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Sample records for kappa carrageenan kc

  1. Radiolysis studies of aqueous kappa-carrageenan

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    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.p [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Kudo, H. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Saiki, S. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, N.; Tamada, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fu, H.; Muroya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Lin, M.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; DeLaRosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2010-05-15

    The effects on N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} gas on the radiation degradation yield of aqueous kappa (kappa-) carrageenan were investigated. The G{sub d} of solution saturated with N{sub 2}O solution was expectedly much higher than in air (1.7 and 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}). On the other hand, a lower G{sub d} of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1} was obtained from kappa-carrageenan solution saturated with N{sub 2}. The rate constant of reaction of OH radicals with sonicated and irradiated kappa-carrageenan were determined using e-beam pulse radiolysis. The rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with sonicated kappa-carrageenan decreased with decreasing molecular weight. On the other hand, the OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with irradiated kappa-carrageenan decreased but did not vary significantly with decreasing molecular weight. Metal ion (Na{sup +}) induced conformational transition into helical form decreased the rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot reaction with kappa-carrageenan. Likewise, the G{sub d} in aqueous form was affected by the conformational state of kappa-carrageenan. The helical conformation gave a lower G{sub d} (7 x 10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}) than the coiled conformation (G{sub d} = 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}).

  2. Improvement of mechanical properties of hydrogel by irradiation of polymers in aqueous solution with {kappa}-carrageenan

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    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines); Zhai, M. [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Predominate radiation reaction of {kappa}-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel is the main chain scission of KC. The gel strength of KC hydrogel decreased with increasing irradiation dose. However, KC was found to enhances the radiation crosslinking of synthetic water-soluble polymer (SWSP) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) in aqueous solution. The gel strength of SWSP hydrogel increased with increasing dose when KC was blended. Probably the radiation degraded KC radicals are recombined with radicals of PVP and PEO. The hydrogel thus prepared absorbs huge amounts of water due to the presence of strong hydrophilic -OSO{sub 3}{sup -} groups in KC. (author)

  3. Effect of kappa-carrageenan on the properties of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)/kappa-carrageenan blend hydrogel synthesized by {gamma}-radiation technology

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    Zhai Maolin E-mail: zkkf@pku.edu.cn; Ha Hongfei; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K

    2000-03-01

    A series of hydrogels in the form of rods were prepared from kappa-carrageenan (KC) and poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by gamma radiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma} source at room temperature. The properties of the prepared hydrogels, such as the gel strength, gel fraction and swelling behavior were investigated. Incorporation of KC into the PVP/water system increased obviously the gel strength and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of PVP hydrogel. The experimental analyses showed that the crosslinking reaction of PVP was quicker than the degradation of KC at a low dose (less than 30 kGy), and the degradation of KC was inhibited in the PVP/KC mixture system. So an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel composed of PVP (a chemical crosslinking network) and KC (a physical crosslinking network) was proposed here. The existence of different classes of water in this IPN system was shown by water melting curves using DCS. (author)

  4. Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan

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    Ren Jing E-mail: janeren2000@sohu.com; Zhang Yanqun; Li Jiuqiang; Ha Hongfei

    2001-09-01

    A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by {gamma}-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

  5. Properties of radiation synthesized PVP-kappa carrageenan hydrogel blends[PVP; Carrageenan; Hydrogels; Radiation crosslinking; Radiation grafting; Semi-interpenetrating network

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    Abad, L.V. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; Rosa, A.M. dela

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogels have been synthesized from varying concentrations of polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) and kappa carrageenan (KC) using gamma radiation. Physical properties such as gel fraction and swelling behavior were determined. Data revealed the presence of a network structure whereby KC is physically entangled into the crosslinked PVP (SIPN). TGA, X-RF and FT-IR analyses of the gel fractions also indicated grafting and crosslinking of the PVP. The degree of grafting and crosslinking depended on the concentrations of KC and PVP. Maximum grafting was obtained at higher KC concentration and lower PVP.

  6. Small-angle neutron scattering study on irradiated kappa carrageenan

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    Abad, Lucille [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines) and Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Okabe, Satoshi [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Koizumi, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shibayama, Mitsuhiro [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-05-31

    The structure of gamma-ray-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan in aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of small-angle neutron scattering. The scattered intensity, I(q), of non-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan solutions (5 wt%) was well described with an Ornstein-Zernike (OZ)-type function with the correlation length of 85 A, indicating that the {kappa}-carrageenan solution behaves just as a polymer solution in the semi-dilute regime. By increasing the irradiation dose (100 kGy), I(q) changed to a power-law function with the scattering exponent of -1.84. Further increase in dose results in a recovery of OZ-type function. This indicates that a progressive cleavage of {kappa}-carrageenan chains takes place randomly, leading to a self-similar structure at 100 kGy. This is followed by further segmentation of {kappa}-carrageenan chains.

  7. Light scattering studies of irradiated {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Nasimova, I.R. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Shibayama, M. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2005-05-01

    The relationships between the molecular weight (Mw) and the characteristic decay time distribution function G({gamma}) of irradiated kappa ({kappa}-) and iota ({iota}-) carrageenan were studied by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Mw and the characteristic decay time ({gamma}{sup -1}) are both steep decreasing exponential function with radiation dose. The dynamic behavior of irradiated {iota}-carrageenan was compared to irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan by DLS. The intensity correlation function of both carrageenans shifted towards shorter relaxation times with increasing radiation dose. Irradiated {iota}-carrageenan like {kappa}-carrageenan exhibits power law behavior at 0-50 kGy (at 0.05-0.1M KCl) indicating similar gelation behaviors. The temperature at which transition from coil to helix takes place (conformational transition temperature) decreases with increasing irradiation dose. A new faster relaxation mode appears at around 0.1-1 ms for both carrageenans between 100 and 150 kGy. Maximum peak height for this mode is at 100 kGy which corresponds to the optimum biological activity of {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan.

  8. Study Of Calcium And Potassium Different Nature Strength Gel Kappa-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Васильович Гурський

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain organic and mineral salts of potassium and calcium for strength gel kappa-carrageenan. The influence of the mass concentration of individual calcium for strength gels with different content kappa-carrageenan. Grounded mass concentration of some calcium salts for use in the composition of the jelly for sweet and savory dishes based on kappa-carrageenan

  9. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and {kappa}-carrageenan

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    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, Antonio J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Benilde F O [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J O, E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.p [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-02

    Magnetic hydrogel {kappa}-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter () of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g{sup -1}, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the {kappa}-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 {sup 0}C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  10. Rate constants of reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical

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    Abad, L.V. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)], E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Saiki, S.; Kudo, H.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Rosa, A.M. de la [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2007-12-15

    The rate constants for the reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical was investigated by pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis. The kinetics of the reaction of hydrated electron indicates no seeming reaction with {kappa}-carrageenan. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical reacts very rapidly with {kappa}-carrageenan at a rate constant of approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. This rate constant varies with pH.

  11. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules...

  12. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

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    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); De La Rosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-09-15

    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating {kappa}-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of {kappa}-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range. - Highlights: > Irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan fractions with Mw<3 kDa contained higher carbonyl bonds. > {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C spectra of irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan were similar to references. > {kappa}-Carrageenan oligomers with Mw of 3-10 kDa may be suitable as plant growth promoter.

  13. A new low molecular weight heparan sulphate antagonizes kappa-carrageenan-induced thrombosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, G B; Bartoli, C; Carpita, G

    1991-07-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (kappa-carrageenin; kappa-carragheen) was found to be thrombogenic in rats. After i.p. injection of 3 mg/kg of kappa-carrageenan the thrombosis extended to a maximum 7.5 cm from the tip of the tail. Infarction frequency as well as the extent of infarction were inhibited by oral administration of a new heparan sulphate of low molecular weight (LMW-HS) (alpha-idosane). Mesoglycan and heparin were active when administered by parenteral route, and aspirin showed no effect; mesoglycan was inactive at 50 mg/kg per os. The present data confirm the validity of this experimental model for evaluating the protective effects of antithrombotic drugs and show the activity of oral administration of a new drug endowed with fibrinolytic activity.

  14. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  15. Water soluble graft copolymer ({kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide): preparation, characterization and application

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    Mishra, M.M.; Yadav, M.; Sand, A.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-03-25

    {kappa}-Carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide was synthesized by free radical initiation using the potassium monopersulphate (PMS)/malonic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The effects of variation of different reactant oil grafting parameters have been studied by varying the concentration. Grafting ratio, add on and conversion showed an increasing trend on increasing the concentration of N-vinyl formamide, malonic acid, kappa-carrageenart and the concentration of PMS from 6 x 10{sup -3} to 22 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The optimum temperature and time for grafting of N-vinyl formamide onto {kappa}-carrageenan was found to be 40{sup o}C and 120 min, respectively. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour, flocculation and resistance to biodegradation properties have been studied. Flocculation capability of {kappa}-carrageenart and {kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  16. Thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/kappa-carrageenan dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J M; Cordobés, F; Raymundo, A; Guerrero, A

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of gum content and pH on the thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/κ-carrageenan (EY/κC) dispersions, monitored by linear viscoelastic measurements. Heat processing induces dramatic changes in the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of EY/κC systems, which may be attributed to a multistage mechanism that yields an interparticle gel network. An increase in κC content generally induces an enhancement in viscoelasticity. A reduction in pH hinders this enhancement and causes an anticipation of the multistage process, which confirms the importance of the electrostatic interactions of EY/κC dispersions. The viscoelastic properties of EY/κC gels generally fit a master mechanical spectrum, which suggests that the protein matrix generally dominates the microstructure of EY/κC gels. However, SEM images reveal formation of a κC network at low pH, at which some κC autohydrolysis may also play a role. Electrostatic attractions seem to favour interactions among EY aggregates and κC into the carrageenan network.

  17. The chemistry and immunochemistry of carrageenans from Eucheuma and related algal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNinno, V; McCandless, E L

    1978-10-01

    Carrageenans from several species of Eucheuma have been fractionated into KC1-soluble and KC1-insoluble fractions and analyzed by the usual chemical procedures. An anti-kappa-carrageenan, the reactivity of which is directed to kappa-structures (i.e., 3-linked galactose 4-sulphate, and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose) was used to analyze these carrageenans immunochemically. The antibody preparation shows only a small amount of cross-reactivity with iota-type carrageenans and thus could be used to distinguish kappa- and iota-type carrageenans, the latter having an index of homology of less than 0.2. A comparison of chemical and immunochemical data yielded further information as to the nature of the carrageenan-anti-carrageenan interaction, as well as elucidating the finer structure of carrageenans.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of thermo- and pH-sensitive kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) semi-IPN hydrogel

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    Chen Jun [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Mingzhu [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: mzliu@lzu.edu.cn; Chen Shilan [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel of kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (KC-g-PMAA/PDEA) was prepared using ammonium persulfate as an initiator and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamide as an accelerator at 25 deg. C. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The effects of the feed components, temperature and pH on the swelling behavior of the hydrogels were studied. The results showed that the introduction of KC-g-PMAA did not change the lower critical solution temperature of the semi-IPN hydrogels, which was the same to the PDEA hydrogel (at 28 deg. C). With the increase of KC-g-PMAA content, the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the hydrogel improved, which the swelling rate increased with the increasing content of KC-g-PMAA. The semi-IPN hydrogels showed a fast deswelling and swelling rate. The swelling dynamic transport of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation.

  19. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

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    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: purjavad@sharif.edu; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  20. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  1. Basic butylated methacrylate copolymer/kappa-carrageenan interpolyelectrolyte complex: preparation, characterization and drug release behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, H J; Matulewicz, M C; Bonelli, P; Cukierman, A L

    2008-09-01

    The formation of a novel interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) between basic butylated methacrylate copolymer and kappa-carrageenan was investigated and the product formed was characterized. Turbidity measurements and elemental analyses pointed to a 1:1 interaction of the repeating units. These results and FT-IR confirmed IPEC formation. Electronic microscopy images, particle size determination by image analysis and N(2) (77K) adsorption measurements were consistent with a porous material. This IPEC formed presented very good flowability and compactibility. Two maxima were observed in the swelling behaviour as a function of pH. The performance of the IPEC as a matrix for controlled release of drugs was evaluated, using ibuprofen as a model drug. Release profiles were properly represented by a mathematical model, which indicates that the system releases ibuprofen in a zero-order manner. These profiles could be controlled by conveniently modifying the proportion of the IPEC in the tablets.

  2. A thermoreversible double gel: characterization of a methylcellulose and kappa-carrageenan mixed system in water by SAXS, DSC and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Matija; Prossnigg, Florian; Glatter, Otto

    2008-06-01

    Sol-gel and gel-sol thermal transition of methylcellulose/water, kappa-carrageenan/water and methylcellulose/kappa-carrageenan/water mixtures was investigated utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheological experiments in temperature regime from 20 to 80 degrees C. Methylcellulose (E461) and kappa-carrageenan (E407) are well-known additives used for gelation in various nutrition and other products. The formulation and characterization of a mixed thermoreversible methylcellulose/kappa-carrageenan/water gel with very interesting double thermal transition gel-sol-gel upon heating was possible. This specific thermal behavior provides a liquid state of the system between the low-temperature and high-temperature gel-state and at the same time allows for the easy temperature tuning of the system's state. As such this system is suggested to be further tested as potential carrier for various functional colloidal systems.

  3. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to {kappa}-carrageenan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azero, Edwin G. [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Andrade, Cristina T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: ctandrade@ima.ufrj.br

    2006-09-15

    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [{eta}] = 10.3 dL g{sup -1}, was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [{eta}] = 9.4 dL g{sup -1}. Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for {kappa}-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 1.0 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration, in relation to {kappa}-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing {kappa}-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 10 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  4. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases C, N and S assimilation, auxin and gibberellin contents, and growth in Pinus radiata trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Saucedo; Rodrigo A Contreras; Alejandra Moenne

    2015-01-01

    Oligo-carrageenans (OCs) obtained from pure carrageenans extracted from marine red algae stimulate growth by enhancing photosynthesis and basal metabolism in tobacco plants and Eucalyptus trees. In addition, OCs stimulate secondary metabolism, increasing the level of metabolites involved in defense against pathogens. In this work, we analyzed the effect of OC kappa on the increase in height, in activities of basal metabolism enzymes in-volved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, ribu-lose 1,5 biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and O-acetylserine thiol-lyase (OASTL), and in the level of growth-promoting hormones, the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellin GA3, in pine (Pinus radiata) trees treated with OC kappa at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg mL-1 and cultivated for 9 months without additional treatment. Pines treated with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1 showed a similar increase in height but displayed a higher increased in total chlorophyll, activities of rubisco, GDH and OASTL and level of IAA and GA3 than those treated with OC kappa at 5 mg mL-1. Thus, OC kappa stimulates growth and basal metabolism and increases the level of growth-promoting hormones in pine trees, mainly at 1 mg mL-1.

  5. Dietary administration of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan enhances the innate immune response of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2008-02-15

    Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate and kappa (kappa)-carrageenan at 5, 10 and 20gkg(-1), respectively after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 weeks were examined for survival, growth, innate cellular and humoral responses as compared to the fish that fed control non-supplemented diet. Survival was 100% for the fish that fed all diets after 14 weeks and no significant difference in growth was observed among seven diets. The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 5gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity. In another experiment, E. fuscoguttatus, which had been fed control diet, and all diets containing sodium alginate, and kappa-carrageenan after 14 weeks were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 5.0x10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) fish(-1) and then placed in seawater of 34 per thousand. The survival of fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) and kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) was significantly higher than that of fish which fed the control diet over 96-168h. It was concluded that E. fuscoguttatus which fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) or less, or fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) enhance the innate immunity, and increase the resistance from V. alginolyticus infection.

  6. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  7. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of kappa-Carrageenan Beads Containing Silver Nanoparticles with Dye Adsorption and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used a simple and totally green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles using kappa-carrageenan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The beads were prepared in aqueous medium by microwave heating, and then followed by cross-linking with K+ cations without using any additional toxic and expensive chemical agents. The preparation method of the carrageenan-based beads is easy, fast, simple, effective, and safe. The synthesized beads loaded with were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra, transmition electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. The as-prepared beads were evaluated to remove cationic crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions. The thermodynamic parameters shown that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. The kinetics and isotherm of crystal violet adsorption were found to well fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the obtained beads was examined using the nutrient agar disc diffusion method.

  8. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, María-Pilar; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bermejo, Paulina; Abad, María-José; Carro, Rubén; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Otero-Espinar, Francisco; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV. PMID:26393621

  9. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  10. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  11. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  12. Phase behaviors involved in surimi gel system: Effects of phase separation on gelation of myofibrillar protein and kappa-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Xu, Xiaoqi; Ji, Lei; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu

    2017-10-01

    Phase behaviors of mixtures of myofibrillar protein and κ-carrageenan at different mixing ratios and temperatures were examined by digital images and confocal scanning laser microscopy, showing that that the extent of phase separation was enhanced as the ratio of polysaccharides and temperature increased. The zeta potential of the mixtures became less negative as the protein ratio increased, and the complex became saturated at or above the protein/κ-carrageenan ratio of R4 (3.2%:0.8%). Gelation process performed by dynamic rheological analysis demonstrated that the presence of carrageenan decreased the gelation temperature but increased the storage modulus. Analysis of the microstructures of the mixed gels showed that the networks were significantly influenced by the concentrations of κ-carrageenan. The present work could be applied to evaluate the mechanism of competition between phase separation and gelation in mixtures of proteins and polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A flexible humidity sensor based on KC-MWCNTs composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Chu, Jin; Aldalbahi, Ali; Rivera, Manuel; Wang, Lidan; Duan, Shukai; Feng, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (KC) to form a flexible composite via evaporative casting method. The glycerin was used as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of the composite. The KC-CNTs was examined by using FESEM and Raman, and then the humidity sensing properties of the samples were characterized under alternating current (AC). The purpose for using AC power supply is to avoid the possible polarization effect during measurements of the humidity properties. The experimental data exhibit that the fabricated sensors have high response to relative humidity (RH) with good repeatability, stability, and low hysteresis. A phenomenon that the impedance of the sensor decreases with ascending RH was also found and the basic sensing mechanisms were discussed.

  14. Kappa carrageenan : a study on its physico-chemical properties, sol-gel transition and interaction with milk proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, T.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a characterization of the milkreactive polysaccharide κ-carrageenan by means of light scattering, viscosimetry and sedimentation experiments is presented. The disorder/order transitions occurring at the gelpoint of these substances are discussed in terms of a coil/double helix transit

  15. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  16. Synthesis and application of polypyrrole/carrageenan nano-bio composite as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Chakavak; Ghasemi, Mostafa; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Sedky H A; Abdi, Mahnaz M; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2014-12-19

    A novel nano-bio composite polypyrrole (PPy)/kappa-carrageenan(KC) was fabricated and characterized for application as a cathode catalyst in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). High resolution SEM and TEM verified the bud-like shape and uniform distribution of the PPy in the KC matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has approved the amorphous structure of the PPy/KC as well. The PPy/KC nano-bio composites were then studied as an electrode material, due to their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) ability as the cathode catalyst in the MFC and the results were compared with platinum (Pt) as the most common cathode catalyst. The produced power density of the PPy/KC was 72.1 mW/m(2) while it was 46.8 mW/m(2) and 28.8 mW/m(2) for KC and PPy individually. The efficiency of the PPy/KC electrode system is slightly lower than a Pt electrode (79.9 mW/m(2)) but due to the high cost of Pt electrodes, the PPy/KC electrode system has potential to be an alternative electrode system for MFCs.

  17. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  18. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR SOBRE LA INFLUENCIA DE LA CARRAGENINA KAPPA, KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA EN LA VISCOSIDAD Y TIXOTROPÍA DE LAS SALMUERAS DE INYECCIÓN PARA JAMONES COCIDOS PICADOS DE CERDO PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF KAPPA, KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM IN THE VISCOSITY AND THIXOTROPY OF INJECTION BRINES FOR COOKED CHOPPED HAMS OF PORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alexander Molina Cote

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio determinó el efecto que sobre la viscosidad y la tixotropía de una salmuera de masajeo para jamones picados cocidos de cerdo, tiene la adición de carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara, cuando son usadas a un nivel del 1% en la salmuera. Para tal efecto se incorporaron seis mezclas distintas de hidrocoloides provenientes de la carragenina kappa, kappa I.II y goma tara (individualmente, en mezclas binarias y mezclas terciarias, en una salmuera de inyección y masajeo para jamones; a las cuales se les determinó su comportamiento viscoso y tixotrópico a 4 ºC. Los datos obtenidos de índice de tixotropía (máximos, se analizaron mediante un modelo cuadrático derivado de un arreglo de mezclas. Los resultados mostraron que todas las salmueras se comportaron tixotrópicamente, presentando mayor área de histéresis, las mezclas que contenían goma tara. El modelo usado para el índice de tixotropía arrojó, con un nivel de significancia de 0,05, que la relación óptima, es la que contiene la mezcla de carragenina kappa I.II-goma tara (79% y 21%. Adicionalmente, las salmueras que contenían carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y carragenina kappa-carragenina kappa I.II presentaron menor viscosidad que las mezclas que contenían goma tara.The aim of this study was to determine the thixotropy´s effect of a massage brine in cooked chopped pork hams with addition of kappa, kappa I.II carrageenan, tara gum and their mixtures, when were used at 1% injection level of brine to meat. Six mixtures were evaluated. A protocol for thixotropy measurement adjusted to the conditions of brines used taking in account salinity, pH, temperature and shear stress. Data obtained from thixotropy index (maximum were analyzed with quadratic model derived from blends array. Results showed thixotropic measurement to brines presented a very small area, showing structural changes, but with very fast recovery. It was observed

  19. In vitro and in vivo ocular safety and eye surface permanence determination by direct and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of ion-sensitive hydrogels based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Argibay, Barbara; Blanco Méndez, José; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan and alginates are natural polysaccharides able to interact with different cations that can be used to elaborate ion-activated in situ gelling systems for different uses. The interaction between fluid solutions of these polysaccharides and cations presents into the tear made these biopolymers very interesting to elaborate ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of mixtures of these polymers to obtain ion-activated ophthalmic in situ gelling systems with optimal properties for ocular use. To achieve this purpose different proportion of the biopolymers were analyzed using a mixture experimental design evaluating their transparency, mechanical properties and bioadhesion in the absence and presence of simulated tear fluid. Tear induces a rapid sol-to-gel phase transition in the mixtures forming a consistent hydrogel. The solution composed by 80% of gellan gum and 20% kappa-carrageenan showed the best mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. This mixture was evaluated for rheological behavior, microstructure, cytotoxicity, acute corneal irritancy, ex-vivo and in vivo ocular toxicity and in vivo corneal contact time using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) techniques. Result indicates that the system is safe at ophthalmic level and produces an extensive ocular permanence higher than 6h.

  20. Trivalent Iron Induced Gelation in Lambda-Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2012-03-01

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G') of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G") indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  1. Trivalent iron induced gelation in lambda-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Running, Cordelia A.; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas (Purdue)

    2012-05-24

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G*) of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G*) indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  2. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  3. Tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippine eucheuma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Annabelle V; Ambal, Wilhelmina O; Estrella, Romulo R; Pangilinan, Rolando; De Vera, Carlos J; Pacis, Raymund L; Rodriguez, Ner; Villanueva, Merle A

    2004-01-01

    The tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippines Eucheuma species were investigated using NEC tensilon universal-testing machine according to American Society for Testing Materials methods. These properties are important for assessing carrageenan film as packaging material. The kappa and iota types were used in the study. The effect of glycerine on the tensile and tear strength including elongation was also evaluated. Addition of glycerine tended to lower the tensile strength of the film and increase its elongation properties including the tear strength. Carrageenan film without glycerine was much stronger. Glycerine made the film more flexible and easy to deform. The composite film of carrageenan and konjac gum did not exhibit elongation. It also showed higher tensile strength than did the composite film of carrageenan and xanthan gum. Compared with iota-type carrageenan film, kappa-type carrageenan film without glycerine was more comparable to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film in terms of tensile strength as was the composite film of carrageenan-konjac gum. The kappa-type carrageenan film with glycerine was more comparable to LDPE film in terms of tear strength. The elongation reading for carrageenan film was lower than that for LDPE film. Morphologic studies showed that the carrageenan film had sets of pores distributed randomly at different places as compared to LDPE film. It also showed that the carrageenan film was more fibrous than LDPE film.

  4. KC-135 Operations Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The KC-135 Low-G Flight Research aircraft (a predecessor of the Boeing 707) is used to fly parabolas to create 20-25 seconds of weightlessness so that the astronauts...

  5. KC-135 Operations Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The KC-135 Low-G Flight Research aircraft (a predecessor of the Boeing 707) is used to fly parabolas to create 20-25 seconds of weightlessness so that the astronauts...

  6. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  7. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  8. Study of Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum Carrageenans Growing in T oliara, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoamazava, A.

    1996-01-01

    The phycocolloids of two species of red algae, Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum, were studied. Eucheuma denticu/atum was found to contain mainly iota carrageenan, while kappa carrageenan was the main component in Eucheuma striatum. The carrageenan content in E. denticu/atum varied from 50 to 55'Yo; in E. striatum it varied from 42 to 51 %. Considering these yields and the abundance of these species in the Toliara area, the two Eucheuma spp. Are attractive for industrial exploitatio...

  9. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CARRAGENINA KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DEL JAMÓN DE CERDO PICADO Y COCIDO EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED AND CHOPPED PORK HAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron sinéresis, color y dureza instrumental y, sensorialmente las características de olor, sabor, color y dureza en jamones inyectados, cocidos y picados de cerdo, los cuales se habían elaborado aplicando en la salmuera de inyección una mezcla de hidrocoloides compuesta por carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara en una proporción de 79:21, en niveles del 1% y 1,2%, usando tres repeticiones para el estudio. Los jamones así elaborados se compararon contra un jamón testigo, elaborado sin el uso de estos hidrocoloides. Los valores obtenidos para los atributos, se analizaron mediante un diseño de una sola vía, con 5 repeticiones en el tiempo (0, 10, 20, 28 y 34 días, dando un arreglo factorial. Los resultados muestran que el tratamiento 2 (1,2% presentó la menor liberación de agua y la mayor dureza. No se registró diferencia entre los tratamientos y el testigo para la característica elasticidad. El testigo mostró las mejores características de color, olor y sabor sensoriales. La edad influyó en las características dureza y sinéresis en forma determinante, señalando el período desde el día 15 hasta el día 28 como aquel en que más se agudiza la sinéresis, siendo ésta más notable en el testigo que no contenía hidrocoloide.Characteristics of quality, color, texture and sineresis (instrumental and, odor, flavor, color and hardness (sensory of injected, cooked and chopped pork hams were assessed, which were manufactured using a mix of hydrocolloids in the brine of injection comprised by kappa I.II carrageenan and tara gum in a 79:21 ratio, at levels of 1% and 1.2%, using three replicates for the study; the finished hams were compared with a control ham, manufactured without the use of these hydrocolloids. The values obtained for the attributes, were analyzed through a one way design, with 5 repetitions in time (0, 10, 20, 28 and 34 days, providing a factorial arrangement. The results showed that the treatment 2 (1

  10. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: medzaniquelli@ffclrp.usp.br; Wong, Kenneth [Laboratorio de Fisico-Quimica, Centro de Pesquisas de Paulinia, Rhodia Brasil, Paulinia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu{sup 3+}/Na{sup +} or K{sup +} with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan.

