alone.

  15. Kinetic study of ion acoustic twisted waves with kappa distributed electrons (United States)

    Arshad, Kashif; Aman-ur-Rehman, Mahmood, Shahzad


    The kinetic theory of Landau damping of ion acoustic twisted modes is developed in the presence of orbital angular momentum of the helical (twisted) electric field in plasmas with kappa distributed electrons and Maxwellian ions. The perturbed distribution function and helical electric field are considered to be decomposed by Laguerre-Gaussian mode function defined in cylindrical geometry. The Vlasov-Poisson equation is obtained and solved analytically to obtain the weak damping rates of the ion acoustic twisted waves in a non-thermal plasma. The strong damping effects of ion acoustic twisted waves at low values of temperature ratio of electrons and ions are also obtained by using exact numerical method and illustrated graphically, where the weak damping wave theory fails to explain the phenomenon properly. The obtained results of Landau damping rates of the twisted ion acoustic wave are discussed at different values of azimuthal wave number and non-thermal parameter kappa for electrons.

  16. Zinc inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation and sensitizes prostate cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. (United States)

    Uzzo, Robert G; Leavis, Paul; Hatch, William; Gabai, Vladimir L; Dulin, Nickolai; Zvartau, Nadezhda; Kolenko, Vladimir M


    Prostate carcinogenesis involves transformation of zinc-accumulating normal epithelial cells to malignant cells, which do not accumulate zinc. In this study, we demonstrate by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry that physiological levels of zinc inhibit activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factor in PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells, reduce expression of NF-kappa B-controlled antiapoptotic protein c-IAP2, and activate c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases. Preincubation of PC-3 cells with physiological concentrations of zinc sensitized tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and paclitaxel mediated cell death as defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. These results suggest one possible mechanism for the inhibitory effect of zinc on the development and progression of prostate malignancy and might have important consequences for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Ion acoustic solitons in a solar wind magnetoplasma with Kappa distributed electrons (United States)

    Devanandhan, Selvaraj; Singh, Satyavir; Singh Lakhina, Gurbax; Sreeraj, T.


    In many space plasma environments, the velocity distribution of particles often deviates from Maxwellian and is well-modelled by a kappa distribution function. We have analyzed the ion acoustic soliton in a magnetized consisting of plasma Protons, Helium ions, an electron beam and superthermal hot electrons following kappa distribution function. Under the assumption of weak nonlinearity, the ion-acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation. The solution of KdV-ZK equation is used to model the characteristics of the ion acoustic solitary waves in a solar wind magnetoplasma observed at 1 AU. We have found both slow and fast ion acoustic solitons in our study. It is found that the superthermality of hot electrons greatly influence the existence regime of the solitary waves. The numerical results of this study to explain solar wind observations will be discussed in detail.

  18. A Statistical Description of the Types and Severities of Accidents Involving Tractor Semi-Trailers, Updated Results for 1992-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. A previous study (SAND93-2580) reviewed the availability of accident data, identified the TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) as the best source of accident data for accidents involving heavy trucks, and provided statistics on accident data collected between 1980 and 1990. The current study is an extension of the previous work and describes data collected for heavy truck accidents occurring between 1992 and 1996. The TIFA database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports and interviewing responders and witnesses for selected TEA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, effective fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  19. A Statistical Description of the Types and Severities of Accidents Involving Tractor Semi-Trailers, Updated Results for 1992-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. A previous study (SAND93-2580) reviewed the availability of accident data, identified the TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) as the best source of accident data for accidents involving heavy trucks, and provided statistics on accident data collected between 1980 and 1990. The current study is an extension of the previous work and describes data collected for heavy truck accidents occurring between 1992 and 1996. The TIFA database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports and interviewing responders and witnesses for selected TEA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, effective fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  20. Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability in a dusty plasma with product-bi-kappa distributions for the plasma particles

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Michel S dos; Gaelzer, Rudi


    We study the dispersion relation for parallel propagating ion-cyclotron (IC) waves in a dusty plasma, considering that ions and electrons may be represented by product-bi-kappa (PBK) velocity distributions. The results obtained by numerical solution of the dispersion relation, in a case with isotropic Maxwellian distributions for electrons and PBK distribution for ions, show the occurrence of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability (EMIC), and show that the decrease in the kappa indexes of the PBK ion distribution leads to significant increase of the instability, in magnitude of the growth rates and in range in wavenumber space. On the other hand, for anisotropic Maxwellian distribution for ions and PBK distribution for electrons, the decrease of the kappa index in the PBK electron distribution contributes to reduce the EMIC instability, but the reduction effect is much less pronounced than that obtained with the same combination of distributions in the case of the ion-firehose instability, shown in a r...

  1. Role of magnetic field fluctuations in the Evolution of the kappa Distribution Functions in the Plasma Sheet (United States)

    Espinoza, Cristobal; Antonova, Elizaveta; Stepanova, Marina; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro


    The evolution with the distance to Earth of ion and electron distribution functions in the plasma sheet, approximated by kappa distributions, was studied by Stepanova and Antonova (2015, JGRA 120). Using THEMIS data for 5 events of satellite alignments along the tail, covering between 5 and 30 Earth radii, they found that the kappa parameter increases tailwards, for both ions and electrons. In this work we analyse the magnetic fluctuations present in THEMIS data for the same 5 events. The aim is to explore the hypothesis proposed by Navarro et al. (2014, PRL 112), for solar wind plasmas, that the observed magnetic fluctuations could be closely related to spontaneous fluctuations in the plasma, if this can be described by stable distributions. Here we present our first results on the correlation between the spectral properties of the magnetic fluctuations and the observed parameters of the kappa distributions for different distances from Earth.

  2. Phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of lambda and kappa immunoglobulin light chain genes in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis. (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wei, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Qinghong; Robert, Jacques; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng


    The reptiles are the last major taxon of jawed vertebrates in which immunoglobulin light chain isotypes have not been well characterized. Using the recently released genome sequencing data, we show in this study that the reptile Anolis carolinensis expresses both lambda and kappa light chain genes. The genomic organization of both gene loci is structurally similar to their respective counterparts in mammals. The identified lambda locus contains three constant region genes each preceded by a joining gene segment, and a total of 37 variable gene segments. In contrast, the kappa locus contains only a single constant region gene, and two joining gene segments with a single family of 14 variable gene segments located upstream. Analysis of junctions of the recombined VJ transcripts reveals a paucity of N and P nucleotides in both expressed lambda and kappa sequences. These results help us to understand the generation of the immunoglobulin repertoire in reptiles and immunoglobulin evolution in vertebrates.

  3. Rearrangement of mouse immunoglobulin kappa deleting element recombining sequence promotes immune tolerance and lambda B cell production. (United States)

    Vela, José Luis; Aït-Azzouzene, Djemel; Duong, Bao Hoa; Ota, Takayuki; Nemazee, David


    The recombining sequence (RS) of mouse and its human equivalent, the immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa deleting element (IGKDE), are sequences found at the 3' end of the Ig kappa locus (Igk) that rearrange to inactivate Igk in developing B cells. RS recombination correlates with Ig lambda (Iglambda) light (L) chain expression and likely plays a role in receptor editing by eliminating Igk genes encoding autoantibodies. A mouse strain was generated in which the recombination signal of RS was removed, blocking RS-mediated Igk inactivation. In RS mutant mice, receptor editing and self-tolerance were impaired, in some cases leading to autoantibody formation. Surprisingly, mutant mice also made fewer B cells expressing lambda chain, whereas lambda versus kappa isotype exclusion was only modestly affected. These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells.

  4. The general dielectric tensor for bi-kappa magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelzer, Rudi; Meneses, Anelise Ramires


    In this paper we derive the dielectric tensor for a plasma containing particles described by an anisotropic superthermal (bi-kappa) velocity distribution function. The tensor components are written in terms of the two-variables kappa plasma special functions, recently defined by Gaelzer and Ziebell [Phys. Plasmas 23, 022110 (2016)]. We also obtain various new mathematical properties for these functions, which are useful for the analytical treatment, numerical implementation and evaluation of the functions and, consequently, of the dielectric tensor. The formalism developed here and in the previous paper provides a mathematical framework for the study of electromagnetic waves propagating at arbitrary angles and polarizations in a superthermal plasma.

  5. The Present Status on sigma and kappa Meson Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, M


    The recent experimental data of both pipi / Kpi scattering and production processes, suggesting the existence of scalar sigma and kappa mesons, are reviewed. In many pipi /Kpi production processes the direct effects of their productions are observed, while they are, because of chiral symmetry, hidden in scattering processes, and now sigma(500--600) and kappa(800--900) are considered to be confirmed experimentally. The recent criticism on our method of analyses, which is based on the long believed prejudice of universal pipi / Kpi phase through scattering and production amplitudes, is explained not to be valid.

  6. Regularization of Kepler Problem in $\\kappa$-spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Partha; S., Zuhair N


    In this paper we regularize the Kepler problem on $\\kappa$-spacetime in several different ways. First, we perform a Moser-type regularization and then we proceed for the Ligon-Schaaf regularization to our problem. In particular, generalizing Heckman-de Laat (J. Symplectic Geom. 10, (2012), 463-473) in the noncommutative context we show that the Ligon-Schaaf regularization map follows from an adaptation of the Moser regularization can be generalized to the Kepler problem on $\\kappa$-spacetime.

  7. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong


    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  8. Localization of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF kappa B) and inhibitory factor-kappa B (I kappa B) in human fetal membranes and decidua at term and preterm delivery. (United States)

    Yan, X; Sun, M; Gibb, W


    The human fetal membranes and decidua are thought to be involved in the onset of human parturition. These tissues produce and respond to various cytokines, which may be involved in preterm labour and possibly term labour. They also show increasing production of prostaglandins (PGs) with advancing gestation and labour. The expression of PGHS-2, a rate limiting enzyme in PG synthesis, is increased in the fetal membranes at labour. The gene for PGHS-2 and many of the cytokine genes (e.g. TNFalpha, IL-1, IL-6) are stimulated by the transcription factor NF kappa B. This factor is composed of two subunits, p50 and p65, which are localized in the cytoplasm bound to I kappa B. When activated I kappa B is metabolized, and p50, p65 translocate to the nucleus to activate various genes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the tissue and cellular distribution of p65 and I kappa B in the human fetal membranes and decidua throughout gestation. Term tissues were obtained prior to labour by elective caesarean section (n=10) or following vaginal delivery (n=10) and 10 preterm tissues were obtained following labour prior to 37 weeks gestation. None of the tissues had any evidence of infection. The immunoreactive NF kappa B and I kappa B were localized in the tissues. p65 protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in the amnion, chorion laeve and decidua. In the amnion and chorion laeve, no changes occurred in subcellular localization with advancing gestation or term labour. However, in the decidua, there was a marked increase in the nuclear localization of i.r. p 65 in tissues obtained at term when compared with tissues delivered preterm. In the case of I kappa B, it was localized to the cytoplasm of cells in all tissues and there was an increase i.r. I kappa B in decidua at term compared to preterm but no change occurred in the amnion or chorion. The increase in nuclear localization of p65 in the decidua that occurs with advancing gestation, highlights the

  9. The dynamics of the H(+) + D(2) reaction: a comparison of quantum mechanical wavepacket, quasi-classical and statistical-quasi-classical results. (United States)

    Jambrina, P G; Aoiz, F J; Bulut, N; Smith, Sean C; Balint-Kurti, G G; Hankel, M


    A detailed study of the proton exchange reaction H(+) + D(2)(v = 0, j = 0) --> HD + D(+) on its ground 1(1)A' potential energy surface has been carried out using 'exact' close-coupled quantum mechanical wavepacket (WP-EQM), quasi-classical trajectory (QCT), and statistical quasi-classical trajectory (SQCT) calculations for a range of collision energies starting from the reaction threshold to 1.3 eV. The WP-EQM calculations include all total angular momenta up to J(max) = 50, and therefore the various dynamical observables are converged up to 0.6 eV. It has been found that it is necessary to include all Coriolis couplings to obtain reliable converged results. Reaction probabilities obtained using the different methods are thoroughly compared as a function of the total energy for a series of J values. Comparisons are also made of total reaction cross sections as function of the collision energy, and rate constants. In addition, opacity functions, integral cross sections (ICS) and differential cross sections (DCS) are presented at 102 meV, 201.3 meV and 524.6 meV collision energy. The agreement between the three sets of results is only qualitative. The QCT calculations fail to describe the overall reactivity and most of the dynamical observables correctly. At low collision energies, the QCT method is plagued by the lack of conservation of zero point energy, whilst at higher collision energies and/or total angular momenta, the appearance of an effective repulsive potential associated with the centrifugal motion "over" the well causes a substantial decrease of the reactivity. In turn, the statistical models overestimate the reactivity over the whole range of collision energies as compared with the WP-EQM method. Specifically, at sufficiently high collision energies the reaction cannot be deemed to be statistical and important dynamical effects seem to be present. In general the WP-EQM results lie in between those obtained using the QCT and SQCT methods. One of the main

  10. Malt1 and cIAP2-Malt1 as effectors of NF-kappaB activation: kissing cousins or distant relatives? (United States)

    Kingeter, Lara M; Schaefer, Brian C


    Malt1 is a multi-domain cytosolic signaling molecule that was originally identified as the target of recurrent translocations in a large fraction of MALT lymphomas. The product of this translocation is a chimeric protein in which the N-terminus is contributed by the apoptosis inhibitor, cIAP2, and the C-terminus is contributed by Malt1. Early studies suggested that Malt1 is an essential intermediate in antigen receptor activation of NF-kappaB, and that the juxtaposition of the cIAP2 N-terminus and the Malt1 C-terminus results in deregulation of Malt1 NF-kappaB stimulatory activity. Initial experimental data further suggested that the molecular mechanisms of Malt1- and cIAP-Malt1-mediated NF-kappaB activation were quite similar. However, a number of more recent studies of both Malt1 and cIAP2-Malt1 now reveal that these proteins influence NF-kappaB activation by multiple distinct mechanisms, several of which are non-overlapping. Currently available data suggest a revised model in which cIAP2-Malt1 induces NF-kappaB activation via a mechanism that depends equally on domains contributed by cIAP2 and Malt1, which confer spontaneous oligomerization activity, polyubiquitin binding, proteolytic activity, and association with and activation of TRAF2 and TRAF6 at several independent binding sites. By contrast, emerging data suggest that the wild-type Malt1 protein uniquely contributes to NF-kappaB activation primarily through the control of two proteolytic cleavage mechanisms. Firstly, Malt1 directly cleaves and inactivates A20, a negative regulator of the antigen receptor-to-NF-kappaB pathway. Secondly, Malt1 interacts with caspase-8, inducing caspase-8 cleavage of c-FLIP(L), initiating a pathway that contributes to activation of the I kappaB kinase (IKK) complex. Furthermore, data suggest that Malt1 plays a more limited and focused role in antigen receptor activation of NF-kappaB, serving to augment weak antigen signals and stimulate a defined subset of NF-kappa

  11. Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability in a dusty plasma with product-bi-kappa distributions for the plasma particles (United States)

    dos Santos, M. S.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.


    We study the dispersion relation for parallel propagating ion-cyclotron (IC) waves in a dusty plasma, considering situations where the velocity dispersion along perpendicular direction is greater than along the parallel direction, and considering the use of product-bi-kappa (PBK) velocity distributions for the plasma particles. The results obtained by numerical solution of the dispersion relation, in a case with isotropic Maxwellian distributions for electrons and PBK distribution for ions, show the occurrence of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability (EMIC), and show that the decrease in the kappa indexes of the PBK ion distribution leads to significant increase in the magnitude of the growth rates and in the range of wavenumber for which the instability occurs. On the other hand, for anisotropic Maxwellian distribution for ions and PBK distribution for electrons, the decrease of the kappa index in the PBK electron distribution contributes to reduce the growth rate of the EMIC instability, but the reduction effect is less pronounced than the increase obtained with ion PBK distribution with the same kappa index. The results obtained also show that, as a general rule, the presence of a dust population contributes to reduce the instability in magnitude of the growth rates and range, but that in the case of PBK ion distribution with small kappa indexes the instability may continue to occur for dust populations which would eliminate completely the instability in the case of bi-Maxwellian ion distributions. It has also been seen that the anisotropy due to the kappa indexes in the ion PBK distribution is not so efficient in producing the EMIC instability as the ratio of perpendicular and parallel ion temperatures, for equivalent value of the effective temperature.

  12. Development of immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells, but not editing of immunoglobulin kappa-chain, depends on NF-kappaB signals. (United States)

    Derudder, Emmanuel; Cadera, Emily J; Vahl, J Christoph; Wang, Jing; Fox, Casey J; Zha, Shan; van Loo, Geert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Schlissel, Mark S; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Rajewsky, Klaus


    By genetically ablating IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in the B cell lineage and by analyzing a mouse mutant in which immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells are generated in the absence of rearrangements in the locus encoding immunoglobulin kappa-chain, we define here two distinct, consecutive phases of early B cell development that differ in their dependence on IKK-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. During the first phase, in which NF-kappaB signaling is dispensable, predominantly kappa-chain-positive B cells are generated, which undergo efficient receptor editing. In the second phase, predominantly lambda-chain-positive B cells are generated whose development is ontogenetically timed to occur after rearrangements of the locus encoding kappa-chain. This second phase of development is dependent on NF-kappaB signals, which can be substituted by transgenic expression of the prosurvival factor Bcl-2.

  13. A tumor-associated antigen specific for human kappa myeloma cells



    A monoclonal antibody (K-1-21) raised against a kappa Bence Jones protein exhibits unique binding properties to malignant plasma cells. K- 1-21 is an IgG1 kappa antibody that reacts with human kappa light chains in free form, but shows no reactivity with heavy chain- associated kappa light chains. By immunofluorescence, K-1-21 binds to the surface of LICR LON/HMy2 (HMy2) kappa myeloma cells and to plasma cells from a majority (8/11) of patients with various types of kappa myeloma; it did not ...

  14. Single-cell NF-kappaB dynamics reveal digital activation and analogue information processing. (United States)

    Tay, Savaş; Hughey, Jacob J; Lee, Timothy K; Lipniacki, Tomasz; Quake, Stephen R; Covert, Markus W


    Cells operate in dynamic environments using extraordinary communication capabilities that emerge from the interactions of genetic circuitry. The mammalian immune response is a striking example of the coordination of different cell types. Cell-to-cell communication is primarily mediated by signalling molecules that form spatiotemporal concentration gradients, requiring cells to respond to a wide range of signal intensities. Here we use high-throughput microfluidic cell culture and fluorescence microscopy, quantitative gene expression analysis and mathematical modelling to investigate how single mammalian cells respond to different concentrations of the signalling molecule tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and relay information to the gene expression programs by means of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. We measured NF-kappaB activity in thousands of live cells under TNF-alpha doses covering four orders of magnitude. We find, in contrast to population-level studies with bulk assays, that the activation is heterogeneous and is a digital process at the single-cell level with fewer cells responding at lower doses. Cells also encode a subtle set of analogue parameters to modulate the outcome; these parameters include NF-kappaB peak intensity, response time and number of oscillations. We developed a stochastic mathematical model that reproduces both the digital and analogue dynamics as well as most gene expression profiles at all measured conditions, constituting a broadly applicable model for TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB signalling in various types of cells. These results highlight the value of high-throughput quantitative measurements with single-cell resolution in understanding how biological systems operate.

  15. Inter-Coder Agreement in One-to-Many Classification: Fuzzy Kappa. (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P; Stepchenkova, Svetlana


    Content analysis involves classification of textual, visual, or audio data. The inter-coder agreement is estimated by making two or more coders to classify the same data units, with subsequent comparison of their results. The existing methods of agreement estimation, e.g., Cohen's kappa, require that coders place each unit of content into one and only one category (one-to-one coding) from the pre-established set of categories. However, in certain data domains (e.g., maps, photographs, databases of texts and images), this requirement seems overly restrictive. The restriction could be lifted, provided that there is a measure to calculate the inter-coder agreement in the one-to-many protocol. Building on the existing approaches to one-to-many coding in geography and biomedicine, such measure, fuzzy kappa, which is an extension of Cohen's kappa, is proposed. It is argued that the measure is especially compatible with data from certain domains, when holistic reasoning of human coders is utilized in order to describe the data and access the meaning of communication.

  16. NF-κB和胃癌%Nuclear Factor-kappaB Activity in Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) pathway is one of the most important cellular signal trans-duction pathways involved in both physiologic processes and disease conditions. The aberrant regulation of NF-kB results in the development and progression of gastric cancer,as well as in metastasis,its treatment and chemoprevention. Therefore,targeting of NF-kappaB signaling pathway could be a potent strategy for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancers.%核因子-κB(Nuclear Factor-kappaB,NF-κB)通路是机体最重要的细胞内信号传导通路之一.NF-κB失调涉及胃癌的发生发展、浸润转移、治疗和化学预防等方面.靶向NF-κB信号通路可能是胃癌治疗和预防的一个有效策略.

  17. In silico simulation of inhibitor drug effects on nuclear factor-kappaB pathway dynamics. (United States)

    Sung, Myong-Hee; Simon, Richard


    NF-kappaB is a transcription factor family that activates numerous genes that are related to cell survival, apoptosis, and cell migration. Its persistent activity is associated with tumor formation, growth, metastasis, and drug resistance in many cancer types, including lymphoma, colon cancer, and breast cancer. Current therapeutic efforts for inhibiting this central "switch" include using small molecules to block a selected target in this pathway. Recognizing the regulatory network structure of the NF-kappaB pathway, we examine in silico the effects of inhibitors targeting various network components, using a kinetic model of the pathway. By simulating the corresponding perturbed system dynamics, we show the resulting time course of inhibition has distinct target-specific profiles. In particular, greater oscillatory potential exists for inhibition of upstream events than for direct inhibition of NF-kappaB, at low drug concentrations. This phenomenon is observed also when we examine the dynamic effects of the recently approved proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (PS-341), and compare it with other inhibitors, taking its pharmacokinetics into consideration. Such kinetic analyses of the "drugged" molecular system will facilitate optimal drug target selection and the development of treatment protocols for a molecularly targeted therapy.

  18. Proton Cyclotron Instability Threshold Condition of Suprathermal Protons by Kappa Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang; ZHOU Qinghua; HE Huiyong; TANG Lijun; FANG Jiayuan


    Observation has clearly shown that natural space plasmas generally possess a pronounced non-Maxwellian high-energy tail distribution that can be well modeled by a kappa distribution. In this study we investigate the proton cyclotron wave instability driven by the temperature anisotropy (T⊥/T||>1) of suprathermal protons modeled with a typical kappa distribution in the magnetosheath. It is found that as in the case for a regular bi-Maxwellian, the suprathermal proton temperature anisotropy is subject to the threshold condition of this proton cyclotron instability and the instability threshold condition satisfies a general form T⊥/T|| - 1 = S/βα||, with a very narrow range of the fitting parameters: 0.40 ≤ α ≤ 0.45, and a relatively sensitive variation 0.27 ≤ S ≤ 0.65, over 0.01 < β|| < 10. Furthermore, the difference in threshold conditions between the kappa distribution and the bi-Maxwellian distribution is found to be small for a relatively strong growth but becomes relatively obvious for a weak wave growth. The results may provide a deeper insight into the physics of this instability threshold for the proton cyclotron waves.

  19. 大kappa角成因的分析%The analysis of the cause of big kappa angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秀珍; 毕宏生; 潘雪梅; 王桂敏; 袁明俊


    Objective To study the cause of the big kappa angle.Methods Twenty-seven eyes were measured with kappa angle, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal horizontal diameter, and the optic disc-macular distance.Results The mean kappa angle of the abnormal big kappa eyes was 9.48±2.24°, the optic dise-macular distance was 5.08±1.33mm, mean central corneal thickness was 580.58±53.01 um, mean corneal horizontal diameter was 12.13±0.51mm, Which were bigger than the normal eyes.Conclusions Several abnormal structural factors are found in the big kappa angle eyes, which maybe the cause of the big kappa angles.%目的 对大kappa角患者进行多处数据分析,发现其异常之处,探讨大kappa角形成的原因.方法 测量异常大kappa角眼的kappa角、中央角膜厚度及角膜横径,眼轴,眼底照像并测量视盘-黄斑间距.结果 与对侧正常眼比较,大kappa角患眼视盘-黄斑间距增大.均值为5.084mm;其中央角膜厚度平均值为580.58μm以及角膜横径平均值为12.13mm,均大于正常眼;眼轴与正常眼相似.结论 大kappa角患眼存在多处结构发育异常,可能是造成这一异常外观的成因.

  20. Cirhin up-regulates a canonical NF-{kappa}B element through strong interaction with Cirip/HIVEP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A. [Genetique Medicale, Centre de Recherche CHU Sainte-Justine, Departement de Pediatrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Richter, Andrea, E-mail: [Genetique Medicale, Centre de Recherche CHU Sainte-Justine, Departement de Pediatrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)


    North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A) is a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. All NAIC patients have a homozygous mutation in CIRH1A that changes conserved Arg565 to Trp (R565W) in Cirhin, a nucleolar protein of unknown function. Subcellular localization is unaffected by the mutation. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified Cirip (Cirhin interaction protein) and found that interaction between Cirip and R565W-Cirhin was weakened. Co-immunoprecipitation of the two proteins from nuclear extracts of HeLa cells strongly supports the yeast two hybrid results. Cirip has essentially the same sequence as the C-terminal of HIVEP1, a regulator of a canonical NF-{kappa}B sequence. Since Cirip has the zinc fingers required for this interaction, we developed an in vitro assay based on this element in mammalian cells to demonstrate functional Cirhin-Cirip interaction. The strong positive effect of Cirip on the NF-{kappa}B sequence was further increased by both Cirhin and R565W-Cirhin. Importantly, the effect of R565W-Cirhin was weaker than that of the wild type protein. We observed increased levels of Cirhin-Cirip complex in nuclear extracts in the presence of this NF-{kappa}B sequence. Our hypothesis is that Cirhin is a transcriptional regulatory factor of this NF-{kappa}B sequence and could be a participant in the regulation of other genes with NF-{kappa}B responsive elements. Since the activities of genes regulated through NF-{kappa}B responsive elements are especially important during development, this interaction may be a key to explain the perinatal appearance of NAIC.

  1. Non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble mediators enhance apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes through an I kappa B kinase-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    Batra, Raj K; Lin, Ying; Sharma, Sherven; Dohadwala, Mariam; Luo, Jie; Pold, Mehis; Dubinett, Steven M


    T lymphocyte survival is critical for the development and maintenance of an effective host antitumor immune response; however, the tumor environment can negatively impact T-cell survival. Lymphocytes exposed to tumor supernatants (TSNs) were evaluated for apoptosis after mitogen stimulation. TSN was observed to significantly enhance phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin- and anti-CD3-stimulated lymphocyte apoptosis. Enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis was associated with an impairment of nuclear factor kappa B nuclear translocation and diminished I kappa B alpha degradation. In lymphocytes stimulated after exposure to TSNs, cytoplasmic I kappa B alpha persisted as a result of alterations in I kappa B kinase (IKK) activity. Accordingly, although there were no apparent differences in IKK component concentrations, lymphocytes preexposed to TSNs exhibited markedly reduced IKK activity. We conclude that non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble factors promote apoptosis in activated lymphocytes by an IKK-dependent pathway.

  2. Non-Gaussian statistics, maxwellian derivation and stellar polytropes

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, E P; Silva, R


    In this letter we discuss the Non-gaussian statistics considering two aspects. In the first, we show that the Maxwell's first derivation of the stationary distribution function for a dilute gas can be extended in the context of Kaniadakis statistics. The second one, by investigating the stellar system, we study the Kaniadakis analytical relation between the entropic parameter $\\kappa$ and stellar polytrope index $n$. We compare also the Kaniadakis relation $n=n(\\kappa)$ with $n=n(q)$ proposed in the Tsallis framework.

  3. Effect of prolactin, beta-lactoglobulin, and kappa-casein genotype on milk yield in East Friesian sheep. (United States)

    Staiger, E A; Thonney, M L; Buchanan, J W; Rogers, E R; Oltenacu, P A; Mateescu, R G


    The effect of prolactin (PRL), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and kappa-casein (CSN3) on milk yield was estimated in an East Friesian dairy sheep population from Old Chatham Sheepherding Company, New York. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by digestion with HaeIII and RsaI for PRL and beta-LG, respectively, and by PCR amplification for CSN3. Monthly milking records and pedigree information were used to evaluate the effect of each polymorphism on milk yield. Results indicated that PRL genotype had a significant effect on milk yield. Ewes carrying one A allele produced 110.6g more milk per day than ewes with no A alleles. There was no statistical difference between ewes with only one A allele and ewes with 2 A alleles. No association among polymorphisms at the beta-LG and CSN3 loci and milk yield was found. The results presented in this study indicate that the PRL gene is a potential marker that could be used in selection programs for improving milk yield in dairy sheep.

  4. The current-voltage relationship revisited: exact and approximate formulas with almost general validity for hot magnetospheric electrons for bi-Maxwellian and kappa distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    Full Text Available We derive the current-voltage relationship in the auroral region taking into account magnetospheric electrons for the bi-Maxwellian and kappa source plasma distribution functions. The current-voltage formulas have in principle been well known for a long time, but the kappa energy flux formulas have not appeared in the literature before. We give a unified treatment of the bi-Maxwellian and kappa distributions, correcting some errors in previous work. We give both exact results and two kinds of approximate formulas for the current density and the energy flux. The first approximation is almost generally valid and is practical to compute. The first approximation formulas are therefore suitable for use in simulations. In the second approximation we assume in addition that the thermal energy is small compared to the potential drop. This yields even simpler linear formulas which are suitable for many types of event studies and which have a more transparent physical interpretation than the first approximation formulas. We also show how it is possible to derive the first approximation formulas even for those distributions for which the exact results can not be computed analytically. The kappa field-aligned conductance value turns out always to be smaller than the corresponding Maxwellian conductance. We also verify that the obtained kappa current density and energy flux formulas go to Maxwellian results when κ→∞.

    Key words. Current-voltage relationship · Bi-Maxwellian distributions · Kappa distribution

  5. Correcting a statistical artifact in the estimation of the Hubble; constant based on Type Ia Supernovae results in a change in estimate; of 1.2%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, JH; Holst, KK; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben


    The Hubble constant enters big bang cosmology by quantifying the expansion rate of the universe. Existing statistical methods used to estimate Hubble’s constant only partially take into account random measurement errors. As a consequence, estimates of Hubble’s constant are statistically...

  6. The 34th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.


    Results of the 34th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. Reports, for example, that school-age parents continue to regard local schools favorably, 71 percent of whom give the school attended by their oldest child a grade of A or B. (PKP)

  7. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.


    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  8. Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Jing E-mail:; Zhang Yanqun; Li Jiuqiang; Ha Hongfei


    A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by {gamma}-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

  9. Validation of Refractivity Profiles Retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation Soundings: Preliminary Results of Statistical Comparisons Utilizing Balloon-Borne Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Hayashi


    Full Text Available The GPS radio occultation (RO soundings by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Taiwan¡¦s Formosa Satellite Misssion #3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate satellites launched in mid-April 2006 are compared with high-resolution balloon-borne (radiosonde and ozonesonde observations. This paper presents preliminary results of validation of the COSMIC RO measurements in terms of refractivity through the troposphere and lower stratosphere. With the use of COSMIC RO soundings within 2 hours and 300 km of sonde profiles, statistical comparisons between the collocated refractivity profiles are erformed for some tropical regions (Malaysia and Western Pacific islands where moisture-rich air is expected in the lower troposphere and for both northern and southern polar areas with a very dry troposphere. The results of the comparisons show good agreement between COSMIC RO and sonde refractivity rofiles throughout the troposphere (1 - 1.5% difference at most with a positive bias generally becoming larger at progressively higher altitudes in the lower stratosphere (1 - 2% difference around 25 km, and a very small standard deviation (about 0.5% or less for a few kilometers below the tropopause level. A large standard deviation of fractional differences in the lowermost troposphere, which reaches up to as much as 3.5 - 5%at 3 km, is seen in the tropics while a much smaller standard deviation (1 - 2% at most is evident throughout the polar troposphere.

  10. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven


    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research ( A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  11. Kappa-distributions and coronal heating. (Slovak Title: Kappa-distribúcie a ohrev koróny) (United States)

    Dudík, J.; Dzifčáková, E.; Kulinová, A.; Karlický, M.


    Particle energy kappa-distributions (distributions with non-thermal tails) have been diagnosed in plasma of the transition region and also in solar flares. Theoretical models suggest a link between kappa-distributions and dynamic heating of the corona. Since the presence of non-thermal distributions leads to changes in intensities of emission lines, we have examined their effect on the total radiation losses of the corona as well as responses of the EUV and X-ray filters. Temperature responses of the filters are wider for kappa-distributions than in the case of the Maxwell distribution, and their respective maxima are shifted towards higher temperatures. On the other hand, the total radiation losses of the corona are lower compared to the Maxwell distribution except for the extreme non-thermal case. This means that lower heating energy is needed to reach the same corona temperature in case of kappa-distributions. In this work we discuss the effect of element abundances and specific ions on the total radiation losses of the corona.

  12. PRMT5, a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis via nuclear factor-kappaB activation. (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Koike, Sumie; Naito, Mikihiko; Noda, Tetsuo; Arai, Hiroyuki; Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya


    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily and has selective antitumor activity. Although TNF-alpha-induced intracellular signaling pathways have been well studied, TRAIL signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), as a result of proteomic screening. PRMT5 selectively interacted with death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 but not with TNF receptor 1 or Fas. PRMT5 gene silencing sensitized various cancer cells to TRAIL without affecting TRAIL resistance in nontransformed cells. PRMT5 contributed to TRAIL-induced activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), leading to induction of several NF-kappaB target genes. Although IKK inhibition increased sensitivity to both TRAIL and TNF-alpha, PRMT5 knockdown potentiated TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity alone. PRMT5 had no effect on TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. These results show the selectivity of PRMT5 for TRAIL signaling. The PRMT5 small interfering RNA-mediated susceptibility to TRAIL was rescued by ectopic expression of active IKKbeta, confirming the involvement of PRMT5 in TRAIL resistance by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of PRMT5 in TRAIL-based cancer treatments

  13. Bayesian statistics


    新家, 健精


    © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. Article Outline: Glossary Definition of the Subject and Introduction The Bayesian Statistical Paradigm Three Examples Comparison with the Frequentist Statistical Paradigm Future Directions Bibliography

  14. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R


    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  15. NF kappaB expression increases and CFTR and MUC1 expression decreases in the endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrosalpinx are associated with infertility, due to reduced rates of implantation and increased abortion rates. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, nuclear factor kappa B (NF KappaB and mucin-1 (MUC-1, and analyze the correlation between the expression of CFTR and NF KappaB or MUC1, in the endometrium of infertile women with and without hydrosalpinx. Methods Thirty-one infertile women with laparoscopy-confirmed unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx and 20 infertile women without hydrosalpinx or pelvic inflammatory disease (control group were recruited. Endometrial biopsy samples were collected and the expression of CFTR, NF KappaB and MUC1 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Results CFTR, NF KappaB and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression tended to increase in the secretory phase compared to the proliferative phase in both groups; however, these differences were not significantly different. The endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx had significantly higher NF KappaB mRNA and protein expression, and significantly lower CFTR and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression, compared to control infertile patients. A positive correlation was observed between CFTR and MUC1 mRNA expression (r = 0.65, P CFTR mRNA and NF KappaB mRNA expression (r = −0.59, P Conclusions Increased NF KappaB expression and decreased CFTR and MUC1 expression in the endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx reinforce the involvement of a molecular mechanism in the regulation of endometrial receptivity.

  16. NF-{kappa}B signaling is activated and confers resistance to apoptosis in three-dimensionally cultured EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Yuji, E-mail: [Molecular Pathology and Genetics Division, Kanagawa Cancer Center Research Institute, Yokohama (Japan); Yamazaki, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Matsukuma, Shoichi; Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei [Molecular Pathology and Genetics Division, Kanagawa Cancer Center Research Institute, Yokohama (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR-mutant cells in 3D culture resist EGFR inhibition compared with suspended cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of I{kappa}B and activation of NF-{kappa}B are observed in 3D-cultured cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting NF-{kappa}B enhances the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor in 3D-cultured cells. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells in suspension undergo apoptosis to a greater extent than adherent cells in a monolayer when EGFR autophosphorylation is inhibited by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This suggests that cell adhesion to a culture dish may activate an anti-apoptotic signaling pathway other than the EGFR pathway. Since the microenvironment of cells cultured in a monolayer are substantially different to that of cells existing in three-dimension (3D) in vivo, we assessed whether two EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, HCC827 and H1975, were more resistant to EGFR TKI-induced apoptosis when cultured in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) as compared with in suspension. The ECM-adherent EGFR-mutant cells in 3D were significantly less sensitive to treatment with WZ4002, an EGFR TKI, than the suspended cells. Further, a marked degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, the inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, was observed only in the 3D-cultured cells, leading to an increase in the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B with pharmacological inhibitors enhanced EGFR TKI-induced apoptosis in 3D-cultured EGFR-mutant cells. These results suggest that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling would render ECM-adherent EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells in vivo more susceptible to EGFR TKI-induced cell death.