  11. KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reported in December 2014. The CE changes for Milestone C (MS C), Initial Operational Test & Evaluation ( IOT &E), and the FRP Decision milestones...ongoing. The Aircrew Training System (ATS) team continues device engineering and manufacturing development. The ATS Program Office and FlightSafety...and IOT &E for readiness. The Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center assessment of the KC-46A confirmed that the program was on track to meet

  12. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta from Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae, were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%, Gigartina pistillata (59.7%, and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%. Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants; Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2, Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2, Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2, and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2.

  13. Characterization of commercial carrageenans by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using single-reflection attenuated total reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volery, Pascal; Besson, Richard; Schaffer-Lequart, Christelle

    2004-12-15

    The purity and composition of commercial carrageenans vary widely and, therefore, have to be checked prior to their use in the food industry. Infrared spectroscopy is an alternative method to the expensive and time-consuming wet chemical and NMR methods to characterize carrageenan samples. The use of an attenuated total reflection accessory coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer allows a direct analysis of the sample without any preparation step, which is an additional benefit for the rapid identification check of raw material at reception in an industrial environment. Using a set of calibration samples, three multivariate calibrations were developed to predict the total carrageenan content as well as the molar ratio of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. A validation with an independent set of samples confirmed the robustness of the calibrations and the accuracy of the predictions. The accuracies of the calibrations given by their respective standard errors of prediction are 5.6 g/100 g, and 6.1 mol %, and 6.6 mol %, respectively, for the total carrageenan content and the molar ratios of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. The total preparation and analysis time is <5 min per sample.

  14. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S. Sangha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ-, lambda(λ-, and kappa(κ-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS and lipoxygenase (LOX, were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  15. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  16. RA Construction KC, LLC Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    RA Construction KC, LLC (the Company) is located in Gladstone, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Kansas City, Missouri.

  17. Emerging applications of radiation-modified carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2014-10-01

    The Philippines supplies almost half of the world’s processed carrageenan as ingredient for different applications. In order to maintain the country’s competitive advantage, R and D on radiation processed carrageenan with various potential applications had been undertaken. PVP-carrageenan hydrogels for wound dressing had been developed. A carrageenan-based radiation dose indicator can detect radiation dose of as low as 5 kGy. Irradiated carrageenan has also been tested as plant growth promoter. Irradiated carrageenans have been found have been found to contain some antioxidant properties which increase with increasing dose and concentration. Carboxymethyl carrageenans had also been developed that shows promising effect as super water absorbent for soil conditioner in plants.

  18. De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of three red algal species of Family Solieriaceae to discover putative genes associated with carrageenan biosysthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lipu; WANG Xumin; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Betaphycus gelatinus, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum of Family Solieriaceae, Order Gi-gartinales, Class Rhodophyceae are three important carrageenan-producing red algal species, which pro-duce different types of carrageenans, beta (β)-carrageenan, kappa (κ)-carrageenan and iota (ι)-carrageenan. So far the carrageenan biosynthesis pathway is not fully understood and few information is about the So-lieriaceae genome and transcriptome sequence. Here, we performed the de novo transcriptome sequencing, assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of these three commercial-valuable species using an Illumina short-sequencing platform Hiseq 2000 and bioinformatic software. Furthermore, we compared the different expression of some unigenes involved in some pathways relevant to carrageenan biosynthe-sis. We finally found 861 different expressed KEGG orthologs which contained a glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway (21 orthologs), carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (16 orthologs), galactose metabolism (5 orthologs), and fructose and mannose metabolism (9 orthologs) which are parts of the carbohydrate me-tabolism. We also found 8 different expressed KEGG orthologs for sulfur metabolism which might be impor-tantly related to biosynthesis of different types of carrageenans. The results presented in this study provided valuable resources for functional genomics annotation and investigation of mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of carrageenan in Family Solieriaceae.

  19. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10 is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC, nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK, and phospho(Ser36-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P<0.001 in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  20. 7-Ketocholesterol Induces Cell Apoptosis by Activation of Nuclear Factor kappa B in Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang,Zhenyu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of apoptosis in mouse monocytic macrophage cell line J774A.1 stimulated by 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI staining. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Results showed that 7-KC-stimulation in J774A.1 cells activated NF-kappaB, which is involved in cell apoptosis, in a time- and dose-dependent manners. 7-KC was also found to increase the binding activity of NF-kappaB to specific DNA binding sites, a possible mechanism for the induction of the cell apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were partially inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-kappaB inhibitor. Taken together, 7-KC may be an important factor in atherosclerosis due to the ability of 7-KC to induce cell apoptosis, which is at least partially mediated through the activation of NF-kappaB.

  1. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  2. The effect of degradation on κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum/konjac glucomannan gels at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Zheng; Nakajima, Tetsuya; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Brenner, Tom

    2013-10-15

    The feasibility of textural and rheological modification of gels containing κ-carrageenan (KC) and locust bean gum (LBG) by addition of konjac glucomannan (KGM) was investigated. Special attention was paid to the effect of polysaccharide degradation during heating at acidic pH. The general effect of polysaccharide degradation was to decrease the Young's modulus, while the fracture strain in extension was scarcely affected unless the degradation was very severe. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting peak corresponding to dissociation of KC-KGM bonds decreased faster than the melting peak of KC-only bonds with increasing degree of polysaccharide degradation. The implication is that as degradation proceeds, fewer KGM molecules can interact with KC to form elastic bonds, and the excess of KGM which reinforces the existing elastic network and increases the fracture strain actually increases. For this reason, the fracture strain remains nearly unchanged with increasing degradation levels. A decrease in fracture strain is thus observed only at very severe degradations, where KC no longer forms a self-supporting gel by itself.

  3. Phase diagrams of hybrid carrageenans extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Azevedo, G; Hilliou, L

    2016-01-20

    NaCl and KCl phase diagrams of two kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans (KI) are established, and the rheological properties of obtained solutions and gels are reported. KI were extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus seaweeds and showed different chemical composition, 48 mol% of kappa carrageenan (K) and 52 mol% of iota carrageenan (I), and 78 mol% of K and 22 mol% of I, respectively. Phase diagrams are systematically compared those of blends of commercial K and I (K+I) showing equivalent chemical compositions. Results confirm that KI clearly differ from mixtures of K and I. K+I form gels at lower polysaccharide concentration and ionic strength, and exhibit gel separation from a liquid phase when large amount (>0.1 mol/L) of KCl is used. In contrast, no syneresis was found in KI gels formed under similar conditions. Both KI and K+I gels are strain hardening, and show a concentration scaling of the elasticity with exponents ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 depending on the type of salt and ionic strength. The strain at break of KI gels does not show salt specificity and is similar to the strain at break of K+I gels in KCl under similar salt and polysaccharide concentrations. K+I gels in NaCl are more fragile than in KCl, thus showing salt specificity.

  4. Selective sulfation of carrageenans and the influence of sulfate regiochemistry on anticoagulant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Cristiano A; Noseda, Miguel D; Cipriani, Thales R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Ducatti, Diogo R B

    2013-01-16

    Sulfated polysaccharides are recognized for their broad range of biological activities, including anticoagulant properties. The positions occupied by the sulfate groups are often related to the level of the inherent biological activity. Herein the naturally sulfated galactans, kappa-, iota- and theta-carrageenan, were additionally sulfated by regioselective means. The anticoagulant activity of the resulting samples was then studied using the aPTT in vitro assay. The influence of sulfate regiochemistry on the anticoagulant activity was evaluated. From kappa-carrageenan three rare polysaccharides were synthesized, one of them involved a synthetic route with an amphiphilic polysaccharide intermediate containing pivaloyl groups. Iota- and theta-carrageenan were utilized in a selective C6 sulfation at β-D-Galp units to produce different structures comprising trisulfated diads. All the samples were characterized by NMR (1D and 2D). The resulting aPPT measurements suggested that sulfation at C2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-D-Galp and C6 of β-D-Galp increased the anticoagulant activity.

  5. Evaluation of stress-strain for characterization of the rheological behavior of alginate and carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mammarella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.

  6. Pharmacological importance of sulphated polysaccharide carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii in comparison with commercial carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arumugampillai Manimehalai; Sanjivkumar, Muthusamy; Chandran, Manohar Navin; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological properties of native carrageenan (κ) extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii and commercial carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich) were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic studies. Phytochemical analysis of native and commercial carrageenans showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, gums & mucilages and carbohydrate. Both native and commercial carrageenans exhibited better antioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity (87±0.47 and 82.6±0.47μg A.A/g), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (61.4±0.27 and 58.66±0.31μg/ml), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (80.42±0.22 and 73.66±0.22μg/ml), DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.26±0.20 and 53.67±0.082μg/ml) and reducing power assay (46.57±0.32 and 42.54±0.27μg/ml) at the maximum concentration of 100μg/ml carrageenans. These results indicated that native carrageenan from K. alvarezii possessed better antioxidant potential in comparison with commercial carrageenan. Anticancer activities of both carrageenans showed excellent inhibition on the growth of breast, colon, liver and osteosarcoma cell lines at the maximum concentration of 150μg/ml. Native carrageenan exhibited an excellent anticancer activity on colon carcinoma cell lines (67.66±0.168%) with the IC50 value of 73.87μg/ml and commercial carrageenan possessed a potent inhibition on the growth of breast cancer cell lines (67.33±0.077%) with the IC50 value of 123.8μg/ml. These results clearly indicated the beneficial effect of native and commercial carrageenans as anticancer agents being a free radical scavenger. Anti-diabetic property of both carrageenans showed inhibition effect on α- glucosidase enzyme. The inhibitory effect depends on concentration of carrageenans and it was recorded that maximum (74.49±1.05 and 67.42±0.63) inhibitory effect of α- glucosidase enzyme at 500μg/ml concentration.

  7. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...

  8. An MRI phantom using carrageenan gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamamoto, Naotake; Tanaka, Akio; Hiraki, Yoshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2000-12-01

    We have developed a new solid type carrageenan gel phantom. The ingredients of the new gel are carrageenan, manganese chloride, sodium chloride, sodium azide, and water. The gel phantom has sufficient strength to form a torso without the use of a reinforcing agent. A phantom of a desired shape can be created by pouring a hot solution of carrageenan into a mold. The phantom can then be cut easily with a knife and trimmed into the desired shape. The recommended concentrations of the ingredients are; 5 wt% carrageenan, 0.2 mM MnCl{sub 2}, 0.19 wt% NaCl, 0.1 wt% NaN{sub 3}, with the remainder being water. T{sub 2} and T{sub 1} of this phantom at 1.5 T are 84.9 ms and 429 ms respectively. The conductivity and relative dielectric constant at 63.8 MHz are 0.769 S/m and 81.4 respectively. (author)

  9. Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification/thermal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Ronald J; Poncelet, Denis

    2004-05-01

    Brewers yeast was encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan microspheres using an emulsification-thermal gelation approach. Due to heat sensitivity of the yeast at temperatures in excess of 36 degrees C, mixtures of low and high gelation temperature carrageenans were tested to obtain a blend yielding a gelation temperature under 40 degrees C. A 20:80 dispersion of 2% carrageenan sol containing cells, in warm canola oil, produced microspheres upon cooling, with a mean diameter of 450 microm and narrow size dispersion (span of 1.2). Application of a chitosan membrane coat to minimize cell release, increased the mean microsphere diameter to 700 microm, due to the coat thickness and swelling of the microspheres. This diameter was designed so as to minimize mass transfer limitations. Batch fermentations were carried out in a 3 L reactor on a commercial wort medium. Cell loading was 10(7) cells mL(-1) microspheres, and cell "burst" release was observed upon inoculation into fresh medium, whether microspheres were coated or not. The kinetics of intra- and extracapsular cell growth were determined. Increased concentrations of extracapsular free cells could be accounted for by growth in the wort medium, and by ongoing release from the gel microspheres, whether coated or not. Cell release from chitosan-coated carrageenan microspheres was less than that from uncoated microspheres, likely due to retention by the membrane coat. Growth kinetics and alpha-amino nitrogen consumption of encapsulated yeast were higher than that of free cells, and differences in alcohol and ester profiles were also observed, likely due to modified metabolism of the encapsulated yeast.

  10. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hebar

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  11. Coil-helix transition of ι-carrageenan as a function of chain regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, F. van de; Rollema, H.S.; Grinberg, N.V.; Burova, T.V.; Grinberg, V.Ya.; Hans Tromp, R.

    2002-01-01

    A series of ι-carrageenans containing different amounts of v-carrageenan (0-23 monomer %) have been prepared from neutrally extracted carrageenan of Eucheuma denticulatum. v-Carrageenan is the biochemical precursor of ι-carrageenan. The conformational order-disorder transition and rheological proper

  12. Effect of process conditions on the gel viscosity and gel strength of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC produced from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Bono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii or commonly known Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the coastal areas of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Currently, the Southeast Asian region is producing semi refined carrageenan (SRC. There are various works in producing SRC; however, there are limited efforts to develop the optimization of cooking process parameters. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process (alkaline treatment where the parameters (concentration of potassium hydroxide solution, cooking time and cooking temperature and the ranges are identified experimentally. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The optimization of cooking process parameters and the experimental design was conducted based on the Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The experimental result showed that gel viscosity increases with the decrease of cooking time, cooking temperature and potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration (% w/w. In contrast, gel strength increases as cooking time, cooking temperature and KOH concentration (% w/w increases. From the optimization, the best conditions for alkaline treatment found were cooking temperature 80 °C, cooking time 30 min and KOH concentration 10 (% w/w which are similar to current practice in industry.

  13. Anaerobic Degradation of Carrageenan from the Red Macroalga Eucheuma cottonii†

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary M.; Guist, G. G.; Lauterbach, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan was investigated by batch digestion of the red macroalga Eucheuma cottonii. During a 10-week incubation, ca. 60% of the starting E. cottonii biomass was fermented to CO2, methane, and volatile fatty acids (predominantly acetate). Carrageenan degradation paralleled the loss of total biomass, suggesting no preferential degradation or preservation. After 10 weeks of incubation, the carrageenan content of the remaining biomass was 5...

  14. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    . The ι-carrageenan and agar samples had gelling temperatures of 70–74 °C and 38–52 °C, respectively. Gel strengths, G’ at 25 °C, of carrageenan samples extracted via alkali-treatment were 4000–6500 Pa. The agar gel strength was 287 Pa. The rheological properties of the H. musciformis κ-carrageenans were...

  15. Seasonal changes in Carrageenan and other biochemical constituents of Hypnea musciformis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Dass, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; DeSouza, L.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Carrageenan content was maximum in winter. Near inverse relationship was observed between the total carbohydrate and carrageenan. Protein levels were highest when the nitrogenous nutrients were high...

  16. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media

    OpenAIRE

    Epifanio, E. C.; Veroy, R. L.; Uyenco, F.; Cajipe, G. J. B.; Laserna, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  17. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, E C; Veroy, R L; Uyenco, F; Cajipe, G J; Laserna, E C

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  18. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  19. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of modified carrageenan microparticles for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaki, Stavroula G; Kyzas, George Z; Tzereme, Areti; Papageorgiou, M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, carrageenan microparticles were synthesized using spray-drying method and used as biosorbents for the removal of pharmaceutical compounds. The cross-linking reaction of iota-carrageenan (iCAR) and kappa-carrageenan (kCAR) with glutaraldehyde (GLA) at different concentrations (2.5% or 5% (w/w), mass of GLA per mass of CAR) was studied (iCAR/GLA2.5, iCAR/GLA5, kCAR/GLA2.5, kCAR/GLA5). The physicochemical properties of the novel cross-linked polymers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Swelling studies were in accordance with the polymer properties, showing the lowest swelling degree (19%) by using the iCAR/GLA5 microparticles. The optimal kCAR/GLA5 microparticles were successfully employed for the removal of Metoprolol (MTPL) from aqueous samples. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was investigated using a batch adsorption procedure and the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process were further investigated. It was found that the adsorption isotherms agree well with the Langmuir-Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was achieved in pH 6, whereas an increase of Qm was observed increasing the temperature (from 109 at 20°C to 178 mg/g at 40°C). Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process on iCAR/GLA5 microparticles followed pseudo-second-order rate mechanism. Finally, a new phenomenological model of the adsorption process was proposed in order to extract information on the relevant sub-processes.

  1. The effect of environmental humidity on radiation-induced degradation of carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Murat; Toprak, Deniz; Güven, Olgun

    2014-12-19

    Better understanding of the chemistry of radiation-induced degradation is becoming of increasing importance on account of the utilization of polymeric materials in a variety of radiation environments as well as beneficial uses of degraded polymers. In this report the importance of environmental humidity on the degrading effect of radiation has been considered from the point of view of controlling the molecular weights of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. These two polysaccharides were irradiated in solid form under strictly controlled environmental humidity conditions by incubating and later irradiating the samples over saturated aqueous salt solutions of NaCl, NaNO3 and MgCl2. The degradation was followed in detail by a careful gel permeation chromatographic analysis of their respective molecular weights before and after irradiation. The chain scission yield values G(S) were found to decrease with the water adsorbed from environment at every absorbed dose in the range of 5-100 kGy. On the other hand at very high water uptakes the yield of chain scission again increases especially at low doses. The decrease in degradation yield was attributed to the plastifying effect of water trapped in between the polymer chains facilitating the macroradical recombinations thus reducing the extent of chain scission. This study showed that although carrageenans were irradiated in solid form, the difference in their water uptake from changing environmental humidity has a profound effect in controlling their molecular weights by irradiation with ionizing radiation.

  2. Influence of elasticity on the syneresis properties of κ-carrageenan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Komla

    2015-01-22

    Kappa-carrageenan hydrogels spontaneously release fluid (syneresis) under certain elasticity conditions, which depend on the temperature, the salt concentration in the gel (KCl) and the polysaccharide concentration. Strong and weak gels exhibit notably weak syneresis properties. The maximum syneresis was found at intermediate elasticity where the gel was neither strong nor weak. The variation in the gel composition indicated that the fluid is released according to the thermal retraction coefficient, which depends on the elasticity. Experiments revealed a dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process where syneresis fluid was not withdrawn. However, once the fluid was removed from the gel surface, the release of solvent starts again if the elasticity is below the compressive pressure in the gel. Therefore, swelling of the gel is suggested as an explanation for the dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process.

  3. Stabilization of k-carrageenan gel with polymeric amines: use of immobilized cells as biocatalysts at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Haugen, M.M.; Royer, G.P.

    1986-09-01

    Spherical beads of kappa-carrageenan containing entrapped cells were prepared in a two-step process. First, the beads were formed by dispersing a warm carrageenan cell suspension into stirring oil. After cooling (gelation) the beads were cured by treatment with amines. Ten amines of various sizes and structures were tested. The mechanical strength and the applicability of amine-treated gels as immobilization matrices was evaluated. The results of critical compression tests indicate that linear and branched polyethylenimines (PEI) are both good curing agents. PEI-treated carrageenan beds also exhibited superior resistance to heat and abrasion. Furthermore, PEI polymers were demonstrated to be effective in stabilizing the lactase activity of the free and immobilized Bacillus stearothermophilus cells. The immobilized cell preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. stearothermophilus, and Flavobacterium sp. were treated with branched PEI and evaluated for the activity of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26), lactase (EC 3.2.1.23), and glucose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.18), respectively, in a packed bed reactor at 60 degrees C. The apparent half-lives were 108, 39, and 64 days, respectively.

  4. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt participates in simulation aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, simulates preparing to deploy the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment during lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft.

  5. MEKANISME PROSES TAHAP EKSTRAKSI KARAGENAN DARI Eucheuma cottonii MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKALI (The Mechanism of Carrageenan Extraction from Eucheuma cottonii Using Alkaline Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperisa Distantina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan recovery process was developed for Eucheuma cottonii by investigating the effects of distilled water, KOH (0.1-0.5 N and NaOH (0.1-1.0 N as the solvent on carrageenan yield and gel properties. Extraction process was carried out with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume (1: 50; g/mL at 80oC.  A certain amount of the liquid sample was withdrawn at regular interval time for analysis. Filtrate was separated from residue by pouring ethanol. The precipitated carrageenans were collected and oven dried at 50-60oC to a constant weight. The extraction product was found to have virtually identical infrared spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Distilled water was the most efficient solvent with regard to yield but certainly not gel strength. Increasing KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content. In extraction process using alkali, the ion exchange occurred between cation from alkali solution and anion from sulphate in the seaweed. Compared with cation of sodium, the cation of potassium was able to form helixes aggregation indicated by the higher gel strength value. Alkali concentrations affected the gel strength of the extracted carrageenan significantly. Keywords: Eucheuma cottonii, KOH, NaOH, carrageenan, sulfate   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan proses ekstraksi karagenan dari rumput laut Eucheuma cottonii dengan mempelajari pengaruh jenis pelarut pada tahap ekstraksi, yaitu air suling, KOH, dan NaOH terhadap rendemen dan sifat gel karagenan.  Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan perbandingan bobot rumput laut – volume pelarut dijaga tetap yaitu 1:50 g/mL pada 80oC. Cuplikan diambil setiap interval waktu tertentu untuk dianalisis. Karagenan dalam filtrat diendapkan dengan etanol dan serat yang dihasilkan dikeringkan sampai bobot konstan. Spektrum infra merah menunjukkan bahwa karagenan yang dihasilkan identik dengan jenis kappa. Air suling merupakan pelarut yang efisien

  6. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  7. Profil Antioksidan Darah Tikus Diabetes dengan Asupan Beras Merah yang Diperkaya Kappa-Karagenan dan Ekstrak Antosianin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidajah Nurhidajah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of red rice enriched-kappa-carrageenan and anthocyanin extracts on blood antioxidant profile in diabetic rats. Variables analyzed in this research were blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA level, and plasma antioxidant by Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP method. This study was conducted in vivo on male Wistar rats aged 2.5 months using completely randomized design. Rats divided into 6 groups based on types of feed, standard feed (normal and DM, red rice (BM, red rice enriched kappa-carrageenan (BMK, red rice enriched extracts of anthocyanin (BMA and red rice enriched with kappa-carrageenan and extract anthocyanin (BMKA. Experiments were carried out for 6 weeks. Rats feed with red rice showed decreased in blood glucose levels from 234.26 to 84.78 mg/dL (p = 0.000, MDA diabetic group compared to BMKA 2.175 and 0.530 μmol/L (p = 0.000 respectively, and the rate of FRAP in DM and BMKA 69 and 216 nmol/mL (p = 0.000 respectively. This study showed that red rice enriched with kappa-carrageenan and anthocyanin extract was able to decrease blood glucose levels and increase plasma antioxidant of diabetic rats which characterized by decreased MDA value and increased FRAP value.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh pemberian beras merah yang diperkaya kappa-karagenan dan ekstrak antosianin terhadap profil antioksidan darah pada tikus Diabetes Melitus (DM. Indikator penelitian adalah penurunan glukosa darah dan angka Malondialdehid (MDA serta peningkatan antioksidan plasma dengan metode Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara in vivo pada hewan coba tikus Wistar usia 2,5 bulan dengan desain penelitian rancangan acak lengkap (RAL. Tikus dibagi 6 kelompok pakan, yaitu standar negatif dan positif (normal dan DM, beras merah (BM, beras merah ditambah kappa-karagenan (BMK, beras merah ditambah ekstrak antosianin (BMA, dan beras merah ditambah kappa-karagenan dan

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  20. Next Generation Tanker: Optimizing Air Refueling Capabilities in 2030 with a Divested KC-10 Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    NEXT GENERATION TANKER: OPTIMIZING AIR REFUELING CAPABILITIES IN 2030 WITH A DIVESTED KC-10 FLEET...OPTIMIZING AIR REFUELING CAPABILITIES IN 2030 WITH A DIVESTED KC-10 FLEET GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department...CAPABILITIES IN 2030 WITH A DIVESTED KC-10 FLEET Christopher R. MacDonald, BS, MBA Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. Darryl

  1. Pillaring effects in macroporous carrageenan-silica composite microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissière, M; Tourrette, A; Devoisselle, J M; Di Renzo, F; Quignard, F

    2006-02-01

    The impregnation of a carrageenan gel by a silica sol is an efficient method to form a composite material which can be conveniently activated by CO2 supercritical drying. The textural properties of the solids have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and their composition by thermogravimetric analysis and EDX microprobe. Morphology was examined by SEM. The silica-carrageenan composites present an open macroporous structure. Silica particles retained inside the gel behaved as pillars between the polysaccharide fibrils and form a stick-and-ball network. The stiffening of the carrageenan gel by silica prevented its shrinkage upon drying. The nature of the alkali cations affected the retention of silica particles inside the gel. In the absence of silica, carrageenan fibrils rearrange under supercritical drying and form an aerogel with cavities in the mesopore range.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF k-CARRAGEENAN AND λ-CARRAGEENAN DERIVED FROM SEAWEED CHONDRACANTHUS CHAMISSOI AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Salas de la Torre, Norma; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Córdova C., C.; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Lengua C., Laura; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Bazán G., Dora; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Becerra V., Elvira; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Estrada A., Edmundo; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Sandívar R., Juana; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Choque C., V.; Facultad de Química, Ingeniería Química e Ingeniería Agroindustrial; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of algae producing carrageenan are intensified since the 80. Obtaining κ-carrageenan and λ-carrageenan is a function of the proper selection of algae, correct identification of the stages of life, control of parameters such as temperature, pH, time, concentration of solutions.The extraction process is based on: soluble in hot water and insolubility in polar organic solvents. Gametophyte phase is a starting point for the production of κ-carrageenan and phase sporophitic is gea...

  3. Anaerobic Degradation of Carrageenan from the Red Macroalga Eucheuma cottonii†

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M.; Guist, G. G.; Lauterbach, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan was investigated by batch digestion of the red macroalga Eucheuma cottonii. During a 10-week incubation, ca. 60% of the starting E. cottonii biomass was fermented to CO2, methane, and volatile fatty acids (predominantly acetate). Carrageenan degradation paralleled the loss of total biomass, suggesting no preferential degradation or preservation. After 10 weeks of incubation, the carrageenan content of the remaining biomass was 51%, as opposed to 61% of the original E. cottonii biomass. Carrageenan recovered after 10 weeks of digestion had a lower average molecular weight (319,000 versus 510,000) and formed solutions with considerably lower viscosities than did intact carrageenan. The percent C and percent N content of the particulate material in the digestors increased over time, probably as a result of microbial growth. In contrast, the percent S content decreased continuously; the loss of sulfur was most likely a result of the hydrolysis of carrageenan. Results from this study indicate that it is not economically viable to process E. cottonii simultaneously for hydrocolloids and methane. PMID:16346752

  4. Anaerobic Degradation of Carrageenan from the Red Macroalga Eucheuma cottonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G M; Guist, G G; Lauterbach, G E

    1985-03-01

    Anaerobic degradation of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan was investigated by batch digestion of the red macroalga Eucheuma cottonii. During a 10-week incubation, ca. 60% of the starting E. cottonii biomass was fermented to CO(2), methane, and volatile fatty acids (predominantly acetate). Carrageenan degradation paralleled the loss of total biomass, suggesting no preferential degradation or preservation. After 10 weeks of incubation, the carrageenan content of the remaining biomass was 51%, as opposed to 61% of the original E. cottonii biomass. Carrageenan recovered after 10 weeks of digestion had a lower average molecular weight (319,000 versus 510,000) and formed solutions with considerably lower viscosities than did intact carrageenan. The percent C and percent N content of the particulate material in the digestors increased over time, probably as a result of microbial growth. In contrast, the percent S content decreased continuously; the loss of sulfur was most likely a result of the hydrolysis of carrageenan. Results from this study indicate that it is not economically viable to process E. cottonii simultaneously for hydrocolloids and methane.

  5. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  6. Violations of the 12/23 rule at the mouse immunoglobulin kappa locus, including V kappa-V kappa rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Fesnak, Andrew D; Liu, Yang; Charan, Deepshikha; Prak, Eline T Luning

    2009-07-01

    Classically, recombination between immunoglobulin gene segments uses a pair of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) with dissimilar spacers (the "12/23 rule"). Using a series of different genotyping assays, four different kinds of atypical rearrangements were identified at the murine kappa locus: (1) V kappa to V kappa, (2) J kappa to J kappa, (3) V kappa to iRS, a heptameric sequence found in the J kappa C kappa intron, and (4) a possible by-product of a rearrangement between a V kappa and the hypothetical 12-RSS side of a pre-existing signal joint. The novel V kappa-V kappa structure prompted further characterization. Sequence analysis of 14 different V kappa-V kappa rearrangements cloned from murine splenocytes and hybridomas revealed a V kappa 4 family member as one participant in 13 rearrangements, but no rearrangements contained two V kappa 4 genes. The V kappa 4 partner in the V kappa-V kappa rearrangement exhibited more trimming of nucleotides at the V kappa-V kappa junction. A signal joint derived from the inversional rearrangement of two neighboring V kappas was also recovered. These data suggest that the V kappa-V kappa structures arise via RAG-mediated, intrachromosomal recombination.

  7. Preparation of κ-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel beads%κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖聚电解质凝胶微丸的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 张昀

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare κ-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets and detect the effects of formulation and preparation factors on in vitro drug release from the pellets. Method: The K-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets with baica-lin as model drug were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. The ratio of K-carrageenan/chitosan in pellets was determined with the composite of K-carrageenan and chitosan. The effects of the concentration of K-carrageenan, the ratio of drug/K-carrageenan, the concentration of gelling solution, gelling time and drying method on the release of pellets were determined by in vitro drug release. Result: The mass ratio of K-carrageenan/chitosan in pellets was 6:4. Release of the pellets in 0. 1 mol · L-1 HC1 was about 10% for 2 hours and fast in PBS, indicating a typical sustained release property. The pellets released less with the increase in the concentration of K-carrageenan, the ratio of drug/κ-carrageenan and the concentration of KC1. They also released less with the increase in gelling time, but showed little effect until 1 hour. The release of the pellets prepared by the freeze-drying method was much faster than those by vacuum drying and atmospheric drying methods which had little influence on drug release. Conclusion: The K-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets had sustained release property. Their drug release rate could be regulated with different formulation and preparation factors.%目的:制备κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖聚电解质凝胶微丸,考察处方工艺因素对其体外释药的影响.方法:以黄芩苷为模型药物,采用离子胶凝法制备κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖微丸;通过κ-卡拉胶与壳聚糖形成复合物条件研究,确定微丸中κ-卡拉胶与壳聚糖质量比;通过体外释放度测定,考察κ-卡拉胶浓度、药物与κ-卡拉胶比例、胶凝液氯化钾浓度、胶凝时间和干燥方式等处方工艺因素对微丸药物释放的影响.结果:κ-

  8. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  9. Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Xinping; Xie, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and/or Al2(SO4)3 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO4)3 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO4)3, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent. PMID:28170422

  10. Molecular and rheological characterization of carrageenan solutions extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; de Carvalho, Sabrina Matos; Barreto, Pedro Luiz Manique

    2012-11-06

    This study evaluates and relates the molecular and rheological characteristics of native carrageenan obtained from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed. Native carrageenan was extracted by a differentiated methodology by atomization drying process, which reduces the time for obtaining carrageenan dry powder and minimizes costs and environmental damages. Rheological properties of native carrageenan were compared with a commercial carrageenan grade. Molecular properties were performed by SAXS and GPC analysis and the rheological properties by DMTA and stress relaxation tests. Molecular analysis proved a folded and compact molecular structure and indicated the presence of chains with different molecular weights for native carrageenan. The results obtained showed that the helix-coil transition occurs at temperature about 50 °C. The native and commercial grade carrageenan presented the characteristic of viscoelastic materials and their gel properties show a higher contribution from solid elastic component, and the initial force (F(0)) was higher in commercial carrageenan than native one.

  11. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  12. Interactions of estradiol and NSAIDS on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deirtra A; Barr, Gordon A; Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Amador, Nicole; Jenab, Shirzad; Inturrisi, Charles; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2011-03-25

    How exogenous estrogen affects inflammatory responses is poorly understood despite the large numbers of women receiving estrogen-alone hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if estradiol alters injury- or inflammation-induced nociceptive responses after carrageenan administration in females and whether its effects are mediated through cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and prostaglandins (PG). To this end, paw withdrawal latencies and serum levels of PGE2 and PGD2 were measured in rats treated with estradiol (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and/or SC560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor) after intraplantar carrageenan administration. Estradiol significantly increased withdrawal latencies before (baseline condition) and after carrageenan administration to one hindpaw. NS398 was anti-nociceptive only in carrageenan treated animals. SC560 increased withdrawal latencies in both paws at 1 and 5hours after carrageenan administration. Co-administration of estradiol and NS398, but not SC560, was additive except for a prolonged anti-nociceptive effects of estradiol combined with NS398. The anti-nociceptive effect extended beyond that observed with either drug or estradiol alone at the 5-hour time point. Estradiol had no significant effect on PGE2 serum levels, but both COX antagonists decreased them. Although neither estradiol nor the COX inhibitors alone had an effect on PGD2 serum levels, co-administration of NS398 and estradiol significantly elevated PGD2 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that estradiol is anti-nociceptive in the thermal test and reduces carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. These effects are minimally altered through PG-mediated mechanisms.

  13. Late inflammatory swelling by carrageenan in rat's subcutaneous neck tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S; Mathur, M; Bhide, N K

    1988-01-01

    When injected subcutaneously in the dorsum of neck in albino rats, carrageenan produced inflammatory swelling which reached peak after about 16 hr. The occurrence of the peak inflammatory swelling was delayed but not significantly reduced in severity by aspirin or indomethacin which were administered repeatedly. Phenylbutazone significantly reduced and dexamethasone almost completely inhibited it. In rat hind paw model, subplantar carrageenan injection produced peak inflammatory swelling after about 4 hr which was significantly reduced by all anti-inflammatory drugs mentioned above. It is interesting that an inflammagen when injected at different sites in the same species elicits responses which differ in the time course and drug responses.

  14. File list: Unc.CeL.20.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CeL.20.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Unclassified Cell line Kc167 SRX456152,SRX456159,SRX7490...6153,SRX193629,SRX193628,SRX193631,SRX193627,SRX111813,SRX193633,SRX193626,SRX193632 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.CeL.20.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Unclassified Cell line Kc167 SRX456152,SRX456159,SRX7490...3628,SRX456154,SRX193633,SRX193626,SRX193629,SRX193632,SRX193631,SRX193627,SRX111813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.CeL.05.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CeL.05.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Unclassified Cell line Kc167 SRX456152,SRX456159,SRX4561...3633,SRX456155,SRX456158,SRX456153,SRX456157,SRX193630,SRX193626,SRX456150,SRX111813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.CeL.05.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Unclassified Cell line Kc167 SRX456152,SRX456159,SRX7490...3629,SRX456150,SRX193631,SRX193627,SRX193626,SRX193630,SRX193632,SRX193633,SRX111813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  18. Kakkalide and its metabolite irisolidone ameliorate carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Won; Park, Young-Jun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of kakkalide, a major constituent of the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide produced by intestinal microflora, against carrageenan-induced inflammation in air pouches on the backs of mice and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were investigated. Kakkalide and irisolidone down-regulated the gene expression of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)] and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and inflammatory mediators, NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These agents also inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Orally administered kakkalide and irisolidone significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammatory markers, leukocyte number, and protein amount in the exudates of the air pouch. These constituents also inhibited PGE(2) production and COX-2 inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression. These agents also inhibited NF-κB activation. The anti-inflammatory effects of irisolidone were more potent than those of kakkalide. Based on these findings, kakkalide and irisolidone may inhibit inflammatory reactions via NF-κB pathway, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide, may more potently inhibit these inflammatory reactions.

  19. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive carrageenan-g-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) from pH-sensitive carrageenan-gpoly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels was investigated. The hydrogels were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. Infrared spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the hydrogel. Moreover, morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesized hydrogels were subjected to equilibrium swelling studies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF). Hydrogels containing drug DS, at different drug-to-polymer ratios, were prepared by direct adsorption method. The loading yield was found to depend on both the impregnation time and the amount of encapsulated drug. In vitro drug-release studies in different buffer solutions showed that the most important parameter affecting the drug-release behaviour of hydrogels is the pH of the solution. The mechanism involved in release was Fickian ( ≤ 0.43, = 0.348) and Super Case II kinetics ( > 1, = 1.231) at pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively.

  20. Carrageenan-based semi-IPN nanocomposite hydrogels: Swelling kinetic and slow release of sequestrene Fe 138 fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Bahrami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite hydrogels based on kappa-carrageenan were synthesized by incorporating natural sodium montmorillonite (Cloisite nanoclay. Acrylamide (AAm and methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as a monomer and a crosslinker, respectively. Effects of reaction variables on the swelling kinetics were studied. The results revealed that the rate of swelling for nanocomposites with high content of MBA was higher than those of nanocomposites consisting of low content of MBA. Similar to the effect of MBA, the rate of swelling enhanced as the carrageenan content was decreased. The influence of clay content on swelling rate was not remarkable. The experimental swelling data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The swelling data described well by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Sequestrene Fe 138 (Sq as an agrochemical was loaded into nanocomposites and releasing of this active agent from nanocomposites was studied. The clay-free hydrogel released the whole loaded Sq; whereas the presence of clay restricted the release of Sq.

  1. $\\kappa$-Deformations and Extended $\\kappa$-Minkowski Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Borowiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous study of Hopf-algebraic $\\kappa$-deformations of all inhomogeneous orthogonal Lie algebras ${\\rm iso}(g)$ as written in a tensorial and unified form. Such deformations are determined by a vector $\\tau$ which for Lorentzian signature can be taken time-, light- or space-like. We focus on some mathematical aspects related to this subject. Firstly, we describe real forms with connection to the metric's signatures and their compatibility with the reality condition for the corresponding $\\kappa$-Minkowski (Hopf) module algebras. Secondly, $h$-adic vs $q$-analog (polynomial) versions of deformed algebras including specialization of the formal deformation parameter $\\kappa$ to some numerical value are considered. In the latter the general covariance is lost and one deals with an orthogonal decomposition. The last topic treated in this paper concerns twisted extensions of $\\kappa$-deformations as well as the description of resulting noncommutative spacetime algebras in terms of solvable Lie alge...

  2. Carrageenans, sulphated polysaccharides of red seaweeds, differentially affect Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S Sangha

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ι-, κ- and λ-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ι- and κ-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with λ- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ι- and κ- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by λ-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ι-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but κ- and λ-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ι-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect.

  3. On the employment of lambda carrageenan in a matrix system. III. Optimization of a lambda carrageenan-HPMC hydrophilic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonferoni, MC; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Bertoni, M; Bolhuis, GK; Caramella, C

    1998-01-01

    The lambda carrageenan/HPMC ratio in matrix tablets has been optimized in order to obtain pH-independent release profiles of chlorpheniramine maleate, a freely soluble drug. Release profiles in acidic (pH 1.2) and neutral (pH 6.8) media were fitted according to the Weibull and the power law models.

  4. Group 12 ASCANs Davis and Jemison during zero gravity training aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Group 12, 1987 Astronaut Class, candidates (ASCANs) N. Jan Davis (left) and Mae C. Jemison freefloat during the seconds of microgravity created aboard the KC-135 NASA 930 aircraft's parabolic flight. Davis and Jemison two of the recently-named ASCANs take a familiarization flight aboard the KC-135 'zero gravity' aircraft.

  5. Rheology of κ/ι-hybrid carrageenan from Mastocarpus stellatus: Critical parameters for the gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Chenlo, F; Moreira, R

    2016-05-01

    The sol-gel diagrams of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI) extracted from Mastocarpus stellatus powders with two different average particle sizes of the seaweed powders (117.0 μm and 77.5 μm) prior to the biopolymer extraction, are reported for the first time, together with rheological properties of obtained KI gels. Extraction yields for KI isolated from algae and average molecular weight of KI, determined by gel permeation chromatography, decreased with increasing the particle size of the powder. Rheological results indicated that tested samples exhibited stable and weak gel properties, except those prepared at 1.5% KI in 1.0 mol/L NaCl where stronger gels were found. Aqueous KI extracts with larger molecular weight led to stronger gels and also formed gels at lower biopolymer concentration in NaCl above 0.15 mol/L. All gels reached stability after 20 min of maturation. The data sets showed a strong temperature dependency. Gel setting temperatures significantly depended on the KI and NaCl content, whereas gel melting temperatures (68.0 ± 0.7 °C) were independent of both salt concentrations.

  6. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  7. Impact of cultivation of Mastocarpus stellatus in IMTA on the seaweeds chemistry and hybrid carrageenan properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Gabriela; Domingues, Bernardo; Abreu, Helena; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Feio, Gabriel; Hilliou, Loic

    2015-02-13

    The biomass yield potential of Mastocarpus stellatus, a commercially attractive carrageenophyte for foods and pharmaceutics, was investigated by cultivating the seaweeds in the nutrient-rich outflow of a commercial fish farm. Results from two consecutive 4 weeks experiments indicate that the cultivation of this seaweed produces a mean biomass of 21 to 40.6 gDW m(-2) day(-1) depending on the time of the experiment. DRIFT and CP-MAS NMR analyses of seaweeds indicate that cultivation during May affected quantitatively the seaweeds chemistry, and thus the chemical and gelling properties of native extracts of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI). Overall, algal growth leads to the production of more sulphated KI, the percentage increase varying between 27% and 44% for the two experiments. However, alkali treatment of seaweeds before extraction reduces the variations in gelling properties of KI induced by the algal growth. This study demonstrates the capacity of growing M. stellatus in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system for the sustainable production of high value polysaccharides.

  8. k-型卡拉胶/聚乙烯吡咯烷酮共混水凝胶的辐射制备及性质研究%燬tudies on Radiation Preparation and Characteristics of k-Carrageenan/PVP Blend Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟茂林; 哈鸿飞; 吉井文男; 幕内惠三

    2001-01-01

    In this work,a series of hydrogels in the form of rod were prepared from κ-carrageenan(KC) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by gamma radiation with 60Co γ source at room temperature.The properties of the prepared hydrogels,such as the gel strength,gel fraction and swelling behavior were investigated.High molecular weight PVP (k-90) blending with KC could produces excellent hydrogels,but low molecular weight PVP (k-30) dosen't.With increasing KC content in the prepared hydrogel,both the gel strength and the equilibrium degree of swelling were improved.The experimental analyses showed that the crosslinking reaction of PVP(k-90) was quicker than the degradation of KC at low dose(less than 30 kGy),and the degradation of KC was inhibited in PVP/KC mixture system.An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel composed of PVP (a chemically crosslinked network) and KC (a physically crosslinked network) was proposed.In addition,the dose influenced greatly the preparation of the hydrogel.%采用辐射技术制备了κ-型卡拉胶(KC)/聚乙烯基吡咯烷酮(PVP)共混水凝胶,研究了共混凝胶内KC含量、PVP的分子量和辐照剂量等对KC/PVP共混水凝胶性质的影响.实验发现,KC与高分子量的PVP(k-90)共混后在一定剂量范围内辐照可得到高强度、高溶胀行为的KC/PVP共混水凝胶,随着共混凝胶内KC含量的增加,凝胶强度及溶胀性能均显著提高.分析表明,KC与高分子量的PVP共混后,在较低剂量下KC的降解被抑制,从而获得一种由物理交联的KC和化学交联的PVP形成的互穿网络(IPN)凝胶.

  9. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    or organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...... observed. A few focal areas with an irregular surface were observed in the colonic mucosa of some of the pigs given 200 or 500 mg carrageenan/kg. A shift was seen in the cellular infiltration pattern of the mucosa of the large intestine of pigs from all the groups given carrageenan. The slight changes...... in the intestinal mucosa are not considered to be a significant toxic effect....

  10. File list: InP.CeL.05.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CeL.05.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Input control Cell line Kc167 SRX749056,SRX365698,SRX511...SRX1056719,SRX495296 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.CeL.05.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: NoD.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.CeL.20.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Input control Cell line Kc167 SRX749056,SRX511348,SRX365...SRX495297,SRX1056719 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.CeL.10.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Fabrication of ?-Carrageenan Fibers by Wet Spinning: Spinning Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyan Kong; Gregory R. Ziegler

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general, the ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break both increased for KCl concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 M with and without ethanol, with no significant change above ...

  19. Preparation and characterization of carboxymethylated carrageenan modified with collagen peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Tong, Jun; Tang, Chang; Wu, Huan; Peng, Min; Yi, Jiayan

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan collagen peptide (CMKC-COP) was via an imide-bond forming reaction between carboxyl groups in carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) and amino groups in collagen peptide in the presence of 1-ethyl-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy sulfosuccinimide (NHS). CMKC-COP products were verified with infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of degree of substitution (DS) of CMKC-COP was presented, which are depended on reaction time, molar ratio of collagen peptide to carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan and reaction temperature. The optimal reaction conditions were studied by means of single factor experiment. Also MTT assay was applied to evaluate the effects of CMKC-COP on proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts. The animal experiment results indicated that the wound covered with CMKC-COP were completely filled with new epithelium within 2 weeks without any significant adverse side reactions. Therefore, the CMKC-COP showed the potentiality to repair skin in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  20. Effects of intrathecal administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael G; Coderre, Terence J

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of various nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia.First, we determined the time point at which a subcutaneous plantar injection of carrageenan into the rat hindpaw produced maximum thermal hyperalgesia. Subsequently, we demonstrated that intrathecal administration of the non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) produces a dose-dependent reduction of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia.Four re...

  1. Quarrelsome Committees in U.S. Defense Acquisition: The KC-X Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    aerial refueling (KC-45s) in Alabama. In early 2008, the offer was sweetened with announced plans to open an A330 freighter assembly facility in...construct a plausible rationale for Boeing’s final offer, using BCA methodology. The alternatives in February 2011 were to reduce its original bid or...Service. (2013a). KC-46A training, operational bases, alternatives selected. Retrieved from http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123349597

  2. Viscosity profile of Eucheuma spinosum carrageenan from Nusa Penida (Bali, Sumenep (Madura, and Takalar (Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarini Diharmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the viscosity profile of carrageenan solution obtained from three different coastal region of Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar as a result of a decrease in temperature with presence cations K+ and Ca2+. Carrageenan was extracted from Eucheuma spinosum using hot alkaline calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 at 95°C, pH was decreased with HCl, carrageenan was precipitated with ethanol, dried and grinded. The viscosity profile of carrageenan was determined by addition of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl and Ca2+ (0.005-0.02% CaCl2using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA. The viscosity profile of carrageenan solution changed upon cooling started from a dilute at the initial temperature of 80°C, and then increased as temperature decreased to 20°C. The viscosity of carrageenan E. spinosum from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar without the addition of K+ and Ca2+ at a temperature of 80°C respectively were 90, 120, and 130 mPa.s. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of K+ and Ca2+ increased with increasing time and decreasing temperature. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida in the presence of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl at 55oC becomes 125, 250, 300 mPa.s, Sumenep 280, 290, and 360 mPa.s, and Takalar 420, 420, and 420 mPa.s. While, in the presence of Ca2+ (0.01-0.02% % CaCl2 at 55oC, the viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar have been formed gelling. Increasing of viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of kation Ca2+ was required a faster time and higher temperatures than K+. Carrageenan solution

  3. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  4. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  5. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  6. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  7. Hepatic changes during a carrageenan induced granuloma in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Muntané

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic changes during inflammation were studied in rats bearing a carrageenan induced granuloma. In spite of a decrease in the metabolic capacity of microsomes to induce lipid peroxidation during inflammation, the endogenous lipid peroxidation remained unchanged and unrelated with the hepatic activities measured. The continuous increase in hepatic cAMP observed during acute and chronic phases could be related to adenylate cyclase stimulation by mediators, and could be an initial step in the hepatocyte adaptation leading to the increased level of hepatic caeruloplasmin, to the reduction of cytochrome P-450 level and to the modifications of Ca2+ sequestration by microsomes.

  8. Rheological properties of gelatin, carrageenan and locust bean gum mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Guy Matthew John

    2004-01-01

    This thesis reports data on blends of carrageenan (0.3%w/w) and locust bean gum (0.3%w/w) in the presence of biopolymers, particularly gelatin of varying concentration. Particular attention is given to their behaviour on autoclaving since this is relevant to one of the most important applications of these materials as gelling agents in canned meat products. It was shown there is such 3% gelatin could be found in the gelling system as a result of from collagen in the meat. Gelatin at this ...

  9. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  10. Preparation of hybrid nano biocomposite κ-carrageenan/cellulose nanocrystal/nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakuwan, Siti Zarina; Ahmad, Ishak; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable composites film based on κ-carrageenan and nano particles as filler was prepared to study the mechanical strength of carrageenan composites. Solution casting technique was used to prepare_this biocomposite. Preparation of composite film and nano filler involve two stages, preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from kenaf with alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis followed by the preparation of two types of nano composite. Tensile test was carried on the composite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC and nano clay to obtain the optimum CNC and nano clay loading. After that hybrid nano-biocomposite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC/nano clay (OMMT) according to optimum value of composite carrageenan/CNC and composite carrageenan/nano clay film was prepared. The effect of nano filler on the mechanical properties of carrageenan films was examined. κ-carrageenan biocomposite increased with the optimum at 4% CNC and nano clay composition. Additional improvement of tensile strength with hybridization of CNC and nanoclay indicated better mechanical properties.

  11. The inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Yabuki-Kawase, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-10-05

    Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on acute inflammatory nociception. Acute inflammatory nociception was induced by an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the hindpaws of rats, and dexmedetomidine was also injected combined with carrageenan. The paw withdrawal threshold based on von Frey filament stimulation was measured until 12 h after injection. We compared the area under the time-curve (AUC) between carrageenan and carrageenan with dexmedetomidine. To clarify that the action of dexmedetomidine was via α2-adrenoceptors, we evaluated the effect of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of α2-adrenoceptors, on the anti-nociception of dexmedetomidine. As the results, the intraplantar injection of carrageenan with over 10 μM dexmedetomidine significantly increased AUC, compared to that with only carrageenan injection. This effect of dexmedetomidine was reversed by the addition of yohimbine to carrageenan and dexmedetomidine. These results demonstrated that the locally injected dexmedetomidine was effective against carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception via α2-adrenoceptors. The findings suggest that the local injection of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving local acute inflammatory nociception.

  12. Rheological and DSC Studies on the Interaction between κ-Carrageenan and Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui GUO; En Yong DING

    2006-01-01

    Rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to probe the mechanism of gelation in gels formed by mixture of κ-carrageenan and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The results indicated that an association occurred between CNC chains and aggregated κ-carrageenan helices.

  13. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  14. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...

  15. Dimerization of 30Kc19 protein in the presence of amphiphilic moiety and importance of Cys-57 during cell penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ho; Sohn, Youngsoo; Yeo, Ji Woo; Park, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hong Jai; Ryu, Jina; Rhee, Won Jong; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the recombinant 30Kc19 protein, originating from silkworm hemolymph of Bombyx mori has attracted attention due to its cell-penetrating property and potential application as a protein delivery system. However, this observation of penetration across cell membrane has raised questions concerning the interaction of the protein-lipid bilayer. Here, we report a dimerization propensity of the 30Kc19 protein in the presence of amphiphilic moieties; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or phospholipid. Native PAGE showed that the 30Kc19 monomer formed a dimer when SDS or phospholipid was present. In the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, supplementation of the 30Kc19 protein to mammalian cell culture medium showed dimerization and penetration; due to phospholipids at the cell membrane, the main components of the lipid bilayer. Mutagenesis was performed, and penetration was observed by 30Kc19 C76A and not 30Kc19 C57A, which meant that the presence of cysteine at position 57 (Cys-57) is involved in dimerization of the 30Kc19 at the cell membrane during penetration. We anticipate application of the native 30Kc19 protein with high cell-penetrating efficiency for delivery of cargos to various cell types. The intracellular cargo delivery using the 30Kc19 protein is a non-virus derived (e.g. TAT) delivery method, which can open up new approaches for the delivery of therapeutics in bioindustries, such as pharma- and cosmeceuticals.