  17. Statistical methods applied to the study of opinion formation models: a brief overview and results of a numerical study of a model based on the social impact theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordogna, Clelia Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), UNLP, CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Albano, Ezequiel V [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), UNLP, CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)


    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand we present a brief overview on the application of statistical physics methods to the modelling of social phenomena focusing our attention on models for opinion formation. On the other hand, we discuss and present original results of a model for opinion formation based on the social impact theory developed by Latane. The presented model accounts for the interaction among the members of a social group under the competitive influence of a strong leader and the mass media, both supporting two different states of opinion. Extensive simulations of the model are presented, showing that they led to the observation of a rich scenery of complex behaviour including, among others, critical behaviour and phase transitions between a state of opinion dominated by the leader and another dominated by the mass media. The occurrence of interesting finite-size effects reveals that, in small communities, the opinion of the leader may prevail over that of the mass media. This observation is relevant for the understanding of social phenomena involving a finite number of individuals, in contrast to actual physical phase transitions that take place in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we give a brief outlook of open questions and lines for future work.

  18. RILEM technical committee 195-DTD recommendation for test methods for AD and TD of early age concrete Round Robin documentation report : program, test results and statistical evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bjøntegaard, Øyvind; Krauss, Matias; Budelmann, Harald


    This report presents the Round-Robin (RR) program and test results including a statistical evaluation of the RILEM TC195-DTD committee named “Recommendation for test methods for autogenous deformation (AD) and thermal dilation (TD) of early age concrete”. The task of the committee was to investigate the linear test set-up for AD and TD measurements (Dilation Rigs) in the period from setting to the end of the hardening phase some weeks after. These are the stress-inducing deformations in a hardening concrete structure subjected to restraint conditions. The main task was to carry out an RR program on testing of AD of one concrete at 20 °C isothermal conditions in Dilation Rigs. The concrete part materials were distributed to 10 laboratories (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and USA), and in total 30 tests on AD were carried out. Some supporting tests were also performed, as well as a smaller RR on cement paste. The committee has worked out a test procedure recommenda...

  19. Koefesien Kappa sebagai Indeks Kesepakatan Hasil Diognosis Mikroskopis Malaria di Kabupaten Belu Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolina Mau


    Full Text Available AbstractBlood slide examination is used as standard malaria diagnosis in Indonesia. Quality assurance for malaria microscopic examination is an important issue in the monitoring and supervision of the administration of antimalarials drugs. This step was done to determine the accuracy of thediagnosis, thus could be used for further evaluation in improving the skills of microscopic health centre personnel. This study aims to determine the accuracy of malaria microscopic examination at Primary health centre and District Health Office personnels in Belu District, Nusa Tenggara Timur.The study was an observational research with cross sectional approach. The competency of primary health center and district healt office microscopist in examining malaria blood smears were evaluated using standard blood smears compared with smears from Passive Case Detection (PCD activities. Performance in preparing blood smear were evaluatied by observation and filling the checklist. The study was conducted in April - Juni 2012 in Belu District, NTT. Quality assurance was assessed based on the results of cross-checking and assessments of Kappa coefficient between primary health centre and district Health office microscopic personnel and those between district health centers and Department of parasitology, faculty of Medicine, (Gadjah Mada University certified microscopicpersonnel. Result shows that the strength of agreement between the Primary Health Centre and the District Health Office microscopic personnel centers was "good" (kappa 0.61 to 0.80, while those between District Health Office and Department of Parasitology UGM showed poor agreement (0,20– 0,40Keywords : microscopic examination of malaria, Belu District, cross check, KappaAbstrakPemeriksaan sediaan darah masih merupakan baku emas penegakan diagnosis malaria di Indonesia. Pemantapan kualitas mikroskopis malaria merupakan hal penting dalam pemantauan dan pengawasan pemberian obat anti malaria yang tepat

  20. Koefesien Kappa sebagai Indeks Kesepakatan Hasil Diognosis Mikroskopis Malaria di Kabupaten Belu Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolina Mau


    Full Text Available AbstractBlood slide examination is used as standard malaria diagnosis in Indonesia. Quality assurance for malaria microscopic examination is an important issue in the monitoring and supervision of the administration of antimalarials drugs. This step was done to determine the accuracy of thediagnosis, thus could be used for further evaluation in improving the skills of microscopic health centre personnel. This study aims to determine the accuracy of malaria microscopic examination at Primary health centre and District Health Office personnels in Belu District, Nusa Tenggara Timur.The study was an observational research with cross sectional approach. The competency of primary health center and district healt office microscopist in examining malaria blood smears were evaluated using standard blood smears compared with smears from Passive Case Detection (PCD activities. Performance in preparing blood smear were evaluatied by observation and filling the checklist. The study was conducted in April - Juni 2012 in Belu District, NTT. Quality assurance was assessed based on the results of cross-checking and assessments of Kappa coefficient between primary health centre and district Health office microscopic personnel and those between district health centers and Department of parasitology, faculty of Medicine, (Gadjah Mada University certified microscopicpersonnel. Result shows that the strength of agreement between the Primary Health Centre and the District Health Office microscopic personnel centers was "good" (kappa 0.61 to 0.80, while those between District Health Office and Department of Parasitology UGM showed poor agreement (0,20– 0,40Keywords : microscopic examination of malaria, Belu District, cross check, KappaAbstrakPemeriksaan sediaan darah masih merupakan baku emas penegakan diagnosis malaria di Indonesia. Pemantapan kualitas mikroskopis malaria merupakan hal penting dalam pemantauan dan pengawasan pemberian obat anti malaria yang tepat

  1. Study Of Calcium And Potassium Different Nature Strength Gel Kappa-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Васильович Гурський


    Full Text Available The influence of certain organic and mineral salts of potassium and calcium for strength gel kappa-carrageenan. The influence of the mass concentration of individual calcium for strength gels with different content kappa-carrageenan. Grounded mass concentration of some calcium salts for use in the composition of the jelly for sweet and savory dishes based on kappa-carrageenan

  2. Angiotensin II receptor antagonist olmesartan and NF-kappaB inhibitor as cytotoxic and apoptotic agents in MCF-7 human cell line. (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi


    Over expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) have major role in many cancers. In this study, role of angiotensin II (Ag II) and NF-kappaB pathway in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) proliferation were studied using olmesartan (as a novel Ag II antagonist) and Bay11-7082 (as NF-kappaB inhibitor). Cells were treated with different concentrations of olmesartan and Bay11-7082.Cell proliferation was determined by 4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Apoptotic cells were evaluated using PI staining of DNA fragmentation. Olmesartan and Bay11-7082 decreased cell viability. Combination of olmesartan with Bay11-7082 also decreased cell viability as compared with single agent treatments. Results showed that apoptosis is involved in olmesartan and Bay11-7082-induced toxicity. Olmesartan and Bay11-7082 inhibit the MCF-7 cells growth indicating RAS and NF-kappaB pathway blockade lead to cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction against tumour cells. So ARBs and NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors could be considered as anticancer drugs in future.

  3. Hyperoxia activates NF-kappaB and increases TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma gene expression in mouse pulmonary lymphocytes. (United States)

    Shea, L M; Beehler, C; Schwartz, M; Shenkar, R; Tuder, R; Abraham, E


    Hyperoxia-associated production of reactive oxygen species leads to neutrophil infiltration into the lungs and increased pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine expression. However, the initial events induced by hyperoxia, and leading to acute inflammatory lung injury, remain incompletely characterized. To explore this issue, we examined nuclear transcriptional regulatory factor (NF-kappaB and NF-IL-6) activation and cytokine expression in the lungs following 12 to 48 h of hyperoxia exposure. No increases in cytokine (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma) expression nor in NF-kappaB activation were found after 12 h of hyperoxia. Following 24 h of hyperoxia, NF-kappaB activation and increased levels of TNF-alpha mRNA were present in pulmonary lymphocytes. By 48 h of hyperoxia, amounts of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha protein as well as mRNA were increased in the lungs, and NF-kappaB continued to show activation, even though no histologic abnormalities were present. These results show that hyperoxia activates NF-kappaB in the lungs before any increase in proinflammatory cytokine protein occurs, and suggest that NF-kappaB activation may represent an initial event in the proinflammatory sequence induced by hyperoxia.

  4. Chronic unpredictable stress exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus via glucocorticoid secretion. (United States)

    Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi; Lepsch, Lucilia B; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko; Malta, Marília Brinati; Lima, Larissa de Sá; Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scavone, Cristoforo


    Although the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well established in the periphery, these stress hormones can increase inflammation under some circumstances in the brain. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is inhibited by GCs, regulates numerous genes central to inflammation. In this study, the effects of stress, GCs, and NMDA receptors on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-kappaB in the brain were investigated. One day after chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), nonstressed and CUS rats were treated with saline or LPS and killed 2 h later. CUS potentiated the increase in LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB in frontal cortex and hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus. This stress effect was blocked by pretreatment of rats with RU-486, an antagonist of the GC receptor. MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate], an NMDA receptor antagonist, also reduced the effect of LPS in all three brain regions. However, the combined antagonism of both GC and NMDA receptors produced no further reduction in NF-kappaB activation when compared with the effect of each treatment alone. Our results indicate that stress, via GC secretion, can increase LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, agreeing with a growing literature demonstrating proinflammatory effects of GCs.

  5. Water-quality trends in the nation’s rivers and streams, 1972–2012—Data preparation, statistical methods, and trend results (United States)

    Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Sprague, Lori A.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Johnson, Henry M.; Ryberg, Karen R.; Falcone, James A.; Stets, Edward G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Riskin, Melissa L.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Mills, Taylor J.; Farmer, William H.


    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, Federal, State, and local governments have invested billions of dollars to reduce pollution entering rivers and streams. To understand the return on these investments and to effectively manage and protect the Nation’s water resources in the future, we need to know how and why water quality has been changing over time. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Program, data from the U.S. Geological Survey, along with multiple other Federal, State, Tribal, regional, and local agencies, have been used to support the most comprehensive assessment conducted to date of surface-water-quality trends in the United States. This report documents the methods used to determine trends in water quality and ecology because these methods are vital to ensuring the quality of the results. Specific objectives are to document (1) the data compilation and processing steps used to identify river and stream sites throughout the Nation suitable for water-quality, pesticide, and ecology trend analysis, (2) the statistical methods used to determine trends in target parameters, (3) considerations for water-quality, pesticide, and ecology data and streamflow data when modeling trends, (4) sensitivity analyses for selecting data and interpreting trend results with the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season method, and (5) the final trend results at each site. The scope of this study includes trends in water-quality concentrations and loads (nutrient, sediment, major ion, salinity, and carbon), pesticide concentrations and loads, and metrics for aquatic ecology (fish, invertebrates, and algae) for four time periods: (1) 1972–2012, (2) 1982–2012, (3) 1992–2012, and (4) 2002–12. In total, nearly 12,000 trends in concentration, load, and ecology metrics were evaluated in this study; there were 11,893 combinations of sites, parameters, and trend periods. The

  6. Statistical tools to improve assessing agreement between several observers. (United States)

    Ruddat, I; Scholz, B; Bergmann, S; Buehring, A-L; Fischer, S; Manton, A; Prengel, D; Rauch, E; Steiner, S; Wiedmann, S; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A


    In the context of assessing the impact of management and environmental factors on animal health, behaviour or performance it has become increasingly important to conduct (epidemiological) studies in the field. Hence, the number of investigated farms per study is considerably high so that numerous observers are needed for investigation. In order to maintain the quality and validity of study results calibration meetings where observers are trained and the current level of agreement is assessed have to be conducted to minimise the observer effect. When study animals were rated independently by the same observers by a categorical variable the exclusion test can be performed to identify disagreeing observers. This statistical test compares for each variable and each observer the observer-specific agreement with the overall agreement among all observers based on kappa coefficients. It accounts for two major challenges, namely the absence of a gold-standard observer and different data type comprising ordinal, nominal and binary data. The presented methods are applied on a reliability study to assess the agreement among eight observers rating welfare parameters of laying hens. The degree to which the observers agreed depended on the investigated item (global weighted kappa coefficients: 0.37 to 0.94). The proposed method and graphical description served to assess the direction and degree to which an observer deviates from the others. It is suggested to further improve studies with numerous observers by conducting calibration meetings and accounting for observer bias.

  7. Radiation induced nuclear factor kappa-B signaling cascade study in mammalian cells by improved detection systems (United States)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern, not only for tumor radiotherapy but also for new regimes of space missions. Ionizing radiation modulates several signaling pathways resulting in transcription factor activation. NF-kappaB is one of the important transcription factors that respond to changes in the environment of a mammalian cell and plays a key role in many biological processes relevant to radiation response, such as apoptosis, inflammation and carcinogenesis. From medical and biological point of view it is important to understand radiation induced NF-kappaB signaling cascade. For studying NF-kappaB signaling, green fluorescent proteins EGFP and d2EGFP were used previously (Advances in Space Research, 36: 1673-1679, 2005). The current study aims to improve reporter assays by the use of a destabilized variant of red fluorescent protein tdTomato (DD-tdTomato) which gives high fluorescence signals and a better signal/noise ratio for NF-kappaB activation. The reporter system HEK-pNFkappaB-DD-tdTomato-C8 is a dual reporter system which can provide both discrete and cumulative signals after exposure to ionizing radiation (X-rays, heavy ions). In the presence of Shield-1, the fluorescent protein DD-tdTomato is not degraded but accumulated inside the cell which helps to quantify the fold induction of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. The minimum dose required to activate NF-kappaB is 6 Gy but accumulated signals data shows that NF-kappaB is activated after 3 Gy in the presence of Shield-1. Average dose and number of heavy ions’ hits per nucleus necessary to double the NF-kappa

  8. PIC simulations of a three component plasma described by Kappa distribution functions as observed in Saturn's magnetosphere (United States)

    Barbosa, Marcos; Alves, Maria Virginia; Simões Junior, Fernando


    In plasmas out of thermodynamic equilibrium the particle velocity distribution can be described by the so called Kappa distribution. These velocity distribution functions are a generalization of the Maxwellian distribution. Since 1960, Kappa velocity distributions were observed in several regions of interplanetary space and astrophysical plasmas. Using KEMPO1 particle simulation code, modified to introduce Kappa distribution functions as initial conditions for particle velocities, the normal modes of propagation were analyzed in a plasma containing two species of electrons with different temperatures and densities and ions as a third specie.This type of plasma is usually found in magnetospheres such as in Saturn. Numerical solutions for the dispersion relation for such a plasma predict the presence of an electron-acoustic mode, besides the Langmuir and ion-acoustic modes. In the presence of an ambient magnetic field, the perpendicular propagation (Bernstein mode) also changes, as compared to a Maxwellian plasma, due to the Kappa distribution function. Here results for simulations with and without external magnetic field are presented. The parameters for the initial conditions in the simulations were obtained from the Cassini spacecraft data. Simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the dispersion relation obtained in the literature and they are in good agreement.

  9. Harmonic statistics (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  10. Analysis of changes of Kappa angle in patient with myopia of different position during Laser Assisted in-situ keratomi leusis (LASIK)%准分子激光术中不同体位Kappa角变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐惠; 黄一飞; 蒋晶晶; 姜严明; 王丽强


    offsets of kappa angle in supine position.All data were analyzed respectively.Results Kappa angle of 223 eyes (56.4%) were positive values in sitting position,and 343 eyes (86.8%) were positive values in supine position.The relationship between kappa angle and diopter was analyzed with one-factor analysis of variance.The differences of horizontal offsets of kappa angle in different position of three groups were no statistically significant (P >0.05),but the differences of vertical offsets of kappa angle of the three groups were statistically significant (P <0.05).There were significant differences in horizontal and vertical kappa angle between sitting and supine position by paired T test (P <0.05),and there were positive correlations.The offsets of kappa angle in sitting and supine positions had a significantly negative relation with the degree of myopia (sitting position R=-0.109,supine position R=-0.172; P <0.05).Conclusions There is correlation in horizontal and vertical offsets of kappa angle in sitting and supine positions.With the increase of the myopic degree vertical offset of kappa angle is increased.Clinicians should take into account different postures when refractive surgery need be performed.

  11. Sigma, Kappa, fo(980) and a0(980)

    CERN Document Server

    Bugg, D V


    Both sigma and kappa are well established from E791 data on D->3pi and Ds->Kpipi and BES II data on J/Psi -> omega pi pi and KKpipi. These fits are accurately consistent with pipi and Kpi elastic scattering when one allows for the Adler zero which arises from Chiral Symmetry Breaking. The phase variation with mass is consistent between elastic scattering and production data. Possible interpretations of sigma, kappa, fo(980) and ao(980) are explored. The experimental ratio g^2(fo(980)->KK)/g^2(ao(980)->KK) = 2.7+-0.5 suggests strongly that fo(980) has a large KK component in its wave function. This is a natural consequence of its pole lying very close to the KK threshold.

  12. Single leg mini squat: an inter-tester reproducibility study of children in the age of 9–10 and 12–14 years presented by various methods of kappa calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina


    the inter-tester reproducibility of SLMS in the age group of 9␣10 and 12␣14 years by evaluating postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk. Further on, this study exemplify the divergence of kappa values when using different methods of calculating kappa for the same dataset. Methods: A total...... of 72 non-injured children were included in the study. Postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk for both legs was determined by two testers using a four-point scale (ordinal, 0␣3). Prevalence, overall agreement as well as four different methods for calculating kappa were evaluated: linear...... in children aged 9␣10 and 12␣14 years when evaluating postural orientation of the ankles, knees, hips and trunk, based on the excellent strength of agreement as presented by linear weighted kappa. The inconsistency in results when using different methods of kappa calculation demonstrated the linear weighted...

  13. Aberrant activation of the androgen receptor by NF-kappaB2/p52 in prostate cancer cells. (United States)

    Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Lou, Wei; Sun, Meng; Chen, Jun; Yue, Jiao; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Evans, Christopher P; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C


    Prostate cancer initiation and progression are uniquely dependent on the androgen receptor (AR). Even when the cancer progresses to a castration-resistant stage, AR signaling remains active via a variety of mechanisms. In the present study, we showed that NF-kappaB/p52 can activate the AR, resulting in increased transactivation of AR-responsive genes, such as PSA and NKX3.1, in a ligand-independent manner. NF-kappaB2/p52 enhances nuclear translocation and activation of AR by interacting with its NH(2)-terminal domain and enhances the recruitment of coactivators such as p300 to the promoters of AR-dependent genes. These results were confirmed in three different prostate cancer cell lines: LAPC-4 (wild-type AR), LNCaP (mutant AR), and C4-2 (castration resistant). Transfection of p52 into LAPC-4 and LNCaP cells (which express low levels of p52) showed increased activation of the endogenous AR. Downregulation of endogenous p52 in C4-2 cells resulted in abrogation of AR constitutive activation. Comparison of the relative effects of p52 and p65 (RelA) showed that p52, but not p65, could activate the AR. Collectively, these findings, together with previous reports that the levels of NF-kappaB2/p52 are elevated in prostate cancer cells and that active NF-kappaB2/p52 promotes prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, suggest that NF-kappaB2/p52 may play a critical role in the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  14. Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-kappa B activation. (United States)

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Tan, Sharon; Chrubasik, Sigrun; Roufogalis, Basil D; Duke, Colin C


    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens, known as devil's claw, are used as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of pain and osteoarthritis. Pharmacological evaluations have proven the effectiveness of this herbal drug as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. The present study has investigated the mechanism of action of harpagoside, one of the major components of Harpagophytum procumbens, using human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. Harpagoside inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide in HepG2 cells. These inhibitions appeared to correlate with the suppression of NF-kappaB activation by harpagoside, as pre-treating cells with harpagoside blocked the translocation of NF-kappaB into the nuclear compartments and degradation of the inhibitory subunit IkappaB-alpha. Furthermore, harpagoside dose-dependently inhibited LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB promoter activity in a gene reporter assay in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that harpagoside interfered with the activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the inhibition of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide by harpagoside involves suppression of NF-kappaB activation, thereby inhibiting downstream inflammation and subsequent pain events.