  16. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L., E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.pt; Salgueiro, Ana M., E-mail: a38242@ua.pt; Creaney, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.creaney@gmail.com; Oliveira-Silva, Rui, E-mail: ruipedro.silva@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J. O., E-mail: nunojoao@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Physics, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Trindade, Tito, E-mail: tito@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  17. Carrageenans as a New Source of Drugs with Metal Binding Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri S. Khotimchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y3+ or Pb2+ ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that κ-, ι-, and λ-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y3+ and Pb2+ ions are bound by i-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  18. [Study on the selective removal of plasma low-density lipoprotein and fibrinogen by degraded carrageenan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haixia; Yin, Liang; Fang, Bo; Du, Longbing; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingling; You, Chao

    2010-08-01

    The selective removal of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen (Fib) by degraded carrageenan was studied by the present authors. Degraded carrageenan was prepared by acid with carrageenan as the main material. The effects of acid conditions on the molecular weight were investigated, and the proper reaction conditions were ascertained. The results of infrared spectrometry indicated that the degraded carrageenan is a heparin-like polysaccharide. Then the selective removal of LDL/Fibrinogen by degraded carrageenan was studied. When molecular weight was about 10,000, pH was 5.10 and the concentration of degraded carrageenan was 800 mg/L, the average reduction percentages were 60.0% for total cholesterol(TC), 79.4% for LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and 93.8% for fibrinogen. There were no significant changes with relation to the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total protein (TP). So, degraded carrageenan was shown to be of good selectivity on plasma LDL/Fibrinogen apheresis.

  19. Chemical and rheological characterization of the carrageenans from Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamoroux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Vanina A; Navarro, Diego A; Fissore, Eliana N; Rojas, Ana M; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-02-15

    This work reports a chemical and rheological study of the carrageenans from Hypnea musciformis, a red seaweed commercially known for its production of κ-carrageenan. The polysaccharides were extracted with water both at room temperature and at 90 °C: the yield of the latter was about six times larger than the former. Fractionation with KCl yielded a large proportion (50-67%) of a precipitate with 0.125 M of this salt for both extracts, with characteristics of a nearly pure κ-carrageenan, as determined by methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Smaller amounts of fractions precipitating at higher concentrations showed a basic κ-carrageenan structure, but included some ι-carrageenan diads. The KCl-soluble polysaccharides showed a larger complexity, containing d- and l-galactans or d/l-hybrids. Some differences in the rheological properties of these carrageenans have been found. Although all KCl-precipitating polysaccharides form true gels at 10 °C in presence of KCl, those extracted with hot water form stronger gels than those extracted at room temperature. Both purified κ-carrageenans show lower gelling and melting temperature than the whole polysaccharides from which they were originated.

  20. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  1. Hawking radiation in the kappa-spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Harikumar, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the Hawking radiation of kappa-deformed Schwarzchild black hole and obtain the deformed Hawking temperature. For this, we first derive deformed metric for the kappa-spacetime, which in the generic case, is not a symmetric tensor and also has a momentum dependence. We show that the Schwarzchild metric obtained in the kappa-deformed spacetime has a dependence on energy. We use the fact that the deformed metric is conformally flat in the 1+1 dimensions, to solve the kappa-deformed Klein-Gordon equation in the background of the Schwarzchild metric. The method of Boguliobov coefficients is then used to calculate the thermal spectrum of kappa-deformed-Schwarzchild black hole and show that the Hawking temperature is modified by the non-commutativity of the kappa-spacetime.

  2. Fas-deficient mice have impaired alveolar neutrophil recruitment and decreased expression of anti-KC autoantibody:KC complexes in a model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Sucheol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to mechanical ventilation enhances lung injury in response to various stimuli, such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS. The Fas/FasL system is a receptor ligand system that has dual pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory functions and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. In this study we test the hypothesis that a functioning Fas/FasL system is required for the development of lung injury in mechanically ventilated mice. Methods C57BL/6 (B6 and Fas-deficient lpr mice were exposed to either intra-tracheal PBS followed by spontaneous breathing or intra-tracheal LPS followed by four hours mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate of 150 breaths per minute, inspired oxygen 0.21 and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cm of water. Results Compared with the B6 mice, the lpr mice showed attenuation of the neutrophilic response as measured by decreased numbers of BAL neutrophils and lung myeloperoxidase activity. Interestingly, the B6 and lpr mice had similar concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including CXCL1 (KC, and similar measurements of permeability and apoptosis. However, the B6 mice showed greater deposition of anti-KC:KC immune complexes in the lungs, as compared with the lpr mice. Conclusions We conclude that a functioning Fas/FasL system is required for full neutrophilic response to LPS in mechanically ventilated mice.

  3. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Louis M

    2010-06-01

    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-kappaB signaling in cancer. NF-kappaB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-kappaB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IkappaB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-kappaB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-kappaB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-kappaB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IkappaB kinases to activate NF-kappaB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

  4. Viscosity profile of Eucheuma spinosum carrageenan from Nusa Penida (Bali, Sumenep (Madura, and Takalar (Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarini Diharm Diharmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the viscosity profile of carrageenan solution obtained from three different coastal region of Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar as a result of a decrease in temperature with presence cations K+ and Ca2+. Carrageenan was extracted from Eucheuma spinosum using hot alkaline calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 at 95°C, pH was decreased with HCl, carrageenan was precipitated with ethanol, dried and grinded. The viscosity profile of carrageenan was determined by addition of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl and Ca2+ (0.005-0.02% CaCl2using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA. The viscosity profile of carrageenan solution changed upon cooling started from a dilute at the initial temperature of 80°C, and then increased as temperature decreased to 20°C. The viscosity of carrageenan E. spinosum from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar without the addition of K+ and Ca2+ at a temperature of 80°C respectively were 90, 120, and 130 mPa.s. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of K+ and Ca2+ increased with increasing time and decreasing temperature. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida in the presence of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl at 55oC becomes 125, 250, 300 mPa.s, Sumenep 280, 290, and 360 mPa.s, and Takalar 420, 420, and 420 mPa.s. While, in the presence of Ca2+ (0.01-0.02% % CaCl2 at 55oC, the viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar have been formed gelling. Increasing of viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of kation Ca2+ was required a faster time and higher temperatures than K+. Carrageenan solution from E. spinosum originated from different coastal regions showed different viscosity profiles.Keywords: Eucheuma spinosum, carrageenan, cation, temperature, viscosity profile

  5. Polyaniline – Carrageenan - Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Material Synthesized Via Interfacial Polymerization, its Morphological Characteristics and Enhanced Solubility in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbo, R. C. K.; Marquez, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, conducting polyaniline (PAni) has been a popular interest of research in the field of conducting polymers due to its relatively low cost, ease of production, good conductivity, and environmental stability. Many studies however, have focused on improving its short-comings such as its limited processability and solubility in common solvents. In this study, PAni, soluble in water was produced via interfacial polymerization with chloroform as the organic solvent. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and kappa(κ), iota(ι) and lambda(λ) - carrageenan (κCGN, ιCGN, λCGN) were added to the aqueous layer to stabilize PAni in the medium. FTIR and UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solutions as well as the fabricated film confirmed the existence of PAni emeraldine salt (PAni-ES). FTIR spectrum also confirmed the peaks corresponding to the interaction of PAni with the CGNs. Moreover, PVA-CGN played a very large role on the stability of the PAni nanofibers integrated on the PVA-CGN matrix. The morphologies of the products were further investigated using SEM and TEM. Polymer electrolyte for supercapacitor or an interfacial layer for organic solar cell is being targeted as potential application of the synthesized water soluble PAni.

  6. Crocodylian nuclear factor kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Morkotinis, Vasileios; Hale, Amber; White, Mary; Moran, Chris

    2017-11-01

    We deduced the amino acid (aa) sequence of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein from genomic data for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A 105kDa protein, NFκB1 exhibits complex post-translational processing, multiple mechanisms of activation, and acts as precursor for a p50, a Rel homology transcription factor which influences the expression of key genes for developmental processes, apoptosis, and immune function. The aa sequences of the crocodylian proteins share very high identity with each other (97.2±0.7%), birds (81.0±1.1%, n=6), mammals (75.3±1.6%, n=4), reptiles (80.3±5.1%, n=2), and less identity with fish (55.5±5.5%, n=4) and one amphibian (66.1±0.8%). The crocodylian protein has a well-conserved Rel homology domain, a nuclear localization signal, and a glycine-rich region which facilitates proteasome-mediated generation of p50. The Rel homology domain contains sequences responsible for dimerization, DNA-binding, and nuclear translocation. In addition, seven ankyrin repeats were located, which putatively allow for inhibition of transcriptional regulation by mediating interaction with Inhibitor kappa B. Other features include a death domain, and conserved serine residues, near the C-terminal end, which act as potential phosphorylation sites for activation of the proteolytic generation of p50. Western blot analysis showed both the 105kDa precursor and the 50kDa mature NFκB were expressed in the alligator liver. Nuclear factor κB exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in alligator hepatocytes, and almost no cytoplasmic localization in infected animals. In addition, nuclear NFκB exhibited specific binding to the consensus NFκB promoter element. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. KC-46 Tanker Aircraft: Key Aerial Refueling Capabilities Should Be Demonstrated Prior to the Production Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    acquisition program baseline and are mandatory for the KC-46. The key system attributes are also important performance attributes, but are not as...Order by Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  8. Pragmatic Divestment of KC-135 Navigators in the Special Operations Air Refueling Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    not only remain as the KC-46 arrives, but inbound navigators will continue arriving until 2018. This thesis applies the Delphi method, a process...officers, and enable the complex SOAR mission to endure. In order to best achieve these results, the experts recommended halting all inbound navigator...Training Life Cycle Costs ...............................................10 Status of Resources and Training System (SORTS

  9. Development of the 501-KC7 gas turbine and the RFA-24 centrifugal pipeline compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, C. [Rolls-Royce, Mount Vernon, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In 1997, Rolls-Royce was faced with the challenge of boosting the Allison 501 KC 5,500 HP gas turbine product for pipeline compression to 7,000 HP. The increase would provide high efficiency, improved reliability and better emissions performance in a cost effective manner. An extension of the 501 KC5 gas turbine was developed using the 501-KB7 boost module and the third and fourth turbine stages. This paper describes the bearing and shaft arrangements and other components of the whole 501 K gas turbine family. The ultimate effect was to provide a gas turbine with increased power of 35 per cent and improved fuel burn by approximately 7 per cent. The 501-KC7 gas generator consists of the following 6 components: (1) compressor, (2) combustion section, (3) gas generator turbine, (4) accessory drive assembly, (5) starter drive gearbox, and (6) an electronic control system. Each of the components is modular. It was concluded that the introduction of the 501-KC7 has established a new standard of excellence. 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  10. Identification of a novel drought tolerance gene in Gossypium hirsutum L. cv KC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh N. Selvam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of drought resistant cotton cultivars has long been a major breeding objective, since water stress limits fiber production and productivity. Recent advances in functional genomics can increase the efficiency of conventional breeding for genetic improvement of crop plants for improved abiotic stress resistance. To this end, a novel drought resistance gene was identified by comparing the gene expression profile of Gossypium hirsutum cv KC3 and MCU12 by employing a cDNA-RAPD approach. Physiological and biochemical studies showed that KC3 has relatively better drought tolerance than MCU12. Among 25 random primers, OPA15 has identified differentially expressed cDNA in KC3. Results of BLASTP algorithm have shown that this cDNA has significant homology with P-Glycoprotein, ACC oxidase2 and ABC transporter which are involved either directly, or indirectly, in stress tolerance in animals and plants. Hence, the cDNA sequence identified in this study may be a novel gene that confers drought resistance in cotton as KC3 is well adapted and is widely cultivated in rain-fed tracts of Tamil Nadu, India. Further characterization of this gene may show it has potential application for development of cotton with improved drought resistance, through genetic engineering and/or marker aided selection (MAS

  11. Characterization of Near-Earth Asteroid 2009 KC3 from Radar and Thermal Infrared Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Benner, L. A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Vervack, R. J.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Magri, C.; Mueller, M.

    2010-01-01

    We will report on the size, shape, spin state, and reflective and thermal properties of C-type, Apollo-class, potentially hazardous, near-Earth asteroid 2009 KC3 (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.7, i = 10 deg). This object was discovered by the Siding Spring Survey in May 2009 and subsequently observed in the lat

  12. Effects of acidic functional groups on dielectric properties of sodium alginates and carrageenans in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Hiraoka, Masanori; Hadano, Shingo; Okamura, Kei; Ueda, Tadaharu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko

    2015-01-22

    This study investigated the dielectric properties of sodium alginates and carrageenans in water at frequencies between 100 MHz and 20 GHz in regard to water-hydrocolloid interactions via acidic functional groups. Both sodium alginates and carrageenans showed conduction loss at lower frequencies and dielectric loss at higher frequencies. Reduction and desulfation of sodium alginates and carrageenans, which decreased the numbers of acidic functional groups, decreased their conduction loss. In addition, H(+)-form carrageenans showed the highest ionic conduction. Correlational analysis of dielectric properties and related physical parameters showed that the loss tangent (tanδ) of the hydrocolloid solution was determined by the conductivity of the aqueous solution. Especially at pH below 2, strong H(+) conduction was associated with high tanδ probably due to the Grotthuss mechanism. The molecular dynamics of free water and H(+), viscosity conditions were also suggested to be associated with dielectric property of water-hydrocolloid system.

  13. Size prediction of κ-carrageenan droplets formed in co-flowing immiscible liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Yee Leong; Tek-Kaun Lim; Ravindra Pogaku; Eng-Seng Chan

    2011-01-01

    The formation of κ-carrageenan droplets in channel emulsification was experimentally investigated.The dispersed phase was vertically injected into co-flowing immiscible palm oil in the direction of gravity.This study focused on predicting κ-carrageenan drop size using force balance analysis.The force balance model considers the interfacial tension to be the solitary attaching force,while a combination of the drag force from the co-flowing palm oil and the body force of the extruding κ-carrageenan liquid act as the detaching forces.The conventional model gave poor predictions for droplet size,with an average relative deviation of 23%.This large deviation could be attributed to necking phenomena and an underestimation of the drag force generated on the shear-thinning κ-carrageenan solution.By incorporating correction factors,the average relative deviation of the force balance model dropped to 4%.

  14. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  15. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit E-mail: lalitv@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from {approx}320 to {approx}800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction ({approx}80%) and very high EDS ({approx}800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  16. Carrageenan Based Bionanocomposites as Drug Delivery Tool with Special Emphasis on the Influence of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Ain Us; Nawazish, Shamyla; Akhtar, Fahad; Rashid, Rehana; Mir, Sadullah; Nasir, Bushra; Afzal, Samina; Pervaiz, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable attention has been focused on carrageenan based bionanocomposites due to their multifaceted properties like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and nontoxicity. Moreover, these composites can be tailored according to the desired purpose by using different nanofillers. The role of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in drug delivery is also discussed here in detail. Moreover, this article also presents a short review of recent research on the different types of the carrageenan based bionanocomposites and applications. PMID:28303171

  17. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Webber; Sabrina Matos de Carvalho; Paulo José Ogliari; Leila Hayashi; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analys...

  18. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  19. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems with L-dopa based on carrageenans and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorożyński, P; Kulinowski, P; Mendyk, A; Jachowicz, R

    2011-02-14

    A comprehensive study was conducted to investigate the effects of carrageenans, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the properties of hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS) containing L-dopa as a model drug. The novel integrated approach included measurements of: solvent uptake, erosion, apparent density and changes in the internal structure of dosage forms during dissolution test by means of a USP4 compatible MRI. Differences in water ingress into the matrices with pure carrageenans (ι, κ, λ) or low viscous HPMC, were detected by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. Matrices based on carrageenans subjected to rapid hydration and erosion, were not able to maintain satisfactory floating properties for a sufficiently long period of time. The application of carrageenans in mixtures with HMC promoted water uptake by HBS formulations. The effect produced by varying the polymer blend's composition on release of the L-dopa was also studied. Dissolution data was fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. For matrices containing mixtures of carrageenan and HPMC, the linear increase in the releasing rate constant, K, with the carrageenan content in the matrix was observed.

  20. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated.

  1. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  3. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  4. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  5. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  6. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  7. Reduced-gravity two-phase flow experiments in the NASA KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Michener, Thomas E.; Best, Frederick R.; Kachnik, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    An adequate understanding is sought of flow and heat transfer behavior in reduced and zero gravity conditions. Microgravity thermal-hydraulic analysis capabilities were developed for application to space nuclear power systems. A series of reduced gravity two phase flow experiments using the NASA KC-135 were performed. The objective was to supply basic thermal hydraulic information that could be used in development of analytical tools for design of space power systems. The experiments are described. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, the tests demonstrate that the KC-135 is a suitable test environment for obtaining two phase flow and heat transfer data in reduced gravity conditions. Second, the behavior of two phase flow in low gravity is sufficiently different from that obtained in 1 g to warrant intensive investigation of the phenomenon if adequate analytical tools are to be developed for microgravity conditions.

  8. Effect of PAR-2 Deficiency in Mice on KC Expression after Intratracheal LPS Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease activated receptors (PAR have been shown to play a role in inflammation. PAR-2 is expressed by numerous cells in the lung and has either proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, or no effect depending on the model. Here, we examined the role of PAR-2 in a model of LPS-induced lung inflammation. We found that PAR-2-deficient mice had significantly less KC expression in bronchial lavage fluid compared with wild-type mice but there was no difference in MIP-2 or TNF-α expression. We also found that isolated alveolar and resident peritoneal macrophages lacking PAR-2 showed a similar deficit in KC after LPS stimulation without differences in MIP-2 or TNF-α. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lung following LPS administration was not affected by an absence of PAR-2. Our results support the notion that PAR-2 plays a role in LPS activation of TLR4 signaling in macrophages.

  9. Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-04

    in demand when airlift assets are stretched most thin during the early deployment phase of a conflict.”65 This may be considered significant to some...for proposals (RFP) in early 2007.73 The Boeing Company responded to the RFP with the KC-767, a variant of the commercial 767-200, while Northrop...Industries United States outer rear spar, main landing gearsupport, ribs (for BAE) Ciba-Geigy Corp. Federal Republic of Germany HTA /6376 prepreg on

  10. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Second KC-135R Air Refueling Squadron, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    following findings: U o Althouch the 116 adoitional students are projected to accompany inmigrating operations-period workers, the elementary school pupil-to...Falls where most of the public service demands generated by program-related inmigration would be expected. Public Finance. The ROI for this element...affected by the proposed Second KC-135R AREFS program. Communities and other locations anticipated to receive significant inmigration are the focus of

  11. The Marshall Space Flight Center KC-135 zero gravity test program for FY 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurney, R. E. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    During FY-82, researchers and experimenters from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted 11 separate investigations during 26.3 hr of testing aboard the KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft, based at Ellington Air force Base, Texas. Although this represented fewer hours than initially projected, all experiment and test objectives were met or exceeded. This Technical Memorandum compiles all results achieved by MSFC users during FY-82, a year considered to be highly productive.

  12. Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC) Fabrication and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped Stainless Steel NaK Circuit (SNaKC) has been designed and fabricated by the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This circuit uses the eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium (NaK) as the working fluid building upon the experience and accomplishments of the SNAP reactor program from the late 1960's The SNaKC enables valuable experience and liquid metal test capability to be gained toward the goal of designing and building an affordable surface power reactor. The basic circuit components include a simulated reactor core a NaK to gas heat exchanger, an electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, a liquid metal flow meter, an expansion reservoir and a drain/fill reservoir To maintain an oxygen free environment in the presence of NaK, an argon system is utilized. A helium and nitrogen system are utilized for core, pump, and heat exchanger operation. An additional rest section is available to enable special component testing m an elevated temperature actively pumped liquid metal environment. This paper summarizes the physical build of the SNaKC the gas and pressurization systems, vacuum systems, as well as instrumentation and control methods.

  13. AN EFFECTIVE METHOD TO IMPROVE THE WET STRENGTH OF POLY(DIALLYLDIMETHYL-AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Hong-fei Ha

    2002-01-01

    New IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule,kappa-carrageenan (KC) were prepared by gamma irradiation and their properties were studied. The results show that both the gel strength and the swelling capacity of the IPN hydrogels were enhanced significantly as compared with those of the pure hydrogels of PDADMAC.

  14. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications.

  15. Immobilization and Bioelectrochemistry of Hemoglobin Based on Carrageenan and Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春; 张洋; 王璐; 贾能勤

    2012-01-01

    A novel biopolymer/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film based on carrageenan, room temperature ionic liquid (IL) [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4)] was explored for immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and construction of biosensor. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic behaviors of Hb entrapped in the IL-carrageenan composite film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that Hb in the IL-carrageenan composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of Hb was obtained at the Hb-IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode through direct electron transfer between the protein and the underlying electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 2.02 s 1, indicating great facilitation of the electron transfer between Hb and IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide with a linear range of 5.0 × 10-6 to 1.5 ×10-4 mol/L and the detection limit was 2.12 ×10 7 mol/L (S/N= 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM^app for hydrogen peroxide was estimated to be 0.02 mmol/L, indicating that the biosensor possessed high affinity to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability.

  16. Vinpocetine reduces carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation in the paw and spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji W Ruiz-Miyazawa

    Full Text Available Vinpocetine is a safe nootropic agent used for neurological and cerebrovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of vinpocetine has been shown in cell based assays and animal models, leading to suggestions as to its utility in analgesia. However, the mechanisms regarding its efficacy in inflammatory pain treatment are still not completely understood. Herein, the analgesic effect of vinpocetine and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms were addressed in murine inflammatory pain models. Firstly, we investigated the protective effects of vinpocetine in overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ and formalin. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan was then used to induce inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the electronic von Frey and the hot plate tests, respectively, with neutrophil recruitment to the paw assessed by a myeloperoxidase activity assay. A number of factors were assessed, both peripherally and in the spinal cord, including: antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β levels, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation. Vinpocetine inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, PBQ and formalin (at both phases, as well as the carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and associated neutrophil recruitment. Both peripherally and in the spinal cord, vinpocetine also inhibited: antioxidant capacity and GSH depletion; increased superoxide anion; IL-1β and TNF-α levels; and NF-κB activation. As such, vinpocetine significantly reduces inflammatory pain by targeting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation at both peripheral and spinal cord levels.

  17. Characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish and their involvement in notochord development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo G; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Ng, Jennifer K; Dubova, Ilir; Izpisua-Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Verma, Inder M

    2004-06-01

    Although largely involved in innate and adaptive immunity, NF-kappa B plays an important role in vertebrate development. In chicks, the inactivation of the NF-kappa B pathway induces functional alterations of the apical ectodermal ridge, which mediates limb outgrowth. In mice, the complete absence of NF-kappa B activity leads to prenatal death and neural tube defects. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish. Despite being ubiquitously expressed among the embryonic tissues, NF-kappa B/I kappa B members present distinct patterns of gene expression during the early zebra fish development. Biochemical assays indicate that zebra fish NF-kappa B proteins are able to bind consensus DNA-binding (kappa B) sites and inhibitory I kappa B alpha proteins from mammals. We show that zebra fish I kappa B alphas are degraded in a time-dependent manner after induction of transduced murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and that these proteins are able to rescue NF-kappa B activity in I kappa B alpha(-/-) MEFs. Expression of a dominant-negative form of the murine I kappa B alpha (mI kappa B alpha M), which is able to block NF-kappa B in zebra fish cells, interferes with the notochord differentiation, generating no tail (ntl)-like embryos. This phenotype can be rescued by coinjection of the T-box gene ntl (Brachyury homologue), which is typically required for the formation of posterior mesoderm and axial development, suggesting that ntl lies downstream of NF-kappa B . We further show that ntl and Brachyury promoter regions contain functional kappa B sites and NF-kappa B can directly modulate ntl expression. Our study illustrates the conservation and compatibility of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins among vertebrates and the importance of NF-kappa B pathway in mesoderm formation during early embryogenesis.

  18. Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc of Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghai Hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop coefficients (Kc are important for the development of irrigation schedules, but few studies on Kc focus on saline soils. To propose the growth-stage-specific Kc values for sunflowers in saline soils, a two-year micro-plot experiment was conducted in Yichang Experimental Station, Hetao Irrigation District. Four salinity levels including non-salinized (ECe = 3.4–4.1 dS·m–1, low (ECe = 5.5–8.2 dS·m–1, moderate (ECe = 12.1–14.5 dS·m–1, and high (ECe = 18.3–18.5 dS·m–1 levels were arranged in 12 micro-plots. Based on the soil moisture observations, Vensim software was used to establish and develop a physically-based water flow in the soil-plant system (WFSP model. Observations in 2012 were used to calibrate the WFSP model and acceptable accuracy was obtained, especially for soil moisture simulation below 5 cm (R2 > 0.6. The locally-based Kc values (LKc of sunflowers in saline soils were presented according to the WFSP calibration results. To be specific, LKc for initial stages (Kc1 could be expressed as a function of soil salinity (R2 = 0.86, while R2 of LKc for rapid growth (Kc2, middle (Kc3, and mature (Kc4 stages were 0.659, 1.156, and 0.324, respectively. The proposed LKc values were also evaluated by observations in 2013 and the R2 for initial, rapid growth, middle, and mature stages were 0.66, 0.68, 0.56 and 0.58, respectively. It is expected that the LKc would be of great value in irrigation management and provide precise water application values for salt-affected regions.

  19. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of k-Carrageenan/SiO$_2$ nanocomposite films for antimicrobial food packaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R VENKATESAN; N RAJESWARI; T THENDRAL THIYAGU

    2017-06-01

    Kappa-Carrageenan (KCG) films have been formulated as a packaging material. This study has been conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating SiO$_2$ nanoparticles inside the KCG matrix, with the aim of enhancing the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of KCG for reinforcement purposes. Films were prepared by solution casting technique with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt% of SiO$_2$ nano-filler content taking neat KCG as the reference for the study. Structural characterizations of the prepared nanocomposite films were carried out by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope (SEM) andtransmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. SEM and TEM showed homogeneous dispersion of SiO$_2$ nanoparticles in the KCG matrix. The tensile strength increased significantly by introducing the SiO$_2$ nanoparticles into the KCG matrix, in which KCG/SiO$_2$ films have greater tensile strength (53.9 MPa) when compared to the KCG polymer (46.8 MPa). The moisture uptake (MU) of nanocomposites decreased when SiO2 was introduced into the polymer matrix. The barrier property of the prepared KCG-based nanocomposite films decreased oxygen transmission rate with loading of different wt%of SiO$_2$. SiO$_2$ nanoparticle-loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains compared to polymer film. This study was intended to find the applications for KCG films containing SiO$_2$ nanoparticles to enhance the shelf-life of foods in the form of biodegradable wrapper.

  20. Effect of epichlorohydrin on the wet spinning of carrageenan fibers under optimal parameter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xue, Zhixin; Yan, Miao; Liu, Jingjing; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the extensive application of carrageenans, this work prepared carrageenan fibers via wet spinning. The optimum spinning parameters were explored by means of an orthogonal test. According to the results of tensile test, dope concentration, draw ratio, coagulation bath temperature, and coagulation bath concentration set to 9%, 1.2, 15°C and 5%, respectively, were the optimum spinning conditions. These parameters were then applied to fabricate fibers treated with epichlorohydrin in a stretch bath. The result of tensile testing demonstrated a positive improvement in the intensity, and SEM showed obvious necking phenomenon of the crosslinked carrageenan fibers. The structures and special groups were characterized with X-ray diffraction and FTIR, and the results indicated the regularity of the net structure and the increase in ether bond and methylene. In some, crosslinking reactions in optimum parameter conditions yield excellent fibers and thus present promising applications.

  1. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-03-19

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  2. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  3. Protective effect of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S K; Viji, V; Kripa, K; Helen, A

    2011-07-01

    The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on an acute model of inflammation: the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Methanolic extract of J. gendarussa (JRM) roots at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited edema formation 5 h after carrageenan induction. JRM inhibited carrageenan-elicited total cycloxygenase activity, 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase activities in blood mononuclear cells of rats, decreased neutrophil infiltration in paw tissue as shown by low myeloperoxidase activity, and also caused a 53% inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 activity in paw tissue. Purification of JRM by liquid-liquid partitioning yielded an ethyl acetate fraction of JRM that showed interleukin-6 downregulation potential and the ability to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production in vivo. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that J. gendarussa is an anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. Study on the Dynamics of Blending of Glucomannan with Carrageenan and Guaran Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; YE Bing-Hong; HUANG Yong-Mei; LIN Qiong; ZENG Cui; SUN Yuan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In order to prove up the interaction between konjac glucomannan (KGM) and other amyloses, by using KGM, guaran gum and carrageenan as materials, their blending in different external conditions was modeled by means of molecular dynamics (MD) method.The result showed that 323 K was a significant turning point for the formation of hydrogen bond, and KGM and guaran gum were just juxtaposed together via intermolecular hydrogen bond; but with the addition of carrageenan, KGM, guaran gum and carrageenan were spirally twisted together, and when their blending proportion is 3:2:9 the combination was the most compact. Moreover, the research result has provided the sequent studies afterwards on amyloses with some references.

  5. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  6. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  7. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    of carrageenan in the presence of gel-promoting counterions. The aggregates do not disappear at 60 degrees C, although at this temperature the molecules should partially lose their ordered conformation. The network formation, observed by SANS, does not happen in high-contrast system immediately after cooling......SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...

  8. Facial synthesis of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite as efficient SERS platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yuhong; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Li; Peng, Feng, E-mail: yuhongzhengcas@gmail.com [Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Wang, Aiwu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the preparation of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite (CA-RGO-Ag) by a wet chemical method at room temperature using carrageenan, graphene oxide and silver nitrate as starting materials. As-prepared composite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Results showed that the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and silver nitrate was achieved simultaneously by addition of NaBH{sub 4} . Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study showed that the obtained composite give an intensive and enhanced Raman scattering when Rhodamine B was used as a probing molecule. (author)

  9. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliste, A. J. A. J.; Vieira, F. F. F. F.; Del Mastro, N. L. N. L.

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods.

  10. Analysis and interpretation of low gravity boiling experiments in the KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Krotiuk, William J.; Samuels, Jeffery W.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced gravity two phase flow boiling and condensing experiments were conducted in the NASA KC-135. In an attempt to gain a better understanding of two phase flow behavior in reduced gravity, the individual test runs were critically examined to determine their suitability to be taken as representative of two phase flow in microgravity. Selected runs were simulated using the two fluid thermal-hydraulic COBRA/TRAC computer code. The comparisons of these sophisticated codes with the observed flow behavior illustrate the generic shortcomings of current two phase modeling capabilities in application to reduced gravity conditions.

  11. SPECIAL REPORT - The KC EMPOWER Project: Designing More Accessible STEM Learning Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Hirshon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall purpose of the Kinetic City (KC Empower project was to examine how informal science activities can be made accessible for students with disabilities. The premise of this project was that all students, including those with disabilities, are interested in and capable of engaging in science learning experiences, if these experiences are accessible to them. Drawing on resources from Kinetic City, a large collection of science experiments, games, and projects developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the project researched and adapted five afterschool science activities guided by universal design for learning principles.

  12. $\\kappa$-Deformation and Spectral Triples

    CERN Document Server

    Iochum, B; Schücker, Th; Sitarz, A; 10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.4.305

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to answer the following question: does $\\kappa$-deformation fit into the framework of noncommutative geometry in the sense of spectral triples? Using a compactification of time, we get a discrete version of $\\kappa$-Minkowski deformation via $C^*$-algebras of groups. The dynamical system of the underlying groups (including some Baumslag--Solitar groups) is used in order to construct \\emph{finitely summable} spectral triples. This allows to bypass an obstruction to finite-summability appearing when using the common regular representation.

  13. Strong Langmuir turbulence in Kappa distributed plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Sanqiu [Department of Physics and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047 (China); Chen Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Superthermal electrons are often observed in space and astrophysics and can be appropriate modeled by the family of Kappa distribution functions. Taking the nonlinear wave-wave, wave-particle interactions and the effect of superthermal electrons into account, the strong Langmuir turbulence is investigated in kinetic regime. The modified Zakharov equations are obtained for the case of no damping or driving terms. On the basis of these equations, dynamics of collapse have been studied by the means of the general virial theorem, and the collapse thresholds which are strong modified by superthermal index {kappa}{sub e} are given.

  14. Multiplex cytokine analyses in dogs with pyometra suggest involvement of KC-like chemokine in canine bacterial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Iulia; Hagman, Ragnvi; Johannisson, Anders; Wang, Liya; Södersten, Fredrik; Wernersson, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection) are unspecific and, therefore, biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis are needed for appropriate treatment and patient survival. Pyometra, a common disease caused by bacterial infection of the uterus, results in sepsis in nearly 60% of cases in dogs. We used dogs with pyometra as a natural model for sepsis and collected serum samples from 39 dogs, of which 22 with pyometra and 17 healthy controls. Dogs with pyometra were further grouped into dogs with sepsis (n=18) and without sepsis (n=4). Serum concentrations of a panel of cytokines, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)-like, granulocyte-macrophages colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using multiplex analyses. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined using an automated immunoturbidimetric assay. In addition to physical examination hematological and serum biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the overall status of the dogs. Significantly higher concentrations of KC-like (757 vs 304 pg/ml) were detected in dogs with pyometra as compared to healthy dogs. Within the pyometra group, dogs with sepsis compared to dogs without sepsis had a higher KC-like concentration (873 vs 300 pg/ml). Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in dogs with pyometra compared to healthy dogs, regardless of the presence or absence of sepsis, and correlated negatively with KC-like. KC-like concentrations correlated positively with CRP, number of hospitalization days, number of monocytes, concentrations of IL-8, and percentage band neutrophils. Our data suggest that bacterial infection triggers the expression of KC-like and further studies are warranted of KC-like as a possible biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and uterine bacterial infection in dogs. Copyright

  15. A critical review of the toxicological effects of carrageenan and processed eucheuma seaweed on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel M; Ito, Nobuyuki

    2002-09-01

    Carrageenan is a high-molecular-weight, strongly anionic polymer derived from several species of red seaweed that is used for the textural stabilization of foods. Processed Eucheuma Seaweed (PES) is a form of carrageenan with a higher cellulose content. Food-grade carrageenan has a weight average molecular weight greater than 100,000 Da, with a low percentage of smaller fragments. Carrageenan is not degraded to any extent in the gastrointestinal tract and is not absorbed from it in species examined, such as rodents, dogs, and non-human primates. Systemically administered carrageenan has been reported to have a variety of effects, particularly on the immune system, but these are not pertinent to orally administered carrageenan. The substance poligeenan (formerly referred to as degraded carrageenan) is not a food additive. It exhibits toxicological properties at high doses that do not occur with the food additive carrageenan. In-long term bioassays, carrageenan has not been found to be carcinogenic, and there is no credible evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect or a tumor-promoting effect on the colon in rodents. Also, like many dietary fibers, there is significant cecal enlargement in rodents when it is administered at high doses, but this does not appear to be associated with any toxicological consequences to the rodent. Many toxicological studies on carrageenan have involved administration at doses in excess of today's standards for dietary feeding levels in bioassays, and they are orders of magnitude in excess of those to which humans are exposed. Previous reviews of carrageenan and PES by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have recommended a group allowable daily intake (ADI) of "not specified". The lack of carcinogenic, genotoxic, or tumor-promoting activity with carrageenan strongly supports continuing such an ADI, and JECFA, during its most recent review in 2001, continued this

  16. Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by downregulating the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Xue, Liqiong; Guo, Cuicui; Han, Bing; Pan, Chunming; Zhao, Shuangxia; Song, Huaidong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ma, Qinyun, E-mail: qinyunma@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-{kappa}B in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-{alpha}, IL6, IL10, IL1{beta}, KC, MIP-1{alpha}, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  17. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  19. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  20. Iota-Carrageenan Is a Potent Inhibitor of Influenza A Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Meier, Christiane; König-Schuster, Marielle; Weinmüllner, Regina; Kalthoff, Donata; Pflugfelder, Bettina; Graf, Philipp; Frank-Gehrke, Britta; Beer, Martin; Fazekas, Tamas; Unger, Hermann; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Grassauer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic and the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza strains highlight the need for treatment alternatives. One such option is the creation of a protective physical barrier in the nasal cavity. In vitro tests demonstrated that iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection, most importantly also of pandemic H1N1/2009 in vitro. Consequently, we tested a commercially available nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in an influenza A mouse infection model. Treatment of mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 virus with iota-carrageenan starting up to 48 hours post infection resulted in a strong protection of mice similar to mice treated with oseltamivir. Since alternative treatment options for influenza are rare, we conclude that the nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan is an alternative to neuraminidase inhibitors and should be tested for prevention and treatment of influenza A in clinical trials in humans. PMID:21179403

  1. Iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leibbrandt

    Full Text Available The 2009 flu pandemic and the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza strains highlight the need for treatment alternatives. One such option is the creation of a protective physical barrier in the nasal cavity. In vitro tests demonstrated that iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection, most importantly also of pandemic H1N1/2009 in vitro. Consequently, we tested a commercially available nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in an influenza A mouse infection model. Treatment of mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 virus with iota-carrageenan starting up to 48 hours post infection resulted in a strong protection of mice similar to mice treated with oseltamivir. Since alternative treatment options for influenza are rare, we conclude that the nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan is an alternative to neuraminidase inhibitors and should be tested for prevention and treatment of influenza A in clinical trials in humans.

  2. Construction of biosensor systems for determining the pathophysiological potential of carrageenan variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Angela; End, Caroline; Christiansen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In vitro systems for monitoring safety of nutritional additives are desirable for high-throughput screenings and as a substitute for animal models. Carrageenan (CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide widely used as a thickener and texturizer in human nutrition and is intensely discussed regarding its ...

  3. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela;

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR)-induce...

  4. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...

  5. Measurements of the Fuel Mileage of a KC-135 Aircraft with and Without Winglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temanson, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The KC-135A Winglet Flight Research and Demonstration Program was a joint effort of the Air Force, NASA and the Boeing Military Airplane Company to flight test winglets on the KC-135A. The primary objective of the program was to verify the cruise performance improvements predicted by analysis and wind tunnel tests. Flight test data were obtained for winglets positioned at 15 deg cant/-2 deg incidence, 0 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence and for winglets off (baseline). Both fuel mileage and drag measurements were obtained. The 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence winglet configuration provided the greatest performance improvement. The flight test measured fuel mileage improvement for a 0.78 Mach number was 3.1 percent at 8 x 10(5) pounds W/delta and 5.5 percent at 1.05 x 10(6) pounds W/delta. Correcting the flight measured data for surface pressure differences between wind tunnel and flight resulted in a fuel mileage improvement of 4.4 percent at 8 x 10(5) pounds W/delta and 7.2 percent at 1.05 x 10(6) pounds W/delta. The agreement between the fuel mileage and drag data was excellent.

  6. Directional solidification of flake and nodular cast iron during KC-135 low-g maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Alloys solidified in a low-gravity environment can, due to the elimination of sedimentation and convection, form unique and often desirable microstructures. One method of studying the effects of low-gravity (low-g) on alloy solidification was the use of the NASA KC-135 aircraft flying repetitive low-g maneuvers. Each maneuver gives from 20 to 30 seconds of low-g which is between about 0.1 and 0.001 gravity. A directional solidification furnace was used to study the behavior of off eutectic composition case irons in a low-g environment. The solidification interface of hypereutectic flake and spheroidal graphite case irons was slowly advanced through a rod sample, 5 mm in diameter. Controlled solidification was continued through a number of aircraft parabolas. The known solidification rate of the sample was then correlated with accelerometer data to determine the gravity level during solidification for any location of the sample. The thermal gradient and solidification rate were controlled independently. Samples run on the KC-135 aircraft exhibited bands of coarser graphite or of larger nodules usually corresponding to the regions solidified under low-g. Samples containing high phosphorous (used in order to determine the eutectic cell) exhibited larger eutectic cells in the low-g zone, followed by a band of coarser graphite.

  7. Carrageenan-induced colitis is associated with decreased population of anti-inflammatory bacterium, Akkermansia muciniphila, in the gut microbiota of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qingsen; Sun, Weixia; Shan, Xindi; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2017-09-05

    Carrageenan as a food additive has been used for years. However, controversy exists regarding to the safety of carrageenan and accumulating evidence indicates that it could induce colitis in experimental models. Here, to provide more information on this issue and solve the debate, we studied and compared in detail the toxic effects of different isomers of carrageenan (κ-, ι-, and λ-) on the colon of C57BL/6J mice. Interestingly, all isomers of carrageenan were found to induce colitis with a comparable activity. Given that carrageenan is unabsorbed after oral administration, and also in light of the fact that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of colitis, we further investigated the effect of carrageenan on gut microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. Intriguingly, carrageenan-induced colitis was observed to be robustly correlated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota. Specifically, all carrageenans significantly decreased the abundance of a potent anti-inflammatory bacterium, Akkermansia muciniphila, in the gut, which is highly relevant for understanding the toxic effect of carrageenan. Altogether, our results corroborate previous studies demonstrating harmful gastrointestinal effect of carrageenan and, from a gut microbiota perspective, shed new light into the mechanism by which carrageenan induces colitis in experimental animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of NF-kappaB in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaponis, Apostolos; Iwabe, Tomio; Taniguchi, Fuminori; Ito, Masayuki; Deura, Imari; Decavalas, George; Terakawa, Naoki; Harada, Tasuku

    2012-06-01

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor playing vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. This review highlights the importance of NF-kappaB in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB has been shown in endometriotic lesions. Complex interactions of NF-kappaB with steroid receptors and apoptotic molecules in endometriosis resulting in opposing roles of NF-kappaB are discussed. NF-kappaB regulates the expression of cytokines mediating autocrine self-amplifying cycles of cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation, leading to maintenance of inflammatory reactions in endometriosis. NF-kappaB can contribute to the increased ability of endometriotic cells to invade and adhere to the peritoneal surface by regulating the expression of matrix metaloproteinases. We are presenting the role of NF-kappaB to regulate vascularization and oxidative stress in endometriotic cells. Effects of drugs used for the treatment of endometriosis on NF-kappaB pathway are presented and we show how drugs that inhibit the NF-kappaB can mediate the progression of endometriosis. Novel therapeutic strategies involving the NF-kappaB and applied in endometriosis are also discussed.

  9. Inactivation of class II PI3K-C2α induces leptin resistance, age-dependent insulin resistance and obesity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliouachene, Samira; Bilanges, Benoit; Chaussade, Claire; Pearce, Wayne; Foukas, Lazaros C; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Moniz, Larissa S; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2016-07-01

    While the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are well-documented positive regulators of metabolism, the involvement of class II PI3K isoforms (PI3K-C2α, -C2β and -C2γ) in metabolic regulation is just emerging. Organismal inactivation of PI3K-C2β increases insulin signalling and sensitivity, whereas PI3K-C2γ inactivation has a negative metabolic impact. In contrast, the role of PI3K-C2α in organismal metabolism remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated whether kinase inactivation of PI3K-C2α affects glucose metabolism in mice. We have generated and characterised a mouse line with a constitutive inactivating knock-in (KI) mutation in the kinase domain of the gene encoding PI3K-C2α (Pik3c2a). While homozygosity for kinase-dead PI3K-C2α was embryonic lethal, heterozygous PI3K-C2α KI mice were viable and fertile, with no significant histopathological findings. However, male heterozygous mice showed early onset leptin resistance, with a defect in leptin signalling in the hypothalamus, correlating with a mild, age-dependent obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Insulin signalling was unaffected in insulin target tissues of PI3K-C2α KI mice, in contrast to previous reports in which downregulation of PI3K-C2α in cell lines was shown to dampen insulin signalling. Interestingly, no metabolic phenotypes were detected in female PI3K-C2α KI mice at any age. Our data uncover a sex-dependent role for PI3K-C2α in the modulation of hypothalamic leptin action and systemic glucose homeostasis. All reagents are available upon request.

  10. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air...... range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found...

  11. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Hisanory; Zaffini Raffaela; Menegazzi Marta; Genovese Tiziana; Muià Carmelo; Mazzon Emanuela; Di Paola Rosanna; Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2%) into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained...

  12. PI3KC2{alpha}, a class II PI3K, is required for dynamin-independent internalization pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Claudia; Malmberg, Emily Kim; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cellular uptake of several molecules can occur independently of functional dynamin, but the molecular players that regulate dynamin-independent endocytosis and the subsequent trafficking steps are still largely unknown. A survival-based short-hairpin (sh) RNA...... screen using a cell line expressing a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR, officially known as HBEGF) anchored to GPI (DTR-GPI), which internalizes diphtheria toxin (DT, officially known as DTX) in a dynamin-independent manner, identified PI3KC2a, a class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), as a specific...... regulator of dynamin-independent DT internalization. We found that the internalization of several proteins that enter the cell through dynamin-independent pathways led to a relocalization of PI3KC2a to cargo-positive vesicles. Furthermore, downregulation of PI3KC2a impaired internalization of CD59 as well...

  13. Electrical resistivity of TiH/sub x/ and TiH/sub x//KC10/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.; Reed, J.W.; Love, C.M.; Glaub, J.E.; Holy, J.A.

    1979-03-16

    Various factors affecting the electrical resistivity of the pyrotechnic pressed powder TiH/sub x//KC10/sub 4/, which is sensitive to hot wire ignition yet quite spark insensitive, were evaluated. The electrical resistivity of the TiH/sub x/ and TiH/sub x//KC10/sub 4/ were correlated with their pressing pressure, stoichiometry, powder surface area, and temperature (from below liquid nitrogen temperature to 500 K). Data show resistivity increasing with x and surface area, and decreasing non-linearly with pressing pressure. It was concluded that temperature coefficient of resistivity depends upon powder surface features. In addition, it was found that electrostatic discharge lowers TiH/sub x/ and TiH/sub x//KC10/sub 4/ pellet resistivity and that the effect is larger for pellets with higher initial resistivity.

  14. Isolation and characterization of deleterious Pseudomonas aeruginosa KC1 from rhizospheric soils and its interaction with weed seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial isolate KC1 was screened from the rhizosphere of castor plants (Ricinus communis indigenous to agricultural fields of Bihar. The isolate was Gram negative, non-spore forming, and exhibited fluorescence under UV light. Its molecular characterization is based on the sequencing of 16S rDNA (1450 bp and alignment at GeneBank (NCBI, MaryLand. The strain has been validated as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (HM195190. The bacterium grew at 4–42 °C, with a temperature optima of 30 °C. The strain KC1 was found to produce cyanide (4.78 nmol l−1 over a period of 36 h. Data revealed enhanced cyanogenesis (6.98 nmol l−1, when glycine was provided in the King’s B medium. Seed bacterization exhibited reduction in root length, shoot length of weed seedlings (Amaranthus spinosus, Portulaca oleracea, which was significant (p < 0.05 in both laboratory and glasshouse experiments. Biomass was significantly reduced (p < 0.05 for the weed seedlings in glasshouse experiments. However, KC1 inoculated crop seedlings (Triticum aestivum were found to be less inhibitory as compared to weed seedlings. The observations are significant to establish, that the secondary metabolites producing KC1 rhizobacterium, P. aeruginosa KC1 could be exploited as a weed biocontrol agent. The innate potential of KC1 could be further formulated and utilized in field applications for agricultural sustainability.

  15. PI3K-C2α: One enzyme for two products coupling vesicle trafficking and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Carlo C; Franco, Irene; Hirsch, Emilio

    2015-06-22

    The spatial restriction of phosphorylated phosphoinositides generated downstream activated membrane receptors is critical for proper cell response to environmental cues. The α isoform of class II PI3Ks, PI3K-C2α, has emerged as a modulator of receptor localization, acting both in the control of receptor endocytosis and resensitization. This unexpectedly versatile enzyme was found to differentially produce two distinct 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides and to selectively control distinct steps of vesicular traffic such as endocytosis and recycling. This review focuses on the latest discoveries regarding PI3K-C2α function in vesicle trafficking and its impact on cell biology and mammalian embryonic development.

  16. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  17. Initial Testing of the Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is currently undergoing testing in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). Sodium potassium (NaK) was selected as the primary coolant. Basic circuit components include: simulated reactor core, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, liquid metal flowmeter, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, test section, and instrumentation. Operation of the circuit is based around the 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full core), designed to operate at 33 kWt. This presentation addresses the construction, fill and initial testing of the Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC).

  18. Active member vibration control experiment in a KC-135 reduced gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C. R.; Lurie, B. J.; Chen, G.-S.; Swanson, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An active member vibration control experiment in a KC-135 reduced gravity environment was carried out by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Two active members, consisting of piezoelectric actuators, displacement sensors, and load cells, were incorporated into a 12-meter, 104 kg box-type test structure. The active member control design involved the use of bridge (compound) feedback concept, in which the collocated force and velocity signals are feedback locally. An impact-type test was designed to accommodate the extremely short duration of the reduced gravity testing window in each parabolic flight. The moving block analysis technique was used to estimate the modal frequencies and dampings from the free-decay responses. A broadband damping performance was demonstrated up to the ninth mode of 40 Hz. The best damping performance achieved in the flight test was about 5 percent in the fourth mode of the test structure.

  19. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage.

  20. Properties of sigma and kappa Production Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, M; Ishida, Muneyuki; Ishida, Shin

    2003-01-01

    Our method of analysis, which led to existence of sigma and kappa mesons, is reviewed and examined from a viewpoint of general S-matrix. It is shown that the method is consistent with the constraints from chiral symmetry and unitarity. Accordingly the long-believed common analyses of pipi (Kpi) scattering and production processes, based on elastic unitarity, prove to lose its theoretical base. The observed phase motion by 180 degrees of sigma shows also the validity of our method.

  1. Responses of heart rate and blood pressure to KC-135 hyper-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Ken'ichi; Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Many investigators have clarified the effects of hyper gravitational-inertial forces (G) upon the cardiovascular system, using the centrifugal apparatus with short rotating radius. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to KC-135 hyper-G flight with negligibly small angular velocity. Six normal, healthy subjects 29 to 40 years old (5 males and 1 female) took part in this experiment. Hyper gravitational-inertial force was generated by the KC-135 hyper-G flight, flown in a spiral path with a very long radius of 1.5 miles. Hyper-G was sustained for 3 minutes with 1.8 +Gz in each session and was repeatedly exposed to very subject sitting on a chair 5 times. The preliminary results of blood pressure and R-R interval are discussed. An exposure of 1.8 +Gz stress resulted in a remarkable increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the pulse pressure did not change and remained equal to the control level regardless of an exposure of hyper-G. These results in blood pressure indicate an increase of resistance in the peripheral vessels, when an exposure of hyper-G was applied. The R-R interval was calculated from ECG. R-R interval in all subjects was changed but not systematically, and R-R interval became obviously shorter during the hyper-G period than during the 1 +Gz control period although R-R interval varied widely in some cases. The coefficient of variation of R-R interval was estimated to determine the autonomic nerve activity, but no significant change was detectable.

  2. Characterization of Near-Earth Asteroid 2009 KC3 from Radar and Thermal Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Benner, L. A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Vervack, R. J.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Magri, C.; Mueller, M.

    2010-10-01

    We will report on the size, shape, spin state, and reflective and thermal properties of C-type, Apollo-class, potentially hazardous, near-Earth asteroid 2009 KC3 (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.7, i = 10 deg). This object was discovered by the Siding Spring Survey in May 2009 and subsequently observed in the late summer using the Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) and Arecibo (2380 MHz, 12.6 cm) radar systems from August 22-29 as well as with the SpeX instrument on the NASA IRTF on August 30 and September 21. Radar images reveal a roughly spheroidal body about 1.2 km in diameter that is slightly asymmetric and elongated. Tracking of surface features and the echo bandwidth suggest a period near 12 hours, which is in agreement with a period of 11.768 hours found from lightcurve observations (P. Pravec, pers. comm.). A consistent decrease in echo bandwidth during the radar observations implies the line of sight was moving away from the equator. Radar images with resolution as fine as 7.5 m per pixel show an indentation on the leading edge (possibly a crater) and radar-bright features beyond the leading edge. The S-band circular polarization ratio of 0.25 is near the median observed among near-Earth asteroids. Thermal emission between 2 and 4 microns is essentially unchanged in SpeX observations three weeks apart despite a change in phase angle from 98 deg to 49 degrees and an increase in heliocentric distance by 0.1 AU. Furthermore, the thermal parameters derived for 2009 KC3 during a single observation do not accurately predict the thermal emission at a later time in a different viewing geometry. Determination of the shape and spin pole will help us understand how much rotation phase and illumination effects affected the thermal observations.