  15. The hallucinogen derived from Salvia divinorum, salvinorin A, has kappa-opioid agonist discriminative stimulus effects in rats. (United States)

    Willmore-Fordham, Catherine B; Krall, Daniel M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Kinder, David H


    Data from clinical and preclinical studies converge implicating the plant-derived hallucinogen salvinorin A as an important pharmacologic tool; this psychoactive compound may expand scientific understandings on mammalian kappa-opioid receptor systems. Human salvinorin A effects, consistent with kappa-opioid receptor agonism, include antinociception, sedation, dysphoria and distorted perceptions. The experiments reported here measured salvinorin A (1-3mg/kg, i.p.) discriminative stimulus properties in male Sprague-Dawley rats conditioned to recognize the discriminative stimulus cue generated by the well characterized kappa-opioid agonist U-69593 (0.56 mg/kg, i.p.). At three distinct active doses, salvinorin A fully substituted for U-69593 without altering response rates. The lever choice pattern in U-69593 trained animals reverted to vehicle lever responding when a kappa selective antagonist compound, nor-BNI (4.5 nM, i.c.v.) was administered 1h prior to salvinorin A, yet nor-BNI alone failed to impact the rate or pattern of subject responses. These findings confirm and extend results published after similar drug discrimination tests were performed in rhesus monkeys. The discussion section of this article highlights public concern over salvinorin A misuse and emphasizes several potential pharmacotherapeutic applications for salvinorin A or analogue compounds.

  16. Fear based Education or Curiosity based Education as an Example of Earthquake and Natural Disaster Education: Results of Statistical Study in Primary Schools in Istanbul-Turkey (United States)

    Ozcep, T.; Ozcep, F.


    Natural disaster reduction focuses on the urgent need for prevention activities to reduce loss of life, damage to property, infrastructure and environment, and the social and economic disruption caused by natural hazards. One of the most important factors in reduction of the potential damage of earthquakes is trained manpower. To understanding the causes of earthquakes and other natural phenomena (landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, etc.) is one of the pre-conditions to show a conscious behavior. The aim of the study is to analysis and to investigate, how earthquakes and other natural phenomena are perceived by the students and the possible consequences of this perception, and their effects of reducing earthquake damage. One of the crucial questions is that is our education system fear or curiosity based education system? Effects of the damages due to earthquakes have led to look like a fear subject. In fact, due to the results of the effects, the earthquakes are perceived scary phenomena. In the first stage of the project, the learning (or perception) levels of earthquakes and other natural disasters for the students of primary school are investigated with a survey. Aim of this survey study of earthquakes and other natural phenomena is that have the students fear based or curiosity based approaching to the earthquakes and other natural events. In the second stage of the project, the path obtained by the survey are evaluated with the statistical point of approach. A questionnaire associated with earthquakes and natural disasters are applied to primary school students (that total number of them is approximately 700 pupils) to measure the curiosity and/or fear levels. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to natural disasters. The questions are: "What is the Earthquake ?", "What is power behind earthquake?", "What is the mental response during the earthquake ?", "Did we take lesson from earthquake's results ?", "Are you afraid of earthquake

  17. On Hopf algebroid structure of kappa-deformed Heisenberg algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Woronowicz, Mariusz


    The $(4+4)$-dimensional $\\kappa$-deformed quantum phase space as well as its $(10+10)$-dimensional covariant extension by the Lorentz sector can be described as Heisenberg doubles: the $(10+10)$-dimensional quantum phase space is the double of $D=4$ $\\kappa$-deformed Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra $\\mathbb{H}$ and the standard $(4+4)$-dimensional space is its subalgebra generated by $\\kappa$-Minkowski coordinates $\\hat{x}_\\mu$ and corresponding commuting momenta $\\hat{p}_\\mu$. Every Heisenberg double appears as the total algebra of a Hopf algebroid over a base algebra which is in our case the coordinate sector. We exhibit the details of this structure, namely the corresponding right bialgebroid and the antipode map. We rely on algebraic methods of calculation in Majid-Ruegg bicrossproduct basis. The target map is derived from a formula by J-H. Lu. The coproduct takes values in the bimodule tensor product over a base, what is expressed as the presence of coproduct gauge freedom.

  18. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V


    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  19. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan


    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  20. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W


    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  1. Histoplasmosis Statistics (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, an estimated 60% to ...

  2. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.


    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  3. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail:


    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  4. Nuclear factor-kappa B localization and function within intrauterine tissues from term and preterm labor and cultured fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusanovic Juan P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to quantify the nuclear localization and DNA binding activity of p65, the major transactivating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB subunit, in full-thickness fetal membranes (FM and myometrium in the absence or presence of term or preterm labor. Methods Paired full-thickness FM and myometrial samples were collected from women in the following cohorts: preterm no labor (PNL, N = 22, spontaneous preterm labor (PTL, N = 21, term no labor (TNL, N = 23, and spontaneous term labor (STL, N = 21. NF-kappaB p65 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and DNA binding activity was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. Results Nuclear p65 labeling was rare in amnion and chorion, irrespective of clinical context. In decidua, nuclear p65 labeling was greater in the STL group relative to the TNL cohort, but there were no differences among the TNL, PTL, and PNL cohorts. In myometrium, diffuse p65 nuclear labeling was significantly associated with both term and preterm labor. There were no significant differences in ELISA-based p65 binding activity in amnion, choriodecidual, and myometrial specimens in the absence or presence of term labor. However, parallel experiments using cultured term fetal membranes demonstrated high levels of p65-like binding even the absence of cytokine stimulation, suggesting that this assay may be of limited value when applied to tissue specimens. Conclusions These results suggest that the decidua is an important site of NF-kappaB regulation in fetal membranes, and that mechanisms other than cytoplasmic sequestration may limit NF-kappaB activation prior to term.

  5. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring vs. Flare-Quiet Active Regions II: A Magnetic Charge Topology Model and Statistical Results (United States)

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Longcope, D. W.


    The complexity of the coronal magnetic field extrapolated from a Magnetic Charge Topology (MCT) model, is examined for pre-event signatures unique to solar energetic phenomena. Although extensive use has been made of quantities measured at the photosphere, it is important to consider the magnetic field in the corona, where (for example) the hard X-ray signatures of energy release in solar flares are observed. By quantifying the inferred coronal magnetic topology we are no longer limited to considering solely the magnetic state of the photosphere. MCT is applied to temporally sampled photospheric magnetic data from the U. Hawai`i Imaging Vector Magnetograph, for 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs from seven active regions. We outline the methodology employed for automating the application of MCT to large data sets of complex active regions: partitioning the observed Bz at the photosphere, assigning a charge to each partition, and using this charge distribution to extrapolate the field in the corona. From the resulting field we compute the connectivity matrix ψ ij, the location of null points and the intersection of separatrix surfaces, i.e. separator field lines. Parameters are constructed to describe, for example, the magnetic connectivities, the magnetic flux in those connections, and the number of separators. Examining particular events results in no obvious trends in the magnitude and temporal evolution of the parameters just prior to flare events. Thus, we employ the same quantitative statistical approach outlined in Leka and Barnes [this session], i.e. applying discriminant analysis and Hotelling's T2-test, and ranking all four-variable discriminant functions as a proxy for a single all-variable discriminant function. We present those parameters which consistently appear in the best combinations, indicating that they may play an important role in defining a pre-event coronal state. This work was performed under Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  6. Pro-apoptotic role of NF-kappaB: implications for cancer therapy. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Senthil K; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan


    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is generally viewed as anti-apoptotic and oncogenic, leading to a quest for its inhibitors. However, recent evidence suggests that in some situations NF-kappaB may promote apoptosis. Depending on the specific cell type and the stimulus involved, NF-kappaB activation may lead to either anti- or pro-apoptotic response. Both these effects can be mediated by NF-kappaB in a context-dependent manner by selectively regulating its target genes. In this review, we discuss the evidence for NF-kappaB's pro-apoptotic role and explore the possible mechanisms behind it. We emphasize that rather than trying to inhibit NF-kappaB in cancer therapy, agents should be developed to unleash its pro-apoptotic ability.

  7. CoMFA analyses of C-2 position salvinorin A analogs at the kappa-opioid receptor provides insights into epimer selectivity. (United States)

    McGovern, Donna L; Mosier, Philip D; Roth, Bryan L; Westkaemper, Richard B


    The highly potent and kappa-opioid (KOP) receptor-selective hallucinogen Salvinorin A and selected analogs have been analyzed using the 3D quantitative structure-affinity relationship technique Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) in an effort to derive a statistically significant and predictive model of salvinorin affinity at the KOP receptor and to provide additional statistical support for the validity of previously proposed structure-based interaction models. Two CoMFA models of Salvinorin A analogs substituted at the C-2 position are presented. Separate models were developed based on the radioligand used in the kappa-opioid binding assay, [(3)H]diprenorphine or [(125)I]6 beta-iodo-3,14-dihydroxy-17-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5 alpha-epoxymorphinan ([(125)I]IOXY). For each dataset, three methods of alignment were employed: a receptor-docked alignment derived from the structure-based docking algorithm GOLD, another from the ligand-based alignment algorithm FlexS, and a rigid realignment of the poses from the receptor-docked alignment. The receptor-docked alignment produced statistically superior results compared to either the FlexS alignment or the realignment in both datasets. The [(125)I]IOXY set (Model 1) and [(3)H]diprenorphine set (Model 2) gave q(2) values of 0.592 and 0.620, respectively, using the receptor-docked alignment, and both models produced similar CoMFA contour maps that reflected the stereoelectronic features of the receptor model from which they were derived. Each model gave significantly predictive CoMFA statistics (Model 1 PSET r(2)=0.833; Model 2 PSET r(2)=0.813). Based on the CoMFA contour maps, a binding mode was proposed for amine-containing Salvinorin A analogs that provides a rationale for the observation that the beta-epimers (R-configuration) of protonated amines at the C-2 position have a higher affinity than the corresponding alpha-epimers (S-configuration).

  8. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Association with mutual regulation of RelA (p65)/NF-{kappa}B and phospho-I{kappa}B in the CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Insun; Ha, Danbee [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ginnae [Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eunjin; Joo, Haejin [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Youngheun, E-mail: [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: {yields} The phosphorylation of RelA's inhibitory factor I{kappa}B and subsequent RelA activation are important to the disease process of EAE. {yields} The expression of RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B was markedly increased in the initiation and during the progression of EAE. {yields} TPCK-treated EAE mice showed lower incidence of EAE with less severe symptoms and quicker recovery than vehicle-treated EAE mice. {yields} TPCK significantly suppressed the MOG{sub 35-55}-specific T cell proliferation by reducing the production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-17 cytokines in EAE. {yields} The NF-{kappa}B cascade's activity increased gradually with the development of symptoms and brain pathology of EAE. -- Abstract: Recently emerging evidence that the NF-{kappa}B family plays an important role in autoimmune disease has produced very broad and sometimes paradoxical conclusions. In the present study, we elucidated that the activation of RelA (p65) of NF-{kappa}B and I{kappa}B dissociation assumes a distinct role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) progression by altering I{kappa}B phosphorylation and/or degradation. In the present study of factors that govern EAE, the presence and immunoreactivity of nuclear RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B were recorded at the initiation and peak stage, and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} progressed rapidly at an early stage then stabilized during recovery. The immunoreactivity to RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B occurred mainly in inflammatory cells and microglial cells but only slightly in astrocytes. Subsequently, the blockade of I{kappa}B dissociation from NF-{kappa}B reduced the severity of disease by decreasing antigen-specific T cell response and production of IL-17 in EAE. Thus, blocking the dissociation of I{kappa}B from NF-{kappa}B can be utilized as a strategy to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal pathway thereby to reduce the initiation, progression, and severity of EAE.

  9. Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility. (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas


    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science.

  10. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph


    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  11. Statistical Diversions (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric


    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  12. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L


    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  13. Simultaneous presentation of kappa-restricted chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lambda light chain AL amyloidosis. (United States)

    von Keudell, Gottfried; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; O'Hara, Carl; C Seldin, David; Sloan, J Mark


    We report on a 58-year-old man who presented with simultaneous kappa-restricted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and a lambda-restricted plasma cell dyscrasia causing AL amyloidosis involving the kidney and GI tract. While monoclonal immunoglobulins occasionally produced by CLL has previously been implicated in AL amyloidosis, this is the first case of AL amyloidosis resulting from a distinct plasma cell dyscrasia that is not clonally related to the concurrent CLL. Appropriate treatment depended on detailed pathologic diagnosis of both disease processes.

  14. NF-kappaB activity affects learning in aversive tasks: possible actions via modulation of the stress axis. (United States)

    Lehmann, Michael L; Brachman, Rebecca A; Listwak, Samuel J; Herkenham, Miles


    The role of altered activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in specific aspects of motivated behavior and learning and memory was examined in mice lacking the p50 subunit of the NF-kappaB/rel transcription factor family. Nfkb1-deficient mice are unable to produce p50 and show specific susceptibilities to infections and inflammatory challenges, but the behavioral phenotype of such mice has been largely unexamined, owing in large part to the lack of understanding of the role of NF-kappaB in nervous system function. Here we show that Nfkb1 (p50) knockout mice more rapidly learned to find the hidden platform in the Morris water maze than did wildtype mice. The rise in plasma corticosterone levels after the maze test was greater in p50 knockout than in wildtype mice. In the less stressful Barnes maze, which tests similar kinds of spatial learning, the p50 knockout mice performed similarly to control mice. Adrenalectomy with corticosterone replacement eliminated the differences between p50 knockout and wildtype mice in the water maze. Knockout mice showed increased levels of basal anxiety in the open-field and light/dark box tests, suggesting that their enhanced escape latency in the water maze was due to activation of the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis leading to elevated corticosterone production by strongly but not mildly anxiogenic stimuli. The results suggest that, as in the immune system, p50 in the nervous system normally serves to dampen NF-kappaB-mediated intracellular activities, which are manifested physiologically through elevated stress responses to aversive stimuli and behaviorally in the facilitated escape performance in learning tasks.

  15. Hemorrhage induces rapid in vivo activation of CREB and NF-kappaB in murine intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E


    Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines appears to be an important factor contributing to the development of acute lung injury. In murine models, mRNA levels of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, including IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-beta1, and TNF-alpha, are increased in intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells 1 h after hemorrhage. Binding elements for the nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), serum protein 1 (Sp1), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and the cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) are present in the promoter regions of numerous cytokine genes, including those whose expression is increased after blood loss. To investigate early transcriptional mechanisms which may be involved in regulating pulmonary cytokine expression after hemorrhage, we examined in vivo activation of these five nuclear transcriptional factors among intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells obtained in the immediate post-hemorrhage period. Activation of NF-kappaB and CREB, but not C/EBPbeta, Sp1, or AP-1, was present in lung mononuclear cells isolated from mice 15 min after hemorrhage. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by prior feeding with either an allopurinol-supplemented or a tungsten-enriched diet prevented hemorrhage-induced activation of CREB, but not NF-kappaB. These results demonstrate that hemorrhage leads to rapid in vivo activation in the lung of CREB through a xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanism and of NF-kappaB through other pathways, and suggest that the activation of these transcriptional factors may have an important role in regulating pulmonary cytokine expression and the development of acute lung injury after blood loss.

  16. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kappa B leads to increased axonal sparing and sprouting following spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberta; Hurtado, Andres; Persaud, Trikaldarshi; Esham, Kim; Pearse, Damien D; Oudega, Martin; Bethea, John R


    We previously showed that Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) inactivation in astrocytes leads to improved functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). This correlated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and increased white matter preservation. Hence we hypothesized that inactivation of astrocytic NF-kappaB would create a more permissive environment for axonal sprouting and regeneration. We induced both contusive and complete transection SCI in GFAP-Inhibitor of kappaB-dominant negative (GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn) and wild-type (WT) mice and performed retrograde [fluorogold (FG)] and anterograde [biotinylated dextran amine (BDA)] tracing 8 weeks after injury. Following contusive SCI, more FG-labeled cells were found in motor cortex, reticular formation, and raphe nuclei of transgenic mice. Spared and sprouting BDA-positive corticospinal axons were found caudal to the lesion in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice. Higher numbers of FG-labeled neurons were detected immediately rostral to the lesion in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice, accompanied by increased expression of synaptic and axonal growth-associated molecules. After transection, however, no FG-labeled neurons or BDA-filled axons were found rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively, in either genotype. These data demonstrated that inhibiting astroglial NF-kappaB resulted in a growth-supporting terrain promoting sparing and sprouting, rather than regeneration, of supraspinal and propriospinal circuitries essential for locomotion, hence contributing to the improved functional recovery observed after SCI in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice.

  17. Tensor rank problem in statistical high-dimensional data and quantum information theory:their comparisons on the methods and the results

    CERN Document Server

    Sakata, Toshio; Sumi, Toshio; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro


    Quantum communication is concerned with the complexity of entanglement of a state and statistical data analysis is concerned with the complexity of a model. A common key word for both is "rank". In this paper we will show that both community is tracing the same target and that the methods used are slightly different. Two different methods, the range criterion method from quantum communication and the determinant polynomial method, are shown as an examples.

  18. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M


    In this revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this goal through a coherent mix of mathematical analysis, intuitive discussions and examples.* Ross's clear writin

  19. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M


    In this 3rd edition revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. Concepts are motivated, illustrated and explained in a way that attempts to increase one's intuition. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this

  20. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory H


    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  1. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S


    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  2. Planck intermediate results. VII. Statistical properties of infrared and radio extragalactic sources from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue at frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurinsky, N.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschènes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    We make use of the Planck all-sky survey to derive number counts and spectral indices of extragalactic sources - infrared and radio sources - from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) at 100 to 857 GHz (3 mm to 350 μm). Three zones (deep, medium and shallow) of approximately homogeneous coverage are used to permit a clean and controlled correction for incompleteness, which was explicitly not done for the ERCSC, as it was aimed at providing lists of sources to be followed up. Our sample, prior to the 80% completeness cut, contains between 217 sources at 100 GHz and 1058 sources at 857 GHz over about 12 800 to 16 550 deg2 (31 to 40% of the sky). After the 80% completeness cut, between 122 and 452 and sources remain, with flux densities above 0.3 and 1.9 Jy at 100 and 857 GHz. The sample so defined can be used for statistical analysis. Using the multi-frequency coverage of the Planck High Frequency Instrument, all the sources have been classified as either dust-dominated (infrared galaxies) or synchrotron-dominated (radio galaxies) on the basis of their spectral energy distributions (SED). Our sample is thus complete, flux-limited and color-selected to differentiate between the two populations. We find an approximately equal number of synchrotron and dusty sources between 217 and 353 GHz; at 353 GHz or higher (or 217 GHz and lower) frequencies, the number is dominated by dusty (synchrotron) sources, as expected. For most of the sources, the spectral indices are also derived. We provide for the first time counts of bright sources from 353 to 857 GHz and the contributions from dusty and synchrotron sources at all HFI frequencies in the key spectral range where these spectra are crossing. The observed counts are in the Euclidean regime. The number counts are compared to previously published data (from earlier Planck results, Herschel, BLAST, SCUBA, LABOCA, SPT, and ACT) and models taking into account both radio or infrared galaxies, and covering a

  3. Ketamine suppresses intestinal NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory cytokine in endotoxic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Sun; Xiao-Dong Wang; Hong Liu; Jian-Guo Xu


    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of ketamine on the endotoxin-induced proinfiammatory cytokines and NFkappa B activation in the intestine.METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (a) normal saline control, (b) challenged with endotoxin (5 mg/kg) and treated by saline, (c) challenged with endotoxin (5 mg/kg) and treated by ketamine (0.5 mg/kg),(d) challenged with endotoxin (5 mg/kg) and treated by ketamine (5 mg/kg), (e) challenged with endotoxin (5 mg/kg) and treated by ketamine (50 mg/kg), and (f) saline injected and treated by ketamine (50 mg/kg). After 1, 4 or 6 h, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA were investigated in the tissues of the intestine (jejunum) by RT-PCR. TNF-α and IL-6 were measured by ELISA. We used electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to investigate NF-kappa B activity in the intestine.RESULTS: NF-kappa B activity, the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were enhanced in the intestine by endotoxin.Ketamine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg could suppress endotoxininduced TNF-α mRNA and protein elevation and inhibit NFkappa B activation in the intestine. However the least dosage of ketamine to inhibit IL-6 was 5 mg/kg in our experiment.CONCLUSION: Ketamine can suppress endotoxin-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 production in the intestine. This suppressive effect may act through inhibiting NF-kappa B.

  4. Cancer Statistics (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  5. CMS Statistics (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  6. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  7. Accident Statistics (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  8. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich


    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  9. R-Roscovitine simultaneously targets both the p53 and NF-kappaB pathways and causes potentiation of apoptosis: implications in cancer therapy. (United States)

    Dey, A; Wong, E T; Cheok, C F; Tergaonkar, V; Lane, D P


    Seliciclib (CYC202, R-Roscovitine) is a 2, 6, 9-substituted purine analog that is currently in phase II clinical trials as an anticancer agent. We show in this study that R-Roscovitine can downregulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and interleukin 1. Activation of p53-dependent transcription is not compromised when R-Roscovitine is combined with TNFalpha. We characterize the molecular mechanism governing NF-kappaB repression and show that R-Roscovitine inhibits the IkappaB kinase (IKK) kinase activity, which leads to defective IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, degradation and hence nuclear function of NF-kappaB. We further show that the downregulation of the NF-kappaB pathway is also at the level of p65 modification and that the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser 536 is repressed by R-Roscovitine. Consistent with repression of canonical IKK signaling pathway, the induction of NF-kappaB target genes monocyte chemoattractant protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-8 is also inhibited by R-Roscovitine. We further show that treatment of cells with TNFalpha and R-Roscovitine causes potentiation of cell death. Based on these results, we suggest the potential use of R-Roscovitine as a bitargeted anticancer drug that functions by simultaneously causing p53 activation and NF-kappaB suppression. This study also provides mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanism of action of R-Roscovitine, thereby possibly explaining its anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 modulate nuclear factor kappaB activity and nitric oxide synthase-2 expression in Theiler's virus-infected brain astrocytes. (United States)

    Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Castrillo, Antonio; Boscá, Lisardo; Vela, José M; Guaza, Carmen


    In brain astrocytes, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is activated by stimuli that produce cellular stress causing the expression of genes involved in defence, including the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2). Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a persistent CNS infection and chronic immune-mediated demyelination, similar to human multiple sclerosis. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, counteracting the inflammatory process. Our study reports that infection of cultured astrocytes with TMEV resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of NOS-2. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 blocked TMEV-induced nitrite accumulation, NOS-2 mRNA expression and phospho-IkappaBalpha degradation, suggesting NF-kappaB-dependent NOS-2 expression. Pretreatment of astrocytes with IL-4 or IL-10 decreased p65 nuclear translocation, NF-kappaB binding activity and NOS-2 transcription. IL-4 and IL-10 caused an accumulation of IkappaBalpha in TMEV-infected astrocytes without affecting IkappaBbeta levels. The IkappaB kinase activity and the degradation rate of both IkappaBs were not modified by either cytokine, suggesting de novo synthesis of IkappaBalpha. Indeed, IL-4 or IL-10 up-regulated IkappaBalpha mRNA levels after TMEV infection. Therefore, the accumulation of IkappaBalpha might impair the translocation of the NF-kappaB to the nucleus, mediating the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Overall, these data suggest a novel mechanism of action of IL-4 and IL-10, which abrogates NOS-2 expression in viral-infected glial cells.

  11. Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations. (United States)

    Chavkin, Charles; Sud, Sumit; Jin, Wenzhen; Stewart, Jeremy; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Siebert, Daniel J; Toth, Beth Ann; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Roth, Bryan L


    The diterpene salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum has recently been reported to be a high-affinity and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist (Roth et al., 2002). Salvinorin A and selected derivatives were found to be potent and efficacious agonists in several measures of agonist activity using cloned human kappa-opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Thus, salvinorin A, salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorinyl-2-heptanoate were found to be either full (salvinorin A) or partial (2-propionate, 2-heptanoate) agonists for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Additional studies of agonist potency and efficacy of salvinorin A, performed by cotransfecting either the chimeric G proteins Gaq-i5 or the universal G protein Ga16 and quantification of agonist-evoked intracellular calcium mobilization, affirmed that salvinorin A was a potent and effective kappa-opioid agonist. Results from structure-function studies suggested that the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of salvinorin A was critical for kappa-opioid receptor binding and activation. Because issues of receptor reserve complicate estimates of agonist efficacy and potency, we also examined the agonist actions of salvinorin A by measuring potassium conductance through G protein-gated K(+) channels coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, a system in which receptor reserve is minimal. Salvinorin A was found to be a full agonist, being significantly more efficacious than (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U50488) or (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U69593) (two standard kappa-opioid agonists) and similar in efficacy to dynorphin A (the naturally occurring peptide ligand for kappa-opioid receptors). Salvinorin A thus represents the first known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at kappa-opioid receptors.

  12. Energetic particle fluxes in the exterior cusp and the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere: statistical results from the Cluster/RAPID instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Asikainen


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the fluxes of energetic protons (30–4000 keV and electrons (20–400 keV in the exterior cusp and in the adjacent high-latitude dayside plasma sheet (HLPS with the Cluster/RAPID instrument. Using two sample orbits we demonstrate that the Cluster observations at high latitudes can be dramatically different because the satellite orbit traverses different plasma regions for different external conditions. We make a statistical study of energetic particles in the exterior cusp and HLPS by analysing all outbound Cluster dayside passes in February and March, 2002 and 2003. The average particle fluxes in HLPS are roughly three (protons or ten (electrons times larger than in the exterior cusp. This is also true on those Cluster orbits where both regions are visited within a short time interval. Moreover, the total electron fluxes, as well as proton fluxes above some 100 keV, in these two regions correlate with each other. This is true even for fluxes in every energy channel when considered separately. The spectral indices of electron and proton fluxes are the same in the two regions. We also examine the possible dependence of particle fluxes at different energies on the external (solar wind and IMF and internal (geomagnetic conditions. The energetic proton fluxes (but not electron fluxes in the cusp behave differently at low and high energies. At low energies (<70 keV, the fluxes increase strongly with the magnitude of IMF By. Instead, at higher energies the proton fluxes in the cusp depend on substorm/geomagnetic activity. In HLPS proton fluxes, irrespective of energy, depend strongly on the Kp and AE indices. The electron fluxes in HLPS depend both on the <Kp index and the solar wind speed. In the cusp the electron fluxes mainly depend on the solar wind speed, and are higher for northward than southward IMF. These results give strong evidence in favour of the idea that the

  13. NF-{kappa}B suppresses HIF-1{alpha} response by competing for P300 binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Daniela B.S., E-mail: [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, SGAN Quadra 916, Av. W5 Norte, 70790-160 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Bone Biology and Implant Therapy Laboratory, Department of Prosthodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 330 Brauer Hall, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Mendonca, Gustavo [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, SGAN Quadra 916, Av. W5 Norte, 70790-160 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Bone Biology and Implant Therapy Laboratory, Department of Prosthodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 330 Brauer Hall, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Aragao, Francisco J.L. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, SGAN Quadra 916, Av. W5 Norte, 70790-160 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Introducao e Expressao de Genes, PqEB W5 Norte, 70770-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cooper, Lyndon F., E-mail: [Bone Biology and Implant Therapy Laboratory, Department of Prosthodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 330 Brauer Hall, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)


    Research highlights: {yields} p65 completely blocked HIF-1{alpha} activity at the HRE on different cell lines. {yields} p65 caused minor changes in HIF-1{alpha} and HIF-1{alpha} target genes mRNA expression. {yields} p65 reduced transcription of VEGF promoter. {yields} p65 competes with HIF-1{alpha} for p300. -- Abstract: Hypoxia has emerged as a key determinant of osteogenesis. HIF-1{alpha} is the transcription factor mediating hypoxia responses that include induction of VEGF and related bone induction. Inflammatory signals antagonize bone repair via the NF-{kappa}B pathway. The present investigation explored the functional relationship of hypoxia (HIF-1{alpha} function) and inflammatory signaling (NF-{kappa}B) in stem like and osteoprogenitor cell lines. The potential interaction between HIF-1{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B signaling was explored by co-transfection studies in hFOB with p65, HIF-1{alpha} and 9x-HRE-luc or HIF-1{alpha} target genes reporter plasmids. Nuclear cross-talk was directly tested using the mammalian Gal4/VP16 two-hybrid, and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation/western blotting assays. The results show that inflammatory stimulation (TNF-{alpha} treatment) causes a marked inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} function at the HRE in all cell lines studied. Also, co-transfection with p65 expression vector leads to reduced hVEGFp transcription after DFO-induced hypoxia. However, TNF-{alpha} treatment had little effect on HIF-1{alpha} mRNA levels. The functional interaction of Gal4-HIF-1{alpha} and VP16-p300 fusion proteins is effectively blocked by expression of p65 in a dose dependent manner. It was concluded that NF-{kappa}B-mediated inflammatory signaling is able to block HIF-1{alpha} transactivation at HRE-encoding genes by direct competition for p300 binding at the promoter. Inflammation may influence the stem cell niche and tissue regeneration by influencing cellular responses to hypoxia.

  14. Spectroscopy of a \\kappa-Cygnid fireball afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Madiedo, José M


    A bright fireball with an absolute magnitude of -10.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 was recorded over the South of Spain on August 15, 2012. The atmospheric trajectory, radiant and heliocentric orbit of this event are calculated. These data show that the parent meteoroid belonged to the \\kappa-Cygnid meteoroid stream. The emission spectrum of this bolide, which was obtained in the wavelength range between 350 and 800 nm, suggests a chondritic nature for the progenitor meteoroid. Besides, the spectrum of the meteoric afterglow was also recorded for about 0.7 seconds. The evolution with time of the intensity of the main emission lines identified in this signal is discussed.

  15. Solar wind driven dust acoustic instability with Lorentzian kappa distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Kashif [National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad and University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040 (Pakistan); Ehsan, Zahida, E-mail: [National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Universita degli Studi del Molise, 86090 Pesche - IS (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 86090 (Pakistan); Khan, S. A. [National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTEC, PO Box Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    In a three species electron-ion-dust plasma following a generalized non-Maxwellian distribution function (Lorentzian or kappa), it is shown that a kinetic instability of dust-acoustic mode exists. The instability threshold is affected when such (quasineutral) plasma permeates through another static plasma. Such case is of interest when the solar wind is streaming through the cometary plasma in the presence of interstellar dust. In the limits of phase velocity of the waves larger and smaller than the thermal velocity of dust particles, the dispersion properties and growth rate of dust-acoustic mode are investigated analytically with validation via numerical analysis.

  16. Kappa distributions: theory and applications in space plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V


    Particle velocity distribution functions (VDF) in space plasmas often show non Maxwellian suprathermal tails decreasing as a power law of the velocity. Such distributions are well fitted by the so-called Kappa distribution. The presence of such distributions in different space plasmas suggests a universal mechanism for the creation of such suprathermal tails. Different theories have been proposed and are recalled in this review paper. The suprathermal particles have important consequences concerning the acceleration and the temperature that are well evidenced by the kinetic approach where no closure requires the distributions to be nearly Maxwellians. Moreover, the presence of the suprathermal particles take an important role in the wave-particle interactions.

  17. Two alleles of NF-kappaB in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are widely dispersed in nature and encode proteins with distinct activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Sullivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NF-kappaB is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that controls the expression of genes involved in many key organismal processes, including innate immunity, development, and stress responses. NF-kappaB proteins contain a highly conserved DNA-binding/dimerization domain called the Rel homology domain. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized two NF-kappaB alleles in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis that differ at nineteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Ten of these SNPs result in amino acid substitutions, including six within the Rel homology domain. Both alleles are found in natural populations of Nematostella. The relative abundance of the two NF-kappaB alleles differs between populations, and departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within populations indicate that the locus may be under selection. The proteins encoded by the two Nv-NF-kappaB alleles have different molecular properties, in part due to a Cys/Ser polymorphism at residue 67, which resides within the DNA recognition loop. In nearly all previously characterized NF-kappaB proteins, the analogous residue is fixed for Cys, and conversion of human RHD proteins from Cys to Ser at this site has been shown to increase DNA-binding ability and increase resistance to inhibition by thiol-reactive compounds. However, the naturally-occurring Nematostella variant with Cys at position 67 binds DNA with a higher affinity than the Ser variant. On the other hand, the Ser variant activates transcription in reporter gene assays more effectively, and it is more resistant to inhibition by a thiol-reactive compound. Reciprocal CysSer mutations at residue 67 of the native Nv-NF-kappaB proteins affect DNA binding as in human NF-kappaB proteins, e.g., a Cys->Ser mutation increases DNA binding of the native Cys variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first demonstration of a naturally occurring and functionally significant polymorphism in NF-kappa

  18. NF-kappaB inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. (United States)

    Calzado, Marco A; Bacher, Susanne; Schmitz, M Lienhard


    The NF-kappaB/Rel signaling system is a paradigm for gene activation in response to inflammatory and menacing stimuli. Given the growing body of evidence showing an important involvement of NF-kappaB for the onset of autoimmune diseases and different types of cancer, NF-kappaB is an important drug target for the adjuvant therapy of these diseases. Great efforts have been made for the development of highly specific NF-kappaB inhibitors, some of them being currently tested in phase II clinical trials. Here we discuss recent progress in the identification of druggable components of the NF-kappaB signaling system and the development and potential use of novel NF-kappaB inhibitors.

  19. Realizations of $\\kappa$-Minkowski space, Drinfeld twists and related symmetry algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Juric, Tajron; Pikutic, Danijel


    Realizations of $\\kappa$-Minkowski space linear in momenta are studied for time-, space- and light-like deformations. We construct and classify all such linear realizations and express them in terms of $\\mathfrak{gl}(n)$ generators. There are three one-parameter families of linear realizations for time-like and space-like deformations, while for light-like deformations, there are only four linear realizations. The relation between deformed Heisenberg algebra, star product, coproduct of momenta and twist operator is presented. It is proved that for each linear realization there exists Drinfeld twist satisfying normalization and cocycle conditions. $\\kappa$-deformed $\\mathfrak{igl}(n)$-Hopf algebras are presented for all cases. The $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e-Weyl and $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e-Hopf algebras are discussed. Left-right dual $\\kappa$-Minkowski algebra is constructed from the transposed twists. The corresponding realizations are nonlinear. All known Drinfeld twists related to $\\kappa$-Minkowski space are obtained...

  20. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan


    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  1. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz


    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  2. Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Polymerase Kappa Gene and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Han Population (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xing-Han; Ma, Yun-Feng; Kang, Hua-Feng; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Guan, Hai-Tao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Kang; Dai, Cong; Yang, Xue-Wen; Wang, Xi-Jing


    Abstract DNA polymerases are responsible for ensuring stability of the genome and avoiding genotoxicity caused by a variety of factors during DNA replication. Consequently, these proteins have been associated with an increased cancer risk. DNA polymerase kappa (POLK) is a specialized DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) that allows DNA synthesis over the damaged DNA. Recently, some studies investigated relationships between POLK polymorphisms and cancer risk, but the role of POLK genetic variants in breast cancer (BC) remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of POLK polymorphisms on BC risk. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY method to genotype 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in POLK (rs3213801, rs10077427, and rs5744533), in order to determine the genotypes of 560 BC patients and 583 controls. The association of genotypes and BC was assessed by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from logistic regression analyses. We found a statistically significant difference between patient and control groups in the POLK rs10077427 genotypic groups, excluding the recessive model. A positive correlation was also found between positive progesterone receptor (PR) status, higher Ki67 index, and rs10077427 polymorphism. For rs5744533 polymorphism, the codominant, dominant, and allele models frequencies were significantly higher in BC patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, our results indicated that rs5744533 SNP has a protective role in the postmenopausal women. However, we failed to find any associations between rs3213801 polymorphism and susceptibility to BC. Our results indicate that POLK polymorphisms may influence the risk of developing BC, and, because of this, may serve as a prognostic biomarker among Chinese women. PMID:26765445

  3. Magnetic field and wind of Kappa Ceti: towards the planetary habitability of the young Sun when life arose on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, J -D do; Folsom, P Petit C; Castro, M; Marsden, S C; Morin, J; de Mello, G F Porto; Meibom, S; Jeffers, S V; Guinan, E; Ribas, I


    We report magnetic field measurements for Kappa1~Cet, a proxy of the young Sun when life arose on Earth. We carry out an analysis of the magnetic properties determined from spectropolarimetric observations and reconstruct its large-scale surface magnetic field to derive the magnetic environment, stellar winds and particle flux permeating the interplanetary medium around Kappa1~Cet. Our results show a closer magnetosphere and mass-loss rate of Mdot = 9.7 x 10^{-13} Msol/yr, i.e., a factor 50 times larger than the current solar wind mass-loss rate, resulting in a larger interaction via space weather disturbances between the stellar wind and a hypothetical young-Earth analogue, potentially affecting the planet's habitability. Interaction of the wind from the young Sun with the planetary ancient magnetic field may have affected the young Earth and its life conditions

  4. Statistics for economics

    CERN Document Server

    Naghshpour, Shahdad


    Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

  5. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz


    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  6. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin


    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  7. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman


    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  8. Protein kinase C-associated kinase is required for NF-kappaB signaling and survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells. (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Oleksyn, David W; Rossi, Randall M; Jordan, Craig T; Sanz, Ignacio; Chen, Luojing; Zhao, Jiyong


    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive and the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite recent advances in treatment, less than 50% of the patients are cured with current multiagent chemotherapy. Abnormal NF-kappaB activity not only contributes to tumor development but also renders cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Identifying and targeting signaling molecules that control NF-kappaB activation in cancer cells may thus yield more effective therapy for DLBCL. Here, we show that while overexpression of protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK) activates NF-kappaB signaling in DLBCL cells, suppression of PKK expression inhibits NF-kappaB activity in these cells. In addition, we show that NF-kappaB activation induced by B cell-activating factor of tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) in DLBCL cells requires PKK. Importantly, we show that knockdown of PKK impairs the survival of DLBCL cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth of xenografted DLBCL cells in mice. Suppression of PKK expression also sensitizes DLBCL cells to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Together, these results indicate that PKK plays a pivotal role in the survival of human DLBCL cells and represents a potential target for DLBCL therapy.