  3. Development of KC-TZ118 CNC Drilling and Boring Modular Machine for Chain Link%KC-TZ118型链轨节数控钻镗组合机床的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田子欣; 霍苏萍

    2011-01-01

    KC-TZ118型链轨节数控钻镗组合机床,是校企合作共同研发的高效率、高精度、高性能自动钻镗组合机床,专门用于挖掘机左右链轨节镗孔、钻孔的加工.主要介绍KC-TZ118型链轨节数控钻镗组合机床的方案确定、机床结构特点、机床参数的配置、数控系统的配置及调试方法等,并详细分析机床设计中的关键技术.%KC-TZ118 CNC drilling and boring modular machine for chain link, a kind of high efficient, high precise and high performance automatic drilling and boring modular machine developed by enterprise and school, is especially used for boring hole and drilling hole processing of the left and right chain link of the excavator.The program determination, structural characteristics of the machine, and parameter configuration of the machine, the numerical control system configuration and debugging methods of KC-TZ118CNC drilling and boring modular machine were introduced, in addition, the key techniques of design for machine were analyzed in detail.

  4. Differential forms and {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime from extended twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juric, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Strajn, Rina [Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    We analyze bicovariant differential calculus on {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime. It is shown that corresponding Lorentz generators and noncommutative coordinates compatible with bicovariant calculus cannot be realized in terms of commutative coordinates and momenta. Furthermore, {kappa}-Minkowski space and NC forms are constructed by twist related to a bicrossproduct basis. It is pointed out that the consistency condition is not satisfied. We present the construction of {kappa}-deformed coordinates and forms (super-Heisenberg algebra) using extended twist. It is compatible with bicovariant differential calculus with {kappa}-deformed igl(4)-Hopf algebra. The extended twist leading to {kappa}-Poincare-Hopf algebra is also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of spatially distributed values of Kc using vegetation indices derived from medium resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M.; Simoniello, T.; Lanfredi, M.; Russo, A. L.

    2010-09-01

    In the last years, the theme of suitable assessment of irrigation water supply has been raised relevant interest for both general principles of sustainable development and optimization of water resources techniques and management. About 99% of the water used in agriculture is lost by crops as evapotranspiration (ET). Thus, it becomes crucial to drive direct or indirect measurement in order to perform a suitable evaluation of water loss by evapotranspiration (i.e. actual evapotranspiration) as well as crop water status and its effect on the production. The main methods used to measure evapotranspiration are available only at field scale (Bowen ratio, eddy correlation system, soil water balance) confined to a small pilot area, generally due to expense and logistical constraints. This led over the last 50 years to the development of a large number of empirical methods to estimate evapotranspiration through different climatic and meteorological variables as well as combining models, based on aerodynamic theory and energy balance, taking into account both canopy properties and meteorological conditions. Among these, the Penman-Monteith equation seems to give the best results providing a robust and consistent method world wide accepted. Such conventional methods only provide accurate evapotranspiration assessment for a homogeneous region nearby the meteorological gauge station and cannot be extrapolated to other different sites; whereas remote sensing techniques allow for filling up such a gap. Some of these satellite techniques are based on the use of thermal band signals as inputs for energy balance equations. Another common approach is mainly based on the FAO method for estimating crop evapotranspiration, in which evapotranspiration data are multiplied by crop coefficients, Kc, derived from satellite multispectral vegetation indices obtained. The rationale behind such a link considers that Kc and vegetation indices are sensitive to both leaf area index and fractional

  6. Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Investigation of Interactions between Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor and Dextran Sulfate / Carrageenan Oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Ye LIANG; Yu Guang DU; Ke Yi WANG; Bing Cheng LIN

    2005-01-01

    The interactions between granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dextran sulfate / κ-carrageenan oligosa1ccharide were studied by capillary zone electrophoresis. Dextran sulfate could strongly interact with G-CSF and the complex was detected. The binding constant and stoichiometry were determined to be 1.2x106 (mol/L)-1 and 3:1, respectively. However, the interaction between κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide and G-CSF was not found.

  7. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-kappa mediates homophilic binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; Jiang, Y P; Friedlander, D

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) feature PTPase domains in the context of a receptor-like transmembrane topology. The R-PTPase R-PTP-kappa displays an extracellular domain composed of fibronectin type III motifs, a single immunoglobulin domain, as well as a recently defined MAM domain (Y.......-P. Jiang, H. Wang, P. D'Eustachio, J.M. Musacchio, J. Schlessinger, and J. Sap, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2942-2951, 1993). We report here that R-PTP-kappa can mediate homophilic intercellular interaction. Inducible expression of the R-PTP-kappa protein in heterologous cells results in formation of stable...... cellular aggregates strictly consisting of R-PTP-kappa-expressing cells. Moreover, the purified extracellular domain of R-PTP-kappa functions as a substrate for adhesion by cells expressing R-PTP-kappa and induces aggregation of coated synthetic beads. R-PTP-kappa-mediated intercellular adhesion does...

  8. Optimizing delivery systems for cationic biopolymers: competitive interactions of cationic polylysine with anionic κ-carrageenan and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Pena, Cynthia Lyliam; McClements, David Julian

    2014-06-15

    Polylysine is a cationic biopolymer with a strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, however, its functional performance is influenced by its interactions with anionic biopolymers. We examined the stability of polylysine-pectin complexes in the presence of carrageenan, and vice versa. Polylysine-pectin or polylysine-carrageenan complexes were formed at mass ratios of 1:0 to 1:32 (pH 3.5), and then micro-electrophoresis, turbidity, microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to characterise them. Solutions containing polylysine-pectin complexes were slightly turbid and relatively stable to aggregation at high mass ratios, whereas those containing polylysine-carrageenan complexes were turbid and unstable to aggregation and precipitation. Pectin did not strongly interact with polylysine-carrageenan complexes, whereas carrageenan displaced pectin from polylysine-pectin complexes, which was attributed to differences in electrostatic attraction between polylysine, carrageenan, and pectin. These results have important implications for the design of effective antimicrobial delivery systems for foods and beverages.

  9. A Novel Zebrafish Model to Provide Mechanistic Insights into the Inflammatory Events in Carrageenan-Induced Abdominal Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Chun-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Min David; Sung, Chun-Sung; Sun, Yu-Min; Wu, Chang-Yi; Liu, Wangta; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1.5% λ-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO). To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg), a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-α antibody (1∶5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL) or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg) inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds. PMID:25141004

  10. A novel zebrafish model to provide mechanistic insights into the inflammatory events in carrageenan-induced abdominal edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of 1.5% λ-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO. To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg, a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-α antibody (1∶5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds.

  11. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

  12. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  13. Controlled release of acetylsalicylic acid from polythiophene/carrageenan hydrogel via electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairatwachapun, Sanita; Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-02-10

    Blends between polythiophene (PTh) and a carrageenan hydrogel were fabricated as the matrix for the electric field assisted drug release. The pristine carrageenan and the blend films were prepared by the solution casting using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as the anionic model drug and Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Ba(2+) as the crosslinking agents. The ASA was released by the Fickian diffusion mechanism. The diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing crosslinking ratio or decreasing crosslinking ionic radii. The diffusion coefficients were greater with the applied electrical potentials by an order of magnitude relative to those without electric field. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients with PTh as the drug carrier were higher than those without PTh. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer in the hydrogel blend coupled with applied electric field is shown here to drastically enhance the drug delivery rate.

  14. Efficient enzymatic degradation process for hydrolysis activity of the Carrageenan from red algae in marine biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Hee; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; You, Seung Kyou; Kim, Seung Wook; Han, Sung Ok

    2014-12-20

    Carrageenan is a generic name for a family of polysaccharides obtained from certain species of red algae. New methods to produce useful cost-efficiently materials from red algae are needed to convert enzymatic processes into fermentable sugars. In this study, we constructed chimeric genes cCgkA and cCglA containing the catalytic domain of κ-carrageenase CgkA and λ-carrageenase CglA from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora fused with a dockerin domain. Recombinant strains expressing the chimeric carrageenase resulted in a halo formation on the carrageenan plate by alcian blue staining. The recombinant cCgkA and cCglA were assembled with scaffoldin miniCbpA via cohesin and dockerin interaction. Carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in scaffoldin was used as a tag for cellulose affinity purification using cellulose as a support. The hydrolysis process was monitored by the amount of reducing sugar released from carrageenan. Interestingly, these results indicated that miniCbpA, cCgkA and cCglA assembled into a complex and that the dockerin-fused enzymes on the scaffoldin had synergistic activity in the degradation of carrageenan. The observed enhancement of activity by carrageenolytic complex was 3.1-fold-higher compared with the corresponding enzymes alone. Thus, the assemblies of advancement of active enzyme complexes will facilitate the commercial production of useful products from red algae biomass which represents inexpensive and sustainable feed-stocks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of recombinant human EPO production and glycosylation in serum-free suspension culture of CHO cells through expression and supplementation of 30Kc19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hyun; Wang, Zesong; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Park, Hee Ho; Kim, Byung-Gee; Tan, Wen-Song; Choi, Shin Sik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2012-11-01

    We previously reported that the expression of Bombyx mori 30Kc19 gene in CHO cells significantly improved both the production and sialylation of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) in adhesion culture mode. In this study, the effects of 30Kc19 expression and supplementation of 30Kc19 recombinant protein on the productivity and glycosylation pattern of rHuEPO were investigated in the serum-free suspension culture mode. Especially, glycosylation pattern was examined in detail using a quantitative MALDI-TOF MS method. The expression of 30Kc19 increased the EPO production by 2.5-folds and the host cells produced rHuEPO with more complex glycan structures and a larger content of sialic acid and fucose. The glycan structures of rHuEPO in the 30Kc19-expressing cell consisted of bi-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-antennary branching (35, 18, 33, and 14 %, respectively), while the control cells produced predominantly bi-antennary branching (70 %). About 53 % of the glycans from rHuEPO in the 30Kc19-expressing cell was terminally sialylated, while no obvious sialylated glycan was found in the control cells. The percentage of fucosylated glycans from the 30Kc19-expressing cell culture was 77 %, whereas only 61 % of the glycans from the control cell were fucosylated glycans. We also examined whether these effects were observed when the recombinant 30Kc19 protein produced from Escherichia coli was supplemented into the culture medium for CHO cells. In the control cell line without the 30Kc19 gene, EPO production increased by 41.6 % after the addition of 0.2 mg/mL of the recombinant 30Kc19 protein to the culture medium. By the Western blot analysis after two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of isoforms of EPO, we confirmed that 30Kc19 enhanced the sialylation of EPO glycans. These results demonstrated that both 30Kc19 gene expression and the recombinant 30Kc19 protein addition enhanced rHuEPO productivity and glycosylation in suspension culture. In conclusion, the utilization of

  16. Arthritic disease is more severe in older rats in a kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Yeom, Mijung; Choi, Hyun Mi; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    This study examined in an arthritis animal model whether elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) is a more severe disease than younger onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced by injecting 5% kaolin/carrageenan into the left tibiotarsal ankles of 18-month-old and 4-week-old rats. Various parameters were measured to evaluate the arthritic progression of kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis in the rats. Immunohistochemical staining of arthritic joints was performed to determine the degree of inflammation in old and young rats. Measurements of ankle volume and thickness, arthritic index, number of squeaks, and the paw pressure test showed the 18-month-old rats had more severe disease than the young rats in a kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis model. The degree of inflammation and MMP-1 expression of arthritic joints in old rats was significantly higher than that of young rats based on histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunochemistry. More severe disease symptoms were found in old rats with EORA, but the molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms will be helpful to develop clinical protocols to efficiently treat patients with EORA, which is difficult to control with current protocols.

  17. Caries-­preventive Effect of 1300ppm Fluoride and Carrageenan Containing Toothpaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Various studies stated that the increase concentration of fluoride in toothpastes leads to the reduction of calcium loss in enamel. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the difference between the effect of 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste and 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste on roughness and hardness of enamel surface. Methods: Enamel specimens were obtained from 30 extracted human premolars. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups, 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste, 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste and toothpaste with no fluoride as a negative control. The samples were immersed in 1% citric acid with pH 4 for 150 seconds for demineralization, afterwards exposed to each toothpaste for 6 minutes. Results: The results demonstrated that toothpaste with 1300ppm fluoride with carregeenan has two times greater efficacy in triggering remineralization than toothpaste with 1000ppm fluoride only, with regards to surface roughness and hardness recovery in an in vitro caries model. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment of enamel with toothpaste containing 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan has high potential in inducing remineralization on enamel.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.125

  18. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Carrageenan and Gelatine Hydrosols and Hydrogels Incorporated with Acidic Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brychcy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on investigation of the effects of usage of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW with different sodium chloride concentration (0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% for the preparation of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols and hydrogels. To determine physiochemical properties of hydrosols, the pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, available chloride concentration (ACC and rheological parameters such us gelation and flow temperatures were measured. The samples were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR and texture profile analysis (TPA. Additionally, the article contains an analysis of antibacterial activity of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols incorporated with acidic electrolyzed water, against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The FT IR spectra demonstrated that the structure of gelatine and carrageenan are not significantly affected by electrolyzed NaCl solution components. Furthermore, TPA analysis showed that the use of AEW did not cause undesirable changes in hydrogels layer. The microbiological analysis confirmed inhibition of bacterial growth by hydrosols to about 2.10 log reduction. The results showed that the range of reduction of microorganisms depends on the type AEW used. This might be explained by the fact that the lowest pH and the highest ACC values of hydrosols were obtained for samples with the longest period of exposure to electrolysis (10 min and the highest amount of NaCl (0.1% w/v. These results suggest that hydrogels and hydrosols incorporated with AEW may be used for food preservation.

  19. Subarachnoid meloxicam does not inhibit the mechanical hypernociception on carrageenan test in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanucha Fidelis da Luz Moura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the antinociceptive effects of subarachnoid meloxicam on the mechanical hypernociception induced by carrageenan in rats. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats underwent a cannula implantation into the subarachnoid space and were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received saline solution 5 µL, while Group II received meloxicam 30 mg. The mechanical hypernociception was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan and evaluated using a digital analgesy meter every 30 min during a 4-h period. The results were recorded as the Δ withdrawal threshold (in g, calculated by subtracting the measurement value after treatment from baseline. RESULTS: The Δ withdrawal threshold mean values were lower in the group of patients treated with meloxicam over all time points between 45 and 165 min, however, there was no statistical significance (p = 0.835 for this difference. CONCLUSION: Subarachnoid meloxicam at a dose of 30 µg animal-1 did not suppress the mechanical hypernociception in a model of inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar administration of carrageenan in rats. The data suggest that other dosages should be investigated the drug effect is discarded.

  20. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials.

  1. Purification of kappa (k)-carrageenase from locally isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab Beltagy

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... Ehab A. Beltagy1, Amany S. Youssef2*, Mohamed A. El-Shenawy1 and Samy A. El-Assar2. 1Department of ... cellusimicrobium cellulans cultures were studied. The optimum ... Carrageenans are the main components of the cell wall of various ... been implicated in gastrointestinal malignancy in animal.

  2. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  3. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  4. Estimation of water requirements and Kc values of 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes grown in the overhead trellis system, using the Eddy covariance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Villagra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop evapotranspiration (ETc is essential for irrigation scheduling. The amount of water consumed can be estimated by multiplying the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 by a crop coefficient (Kc; the value of Kc is usually obtained from FAO Paper nr 56. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L., Kc are obtained from experiments in vines trained on trellis systems; however in Chile, the most used is the overhead trellis system (parronal. Therefore, the objective was to determine water requirements and Kc values of a table grape orchard cv. Thompson Seedless trained on an overhead trellis system in Calle Larga (32°52'40" S, 70°37'45" W, 795 m a.s.l., Aconcagua Valley, Chile, using the Eddy covariance method. During the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons, the instruments required for ET0 and ETc measurement were installed on a 4 m tower above the soil (2 m above vine canopy. The ET0 was estimated according to the FAO Penman-Monteith equation and ETc by the Eddy covariance method. The Kc was obtained by ratio between ETc and ET0. The maximum ETc was 7 mm d-1 and total water consumption was 810 mm. The season maximum Kc value of 1.2 was obtained near harvest during the first season, and 20 d before veraison in the second season. The Kc increased linearly with the percentage of intercepted solar radiation (IRS by the vine canopy at noon, suggesting that an equation to convert the IRS to Kc is more useful than Kc tabulated according to phenology. The equation obtained in this experiment was Kc = 0.012 IRS - 0.1029, R² = 0.85.

  5. Plasma Dispersion Function for the Kappa Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma dispersion function is computed for a homogeneous isotropic plasma in which the particle velocities are distributed according to a Kappa distribution. An ordinary differential equation is derived for the plasma dispersion function and it is shown that the solution can be written in terms of Gauss' hypergeometric function. Using the extensive theory of the hypergeometric function, various mathematical properties of the plasma dispersion function are derived including symmetry relations, series expansions, integral representations, and closed form expressions for integer and half-integer values of K.

  6. Kappa distributions in the presence of a potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-10-01

    Classical particle systems reside at thermal equilibrium with their velocity distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell distribution. On the contrary, collisionless and correlated particle systems, such as geophysical, space, and astrophysical plasmas, are characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by the so-called kappa distributions, or combinations thereof. Empirical kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across plasma physics. A breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions to non-extensive statistical mechanics. Understanding the statistical origin of kappa distributions was the cornerstone of further theoretical developments and applications, one of which is the generalization to the phase-space kappa distributions of a Hamiltonian with non-zero potentials. We present the theory behind the phase-space kappa distributions and discuss three important applications in collisionless plasmas: (i) origin of polytropic relation; (ii) gravitational field; (iii) barometric relation (i.e., pressure vs. altitude); and (iv) plasma magnetization.

  7. Deletion of the immunoglobulin kappa chain intron enhancer abolishes kappa chain gene rearrangement in cis but not lambda chain gene rearrangement in trans.

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, S; Zou, Y R; Bluethmann, H; Kitamura, D; Muller, U.; Rajewsky, K

    1993-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) secreted from a plasma cell contain either kappa or lambda light chains, but not both. This phenomenon is termed isotypic kappa-lambda exclusion. While kappa-producing cells have their lambda chain genes in germline configuration, in most lambda-producing cells the kappa chain genes are either non-productively rearranged or deleted. To investigate the molecular mechanism for isotypic kappa-lambda exclusion, in particular the role of the Ig kappa intron enhancer, we replac...

  8. Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharide from Leuconostoc lactis KC117496 isolated from idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Chinnashanmugam; Shetty, Prathap Kumar H

    2016-09-01

    Diverse exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing isolates were isolated from an Indian acidic fermented food (Idli) based on the colony morphology. One of the EPS-producing microflora (Leuconostoc lactis KC117496) was selected for further characterization using FT-IR, HPTLC, AFM, SEM, TGA and XRD analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the α-d-glucose nature of the EPS. HPTLC analysis confirmed the presence of only glucose monomers, indicating the glucan nature of EPS. NMR spectra revealed the presence of 95% α-(1→6) and 5% branching α-(1→3) linkages. The SEM and AFM showed smooth surfaces and compact structure. TGA results showed higher degradation temperature of 272.01°C. XRD analysis proved the 33.4% crystalline nature of the EPS. Water solubility index and water-holding capacity of EPS are 14.2±0.208% and 117±7.5%. All the above characteristics of the EPS produced by L. lactis showed that the EPS is of a good-quality polysaccharide with potential applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Galaxies and their Masks A Conference in Honour of K.C. Freeman, FRS

    CERN Document Server

    Block, David L; Puerari, Ivânio

    2010-01-01

    Various kinds of masks obscure our view of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as well as of other galaxies. Masks of interstellar dust affect our measurements within galaxies, on scales ranging from individual supernovae to the galaxies themselves. The “mass mask” (our inability to image mass rather than light) gives astronomers a very incomplete picture of the size and structure of galaxies themselves, because we cannot image the dark matter which provides most of the galactic mass. Another mass is the “dynamical mask”: as galaxies form, much dynamical information is lost in the birthing process. A new thrust in research is to retrieve such information by means of chemical tagging. About 50 astronomers flew into Namibia in April 2010, to celebrate the 70th birthday of Professor K.C. Freeman, Fellow of the Royal Society. At age 70, Freeman, a father of dark matter in galaxies, continues to be one of planet’s most highly cited astronomers. The current volume affords readers a unique perspective on galaxies b...

  10. Characterization and purification of the Drosophila Kc cell JH binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiuhua.

    1989-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is one of the principal regulators of insect development. First, physical properties of the JH binding protein are characterized using a photoaffinity ligand ({sup 3}H)-EFDA. Second, ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is employed as labeled to examined the behavior of the JH binding protein in several protein separation procedures. The properties of heparin-agarose, hydroxylapatite, gel filtration, ion exchange, and chromatofocusing chromatography are examined for their ability to affect separation of the JH binding protein from other components of Kc cell cytosol. Third, several of the separation procedures are linked sequentially into a JH binding protein purification scheme and the procedure is shown to purify the JH binding protein to homogeneity. Fourth, competition study is carried out to demonstrate the protein purified using ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is JH competable. In addition, JH III, the naturally occurring hormone, is used as the radioligand in this purification procedure, the authenticity of the intracellar JH binding protein is reassured. Fifth, the amino acid composition of the JH binding protein is elucidated. Finally, nanomoles of the purified JH binding protein are collected for protein microsequencing. The sequencing data will be used to synthesize peptide which, in turn, will be used for JH binding protein antibody production.

  11. Kappa and q Indices: Dependence on the Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The kappa distributions, or their equivalent, the q-exponential distributions, are the natural generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Maxwell distributions, applied to the study of the particle populations in collisionless space plasmas. A huge step in the development of the theory of kappa distributions and their applications in space plasma physics has been achieved with the discovery that the observed kappa distributions are connected with the solid statistical background of non-extensive statistical mechanics. Now that the statistical framework has been identified, it is straightforward to improve our understanding of the nature of the kappa index (or the entropic q-index that governs these distributions. One critical topic is the dependence of the kappa index on the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we first show how this specific dependence is naturally emerged, using the formalism of the N-particle kappa distribution of velocities. Then, the result is extended in the presence of potential energies. It is shown that the kappa index is simply related to the kinetic and potential degrees of freedom. In addition, it is shown that various problems of non-extensive statistical mechanics, such as (i the correlation dependence on the total number of particles; and (ii the normalization divergence for finite kappa indices, are resolved considering the kappa index dependence on the degrees of freedom.

  12. Kappa-Deformations: Historical Developments and Recent Results

    CERN Document Server

    Lukierski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    I shall recall in historical perspective some results from nineties and show further how $\\kappa$-deformed symmetries and $\\kappa$-Minkowski space inspired DSR (Doubly of Deformed Special Relativity) approach proposed after 2000. As very recent development I shall show how to describe quantum-covariant $\\kappa$-deformed phase spaces by passing from Hopf algebras to Hopf algebroids (arXiv:1507.02612) and I will briefly describe the $\\kappa$-deformations of $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring target spaces (arXiv:1510.030.83).

  13. Downregulation of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel KC a3.1 by histone deacetylase inhibition in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Susumu; Kanatsuka, Saki; Hatano, Noriyuki; Kito, Hiroaki; Matsui, Azusa; Fujimoto, Mayu; Matsuba, Sayo; Niwa, Satomi; Zhan, Peng; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Muraki, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel KC a3.1 is involved in the promotion of tumor growth and metastasis, and is a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have considerable potential for cancer therapy, however, the effects of HDACis on ion channel expression have not yet been investigated in detail. The results of this study showed a significant decrease in KC a3.1 transcription by HDAC inhibition in the human breast cancer cell line YMB-1, which functionally expresses KCa3.1. A treatment with the clinically available, class I, II, and IV HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat significantly downregulated KC a3.1 transcription in a concentration-dependent manner, and the plasmalemmal expression of the KC a3.1 protein and its functional activity were correspondingly decreased. Pharmacological and siRNA-based HDAC inhibition both revealed the involvement of HDAC2 and HDAC3 in KC a3.1 transcription through the same mechanism. The downregulation of KC a3.1 in YMB-1 was not due to the upregulation of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor, REST and the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5, IGFBP5. The significant decrease in KC a3.1 transcription by HDAC inhibition was also observed in the KC a3.1-expressing human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. These results suggest that vorinostat and the selective HDACis for HDAC2 and/or HDAC3 are effective drug candidates for KC a3.1-overexpressing cancers.

  14. Advance on safety evaluation of carrageenan%卡拉胶的安全性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱华

    2009-01-01

    卡拉胶即角叉菜胶(carrageenan)是从红藻中萃取的天然多糖植物胶体,被广泛应用于食品工业、化学工业及生化、医学研究等领域中.近年的研究表明,动物长期经口给予卡拉胶可引起肠黏膜损害或溃疡性结肠炎,导致或促进肿瘤发生等.因此,有必要组织开展流行病学研究和系统的基础研究,以进一步评估卡拉胶的食用安全性,消除其食用安全性隐患.%Carrageenan is a collective term for polysaccharides prepared by alkaline extraction from red seaweed(Rhodophycae).Different carrageenans are widely used as food and medicinal ingredients and applied in chemical and biochemical researches.The studies in recent years showed that long-term administration of carrageenan in various animals can cause intestine mucous membrane damage or ulcerous colanitis, and produce or promote tumor growth. It is necessary to perform more epidemiological and essential studies to evaluate the safety of Carrageenan

  15. KC2A2P : A Knowledge-driven Content and Context-Awareness Adaptive Protocol for Intelligent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced network communication technology decreases data transmission error and make heterogeneous protocols interaction possible, but there still exits misunderstanding for transferred content in computer communication. Inspired by human's communication way, a kind of content and context awareness protocol base on knowledge (abbr. KC2A2P is proposed in this paper. A common shared protocol ontology is built that includes content, context and act in order to not only guide the different protocol terms mapping but also provide an intelligent protocol encoding framework. To avoid unnecessary communication load, event calculus is used to build the axiom of communication cognition and  three basic encoding  rules are made that can adjust the message entity  base on the application context .Furthermore, some experiments are given to show KC2A2P would improve the meaning delivery and even help to build trust relationship.

  16. Interaction of Gelatin with Carrageenan-The Mechnical Properties of Gelatin-Carrageenan Co-gels%明胶与卡拉胶共凝胶体的力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲浩; 赵谋明; 张源; 彭志英

    2001-01-01

    本文对明胶与卡拉胶共凝胶体的力学特性进行了研究,小变形实验发现随体系卡拉胶百分数的增加,贮能模量在增加。大变形实验发现共凝胶体的破裂强度及质构随体系两种大分子的配比、体系的pH值、离子强度的变化而变化。%This paper is about the mechanical properties ofgelatin-carrageenan co-gels. Small and large deformation experiments are carried out. Storage modulus(G') increase with carrageenan increase in co-gels. Many factors influence the texture characterization such as pH value, inon strength,the ratio of gelatin/carrageenan.