  9. Requirement of NF-kappa B Activation in Different Mice Brain Areas during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Two Contextual One-Trial Tasks with Opposing Valences (United States)

    Salles, Angeles; Krawczyk, Maria del C.; Blake, Mariano; Romano, Arturo; Boccia, Mariano M.; Freudenthal, Ramiro


    NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training. Additionally, these testing latencies were also different from those of a control group that only received a shock unrelated to context. Moreover, nuclear NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity was augmented in the aversive and the appetitive tasks when compared with control and naïve animals. NF-kappa B inhibition by Sulfasalazine injected either in the Hippocampus, Amygdala or Nucleus accumbens immediately after training was able to impair retention in both training versions. Our results suggest that NF-kappa B is a critical molecular step, in different brain areas on memory consolidation. This was the case for both the IA task and also the modified version of the same task where the footshock was omitted during training. This work aims to further investigate how appetitive and aversive memories are consolidated. PMID:28439227

  10. The Vitamin D analogue TX 527 blocks NF-kappaB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Stio, Maria; Martinesi, Maria; Bruni, Sara; Treves, Cristina; Mathieu, Chantal; Verstuyf, Annemieke; d'Albasio, Giuseppe; Bagnoli, Siro; Bonanomi, Andrea G


    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory disease characterized by the activation of the immune system in the gut. Since tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) plays an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in CD, we investigated whether TX 527 [19-nor-14,20-bisepi-23-yne-1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], a Vitamin D analogue, could affect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and exert an immunosuppressive effect on TNF-alpha production in CD patients, and whether this immunosuppressive action could be mediated by NF-kappaB down-regulation. TX 527 significantly decreased cell proliferation and TNF-alpha levels. On activation, NF-kappaB, rapidly released from its cytoplasmatic inhibitor (IKB-alpha), transmigrates into the nucleus and binds to DNA response elements in gene promoter regions. The activation of NF-kappaB, stimulated by TNF-alpha, and its nuclear translocation together with the degradation of IKB-alpha were blocked by TX 527. At the same time, NF-kappaB protein levels present in cytoplasmic extracts decreased in the presence of TNF-alpha and increased when PBMC were incubated with TX 527. The results of our studies indicate that TX 527 inhibits TNF-alpha mediated effects on PBMC and the activation of NF-kappaB and that its action is mediated by Vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is activated when the cells are stimulated with TX 527.

  11. Rate constants of reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)], E-mail:; Saiki, S.; Kudo, H.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Rosa, A.M. de la [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)


    The rate constants for the reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical was investigated by pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis. The kinetics of the reaction of hydrated electron indicates no seeming reaction with {kappa}-carrageenan. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical reacts very rapidly with {kappa}-carrageenan at a rate constant of approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. This rate constant varies with pH.

  12. Inhibition of the canonical IKK/NF kappa B pathway sensitizes human cancer cells to doxorubicin. (United States)

    Tapia, Maria A; González-Navarrete, Irene; Dalmases, Alba; Bosch, Marta; Rodriguez-Fanjul, Vanesa; Rolfe, Mark; Ross, Jeffrey S; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristobal; Bachs, Oriol; Gascón, Pere; Rojo, Federico; Perona, Rosario; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan


    The NF kappa B family is composed by five subunits (p65/RelA, c-Rel, RelB, p105-p50/NF kappa B(1), p100-p52/NF kappa B(2)) and controls the expression of many genes that participate in cell cycle, apoptosis, and other key cellular processes. In a canonical pathway, NF kappa B activation depends on the IKK complex activity, which is formed by three subunits (IKKalpha and IKKbeta and IKKgamma/NEMO). There is an alternative NF kappa B activation pathway that does not require IKKbeta or IKKgamma/NEMO, in which RelB is a major player. We report in a panel of human breast cancer cells that the IKK/NF kappa B system is generally overexpressed in breast cancer cells and there is heterogeneity in expression levels of individual members between different cell lines. Doxorubicin, an anticancer agent used in patients with breast cancer, activated NF kappa B and appeared to be less effective in cells expressing predominantly members of the canonical IKK/NF kappa B. Two NF kappa B inhibitors, bortezomib and NEMO-Binding Domain Inhibitory Peptide, prevented doxorubicin-induced NF kappa B activation and increased doxorubicin antitumor effects in BT-474 cells. Transient down-regulation of members of the canonical pathway (p65, p52, c-Rel and IKKgamma/NEMO) by siRNA in HeLa cells increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity. In contrast, silencing of RelB, a key subunit of the alternative pathway, had no evident effects on doxorubicin cytotoxicity. To conclude, NF kappa B inhibition sensitized cells to doxorubicin, implying directly p65, p52, c-Rel and IKKgamma/NEMO subunits in chemoresistance, but not RelB. These findings suggest that selective inhibition of the canonical NF kappa B pathway is sufficient to improve doxorubicin antitumor effects.

  13. Pathway-specific profiling identifies the NF-kappa B-dependent tumor necrosis factor alpha-regulated genes in epidermal keratinocytes. (United States)

    Banno, Tomohiro; Gazel, Alix; Blumenberg, Miroslav


    Identification of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) as the key agent in inflammatory disorders led to new therapies specifically targeting TNF alpha and avoiding many side effects of earlier anti-inflammatory drugs. However, because of the wide spectrum of systems affected by TNF alpha, drugs targeting TNF alpha have a potential risk of delaying wound healing, secondary infections, and cancer. Indeed, increased risks of tuberculosis and carcinogenesis have been reported as side effects after anti-TNF alpha therapy. TNF alpha regulates many processes (e.g. immune response, cell cycle, and apoptosis) through several signal transduction pathways that convey the TNF alpha signals to the nucleus. Hypothesizing that specific TNF alpha-dependent pathways control specific processes and that inhibition of a specific pathway may yield even more precisely targeted therapies, we used oligonucleotide microarrays and parthenolide, an NF-kappa B-specific inhibitor, to identify the NF-kappa B-dependent set of the TNF alpha-regulated genes in human epidermal keratinocytes. Expression of approximately 40% of all TNF alpha-regulated genes depends on NF-kappa B; 17% are regulated early (1-4 h post-treatment), and 23% are regulated late (24-48 h). Cytokines and apoptosis-related and cornification proteins belong to the "early" NF-kappa B-dependent group, and antigen presentation proteins belong to the "late" group, whereas most cell cycle, RNA-processing, and metabolic enzymes are not NF-kappa B-dependent. Therefore, inflammation, immunomodulation, apoptosis, and differentiation are on the NF-kappa B pathway, and cell cycle, metabolism, and RNA processing are not. Most early genes contain consensus NF-kappaB binding sites in their promoter DNA and are, presumably, directly regulated by NF-kappa B, except, curiously, the cornification markers. Using siRNA silencing, we identified cFLIP/CFLAR as an essential NF-kappa B-dependent antiapoptotic gene. The results confirm our

  14. LPS-induced NF-{kappa}B expression in THP-1Blue cells correlates with neopterin production and activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroecksnadel, Sebastian [Division of Biological Chemistry, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Jenny, Marcel [Division of Biological Chemistry, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Kurz, Katharina [Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Klein, Angela [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Ledochowski, Maximilian [Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Uberall, Florian [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Fuchs, Dietmar, E-mail: [Division of Biological Chemistry, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)


    Research highlights: {yields} LPS induces NF-{kappa}B, neopterin formation and tryptophan degradation in THP-1 cells. {yields} Close dose- and time-dependent correlations exist between these biochemical events. {yields} Data provides some evidence for a parallel induction of them upon TLR stimulation. {yields} Results can be of considerable relevance also in vivo. -- Abstract: Neopterin production is induced in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with Th1-type cytokine interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}). In parallel, IFN-{gamma} induces the tryptophan-(trp)-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Translocation of the signal transduction element nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is induced by ROS and accelerates the pro-inflammatory response by activation of other pro-inflammatory pathways. Therefore, a close relationship between NF-{kappa}B expression, the production of neopterin and the degradation of trp can be assumed, although this has not been demonstrated so far. In the present in vitro study we compared the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on NF-{kappa}B activation, neopterin formation and the degradation of trp in THP-1Blue cells, which represent the human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1 stably transfected with an NF-{kappa}B inducible reporter system. In cells stimulated with LPS, a significant induction of NF-{kappa}B was observed, and this was paralleled by an increase of kynureunine (kyn) and neopterin concentrations and a decline of trp. The increase of the kyn to trp quotient indicates accelerated IDO activity. Higher LPS concentrations and longer incubation of cells were associated with higher activities of all three biochemical pathways and significant correlations existed between NF-{kappa}B activation, neopterin release and trp degradation (all p < 0.001). We conclude that there is a parallel induction of NF-{kappa}B, neopterin

  15. Overexpression of cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis via NF-{kappa}B in mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Cheng-Fei [Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China); Han, Ya-Ling, E-mail: [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China); Jie-Deng,; Yan, Cheng-Hui; Jian-Kang,; Bo-Luan,; Jie-Li [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} CREG protected MSCs from tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced apoptosis. {yields} CREG inhibits the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and prevents the activation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} CREG inhibits NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and pro-apoptosis protein transcription. {yields} CREG anti-apoptotic effect involves inhibition of the death receptor pathway. {yields} p53 is downregulated by CREG via NF-{kappa}B pathway under TNF-{alpha} stimulation. -- Abstract: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for therapeutic repair after myocardial infarction. However, poor viability of transplanted MSCs in the ischemic heart has limited their use. Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been identified as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. This study therefore aimed to determine if rat bone marrow MSCs transfected with CREG-were able to effectively resist apoptosis induced by inflammatory mediators, and to demonstrate the mechanism of CREG action. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assays. The pathways mediating these apoptotic effects were investigated by Western blotting. Overexpression of CREG markedly protected MSCs from tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced apoptosis by 50% after 10 h, through inhibition of the death-receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, leading to attenuation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Moreover, CREG resisted the serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and prevented the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) under TNF-{alpha} stimulation. Treatment of cells with the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly increased the transcription of pro-apoptosis proteins (p53 and Fas) by NF-{kappa}B, and attenuated the anti-apoptotic effects of CREG on MSCs. The results of this study

  16. Localization of the kappa opioid receptor gene to human chromosome band 8q11. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Kazuki; Takeda, Jun; Bell, G.I.; Espinosa, R.; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))


    Using the cloned mouse kappa opioid receptor cDNA clone as a probe, screened a human genomic library and isolated a clone containing part of the human kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1), designated [lambda]hSR4-1. To determine the chromosomal localization of OPRK1, [lambda]hSR4-1 DNA was labeled with biotin by nick-translation in the presence of bio-11-dUTP and hybridized to human metaphase cells prepared from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes as described previously. Hybridization of the OPRK1-specific probe [lambda]hSR4-1 DNA to normal human metaphase chromosomes resulted in specific labeling only of chromosome 8. Specific labeling of 8q11 was observed on all 4 (6 cells), 3 (9 cells), 2 (9 cells), or 1 (1 cell) chromatid of the chromosome 8 homologs in 25 cells examined. Of 72 signals observed, 70 were located at 8q11. 1 signal was located at 7q11 and at 12p11. In most cells, the signal on 8q was located at 8q11.2. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Finite volume effects in pion-kaon scattering and reconstruction of the kappa(800) resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, M


    Simulating the kappa(800) on the lattice is a challenging task that starts to become feasible due to the rapid progress in recent-years lattice QCD calculations. As the resonance is broad, special attention to finite-volume effects has to be paid, because no sharp resonance signal as from avoided level crossing can be expected. In the present article, we investigate the finite volume effects in the framework of unitarized chiral perturbation theory using next-to-leading order terms. After a fit to meson-meson partial wave data, lattice levels for piK scattering are predicted. In addition, levels are shown for the quantum numbers in which the sigma(600), f_0(980), a_0(980), phi(1020), K*(892), and rho(770) appear, as well as the repulsive channels. Methods to extract the kappa(800) signal from the lattice spectrum are presented. Using pseudo-data, we estimate the precision that lattice data should have to allow for a clear-cut extraction of this resonance. To put the results into context, in particular the req...

  18. The (\\lambda, \\kappa)-Freese-Nation property for boolean algebras and compacta

    CERN Document Server

    Milovich, David


    We study a two-parameter generalization of the Freese-Nation Property of boolean algebras and its order-theoretic and topological consequences. For every regular infinite \\kappa, the (\\kappa,\\kappa)-FN, the (\\kappa^+,\\kappa)-FN, and the \\kappa-FN are known to be equivalent; we show that the family of properties (\\lambda,\\mu)-FN for \\lambda>\\mu form a true two-dimensional hierarchy that is robust with respect to coproducts, retracts, and the exponential operation. The (\\kappa,\\aleph_0)-FN in particular has strong consequences for base properties of compacta (stronger still for homogeneous compacta), and these consequences have natural duals in terms of special subsets of boolean algebras. We show that the (\\kappa,\\aleph_0)-FN also leads to a generalization of the equality of weight and \\pi-character in dyadic compacta. Elementary subalgebras and their duals, elementary quotient spaces, were originally used to define the (\\lambda, \\kappa)-FN and its topological dual, which naturally generalized from Stone space...

  19. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1997, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1998, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-September 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-September 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  20. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1996, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1997, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  1. Statistical Mechancis

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni


    C. Cercignani: A sketch of the theory of the Boltzmann equation.- O.E. Lanford: Qualitative and statistical theory of dissipative systems.- E.H. Lieb: many particle Coulomb systems.- B. Tirozzi: Report on renormalization group.- A. Wehrl: Basic properties of entropy in quantum mechanics.

  2. Statistics is Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Shasha, Dennis


    Statistics is the activity of inferring results about a population given a sample. Historically, statistics books assume an underlying distribution to the data (typically, the normal distribution) and derive results under that assumption. Unfortunately, in real life, one cannot normally be sure of the underlying distribution. For that reason, this book presents a distribution-independent approach to statistics based on a simple computational counting idea called resampling. This book explains the basic concepts of resampling, then systematically presents the standard statistical measures along

  3. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Clinical versus statistical significance (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc


    In clinical research, study results, which are statistically significant are often interpreted as being clinically important. While statistical significance indicates the reliability of the study results, clinical significance reflects its impact on clinical practice. The third article in this series exploring pitfalls in statistical analysis clarifies the importance of differentiating between statistical significance and clinical significance. PMID:26229754

  4. Seasonal precipitation forecasts for selected regions in West Africa using circulation type classifications in combination with further statistical approaches - Conceptual framework and first results (United States)

    Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrik; Waongo, Moussa; Kunstmann, Harald


    Providing valuable forecasts of the seasonal precipitation amount for the upcoming rainy season is one of the big challenges for the national weather services in West Africa. Every year a harmonized forecast of the seasonal precipitation amount for the West African region is issued by the national weather services within the PRESAO framework. The PREASO forecast is based on various statistical approaches ranging from a simple subjective analog method based on the experiences of a meteorological expert to objective regression-based approaches by using various sources of input information such as predicted monsoon winds or observed sea surface temperature anomalies close to the West African coastline. The objective of this study is to perform an evaluation of these techniques for selected West African regions and to introduce classification techniques in the current operational practices and to combine these approaches with further techniques for an additional refinement of the forecasting procedure. We use a fuzzy-rule based technique for a classification of (sub-) monthly large-scale atmospheric and oceanic patterns which are combined to further statistical approaches such as an analog method and a data depth approach for the prediction of the (sub-) seasonal precipitation amounts and additional precipitation indices. The study regions are located from the Edges of the Sahel region in the North of Burkina Faso to the coastline of Ghana. A novel precipitation archive based on daily observations provided by the meteorological services of Burkina Faso and Ghana is the basis for the predictands and is used as reference for model evaluation. The performance of the approach is evaluated over a long period (e.g. 50 years) using cross-validation techniques and sophisticated verification measures for an evaluation of a probability forecast. The precipitation forecast of the classification techniques are also compared to the techniques of the PREASAO community, the

  5. Kappa opioid receptor antagonist and N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor antagonist affect dynorphin- induced spinal cord electrophysiologic impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chen; Liangbi Xiang; Jun Liu; Dapeng Zhou; Hailong Yu; Qi Wang; Wenfeng Han; Weijian Ren


    The latencies of motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials were prolonged to different degrees, and wave amplitude was obviously decreased, after injection of dynorphin into the rat subarachnoid cavity.The wave amplitude and latencies of motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials were significantly recovered at 7 and 14 days after combined injection of dynorphin and either the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine or the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801.The wave amplitude and latency were similar in rats after combined injection of dynorphin and nor-binaltorphimine or MK-801.These results suggest that intrathecal injection of dynorphin causes damage to spinal cord function.Prevention of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor or kappa receptor activation lessened the injury to spinal cord function induced by dynorphin.

  6. New neoclerodane diterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum and their binding affinities for human kappa opioid receptors. (United States)

    Lee, David Y W; Ma, Zhongze; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Yong; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce


    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the leaves of Salvia divinorum has resulted in the isolation of three new neoclerodane diterpenoids: divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), together with 10 known terpenoids, divinatorin C (4), hardwickiic acid (5), salvinorin-A (6), -B (7), -C (8), -D (9), -E (10), and -F (11), presqualene alcohol (12), and (E)-phytol (13). The structures of these three new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. All these compounds were evaluated for their binding affinities to the human kappa opioid receptors. In comparison with divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), salvinorin A (6) is still the most potent kappa agonist.

  7. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret


    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  8. [A case of lambda-expressing pulmonary MALT lymphoma with dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene]. (United States)

    Oh, Hye Ryong; Lee, Mi Ja; Park, Geon; Moon, Dae Soo; Park, Young Jin; Jang, Sook Jin


    A 70-yr-old woman was hospitalized with a history of dry cough. Bronchial endoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy were performed. However, the findings of histopathology and immunohistochemistry were not sufficient to decide whether the lesion was benign or malignant, because of the presence of crush artifacts in the biopsy specimens. We performed B-cell clonality studies using BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR (InVivoScribe Technologies, USA) to detect clonal rearrangements in the immunoglobulin gene. The results of multiplex PCR showed clonal rearrangements of both kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes. The findings of immunochemistry revealed that the lesion expressed lambda light chain, but not kappa light chain. Based on the clinical, pathologic, and molecular findings, this case was diagnosed as pulmonary MALT lymphoma. We report the first case in Korea of lambda-expressing MALT lymphoma that is shown to have dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene by multiplex PCR.

  9. Protein kinase C{eta} activates NF-{kappa}B in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Hai, Naama; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Shahaf, Galit [The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Gopas, Jacob [The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); The Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Livneh, Etta, E-mail: [The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)


    Highlights: {yields} Protein kinase C-eta (PKC{eta}) is an upstream regulator of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. {yields} PKC{eta} activates NF-{kappa}B in non-stressed conditions and in response to DNA damage. {yields} PKC{eta} regulates NF-{kappa}B by activating I{kappa}B kinase (IKK) and inducing I{kappa}B degradation. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) family of transcription factors participates in the regulation of genes involved in innate- and adaptive-immune responses, cell death and inflammation. The involvement of the Protein kinase C (PKC) family in the regulation of NF-{kappa}B in inflammation and immune-related signaling has been extensively studied. However, not much is known on the role of PKC in NF-{kappa}B regulation in response to DNA damage. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PKC-eta (PKC{eta}) regulates NF-{kappa}B upstream signaling by activating the I{kappa}B kinase (IKK) and the degradation of I{kappa}B. Furthermore, PKC{eta} enhances the nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B under non-stressed conditions and in response to the anticancer drug camptothecin. We and others have previously shown that PKC{eta} confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our present study suggests that PKC{eta} is involved in NF-{kappa}B signaling leading to drug resistance.

  10. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture. (United States)

    Kass, Robert E


    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  11. Experimental statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Natrella, Mary Gibbons


    Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior. (United States)

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta


    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  13. Estimation of thyroid radiation doses for the hanford thyroid disease study: results and implications for statistical power of the epidemiological analyses. (United States)

    Kopecky, Kenneth J; Davis, Scott; Hamilton, Thomas E; Saporito, Mark S; Onstad, Lynn E


    Residents of eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and western Idaho were exposed to I released into the atmosphere from operations at the Hanford Nuclear Site from 1944 through 1972, especially in the late 1940's and early 1950's. This paper describes the estimated doses to the thyroid glands of the 3,440 evaluable participants in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study, which investigated whether thyroid morbidity was increased in people exposed to radioactive iodine from Hanford during 1944-1957. The participants were born during 1940-1946 to mothers living in Benton, Franklin, Walla Walla, Adams, Okanogan, Ferry, or Stevens Counties in Washington State. Whenever possible someone with direct knowledge of the participant's early life (preferably the participant's mother) was interviewed about the participant's individual dose-determining characteristics (residence history, sources and quantities of food, milk, and milk products consumed, production and processing techniques for home-grown food and milk products). Default information was used if no interview respondent was available. Thyroid doses were estimated using the computer program Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER) developed by the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. CIDER provided 100 sets of doses to represent uncertainty of the estimates. These sets were not generated independently for each participant, but reflected the effects of uncertainties in characteristics shared by participants. Estimated doses (medians of each participant's 100 realizations) ranged from 0.0029 mGy to 2823 mGy, with mean and median of 174 and 97 mGy, respectively. The distribution of estimated doses provided the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study with sufficient statistical power to test for dose-response relationships between thyroid outcomes and exposure to Hanford's I.

  14. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.


    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  15. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M


    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  16. Effects of silicon on the activity of the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B in osteoblasts%离子硅对成骨细胞NF-kappa B核内转录因子活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小忠; 王永魁; 王乐禹; 余磊; 王国保


    Objective To explore the effects of silicon on the activity of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B in osteoblasts cultured in vitro. Methods MC3T3-E1 osteoablasts were processed by sodium silicate solution (SiO32) with the final concentration of lmM and 2 mM for 6h, 12h, 24h and 48h, respectively. Untreated cells were taken as the control groups. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle and calculate cell proliferation index. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions and changes of NF-kappa B signaling pathway related proteins. Results Compared with the controls, significant proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was found in the 24h and 48h groups treated with 1 mM silicon. Western blot analysis showed that the pro-proliferation effect of 1 mM silicon on osteoblasts was closely related to the high-expression of p-NF-kappa B. Conclusions Trace amounts of silicon released from bone materials can not cause damage of osteoblasts, on contrary, trace amounts of silicate may induce proliferation of osteoblasts by activating NF-kappa B signaling pathway.%目的 研究离子硅对体外培养的成骨细胞NF-kappa B核转录因子活性的影响.方法 分别用终浓度为1 mmol/L和2 mmol/L离子硅(SiO32-)处理MC3T3-E1成骨细胞,处理时间分别为6、12、24和48 h,设置对照组(不加处理因素);采用流式细胞术检测细胞周期,计算细胞的增殖指数;Western blotting方法检测NF-kappa B信号通路的相关蛋白表达量及其变化.结果 流式细胞术结果显示,与对照组相比,1 mmol/L浓度的离子硅处理24h组和48h组,MC3T3-E1细胞增殖明显;Western blot结果显示,1 mmol/L浓度的离子硅促进成骨细胞增殖与p-NF-kappa B表达上升密切相关. 结论 骨材料中释放的微量的硅不会引起成骨细胞损伤,相反,微量的硅酸盐可能通过激活NF-kappa B诱导成骨细胞增殖.

  17. Sesamin manifests chemopreventive effects through the suppression of NF-kappa B-regulated cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenic gene products. (United States)

    Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B; Sung, Bokyung; Tharakan, Sheeja T; Pandey, Manoj K; Joy, Beena; Guha, Sushovan; Krishnan, Sunil; Aggarwal, Bharat B


    Agents that are safe, affordable, and efficacious are urgently needed for the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer. Sesamin, a lipid-soluble lignan, is one such agent that belongs to a class of phytoestrogens, isolated from sesame (Sesamum indicum), and has been linked with prevention of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and carcinogenesis through an unknown mechanism. Because the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been associated with inflammation, carcinogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of cancer, we postulated that sesamin might mediate its effect through the modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway. We found that sesamin inhibited the proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells including leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the colon, prostate, breast, pancreas, and lung. Sesamin also potentiated tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis and this correlated with the suppression of gene products linked to cell survival (e.g., Bcl-2 and survivin), proliferation (e.g., cyclin D1), inflammation (e.g., cyclooxygenase-2), invasion (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase-9, intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and angiogenesis (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor). Sesamin downregulated constitutive and inducible NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory stimuli and carcinogens, and inhibited the degradation of IkappaBalpha, the inhibitor of NF-kappaB, through the suppression of phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and inhibition of activation of IkappaBalpha protein kinase, thus resulting in the suppression of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and NF-kappaB-mediated reporter gene transcription. The inhibition of IkappaBalpha protein kinase activation was found to be mediated through the inhibition of TAK1 kinase. Overall, our results showed that sesamin may have potential against cancer and other chronic diseases through the suppression of a pathway linked to the NF-kappaB signaling.

  18. Abnormal kappa:lambda light chain ratio in circulating immune complexes as a marker for B cell activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (United States)

    Low, J M; Chauhan, A K; Moore, T L


    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) which correlated with disease activity. Our aim was to assess B cell activity by measuring the amount of and the kappa:lambda chain immunoglobulin light (L) chain ratio in CICs from JIA patients and to determine potential evidence for either an antigen-driven response or B-cell receptor editing. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure kappa and lambda chains present in the CICs from the sera of patients with JIA. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Sera from 44 JIA patients were examined for the concentration of L chains in CICs. Healthy controls had a kappa:lambda chain ratio of 1.2:1, whereas this ratio was reversed among JIA subgroups with RF-positive polyarthritis (1:1.2), RF-negative polyarthritis (1:1.3), oligoarthritis (1:2.3) and systemic-onset arthritis (1:2.5). In addition, overall lambda chain selection was not significantly associated with a particular immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and occurred with all immunoglobulin isotypes. We showed preferential selection of lambda chains contributing to the formation of potentially pathogenic CICs from JIA patients, of all onset types compared to healthy controls, in an H chain-independent manner. The reversal of kappa:lambda chain ratio within the JIA CICs and association with all immunoglobulin isotypes demonstrated the potential for L chain editing. Furthermore, we conclude that a reversal of the normal kappa:lambda chain ratio in JIA CICs may be used as a marker for increased B-cell activity.

  19. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K


    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  20. Landau damping of Langmuir twisted waves with kappa distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Kashif, E-mail:; Aman-ur-Rehman [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Shahzad [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    The kinetic theory of Landau damping of Langmuir twisted modes is investigated in the presence of orbital angular momentum of the helical (twisted) electric field in plasmas with kappa distributed electrons. The perturbed distribution function and helical electric field are considered to be decomposed by Laguerre-Gaussian mode function defined in cylindrical geometry. The Vlasov-Poisson equation is obtained and solved analytically to obtain the weak damping rates of the Langmuir twisted waves in a nonthermal plasma. The strong damping effects of the Langmuir twisted waves at wavelengths approaching Debye length are also obtained by using an exact numerical method and are illustrated graphically. The damping rates of the planar Langmuir waves are found to be larger than the twisted Langmuir waves in plasmas which shows opposite behavior as depicted in Fig. 3 by J. T. Mendoça [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112113 (2012)].

  1. Elevated expression of NF-kappaB in oral submucous fibrosis--evidence for NF-kappaB induction by safrole in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts. (United States)

    Ni, Wei-Feng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao


    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is considered to be important in many inflammatory and immune responses. The aim of this study was to compare NF-kappaB expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further explore the potential mechanism that may lead to induction of NF-kappaB expression. Seventeen OSF and six normal buccal mucosa specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry. Primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were established and challenged with safrole, a major polyphenolic compound in the influorescence of Piper betel, by cytotoxicity and western blot assays. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, dexamethasone, and cyclosporin A were added to find the possible mechanism. NF-kappaB expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Safrole was cytotoxic to BMFs in a dose-dependent manner (psafrole (psafrole induced-NF-kappaB expression (psafrole in fibroblasts may be mediated by ERK activation and COX-2 signal transduction pathway.

  2. New results on the regional climate change. The statistical regionalization model WETTREG; Neue Ergebnisse zu regionalen Klimaaenderungen. Das statistische Regionalisierungsmodell WETTREG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The introductory chapter of the report describes the climate model WETTREG, the characterization of assumed emission scenarios and the interpretation of the climate simulations. The selected results of the regional model WETTREG cover the temperature and precipitation (summer and winter) and the results for selected regions in Germany: coastal regions at the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, northeast German lowlands, central low mountain range and Harz, low mountain range on both sides of the Rhine, Upper Rhine Graben and the Alps.

  3. Caspase-8 regulation by direct interaction with TRAF6 in T cell receptor-induced NF-kappaB activation. (United States)

    Bidère, Nicolas; Snow, Andrew L; Sakai, Keiko; Zheng, Lixin; Lenardo, Michael J


    Triggering of lymphocyte antigen receptors is the critical first step in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. T cell receptor (TCR) ligation assembles a large membrane signalosome, culminating in NF-kappaB activation [1,2]. Recently, caspase-8 was found to play a surprisingly prominent role in lymphocyte activation in addition to its well-known role in apoptosis [3]. Caspase-8 is activated after TCR stimulation and nucleates a complex with B cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10), paracaspase MALT1, and the inhibitors of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex [4]. We now report that the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 binds to active caspase-8 upon TCR stimulation and facilitates its movement into lipid rafts. We identified in silico two putative TRAF6 binding motifs in the caspase-8 sequence and found that mutation of critical residues within these sites abolished TRAF6 binding and diminished TCR-induced NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, RNAi-mediated silencing of TRAF6 abrogated caspase-8 recruitment to the lipid rafts. Protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta), CARMA1, and BCL10 are also required for TCR-induced caspase-8 relocation, but only PKCtheta and BCL10 control caspase-8 activation. Our results suggest that PKCtheta independently controls CARMA1 phosphorylation and BCL10-dependent caspase-8 activation and unveil an essential role for TRAF6 as a critical adaptor linking these two convergent signaling events.

  4. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to {kappa}-carrageenan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azero, Edwin G. [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Andrade, Cristina T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail:


    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [{eta}] = 10.3 dL g{sup -1}, was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [{eta}] = 9.4 dL g{sup -1}. Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for {kappa}-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 1.0 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration, in relation to {kappa}-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing {kappa}-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 10 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  5. NF-κB在初治急性髓系白血病中的表达与意义%The expression and significance of NF-kappa B in new diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宇靖; 刘婷婷; 柯波; 符环; 程洪波


    目的:应用RT-PCR技术检测NF-κB在初治急性髓系白血病诱导治疗前后表达的情况,研究NF-κB与急性髓性白血病之间的关系,并探讨NF-κB抑制剂用于急性髓系白血病的理论依据。方法应用逆转录聚合酶链式扩增反应(RT-PCR)技术检测初治急性髓系白血病患者诱导治疗前后与对照组骨髓单个核细胞中NF-κB的表达,分析NF-κB与急性髓系白血病之间的关系。结果⑴初治急性髓性白血病患者治疗前的NF-κB表达高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。⑵经诱导治疗后达完全缓解的急性髓系白血病患者,其NF-κB的表达明显下降,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。⑶经诱导治疗后未达完全缓解的急性髓系白血病患者,其NF-κB的表达高于对照组与治疗后完全缓解者,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论初治急性髓性白血病NF-κB基因明显升高,提示NF-κB的高表达可能是急性髓系白血病重要的致病因素,而经诱导治疗后未达完全缓解的患者与完全缓解患者之间NF-κB基因表达差异显著,提示NF-κB可能是影响急性髓系白血病诱导治疗效果的重要因素之一。%Objective To detect NF-κB in new diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia before and after treatment induced expres-sion of NF-κB Relations with acute myeloid leukemia between,and to explore the NF kappa B inhibitor for the theoretical basis of acute myeloid leukemia. Methods By RT-PCR detected NF-κB of bone marrow mononuclear cells in before and after treatment new diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients with control group,Analysis of the relationship between NF-nuclear factor kappa B and acute myeloid leukemia. Results ⑴In patients with acute myeloid leukemia before treatment,the expression of NF-kappa B was higher than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). ⑵After induction therapy of acute myeloid

  6. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.


    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules...

  7. Polymorphisms in NF-kappa B, PXR, LXR, PPAR gamma and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane; Ernst, Anja


    AIM: To investigate the contribution of polymorphisms in nuclear receptors to risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Genotypes of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B (NFKB1) NF kappa B -94ins/del (rs28362491); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma (PPAR gamma) PPAR gamma Pro12...

  8. DMPD: Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18267068 Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Hayden MS, Ghosh S. Cell. 2008 F...eb 8;132(3):344-62. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. PubmedID 18267068 Title Shared

  9. Depth statistics



    In 1975 John Tukey proposed a multivariate median which is the 'deepest' point in a given data cloud in R^d. Later, in measuring the depth of an arbitrary point z with respect to the data, David Donoho and Miriam Gasko considered hyperplanes through z and determined its 'depth' by the smallest portion of data that are separated by such a hyperplane. Since then, these ideas has proved extremely fruitful. A rich statistical methodology has developed that is based on data depth and, more general...

  10. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott


    In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.

  11. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung Hee [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Cheul [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Joo [Department of Pathology, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Suk [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young A., E-mail: [Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)


    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  12. Electron acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma with kappa distributed ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanandhan, S.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Singh, S. V. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa)


    Electron acoustic solitary waves in a two component magnetized plasma consisting of fluid cold electrons and hot superthermal ions are considered. The linear dispersion relation for electron acoustic waves is derived. In the nonlinear regime, the energy integral is obtained by a Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis, which predicts negative solitary potential structures. The effects of superthermality, obliquity, temperature, and Mach number on solitary structures are studied in detail. The results show that the superthermal index {kappa} and electron to ion temperature ratio {sigma} alters the regime where solitary waves can exist. It is found that an increase in magnetic field value results in an enhancement of soliton electric field amplitude and a reduction in soliton width and pulse duration.

  13. Relative locality in a quantum spacetime and the pregeometry of $\\kappa$-Minkowski

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Rosati, Giacomo


    We develop a new description of the much-studied $\\kappa$-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime, centered on representing on a single Hilbert space not only the $\\kappa$-Minkowski coordinates, but also the associated differential calculus and the $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e symmetry generators. In this "pregeometric" representation the relevant operators act on the kinematical Hilbert space of the covariant formulation of quantum mechanics, which we argue is the natural framework for studying the implications of the step from commuting spacetime coordinates to the $\\kappa$-Minkowski case, where the spatial coordinates do not commute with the time coordinate. The empowerment provided by this kinematical-Hilbert space representation allows us to give a crisp characterization of the "fuzziness" of $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime, whose most striking aspect is a relativity of spacetime locality. We show that relative locality, which had been previously formulated exclusively in classical-spacetime setups, for a quantum spaceti...