  17. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyar Shahbazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress–strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  18. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mahdiyar; Ettelaie, Rammile; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir

    2016-12-01

    This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress-strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  19. Oxidative Degradation of κ-Carrageenan%к-卡拉胶的氧化降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂村; 张志焜; 耿美玉

    2002-01-01

    к-卡拉胶有着良好的药理和生理活性,但是由于分子量大,溶解性差使它的应用受到很大的限制.研究了在中性和酸性条件下利用H2O2对卡拉胶进行降解来制备低分子量的卡拉胶时H2O2浓度、卡拉胶浓度、反应温度和时间对反应的影响.发现提高H2O2浓度、降低卡拉胶浓度、提高反应温度有利于卡拉胶分子量的降低.通过粘度法测量了卡拉胶的平均分子量在1000~10000,并发现它的溶解性大大提高了.利用IR和13C-NMR研究了降解前后卡拉胶的结构变化.%κ-carrageenan has helpful physiological and pharmacological activities, but its applications on medicine are limited due to its high molecular weight and bad solubility. The κ-carrageenan low molecular weight (LMW) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was produced firstly in the neutral and acid conditions. The effects of concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and time were discussed. The average molecular weight (AMW) of κ-carrageenan was measured by viscosity method. The AMW varied from 1000 to 10000 and solubility was increased greatly. The chemical structure and the mechanism of degradation were studied by 13C-NMR and IR spectra.

  20. Novel drug delivery carrier from alginate-carrageenan and glycerol as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Rahmatullah, Bagus; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    Drug delivery carriers are materials that can be used to administer drugs into the human body. Alginate and carrageenan are natural polymers that have potential as drug delivery material. Therefore in this study conducted a new innovation using carrageenan and alginates from extract of red seaweed and brown seaweed as base materials of capsule. This is expected to improve the quality of the used materials so it's easier to obtain the capsule with base material from carrageenan-alginate that has good quality as drug delivery carrier. Moreover, in the manufacture of capsules from carrageenan and alginates also added plasticizers in order to maintain the elasticity and the swelling degree of the capsules are made so that the capsules are not brittle. In addition, in this study used glycerol because it is a useful plasticizer to increase the plasticity of a material by filling the cavities between monomers. The capsules were prepared with four variations of glycerol concentration are A, B, C and D. In these capsule was analyzed of surface morphology with SEM, test of swelling degree and test of dissolution kinetics for some acidity level. Analysis of surface morphology with SEM shows that the capsule shell has very small pores. The average of swelling degree for capsules A, B, C and D are 452.4%, 599.0%, 730.66% and 731.25%, respectively. FTIR analysis shows that the presence of glycerol can increase the number of hydrogen bonds that are formed. The acidity level affects the dissolution profile of each capsules. In general with an increasingly alkaline environment causes all the capsules will be easier to release. This is because the increasing of acidic groups in the copolymer causes the capsule to be more easily occur neutralization reaction in a more alkaline environment so that the disintegration of capsules can occur more quickly. In addition from this study also can be seen that the increasing concentration of glycerol can cause the rate of capsule dissolution

  1. Gene cloning and expression analysis of Gro/KC by primary hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Hassanshahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: It is now well established that several environmental stresses lead to activation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK in various cell systems which is followed by chemokine producion. We investigated the expression of both CXC chemokines SDF-1a (ELR- and Gro/KC (ELR+ in rat H4 hepatoma cells in response to heat shock, hyper-osmolarity and oxidative stresses. The pattern of expression of these chemokines by hepatoma cells in response to stress conditions was also studied.Materials and Methods: Hepatoma cells were maintained in MEM medium. Cells were subjected to different stresses [(H2O2 0.15% (w/v, manitol and NaCl (160 mM and heat shock [(42 °C for 20 minutes]. At the indicated time points, cells were harvested and RNA was extracted, purified and expression of the chemokines were analysed by RT-PCR. cDNA was separated by gel electrophoresis on a 1% (w/v agarose gel and visualised on a UV transilluminator.Results: Results obtained in this report showed that there was detectable but low expression of chemokines in H4 hepatoma cells. Heat shock failed to induce expression of chemokines in H4 rat hepatoma cells. Hyper-osmolarity also has not stimulated Chemokines expression. In this study we have also shown that oxidative stress did not induce expression of chemokines. Overall, although detection is possible but regulatory responses were not observed in H4 hepatoma cells.Conclusion: Several known injurious conditions cause recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils and other immune cells to the liver. Immune cells are recruited to the hepatic vasculature following local liver injury and consequent chemokine production. Our results demonstrated that failure in production of these chemokines by Hepatoma cells may be a way to escape from immune surveillance.

  2. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K

    1991-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  3. Women in Leadership Roles in Phi Delta Kappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Martha B.; And Others

    The professional and personal characteristics of the men and women in Phi Delta Kappa who hold the top elected positions in local chapters were compared, and the perceptions of these leaders of the impact of allowing women to be members of Phi Delta Kappa were assessed. A 43-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to 1,340 chapter presidents…

  4. The scalar kappa from D+ -> K- pi+ pi+: Further Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Göbel, C

    2003-01-01

    We briefly review the recent results obtained by Fermilab experiment E791 on the Dalitz plot analysis of the decay D+ -> K- pi+ pi+, where indication for a light Kpi scalar resonance, the kappa, was found. We also present preliminary studies providing further information on the phase behavior of the scalar components at low mass, supporting the previous indication for the kappa.

  5. Origins and properties of kappa distributions in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-07-01

    Classical particle systems reside at thermal equilibrium with their velocity distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell distribution. On the contrary, collisionless and correlated particle systems, such as the space and astrophysical plasmas, are characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by the so-called kappa distributions. Empirical kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across space and plasma physics. However, a breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions to the solid statistical framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics. Understanding the statistical origin of kappa distributions was the cornerstone of further theoretical developments and applications, some of which will be presented in this talk: (i) The physical meaning of thermal parameters, e.g., temperature and kappa index; (ii) the multi-particle description of kappa distributions; (iii) the phase-space kappa distribution of a Hamiltonian with non-zero potential; (iv) the Sackur-Tetrode entropy for kappa distributions, and (v) the new quantization constant, h _{*}˜10 ^{-22} Js.

  6. Inflammation and peripheral 5-HT7 receptors: the role of 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Polat, Beyzagul; Karakus, Emre; Bayir, Yasin; Unal, Deniz; Atasoy, Mustafa; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2013-09-05

    The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate possible role for 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammatory paw oedema in rats; (2) to determine the presence of 5-HT7 receptors in rat paw tissue; (3) to observe the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist and antagonist administration on inflammation; and (4) to determine a unique mechanism for inflammatory processes via 5-HT7 receptors. Effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist, antagonist and indomethacin were investigated in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. Blood and tissue samples were collected and evaluated biochemically for serum cytokine levels, tissue oxidant-antioxidant balance and histopathologically for inflammatory cell accumulation. We performed Real Time PCR analyses for tissue 5-HT7 receptor and COX mRNA expressions. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19 exerted significant anti-inflammatory effect both alone and in combination with indomethacin. Antagonist, SB269970, did not affect inflammation alone but decreased the effects of agonist when co-administered. 5-HT7 mRNA levels were higher in the carrageenan group than healthy control. Carrageenan+indometacin group decreased the mRNA expression of 5-HT7 when compared to carrageenan group. While agonist administration decreased 5-HT7 mRNA expression when compared to carrageenan group. Agonist decreased paw COX expression. Agonist also decreased serum cytokine levels and tissue oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in rat paw tissue and that this expression responds to inflammatory stimuli. The 5-HT7 receptor may be a promising new therapeutic target for prevention of inflammation and inflammatory disorders and may also provide a new glimpse into inflammation pathophysiology.

  7. AGRO100 inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) by forming a complex with NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) and nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Allicia C; Teng, Yun; Casson, Lavona K; Thomas, Shelia D; Jüliger, Simone; Ball, Mark W; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Barve, Shirish S; Bates, Paula J

    2006-07-01

    AGRO100, also known as AS1411, is an experimental anticancer drug that recently entered human clinical trials. It is a member of a novel class of antiproliferative agents known as G-rich oligonucleotides (GRO), which are non-antisense, guanosine-rich phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides that form stable G-quadruplex structures. The biological activity of GROs results from their binding to specific cellular proteins as aptamers. One important target protein of GROs has been previously identified as nucleolin, a multifunctional protein expressed at high levels by cancer cells. Here, we report that AGRO100 also associates with nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) essential modulator (NEMO), which is a regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) complex, and also called IKKgamma. In the classic NF-kappaB pathway, the IKK complex is required for phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We found that treatment of cancer cells with AGRO100 inhibits IKK activity and reduces phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. Using a reporter gene assay, we showed that AGRO100 blocks both tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced and constitutive NF-kappaB activity in human cancer cell lines derived from cervical, prostate, breast, and lung carcinomas. In addition, we showed that, in AGRO100-treated cancer cells, NEMO is coprecipitated by nucleolin, indicating that both proteins are present in the same complex. Our studies suggest that abrogation of NF-kappaB activity may contribute to the anticancer effects of AGRO100 and that nucleolin may play a previously unknown role in regulating the NF-kappaB pathway.

  8. Expression of the spinal 5-HT7 receptor and p-ERK pathway in the carrageenan inflammatory pain of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Soo Young; Ki, Hyoung Gon; Kim, Joung Min; Oh, Jin Myung; Yang, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the inhibitory role of the 5-hydroxytrypatmine receptor 7(5-HT7R) on nociceptive processing is generally recognized, an excitatory effect associated with a reduced 5-HT7R expression has also been observed in the nerve injury model. In the carrageenan model, no significant effect is produced by the 5-HT7R activation, but the change in 5-HT7R expression has not been examined. Lesioning of the spinal serotonergic pathway enhances allodynia in the carrageenan model, but it als...

  9. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  10. Determination of actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and dual crop coefficients (Kc) for cotton, wheat and maize in Fergana Valley: integration of the FAO-56 approach and BUDGET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjabaev, Shavkat; Dernedde, Yvonne; Frede, Hans-Georg; Stulina, Galina

    2014-05-01

    Determination of the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc) during the growing period is important for accurate irrigation scheduling in arid and semi-arid regions. Development of a crop coefficient (Kc) can enhance ETc estimations in relation to specific crop phenological development. This research was conducted to determine daily and growth-stage-specific Kc and ETc values for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) for silage at fields in Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan). The soil water balance model - Budget with integration of the dual crop procedure of the FAO-56 was used to estimate the ETc and separate it into evaporation (Ec) and transpiration (Tc) components. An empirical equation was developed to determine the daily Kc values based on the estimated Ec and Tc. The ETc, Kc determination and comparison to existing FAO Kc values were performed based on 10, 5 and 6 study cases for cotton, wheat and maize, respectively. Mean seasonal amounts of crop water consumption in terms of ETc were 560±50, 509±27 and 243±39 mm for cotton, wheat and maize, respectively. The growth-stage-specific Kc for cotton, wheat and maize was 0.15, 0.27 and 0.11 at initial; 1.15, 1.03 and 0.56 at mid; and 0.45, 0.89 and 0.53 at late season stages. These values correspond to those reported by the FAO-56. Development of site specific Kc helps tremendously in irrigation management and furthermore provides precise water applications in the region. The developed simple approach to estimate daily Kc for the three main crops grown in the Fergana region was a first attempt to meet this issue. Keywords: Actual crop evapotranspiration, evaporation and transpiration, crop coefficient, model BUDGET, Fergana Valley.

  11. An analytical ultracentrifugation based study on the conformation of lambda carrageenan in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Fahad M; Adams, Gary G; Kök, Mehmet S; Lawson, Christopher J; Gahler, Roland; Wood, Simon; Foster, Timothy J; Rowe, Arthur J; Harding, Stephen E

    2013-08-14

    The conformation and heterogeneity of lambda-carrageenan, a sulphonated galactan from red seaweed, solubilised in aqueous solvent with the assistance of microwave irradiation, has been assessed by a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, light scattering and capillary viscometry. Preparations appeared generally unimodal on the basis of sedimentation coefficient distributions from sedimentation velocity although at the highest concentrations a shoulder appears with a sedimentation coefficient approximately 1.1 times greater than that of the main component. Even under conditions commensurate with charge suppression simple linear regression was insufficient to represent non-ideal concentration dependence and the extraction of the Grálen concentration dependence parameter ks. A more general fitting algorithm was therefore employed. Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada analysis of the change in intrinsic viscosity [η] with molecular weight, together with the Wales-van Holde ratio (combination of ks with [η]) point to an extended flexible conformation for lambda-carrageenan in the (weight average) molecular weight range Mw=340,000-870,000g/mol. The origin of the larger sedimentation coefficient component appearing at the higher concentrations is considered.

  12. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, peptic ulcer, and hepatic impairment. The aim of this study was to formulate topical gel containing 1% of tenoxicam in 1% carbopol-940 and PEG-4000 and to evaluate it for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The studies were conducted on Wistar rats of either sex (160-180 g. The change in oedema volume of the rat hind paw was measured using mercury plethysmometer. The readings were measured in terms of volume displaced in millimetre using a micropipette that has mark to 10 divisions in 1 ml. The carbopol gel formulation of tenoxicam containing 15% of ethanol and 5% of sodium lauryl sulphate was significantly more effective against oedema formation than the other formulation of tenoxicam gel and compared to the marketed product of piroxicam gel. Results suggest that the 1% tenoxicam gel in carbopol-940 inhibited 52% of carrageenan-induced oedema formation as compared with the 44% inhibition obtained with marketed product of piroxicam gel.

  13. Effect of carrageenan addition on the rennet-induced gelation of skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-09-01

    Carrageenan (CG) (κ-CG, ι-CG and λ-CG) was added to skim milk and the rennet-induced aggregation was studied. Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) release, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and rheology were used to follow the structural dynamics of casein micelles during gelation. The influence of carrageenan on the nature of protein interactions in the gels was investigated using a combination of ultracentrifugation and specific dissociating agents. For the recombined samples containing κ-CG and low concentrations of ι-CG and λ-CG, the CMP release was slowed down; however, the development of DWS and rheological parameters was similar to that of the control sample, and the increase in the incorporation of proteins through calcium bridges and hydrophobic interactions may be the most likely contributors. For the recombined samples containing high concentrations of ι-CG and λ-CG, other factors may impede the gel formation process. High concentrations of ι-CG and λ-CG strongly interfered with the rennet-induced aggregation, interrupted the interaction of caseins and therefore may contribute to good quality of low-fat cheese. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  16. PVP/PEG/Carrageenan/Silver acetate hydrogels by {gamma}-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Youn, Young; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    In recent day, there is much interest in the biocidal activity of silver since silver is known to be safe and effective as disinifectant and biocidal material against coliforms and viruses. In this study, hydrogels containing silver acetate as antibacterial agent have been prepared using gamma rays irradiation. The hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), carrageenan and silver acetate. The concentration of solution was 9 wt%. The ratio of PVP: PEG: carrageenan was 6:1:2. The concentration of the silver acetate were 0,0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07% and Gamma irradiation dose was 25 kGy. The Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels with 0.01% silver acetate were 20 kGy, 35 kGy, 50 kGy, 65 kGy, and 80 kGy. The results showed that 0.01% silver acetate concentration of hydrogels by 25 kGy irradiation dose showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, antibacterial activity of various Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels treated 0.01% silver acetate showed highest 35 kGy irradiation dose against Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Development and characterization of a new hydrogel based on galactomannan and κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; de Seixas, José R P C; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-12-10

    A new hydrogel based on two natural polysaccharides was prepared in aqueous medium with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan (from Cassia grandis seeds) and different concentrations of κ-carrageenan (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%w/v), CaCl2 (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2M) and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0), using a full factorial design based on rheological parameters. The best formulation was obtained with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan and 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan, containing 0.2M CaCl2 at pH 5.0. Nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy where used in order to characterize the hydrogel formulation. A shelf life study was carried out with this formulation along 90 days-period of storage at 4 °C, evaluating pH, color, microbial contamination and rheology. This hydrogel showed no significant changes in pH, no microbial contamination and became more translucent along the aging. Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance and rheology showed a larger organization of the polysaccharides in the hydrogel matrix. The results demonstrated that this hydrogel was stable with possible applications in medical and cosmetic fields.

  18. Iota-Carrageenan-based biodegradable Ag0 nanocomposite hydrogels for the inactivation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Raju, Konduru Mohana

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of Iota-Carrageenan based on a novel biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels. The aim of study was to investigate whether these hydrogels have the potential to be used in bacterial inactivation applications. Biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by a green process using acrylamide (AM) with I-Carrageenan (IC). The silver nanoparticles were prepared as silver colloid by reducing AgNO3 with leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem leaf) that (Ag(0)) formed the hydrogel network. The formation of biodegradable silver nanoparticles in the hydrogels was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, thermo gravimetrical analysis, X-ray diffractometry studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies. In addition, swelling behavior and degradation properties were systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biodegradable silver nanoparticle composite hydrogels developed were tested for antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity of the biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels was studied by inhibition zone method against Bacillus and Escherichia coli, which suggested that the silver nanocomposite hydrogels developed were effective as potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Therefore, the inorganic biodegradable hydrogels developed can be used effectively for biomedical application.

  19. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR)-induce......-induced pleurisy. These data suggest involvement of CD30-mediated signals in acute immunoinflammatory pathways induced by CAR.......CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR......)-induced pleurisy in mice, a preclinical model of airway inflammation where type 1 proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-alpha play a key pathogenic role. The data show that prophylactic treatment with anti-CD30L mAb markedly reduces both laboratory and histological signs of CAR...

  20. B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Chen(Florida State University, Tallahassee, U.S.A.); Trounstine, M; Kurahara, C.; Young, F.; Kuo, C C; Y. Xu; Loring, J.F.; Alt, F W; Huszar, D

    1993-01-01

    We have generated mice that lack the ability to produce immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by targeted deletion of J kappa and C kappa gene segments and the intervening sequences in mouse embryonic stem cells. In wild type mice, approximately 95% of B cells express kappa light chains and only approximately 5% express lambda light chains. Mice heterozygous for the J kappa C kappa deletion have approximately 2-fold more lambda+ B cells than wild-type littermates. Compared with normal mice, ...

  1. Airway epithelial NF-kappaB activation modulates asbestos-induced inflammation and mucin production in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegens, Astrid; Barrett, Trisha F; Gell, Joanna; Shukla, Arti; Macpherson, Maximilian; Vacek, Pamela; Poynter, Matthew E; Butnor, Kelly J; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the role of bronchiolar epithelial NF-kappaB activity in the development of inflammation and fibrogenesis in a murine model of asbestos inhalation, we used transgenic (Tg) mice expressing an IkappaBalpha mutant (IkappaBalphasr) resistant to phosphorylation-induced degradation and targeted to bronchial epithelium using the CC10 promoter. Sham and chrysotile asbestos-exposed CC10-IkappaBalphasr Tg(+) and Tg(-) mice were examined for altered epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cytokine profiles, lung inflammation, and fibrogenesis at 3, 9, and 40 days. KC, IL-6 and IL-1beta were increased (p < or = 0.05) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asbestos-exposed mice, but to a lesser extent (p < or = 0.05) in Tg(+) vs Tg(-) mice. Asbestos also caused increases in IL-4, MIP-1beta, and MCP-1 in BALF that were more elevated (p < or = 0.05) in Tg(+) mice at 9 days. Differential cell counts revealed eosinophils in BALF that increased (p < or = 0.05) in Tg(+) mice at 9 days, a time point corresponding with significantly increased numbers of bronchiolar epithelial cells staining positively for mucus production. At all time points, asbestos caused increased numbers of distal bronchiolar epithelial cells and peribronchiolar cells incorporating the proliferation marker, Ki-67. However, bronchiolar epithelial cell and interstitial cell labeling was diminished at 40 days (p < or = 0.05) in Tg(+) vs Tg(-) mice. Our findings demonstrate that airway epithelial NF-kappaB activity plays a role in orchestrating the inflammatory response as well as cell proliferation in response to asbestos.

  2. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  3. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokutti-Kurz, Martina; König-Schuster, Marielle; Koller, Christiane; Graf, Christine; Graf, Philipp; Kirchoff, Norman; Reutterer, Benjamin; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Nakowitsch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09)pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7). Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus) and a H1N1(09)pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection. A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials.

  4. Comparison of some biochemical properties of artichoke polyphenol oxidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan and alginate gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Kocaturk, Selin

    2014-08-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC.1.14.18.1) isolated from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) was entrapped within alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads, and the catecholase and cresolase activities of both entrapped enzymes were determined. Some properties of these immobilized enzymes such as optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), thermal, and storage stability were determined and compared to each other. The highest catecholase activity was observed in alginate gel (370 U/g bead) while the highest cresolase activity was in alginate+ carrageenan gel (90 U/g bead). For catecholase and cresolase activities, optimum pHs of alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads were determined to be 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. Optimum temperatures for catecholase activity were determined to be 40°C for both entrapped enzymes. These values for cresolase activity were 30°C and 20°C, respectively. Immobilized artichoke PPOs greatly preserved their thermal stability which exists anyway. The catalytic efficiency value (Vmax/Km) of the alginate beads is approximately high as two-and-a-half folds of that of alginate+κ-carrageenan beads for cresolase activity. These values were very close for catecholase activity. Immobilized beads saved their both activities after 30 days of storage at 4°C.

  5. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Morokutti-Kurz

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo.We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7. Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9 virus and a H1N1(09pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection.A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials.

  6. Regulation of prostaglandin generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy by inducible nitric oxide synthase in knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Serraino, I.; Sarro, A. de; Dugo, L.; Felice, M.R.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Rosa, M. Di; Musci, G.; Caputi, A.P.; Sautebin, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (iNOSWT) and mice lacking (iNOSKO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The

  7. Regulation of prostaglandin generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy by inducible nitric oxide synthase in knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Serraino, I.; Sarro, A. de; Dugo, L.; Felice, M.R.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Rosa, M. Di; Musci, G.; Caputi, A.P.; Sautebin, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (iNOSWT) and mice lacking (iNOSKO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The in

  8. EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY IN CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA MODEL IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Surendra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dazzle Capsule, a Poly herbal formulation is marketed in management of Arthritis and joint-musculo skeletal pain. In this study, safety and efficacy of this polyherbal formulation was investigated in which it was being proved safe for use via acute toxicity study and efficacy was being evaluated by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test in rats in order to explore its anti-inflammatory activity at the dose level of 90 and 180 mg/kg, p.o, compared with Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.. It showed an highly significant reduction in oedema (p<0.001. Indomethacin inhibited oedema by 30.054% and 36.216% at 2 and 3 hr after carrageenan injection, respectively. The inhibitory effect of Dazzle Capsule began at 2 hr or later after carrageenan injection depending upon the administered dose. Low doses of Dazzle Capsule (90 mg/kg gave highly significant inhibitory effects of 37.894- 39.378%, and higher doses (180 mg/kg caused highly significant inhibition of 19.125- 30%. The reduction of oedema by Indomethacin and Dazzle Capsule at 2 hr or more after carrageenan injection suggested that both compounds produce anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of oedema, indicating inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, it was concluded that, Dazzle Capsule is having potent anti-inflammatory activity yet safe polyherbal formulation for use in arthritis management.

  9. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Mazzon, Emanuela; Muià, Carmelo; Genovese, Tiziana; Menegazzi, Marta; Zaffini, Raffaela; Suzuki, Hisanory; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2005-06-29

    Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2%) into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained many neutrophils (PMNs), an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite/nitrate, tumour necrosis factor alpha. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract treatment. Furthermore, carrageenan induced an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) formation, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and PARS was reduced by green tea extract. Our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with green tea extract exerts a protective effect and offers a novel therapeutic approach for the management of lung injury.

  10. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hisanory

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan, exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2% into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained many neutrophils (PMNs, an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite/nitrate, tumour necrosis factor alpha. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract treatment. Furthermore, carrageenan induced an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose synthetase (PARS formation, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and PARS was reduced by green tea extract. Our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with green tea extract exerts a protective effect and offers a novel therapeutic approach for the management of lung injury.

  11. Anti-Proliferative Activity of λ-Carrageenan Through the Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazzara, Marie; Ghannam, Ahmed; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Murad, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Background Sulfated Polysaccharides (SPs) possess spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties that could attributed to their origins variation, chemical structures and biological activities. Various studies have shown the impact of SPs on proliferation in different cancer cell lines. Objectives In this study, we have evaluated the biological effects of λ-carrageenan, a highly SP, extracted from the red seaweed Laurencia papillosa, on MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. Materials and Methods MDA-MB-231 cells have treated with λ-carrageenan, the viability and apoptosis have assessed by the appropriate florescent probes on flow cytometer. The expression levels of mRNA of apoptotic genes have detected by real-time PCR analysis. Results Our results have indicated that the signaling pathway of λ-carrageenan inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by up-regulating the pro-apoptotic genes caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 which have been resulting the increased levels of active caspase-3 protein. Furthermore, This SP had that capacity to disrupt the mitochondrial function by altering the bax/bcl-2 ratio of expression which has considered an important element in apoptosis induction. Conclusions The presented results have signposted that λ-carrageenan was a promising bioactive polymer which could be a potential candidate in preventing or treating breast cancer. PMID:27761203

  12. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  14. Multiple MIPS 4Kc cores based interrupt controller design and its implementation on HDTV SoC platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multiple MIPS 4Kc processor cores based interrupt processing system is introduced. The interrupt controller plays a key role in the high definition television (HDTV) system-on-a-chip (SoC) platform,especially when it is a multiple processor system. Based on a general introduction to the whole HDTV SoC platform, a layered interrupt controller and its implementation are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme was implemented in our FPGA verification board. The results indicate that our scheme is reliable and efficient. Meanwhile, as a functional intellectual property (IP), the interrupt controller has reusability and expandability with the layered structure.