  14. Locus coeruleus kappa-opioid receptors modulate reinstatement of cocaine place preference through a noradrenergic mechanism. (United States)

    Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Foshage, Audra M; Bruchas, Michael R


    Activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) in monoamine circuits results in dysphoria-like behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in both conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration models. Noradrenergic (NA) receptor systems have also been implicated in similar behaviors. Dynorphinergic projections terminate within the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain, suggesting a possible link between the NA and dynorphin/kappa opioid systems, yet the implications of these putative interactions have not been investigated. We isolated the necessity of KORs in the LC in kappa opioid agonist (U50,488)-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP by blocking KORs in the LC with NorBNI (KOR antagonist). KOR-induced reinstatement was significantly attenuated in mice injected with NorBNI in the LC. To determine the sufficiency of KORs in the LC on U50,488-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, we virally re-expressed KORs in the LC of KOR knockout mice. We found that KORs expression in the LC alone was sufficient to partially rescue KOR-induced reinstatement. Next we assessed the role of NA signaling in KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP in the presence and absence of a α2-agonist (clonidine), β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol), and β(1)- and β(2)-antagonist (betaxolol and ICI-118,551 HCl). Both the blockade of postsynaptic β(1)-adrenergic receptors and the activation of presynaptic inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors selectively potentiated the magnitude of KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP but not cocaine-primed CPP reinstatement. Finally, viral restoration of KORs in the LC together with β-adrenergic receptor blockade did not potentiate KOR-induced reinstatement to cocaine CPP, suggesting that adrenergic receptor interactions occur at KOR-expressing regions external to the LC. These results identify a previously unknown interaction between KORs and NA systems and suggest a NA

  15. On a curvature-statistics theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail:


    The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svetovidov


    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of operation results of databanks on the level and structure of the Russian Federation population exposure from natural radiation sources for the period of 2001-2010. We consider the ways to improve the system of collecting and recording of the data on the doses from natural exposure to the population based on the experience and the modern regulatory system for radiation protection.

  17. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1{beta}-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanqin [Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Zhi, Hui [Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hou, Xiuyun [Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jiang, Bingbing, E-mail: [Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Highlights: {yields} We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk and gene expression. {yields} Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} Angiotensin II modulates NF-{kappa}B responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk. {yields} ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1{beta}-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1{beta}-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1{beta}, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that angiotensin

  18. Tungsten phosphanylarylthiolato complexes [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa3S,S',P} 2] and [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa4S,S',S",P}2]: synthesis, structures and redox chemistry. (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alexandra; Lönnecke, Peter; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie


    PhP(2-SHC6H4)2 (PS2H2) reacts with WCl6 with reduction of tungsten to give the air-sensitive tungsten(IV) complex [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}2] (1). 1 is oxidised in air to [WO{PhPO(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',O}{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}] (2). The attempted synthesis of 2 by reaction of 1 with iodosobenzene as oxidising agent was unsuccessful. [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}2] (3) was formed in the reaction of P(2-SHC6H4)3 (PS3H3) with WCl6. The W(VI) complex 3 contains two PS3(3-) ligands, each coordinated in a tetradentate fashion resulting in a tungsten coordination number of eight. The reaction of 3 with AgBF4 yields the dinuclear tungsten complex [W2{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}3]BF4 (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterised by spectral methods and X-ray structure determination.

  19. Rifampicin Inhibits the LPS-induced Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 via the Suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding Activity in RAW 264.7 Cells. (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Young Mi; Yeum, Chung Eun; Jin, Song-Hyo; Chae, Gue Tae; Lee, Seong-Beom


    Rifampicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic which is used extensively for treatment against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. Recently, a number of studies have focused on the immune-regulatory effects of rifampicin. Therefore, we hypothesized that rifampicin may influence the TLR2 expression in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we determined that rifampicin suppresses LPS-induced TLR2 mRNA expression. The down-regulation of TLR2 expression coincided with decreased production of TNF-alpha. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor that regulates genes for TLR2 and TNF-alpha, we examined the effect of rifampicin on the LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. Rifampicin inhibited NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, while it did not affect IKKalpha/beta activity. However, rifampicin slightly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65. In addition, rifampicin increased physical interaction between pregnane X receptor, a receptor for rifampicin, and NF-kappaB p65, suggesting pregnane X receptor interferes with NF-kappaB binding to DNA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that rifampicin inhibits LPS-induced TLR2 expression, at least in part, via the suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, the present results suggest that the rifampicin-mediated inhibition of TLR2 via the suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity may be a novel mechanism of the immune-suppressive effects of rifampicin.

  20. Modeling individual differences in randomized experiments using growth models: Recommendations for design, statistical analysis and reporting of results of internet interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Hesser


    Full Text Available Growth models (also known as linear mixed effects models, multilevel models, and random coefficients models have the capability of studying change at the group as well as the individual level. In addition, these methods have documented advantages over traditional data analytic approaches in the analysis of repeated-measures data. These advantages include, but are not limited to, the ability to incorporate time-varying predictors, handle dependence among repeated observations in a very flexible manner, and to provide accurate estimates with missing data under fairly unrestrictive missing data assumptions. The flexibility of the growth curve modeling approach to the analysis of change makes it the preferred choice in the evaluation of direct, indirect and moderated intervention effects. Although offering many benefits, growth models present challenges in terms of design, analysis and reporting of results. This paper provides a nontechnical overview of growth models in the analysis of change in randomized experiments and advocates for their use in the field of internet interventions. Practical recommendations for design, analysis and reporting of results from growth models are provided.

  1. Statistical Neurodynamics. (United States)

    Paine, Gregory Harold


    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  2. Estatísticas dos resultados das análises de laboratório de solo Statistical analysis of a soil testing laboratory results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar as estatísticas dos valores analíticos das análises de solo realizadas no Laboratório de Análise de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LAS/UFSM durante o período de 1988 à 1993 e obter valores como limites críticos que possibilitem um controle de qualidade na emissão dos laudos das análises de solo. Foram utilizadas as 21380 amostras de solos, provenientes de 162 municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. As análises estatísticas/oram realizadas para os 29 municípios que enviaram mais de 150 amostras de solo. Uma evolução distinta dos valores do teor de argila, pH em água, índice SMP, fósforo, potássio, teor de matéria orgânica, alumínio trocável e cálcio + magnésio trocável foi obtida nos diferentes municípios em função do tempo. As estatísticas obtidas, para estas variáveis, podem ser usadas para caracterizar a fertilidade dos solos destes municípios. Os resultados são dispersos e, em geral, não seguem uma distribuição de probabilidades conhecida. Os limites críticos (inferior e superior obtidos podem ser usados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade nos laudos de análise de solo.The objectives of this research were to study the behaviour and evolution of soil testing results from 1988 to 1993 time period and to define the range for critical values to include in algorithms which may be used for soil testing reports. Results of 21380 soil samples analysis from Federal University of Santa Maria soil testing laboratory were used from 1988 to 1993 time period. The samples carne from 162 counties of Rio Grande do Sul state including 29 counties with more then 150 soil samples. The results for clay content, water pH, SMP Índex, P, K, organic matter and exchangeable Al and Ca+Mg for each county are dispersed and show unknown distribution probabilities. Higher and lower critical values were obteined to analyze quality control for routine soil testing labs.

  3. Dust-acoustic solitons in quantum plasma with kappa-distributed ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehran Shahmansouri


    Arbitrary amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves in an unmagnetized and collisionless quantum dusty plasma comprising cold dust particles, kappa ()-distributed ions and degenerate electrons are investigated. The influence of suprathermality and quantum effects on the linear dispersion relation of DA waves is investigated. Then, the effect of -distributed ions and degenerate electrons on the existence domain of solitons is discussed in the space of (, ). The comparison of the existence domain for higher and lower values of shows that suprathermality results in propagation of solitons with lower values of Mach number, and the quantum effects, lead to a higher values of Mach number. The existence domain of solitons for nondegenerate -distributed electrons is considered for comparison with effect of degenerate electrons. Also, we found that the Sagdeev potential well becomes deeper and wider as $_{F-i}$ decreases, as for lower values, the influence of quantum effects on the Sagdeev pseudopotential profile is smaller.

  4. Inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa B cause apoptosis in cultured macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Mannick


    Full Text Available The precise role of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB in the regulation of cell survival and cell death is still unresolved and may depend on cell type and position in the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if three pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, N-tosyl-L-lysl chloromethyl ketone and calpain I inhibitor, induce apoptosis in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 at doses similar to those required for NF-κB inhibition. We found that each of the three inhibitors resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in morphologic indices of apoptosis in unstimulated, LPS-stimulated and TNF-stimulated cells. Lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF- κB inhibition. We conclude that nuclear NF-κB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages.

  5. Basic butylated methacrylate copolymer/kappa-carrageenan interpolyelectrolyte complex: preparation, characterization and drug release behaviour. (United States)

    Prado, H J; Matulewicz, M C; Bonelli, P; Cukierman, A L


    The formation of a novel interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) between basic butylated methacrylate copolymer and kappa-carrageenan was investigated and the product formed was characterized. Turbidity measurements and elemental analyses pointed to a 1:1 interaction of the repeating units. These results and FT-IR confirmed IPEC formation. Electronic microscopy images, particle size determination by image analysis and N(2) (77K) adsorption measurements were consistent with a porous material. This IPEC formed presented very good flowability and compactibility. Two maxima were observed in the swelling behaviour as a function of pH. The performance of the IPEC as a matrix for controlled release of drugs was evaluated, using ibuprofen as a model drug. Release profiles were properly represented by a mathematical model, which indicates that the system releases ibuprofen in a zero-order manner. These profiles could be controlled by conveniently modifying the proportion of the IPEC in the tablets.

  6. Important statistical considerations in the evaluation of post-market studies to assess whether opioids with abuse-deterrent properties result in reduced abuse in the community. (United States)

    By, Kunthel; McAninch, Jana K; Keeton, Stephine L; Secora, Alex; Kornegay, Cynthia J; Hwang, Catherine S; Ly, Thomas; Levenson, Mark S


    Abuse, misuse, addiction, overdose, and death associated with non-medical use of prescription opioids have become a serious public health concern. Reformulation of these products with abuse-deterrent properties is one approach for addressing this problem. FDA has approved several extended-release opioid analgesics with abuse-deterrent labeling, the bases of which come from pre-market studies. As all opioid analgesics must be capable of delivering the opioid in order to reduce pain, abuse-deterrent properties do not prevent abuse, nor do pre-market evaluations ensure that there will be reduced abuse in the community. Utilizing data from various surveillance systems, some recent post-market studies suggest a decline in abuse of extended-release oxycodone after reformulation with abuse-deterrent properties. We discuss challenges stemming from the use of such data. We quantify the relationship between the sample, the population, and the underlying sampling mechanism and identify the necessary conditions if valid statements about the population are to be made. The presence of other interventions in the community necessitates the use of comparators. We discuss the principles under which the use of comparators can be meaningful. Results based on surveillance data need to be interpreted with caution as the underlying sampling mechanisms can bias the results in unpredictable ways. The use of comparators has the potential to disentangle the effect due to the abuse-deterrence properties from those due to other interventions. However, identifying a comparator that is meaningful can be very difficult. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Approximating Stationary Statistical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming WANG


    It is well-known that physical laws for large chaotic dynamical systems are revealed statistically. Many times these statistical properties of the system must be approximated numerically. The main contribution of this manuscript is to provide simple and natural criterions on numerical methods (temporal and spatial discretization) that are able to capture the stationary statistical properties of the underlying dissipative chaotic dynamical systems asymptotically. The result on temporal approximation is a recent finding of the author, and the result on spatial approximation is a new one. Applications to the infinite Prandtl number model for convection and the barotropic quasi-geostrophic model are also discussed.

  8. Activated nuclear factor kappa B and airway inflammation after smoke inhalation and burn injury in sheep. (United States)

    Cox, Robert A; Burke, Ann S; Jacob, Sam; Oliveras, Gloria; Murakami, Kazunori; Shimoda, Katsumi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L; Hawkins, Hal K


    In a recent study, we have shown a rapid inflammatory cell influx across the glandular epithelium and strong proinflammatory cytokine expression at 4 hours after inhalation injury. Studies have demonstrated a significant role of nuclear factor kappa B in proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription. This study examines the acute airway inflammatory response and immunohistochemical detection of p65, a marker of nuclear factor kappa B activation, in sheep after smoke inhalation and burn injury. Pulmonary tissue from uninjured sheep and sheep at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after inhalation and burn injury was included in the study. Following immunostaining for p65 and myeloperoxidase, the cell types and the percentage of bronchial submucosal gland cells staining for p65 and the extent of myeloperoxidase stained neutrophils in the bronchial submucosa were determined. Results indicate absence of detection of P65 before 12 hours after injury. At 12 hours after injury, strong perinuclear staining for p65 was evident in bronchial gland epithelial cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Bronchial submucosal gland cells showed a significant increase in the percentage of cells stained for p65 compared with uninjured animals and earlier times after injury, P macrophages, and endothelial cells. Quantitation of the neutrophil influx into the bronchial submucosa showed a significant increase compared with uninjured tissue at 24 and 48 hours after injury, P < .05. In conclusion, immunohistochemical detection of activated p65 preceded the overall inflammatory response measured in the lamina propria. However, detection of p65 did not correlate with a recent study showing rapid emigration of neutrophils at 4 hours postinjury. Together, these results suggest that p65 immunostaining may identify cells that are activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines after injury; however, the immunoexpression may not adequately reflect the temporal activation of gene transcription that may

  9. Statistics 101 for Radiologists. (United States)

    Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E


    Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced.

  10. DMPD: Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16982211 Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. (.html) (.csml) Show Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. PubmedID 1698221...1 Title Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Author

  11. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  12. Structure of the human [kappa]-opioid receptor in complex with JDTic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huixian; Wacker, Daniel; Mileni, Mauro; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Vardy, Eyal; Liu, Wei; Thompson, Aaron A.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Carroll, F. Ivy; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C. (VCU); (Scripps); (UNC); (Res. Tri. Inst.)


    Opioid receptors mediate the actions of endogenous and exogenous opioids on many physiological processes, including the regulation of pain, respiratory drive, mood, and - in the case of {kappa}-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) - dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Here we report the crystal structure of the human {kappa}-OR in complex with the selective antagonist JDTic, arranged in parallel dimers, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals important features of the ligand-binding pocket that contribute to the high affinity and subtype selectivity of JDTic for the human {kappa}-OR. Modelling of other important {kappa}-OR-selective ligands, including the morphinan-derived antagonists norbinaltorphimine and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole, and the diterpene agonist salvinorin A analogue RB-64, reveals both common and distinct features for binding these diverse chemotypes. Analysis of site-directed mutagenesis and ligand structure-activity relationships confirms the interactions observed in the crystal structure, thereby providing a molecular explanation for {kappa}-OR subtype selectivity, and essential insights for the design of compounds with new pharmacological properties targeting the human {kappa}-OR.

  13. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); De La Rosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)


    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating {kappa}-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of {kappa}-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range. - Highlights: > Irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan fractions with Mw<3 kDa contained higher carbonyl bonds. > {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C spectra of irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan were similar to references. > {kappa}-Carrageenan oligomers with Mw of 3-10 kDa may be suitable as plant growth promoter.

  14. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  15. Effects of ketoprofen, morphine, and kappa opioids on pain-related depression of nesting in mice. (United States)

    Negus, S Stevens; Neddenriep, Bradley; Altarifi, Ahmad A; Carroll, F Ivy; Leitl, Michael D; Miller, Laurence L


    Pain-related functional impairment and behavioral depression are diagnostic indicators of pain and targets for its treatment. Nesting is an innate behavior in mice that may be sensitive to pain manipulations and responsive to analgesics. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a procedure for evaluation of pain-related depression of nesting in mice. Male ICR mice were individually housed and tested in their home cages. On test days, a 5- × 5-cm Nestlet was subdivided into 6 pieces, the pieces were evenly distributed on the cage floor, and Nestlet consolidation was quantified during 100-minute sessions. Baseline nesting was stable within and between subjects, and nesting was depressed by 2 commonly used inflammatory pain stimuli (intraperitoneal injection of dilute acid; intraplantar injection of complete Freund adjuvant). Pain-related depression of nesting was alleviated by drugs from 2 classes of clinically effective analgesics (the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen and the μ-opioid receptor agonist morphine) but not by a drug from a class that has failed to yield effective analgesics (the centrally acting kappa opioid agonist U69,593). Neither ketoprofen nor morphine alleviated depression of nesting by U69,593, which suggests that ketoprofen and morphine effects were selective for pain-related depression of nesting. In contrast to ketoprofen and morphine, the kappa opioid receptor antagonist JDTic blocked depression of nesting by U69,593 but not by acid or complete Freund adjuvant. These results support utility of this procedure to assess expression and treatment of pain-related depression in mice.

  16. The role and regulation of the nuclear factor kappa B signalling pathway in human labour. (United States)

    Lappas, M; Rice, G E


    Within the discipline of reproductive biology, our understanding of one of the most fundamental biological processes is lacking--the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern birth. This lack of understanding limits our ability to reduce the incidence of labour complications. The incidence of labour complications including: preterm labour; cervical incompetence; and post-date pregnancies has not diminished in decades. The key to improving the management of human labour and delivery is an understanding of how the multiple processes that are requisite for a successful labour and delivery are coordinated to achieve a timely birth. Processes of human labour include the formation of: contraction associated proteins; inflammatory mediators (e.g. cytokines); uterotonic phospholipid metabolites (e.g. prostaglandins); and the induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Increasingly, it is becoming evident that labour onset and birth are the result of cross-talk between multiple components of an integrated network. This hypothesis is supported by recent data implicating various upstream regulatory pathways in the control of key labour-associated processes, including the activity of enzymes involved in the formation of prostaglandins and extracellular matrix remodelling, and mediators of inflammation. Clearly, the biochemical pathways involved in the formation of these mediators represent potential sites for intervention that may translate to therapeutic interventions to delay or prevent preterm labour and delivery. Available data strongly implicate the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family as candidate upstream regulators of multiple labour-associated processes. Not only do these data warrant further detailed analysis of the involvement of these pathways in the process of human labour but also promise new insights into the key mechanisms that trigger birth and the identification of new therapeutic interventions that will improve the management of labour.

  17. Dichotomous actions of NF-kappaB signaling pathways in heart. (United States)

    Dhingra, Rimpy; Shaw, James A; Aviv, Yaron; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A


    Despite the substantial progress in heart research over the past two decades heart failure still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in North America and is reaching pandemic proportions worldwide. Though the underlying causes are varied, the functional loss of contractile myocytes through apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy has emerged a central unifying theme to explain diminished cardiac performance in individuals with heart failure. At the molecular level, there has been considerable interest in understanding the signaling pathways that regulate cell death in the heart with specific interest in the extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways. The cellular factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of a wide range of genes involved in cellular process including inflammation, immune cell maturation, cell proliferation, and, most recently, cell survival. NF-kappaB signaling is important for the normal cellular growth and is a major target of inflammatory cytokines. Several studies have highlighted a protective role of NF-kappaB in the heart under certain circumstances including hypoxic or ischemic myocardial injury. The diverse nature and involvement of NF-kappaB in regulation of vital cellular processes including cell survival notably in the post-mitotic heart has sparked considerable interest in understanding the signaling pathways involved in regulating NF-kappaB in the heart under normal and pathological conditions. However, whether NF-kappaB is adaptive, maladaptive or is a homeostatic response to cardiac injury may simply depend on the context and timing of its activation. In this forum we discuss NF-kappaB signaling pathways and therapeutic opportunities to modulate NF-kappaB