  15. Metal-insulator transition in AC{sub 60}:RbC{sub 60} and KC{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazeni, K.; Crespi, V.H.; Hone, J.; Zettl, A.; Cohen, M.L. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    At zero pressure polymerized RbC{sub 60} is an insulator, whereas polymerized KC{sub 60} is a metal with a slight low-temperature resistive upturn. We report measurements of the resistivity of RbC{sub 60} under pressure, finding a hysteretic resistive transition in RbC{sub 60} near 200 K at 5 kbar, at which point the material transforms from insulator to metal. Correcting the resistivity to constant volume, both materials are metallic below the transition with a common low-temperature resistive upturn which is suppressed under compression. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Preliminary science report on the directional solidification of hypereutectic cast iron during KC-135 low-G maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An ADSS-P directional solidification furnace was reconfigured for operation on the KC-135 low-g aircraft. The system offers many advantages over quench ingot methods for study of the effects of sedimentation and convection on alloy formation. The directional sodification furnace system was first flown during the September 1982 series of flights. The microstructure of the hypereutectic cast iron sample solidified on one of these flights suggests a low-g effect on graphite morphology. Further experiments are needed to ascertain that this effect is due to low-gravity and to deduce which of the possible mechanisms is responsible for it.

  17. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone/carrageenan blend hydrogels with nanosilver prepared by gamma radiation for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami; Singh, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels were prepared using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended with carrageenan by gamma irradiation at different doses of 25 and 40 kGy. Gel fraction of hydrogels prepared using 10 and 15% PVP in combination with 0.25 and 0.5% carrageenan was evaluated. Based on gel fraction, 15% PVP in combination with 0.25% carrageenan and radiation dose of 25 kGy was selected for the preparation of hydrogels with nanosilver. Radiolytic synthesis of silver nanoparticles within the PVP hydrogel was carried out. The hydrogels with silver nanoparticles were assessed for antimicrobial effectiveness and physical properties of relevance to clinical performance. Fluid handling capacity (FHC) for PVP/carrageenan was 2.35 ± 0.39-6.63 ± 0.63 g/10 cm(2) in 2-24 h. No counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were observed in the presence of hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver after 3-6 h. The release of silver from hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver was 20.42 ± 1.98 ppm/100 cm(2) in 24 h. Hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver with efficient FHC demonstrated potential microbicidal activity (≥3 log10 decrease in CFU/ml) against wound pathogens, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. PVP/carrageenan hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles can be used as wound dressings to control infection and facilitate the healing process for burns and other skin injuries.

  18. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian Xu; Xinping Li; Meiyun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stages and the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp had been investigated, and the reason for higher kappa number of the ethanol pulp was discussed. The results preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignin could re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiber classification technology and explained the questions found during the study. Some measures were taken to reduce the kappa number, the results had shown that there was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolved and the pulp with lower kappa number could be obtained at a higher temperature; the kappa number could reduce by increasing washing time; it could enable dissolved lignin to separate out from the ethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption by blowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  19. Curie law for systems described by kappa distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-01-01

    We derive the magnetization of a system, Pierre Curie's law, for paramagnetic particles out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions. The analysis uses the theory and formulation of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems with a non-zero potential energy. Among other results, emphasis is placed on the effect of kappa distribution on the phenomenon of having strong magnetization at high temperatures. At thermal equilibrium, high temperature leads to weak magnetization. Out of thermal equilibrium, however, strong magnetization at high temperatures is rather possible, if the paramagnetic particle systems reside far from thermal equilibrium, i.e., at small values of kappa. The application of the theory to the space plasma at the outer boundaries of our heliosphere, the inner heliosheath, leads to an estimation of the ion magnetic moment for this space plasma, that is, μ ≈ 138+/-7 \\text{eV/nT} .

  20. Insights into Cryoprotective Roles of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides in Peeled Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during Frozen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hui-Cheng; Tang, He; Hao, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2017-03-01

    The cryoprotective effects of carrageenan oligosaccharides on peeled whiteleg shrimp were investigated and compared with sodium pyrophosphate treatment during frozen storage, primarily the interaction mechanisms between oligosaccharides and shrimp myosin. Data revealed significant profitable effects on water-holding capacity and textural variables in oligosaccharide-treated shrimp compared to the control. Chemical analyses showed that these saccharides maintained a higher myofibrillar protein content and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in frozen shrimp. Additionally, the hematoxylin and eosin staining results indicated that the saccharides significantly slowed the damage to muscle tissue structures. The assumption was that water replacement hypothesis played a leading role in cryoprotection of frozen shrimp. Furthermore, the homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that the saccharides substituted water molecules around the shrimp myosin surface by forming hydrogen bonds with polar residues of amino acids, thereby stabilizing the structures in the absence of water, leading to an increase in protein stability during frozen storage.

  1. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of Desmodium gangeticum fractions in carrageenan-induced inflamed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rao, Ch V; Shirwaikar, A; Kumar, Santhosh; Rawat, A K S; Pushpangadan, P

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of Desmodium gangeticum were evaluated for antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities in carrageenan-induced inflamed rats with the aim of studying the promising fraction for inhibitory action on ferrous sulphate induced lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total reduced glutathione in liver and spleen homogenates of inflamed rats. The results showed that the flavonoid fraction of D. gangeticum possesses potent antioxidant activity compared with the alkaloid fraction and also with respect to the standard drug indomethacin, in terms of augmentation of the liver and spleen SOD, CAT and GPX activities, concomitant with a reduction in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In addition, the quantification of caffeic and chlorogenic acid in the flavonoid fraction has also been carried out using HPLC, which can be utilized as a marker compound in the standardization.

  2. On kappa-deformed D=4 quantum conformal group

    CERN Document Server

    Kosi'nski, P; Maslanka, P

    2003-01-01

    This paper is presented on the occasion of 60-th birthday of Jose Adolfo de Azcarraga who in his very rich scientific curriculum vitae has also a chapter devoted to studies of quantum-deformed symmetries, in particular deformations of relativistic and Galilean space-time symmetries [1-4]. In this paper we provide new steps toward describing the $\\kappa$-deformed D=4 conformal group transformations. We consider the quantization of D=4 conformal group with dimensionful deformation parameter $\\kappa$. Firstly we discuss the noncommutativity following from the Lie-Poisson structure described by the light-cone $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'{e} $r$-matrix. We present complete set of D=4 conformal Lie-Poisson brackets and discuss their quantization. Further we define the light-cone $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'{e} quantum $R$-matrix in O(4,2) vector representation and discuss the inclusion of noncommutative conformal translations into the framework of $\\kappa$-deformed conformal quantum group. The problem with real structure of $\\kappa$-d...

  3. Kappa Opioids, Salvinorin A and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George T; Manzella, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are traditionally associated with pain, analgesia and drug abuse. It is now clear, however, that the opioids are central players in mood. The implications for mood disorders, particularly clinical depression, suggest a paradigm shift from the monoamine neurotransmitters to the opioids either alone or in interaction with monoamine neurons. We have a special interest in dynorphin, the last of the major endogenous opioids to be isolated and identified. Dynorphin is derived from the Greek word for power, dynamis, which hints at the expectation that the neuropeptide held for its discoverers. Yet, dynorphin and its opioid receptor subtype, kappa, has always taken a backseat to the endogenous b-endorphin and the exogenous morphine that both bind the mu opioid receptor subtype. That may be changing as the dynorphin/ kappa system has been shown to have different, often opposite, neurophysiological and behavioral influences. This includes major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have undertaken a review of dynorphin/ kappa neurobiology as related to behaviors, especially MDD. Highlights include the unique features of dynorphin and kappa receptors and the special relation of a plant-based agonist of the kappa receptor salvinorin A. In addition to acting as a kappa opioid agonist, we conclude that salvinorin A has a complex pharmacologic profile, with potential additional mechanisms of action. Its unique neurophysiological effects make Salvinorina A an ideal candidate for MDD treatment research.

  4. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkun Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  5. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenkun; Chen, Tao; Li, Yi; Lei, Jia; Chen, Xin; Yao, Weitang; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials. PMID:28772897

  6. Effect of sodium aurothiomalate on carrageenan induced inflammation of the air pouch in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Y M; Wong, M K

    1992-01-01

    Acute inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan into a 6 day old air pouch in mice. Sodium aurothiomalate was then given twice to each of three groups of mice via different routes. It was found that the mice injected intravenously with sodium aurothiomalate showed the most striking reduction in the number of exudate leucocytes in the inflammatory cavity, although the amount of gold found in their inflamed pouch lining tissue was the least. The amount of gold in plasma was highest in the mice injected intravenously with sodium aurothiomalate and the least amount of gold was found in the mice injected directly into the air pouch with sodium aurothiomalate. The amount of gold in the inflamed pouch lining tissue reached its peak at 24 hours after injection and a significant decrease of exudate leucocytes was only seen 24 and 72 hours after injection. The amount of gold in the exudate fluid was negligible at all the times studied. No significant difference was noted in the degree of inflammatory suppression when increasing doses of sodium aurothiomalate were injected into the air pouch. These findings show that there is no direct correlation between the gold concentration in the inflamed tissue and suppression of the inflammatory reactions in the cavity. Chemotactic and phagocytic analysis of leucocytes in the exudate showed that there was a significant suppression of the neutrophil activities in all the mice treated with sodium aurothiomalate. It is therefore concluded that the significant reduction in the number of exudate leucocytes at the carrageenan induced inflammatory site after treatment with sodium aurothiomalate is most likely due to the direct action of gold on the functional activities of circulating neutrophils.

  7. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  8. Protective effect of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on human vascular endothelial cells damaged by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti

  9. Protective effect of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on human vascular endothelial cells damaged by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs. In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK, especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti

  10. On fitting the k-C* first order model to batch loaded sub-surface treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, O R; Towler, B W; Hook, P B; Biederman, J A

    2007-01-01

    The k-C* first order model was fit to time-series COD data collected from batch-loaded model wetlands. Four replicates of four plant species treatments; Carex utriculata (sedge), Schoenoplectus acutus (bulrush), Typha latifolia (cattail) and unplanted controls were compared. Temperature was varied by 4 degrees C from 24 degrees C to 4 degrees C to 24 degrees C over a year-long period. One mathematical fit was made for each wetland replicate at each temperature setting (192 fits). Temperature effects on both parameters were subsequently estimated by fitting the Arrhenius relationship to the estimated coefficients. Inherent interactions between k and C* make values dependent on sample timing and statistical technique for either time series (batch load) or distance profile (plug flow) data. Coefficients calibrated using the Levenberg-Marquardt method are compared to values previously reported using a nonlinear mixed effect regression technique. Overall conclusions are similar across approaches: (a) the magnitude of the coefficients varies strongly by species; (b) the rate constant k decreases with increasing temperature; and (c) temperature and species variation in the residual concentration C* is greater than the variation in k, such that variation in k alone is a poor predictor of performance. However, the magnitudes of the coefficients, especially the rate parameter k, vary between the statistical techniques, highlighting the need to better document the statistical routines used to calibrate the k-C* model.

  11. Temporal variation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and calculation of the crop coefficient (Kc from NDVI in areas cultivated with irrigated soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thálita Carrijo de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetation indices obtained by remote sensing products have various applications in agriculture. An important application of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is obtaining the crop coefficient (Kc. The aims of this study were to analyze NDVI temporal profiles and to obtain Kc from the NDVI vegetation index product MOD13Q1. The analysis is based on the phenological stages of irrigated soybean crops in the municipality of Planura/MG during the 2010/2011 growing season. Areas planted with irrigated soybean were identified through fieldwork. Temporal series of the MOD13Q1 products were used to analyze NDVI, allowing the extraction of NDVI values for all points in the period studied. The NDVI temporal profiles showed a similar pattern to each other and corresponded to the crop cycle. The KcNDVI values for the MOD13Q1 products were well correlated to the FAO Kc values (r2=0.72. Thus, NDVI can be used as an alternative for obtaining crop coefficient (Kc.

  12. Increased function of the TRPV1 channel in small sensory neurons after local inflammation or in vitro exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine GRO/KC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Dong; Yi-Ru Du; Wenrui Xie; Judith A.Strong; Xi-Jing He; Jun-Ming Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Inflammation at the level of the sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) leads to robust mechanical pain behavior and the local inflammation has direct excitatory effects on sensory neurons including small,primarily nociceptive,neurons.These neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV 1) channel,which integrates multiple signals of pain and inflammation.The aim of this study was to characterize the regulation of the TRPV1 channel by local DRG inflammation and by growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC,systemic name:CXCL1),a cytokine known to be upregulated in inflamed DRGs.Methods Activation of the TRPV1 receptor with capsaicin was studied with patch clamp methods in acutely isolated small-diameter rat sensory neurons in primary culture.In vivo,behavioral effects of TRPV1 and GRO/KC were examined by paw injections.Results Neurons isolated from lumbar DRGs 3 days after local inflammation showed enhanced TRPV1 function:tachyphylaxis (the decline in response to repeated applications of capsaicin) was significantly reduced.A similar effect on tachyphylaxis was observed in neurons pre-treated for 4 h in vitro with GRO/KC.This effect was blocked by H-89,a protein kinase A inhibitor.Consistent with the in vitro results,in vivo behavioral responses to paw injection of capsaicin were enhanced and prolonged by pre-injecting the paw with GRO/KC 4 h before the capsaicin injection.GRO/KC paw injections alone did not elicit pain behaviors.Conclusion Function of the TRPV 1 channel is enhanced by DRG inflammation and these effects are preserved in vitro during short-term culture.The effects (decreased tachyphylaxis) are mimicked by incubation with GRO/KC,which has previously been found to be strongly upregulated in this and other pain models.

  13. Thermal stability of the F centre in KC1 between 80 and 300 K; Estabilidad termica del centro F' en KC1 entre 80 y 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Codovila, C.

    1974-07-01

    After shining an F spark light of high intensity upon a coloured sample of KC1, the annealing of the induced F1 band and the decay of the induced luminescence are observed. This luminescence is produced by the electrons returning to the anion vacancies through the F* state. From the annealing characteristics of the F1 band between 80 and 300 K, we conclude that at least six thermally activated processes ase involved. The luminescence decay curves also show evidence of six the thermally activated processes which correlate quite wall in magnitude with those from the F1 band anneal. We conclude that the luminescence and annealing of the F1 band are aspects of the same process, and some explanations are suggested involving the interaction of F1 centres and electron traps. (Author) 41 refs.

  14. Determinação do coeficiente de cultura (Kc e eficiência do uso de água do alecrim-pimenta irrigado Determination of crop coefficient (Kc and water use efficiency for irrigated rosemary peppermint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio D. Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de cultura (Kc, a eficiência do uso de água (EUA do alecrim-pimenta contemplando a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido em lisímetro de drenagem, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, cujos tratamentos correspondiam a sete lâminas de água (0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,2; 1,4; 1,65 e 1,9 ETo, e três repetições. A evapotranspiração potencial de referência utilizada no cálculo das lâminas de irrigação foi obtida pelo método de Penman-Monteith. Os tratamentos foram submetidos à análise de regressão. Os resultados indicam que o alecrim-pimenta apresenta resposta positiva ao aumento da lâmina d'água aplicada. O tratamento responsável pelo maior índice de eficiência do uso da água, foi o tratamento 6 (1,65 ETo, com 1,26 kg m-3 para a produção de matéria fresca em função da lâmina aplicada. A produtividade de óleo essencial foi de 59,12 kg ha-1 aos 120 dias após transplantio, para o tratamento 7 (1,9 ETo. Os coeficientes de cultura (Kc médios determinados em todo o ciclo da cultura, variaram de 0,98 na fase inicial, 1,20 no desenvolvimento vegetativo e 1,52 no florescimento.The aim of this study was to determine the crop coefficient (Kc, water use efficiency (WUE of the Lippia sidoides Cham. contemplating the production of biomass and essential oil and growth parameters. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeter at the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, at Montes Claros, MG. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with the treatments corresponding to seven water depths (0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.2; 1.4; 1.65 and 1.9 ETo, and three replications. The potential evapotranspiration of reference used in the calculation of the irrigation was obtained by the Penman Monteith

  15. Determinação do coeficiente de cultura (Kc) e eficiência do uso de água do alecrim-pimenta irrigado Determination of crop coefficient (Kc) and water use efficiency for irrigated rosemary peppermint

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Otávio D.; Kobayashi,Mauro K.; Flávio G. Oliveira; Ivan C. A. Alvarenga; Ernane R Martins; Carlos E. Corsato

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de cultura (Kc), a eficiência do uso de água (EUA) do alecrim-pimenta contemplando a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido em lisímetro de drenagem, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, cujos tratamentos correspondiam a sete lâminas de água (0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,2; 1,4; 1,65 e 1,9 ETo), e...

  16. Interactions among oscillatory pathways in NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently

  17. Imaging of non-small cell lung cancers with a monoclonal antibody, KC-4G3, which recognizes a human milk fat globule antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienhart, D.G.; Schmelter, R.F.; Lear, J.L.; Miller, G.J.; Glenn, S.D.; Bloedow, D.C.; Kasliwal, R.; Moran, P.; Seligman, P.; Murphy, J.R. (Univ. of Colorado Cancer Center, Denver (USA))

    1990-11-01

    To determine the role of lung cancer tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies directed against high molecular weight human milk fat globule antigens, we administered i.v. 111In-KC-4G3 to 24 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. One mg of 111In-KC-4G3 was mixed with 0, 9, 49, 99, or 499 mg of unlabeled KC-4G3 and infused i.v. over 1 to 5 h. The mean 111In-KC-4G3 radiochemical purity was greater than 97% and the resultant immunoreactivity averaged 62%. Successful imaging of cancer sites was accomplished in 92% of 24 patients, and 57% of 91 total lesions were visualized. Successful localization of tumor sites related to size (P less than 0.001), with 81% of lesions greater than 3.0 cm in diameter, 50% of lesions 1.5 to 3 cm, and 6% of lesions less than 1.5 cm successfully imaging, and to location (P less than 0.05), with 69% of pulmonary lesions, 80% of soft tissue lesions, and only 32% of bone metastases being visualized. Nonspecific reticulo-endothelial uptake of radioactivity was a major problem. Approximately 35% of 111In was chelated to serum transferrin by 24 and 48 h after infusion. The mean t 1/2 beta for plasma radioisotope and immunoreactive KC-4G3 was 29 and 27 h, respectively. There was no correlation between total infused antibody dose and imaging success or between total dose and effect on 111In and KC-4G3 kinetics. Circulating free KC-4 antigen was measurable in all but one patient before study. Tumor biopsy following infusion could demonstrate antibody presence but not saturable antigen binding. We conclude that (a) 111In-KC-4G3 demonstrates successful tumor localization in non-small cell lung cancers bearing generally high expression of its antigen and (b) further investigations to diminish nonspecific radioactivity for imaging and utilization of high dose radiolabeled antibody for therapeutic intent are warranted.

  18. Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamikhova, R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.

  19. Effect of carrageenan level and packaging during ripening on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages produced with olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, D A; Koutsimanis, G E; Bloukas, J G

    2008-05-01

    Eight low-fat fermented sausages were produced with partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil. The total fat content of the sausages was 10% of which 8% was animal fat and 2% was olive oil. The sausages were produced with two types of carrageenan (ι- and κ-) in four levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). ι-Carrageenan had a better effect (psausages, as well as, on sensory attributes. Low-fat fermented sausages with κ-carrageenan had the same (p>0.05) firmness as high-fat commercial sausages (control). The carrageenan level of 3% negatively affected the firmness of the sausages. In a 2nd experiment, a high-fat control (30% total fat) and three low-fat fermented sausages (10% total fat) with olive oil were produced with three levels of ι-carrageenan (0%, 1% and 2%). Low-fat sausages were vacuum packed for the last two weeks of ripening. ι-Carrageenan added at levels up to 2% had a positive effect (pfermented sausages. The application of vacuum packaging over last two weeks of ripening improved the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the sausages and resulted in sensory attributes equal to or better than the high-fat controls.

  20. Improvement of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blended hydrogel by radiation crosslinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended hydrogel with kappa-carrageenan (KC) were prepared by radiation crosslinking with electron beam to improve the properties of hydrogel as wound dressing. The properties of the blended hydrogels were evaluated in terms of gel fraction, swelling behavior, gel strength and water evaporation from hydrogel. Gel fraction of PVA/PVP was saturated at 50 kGy and the achieved gel fraction was 70%~80%. However, obtained hydrogel was very fragile and produced many bubbles at a dose of 50kGy and above, hence 1%~5% KC were added to give toughness. The rate of gel formation and the toughness of the blended hydrogel were raised after mixing KC. The PVA/PVP/KC blended hydrogel irradiated showed satisfactory properties for wound dressing, it did not produce bubble during irradiation, and it could retard the water evaporation.

  1. 卡拉胶流变学特性及应用研究%Rheological Properties and Application of Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娟; 吴广州

    2012-01-01

      以半精制卡拉胶粉末为原料,主要研究了卡拉胶的含量,pH值和钾离子浓度对卡拉胶凝胶强度和黏度的影响,以及时间对卡拉胶的凝胶强度和出水的影响.结果表明凝胶强度随着卡拉胶含量的增加呈现线性增加渐趋平稳,受钾离子的影响先增大后降低,在pH8.0和10.0处出现2个拐点;卡拉胶溶液黏度随着含量的增加迅速增大,随钾离子的浓度增加而减少,中性时黏度最大;卡拉胶的出水量随着时间的延长而增大.%  Study on the effect of gel strength and viscosity from the content of carrageenan,pH value,concentration of potassium,and influence of time.The results indicated that the content of Carrageenan is an important affecting factor for gel strength and viscosity.Gel strength increases with the increase of the content of carrageenan which gradually reached a plateau,and increases with the increase of concentration of potassium.During the period,the two turning-point appear at pH 8.0 and 10.Gel viscosity increases with the increase of colloid content promptly,but decreases with concentration of potassium.Gel strength and water exit of carrageenan become stronger when the time is being extended.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on carrageenan-induced paw oedema and hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bignotto, L; Rocha, J.; Sepodes, B; Eduardo-Figueira, M; Pinto, R.; Chaud, M; Carvalho, J.; Moreno, H.; Mota-Filipe, H

    2009-01-01

    The regular intake of tomatoes or its products has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and these effects have been mainly attributed to lycopene. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene and its protective effects on organ injury in two experimental models of inflammation. In order to study the effects of lycopene in local inflammation, a carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats was performed. Lycopene was administered as an acute (1, 10, 25 or 5...

  3. KAPPA GOLF继续时尚活力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    中国动向(集团)有限公司旗下的Kappa GOLF作为高尔夫运动服装领军品牌再次成为2012年汇丰冠军赛唯一服装合作伙伴。中国动向集团董事长陈义作为代表参加了汇丰冠军赛的职业业余配对赛。Kappa GOLF与世锦赛-汇丰冠军赛的合作进入第四年,本届赛事,Kappa GOLF为所有赛事官员、裁判、贵宾、志愿者提供专用

  4. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongjianXu; XinpingLi; MeiyunZhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stagesand the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp hadbeen investigated, and the reason for higher kappanumber of the ethanol pulp was discussed. Theresults preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignincould re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiberclassification technology and explained the questionsfound during the study. Some measures were taken toreduce the kappa number, the results had shown thatthere was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolvedand the pulp with lower kappa number could beobtained at a higher temperature; the kappa numbercould reduce by increasing washing time; it couldenable dissolved lignin to separate out fi'om theethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption byblowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  5. Quantum Measurements and the kappa--Poincare Group

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, A; Camacho, Abel

    2005-01-01

    The possible description of the vacuum of quantum gravity through the so called kappa--Poincare group is analyzed considering some of the consequences of this symmetry in the path integral formulation of nonrelativistic quantum theory. This study is carried out with two cases, firstly, a free particle, and finally, the situation of a particle immersed in a homogeneous gravitational field. It will be shown that the kappa--Poincare group implies the loss of some of the basic properties associated to Feynman's path integral. For instance, loss of the group characteristic related to the time dependence of the evolution operator, or the breakdown of the composition law for amplitudes of events occurring successively in time. Additionally some similarities between the present idea and the so called restricted path integral formalism will be underlined. These analogies advocate the claim that if the kappa--Poincare group contains some of the physical information of the quantum gravity vacuum, then this vacuum could ...

  6. Electron acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanandhan, S; Singh, S V; Lakhina, G S, E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai (India)

    2011-08-01

    Electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a three-component, unmagnetized plasma composed of hot electrons, fluid cold electrons and ions having finite temperatures. Hot electrons are assumed to have kappa distribution. The Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to study the arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is found that inclusion of cold electron temperature shrinks the existence regime of the solitons, and soliton electric field amplitude decreases with an increase in cold electron temperature. A decrease in spectral index, {kappa}, i.e. an increase in the superthermal component of hot electrons, leads to a decrease in soliton electric field amplitude as well as the soliton velocity range. The soliton solutions do not exist beyond T{sub c}/T{sub h}>0.13 for {kappa}=3.0 and Mach number M=0.9 for the dayside auroral region parameters.

  7. Anomalous skin effects in anisotropic kappa distributed plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Tajammal H.; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.

    2017-07-01

    Anomalous skin effects (ASEs) are studied for the transverse electromagnetic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma using anisotropic kappa distribution. The effects of the kappa spectral index (κ), temperature anisotropy ( A =T⊥/T||) , and the wave frequency (ω) on the ASEs are highlighted to be applicable for a wide range of plasma parameters. It is shown that the skin depth is reduced in a kappa distributed plasma as compared to the Maxwellian one. The anisotropy may enhance/reduce the skin depth depending upon the wave frequency to plasma frequency ratio ( ω/ωp ) and the regime of the anisotropy (i.e., A > 1 or A < 1). The results for the Maxwellian distribution ( κ→∞ ) are also retrieved. The possible applications to space and laboratory plasmas are also discussed.

  8. A nonextensive entropy approach to kappa-distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Leubner, M P

    2002-01-01

    Most astrophysical plasmas are observed to have velocity distribution functions exhibiting non-Maxwellian suprathermal tails. The high energy particle populations are accurately represented by the family of kappa-distributions where the use of these distributions has been unjustly criticized because of a perceived lack of theoretical justification. We show that distributions very close to kappa-distributions are a consequence of the generalized entropy favored by nonextensive statistics, which provides the missing link for power-law models of non-thermal features from fundamental physics. With regard to the the physical basis supplied by the Tsallis nonextensive entropy formalism we propose that this slightly modified functional form, qualitatively similar to the traditional kappa-distribution, be used in fitting particle spectra in the future.

  9. Assessing agreement with multiple raters on correlated kappa statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongyuan; Sen, Pranab K; Peery, Anne F; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-07-01

    In clinical studies, it is often of interest to see the diagnostic agreement among clinicians on certain symptoms. Previous work has focused on the agreement between two clinicians under two different conditions or the agreement among multiple clinicians under one condition. Few have discussed the agreement study with a design where multiple clinicians examine the same group of patients under two different conditions. In this paper, we use the intraclass kappa statistic for assessing nominal scale agreement with such a design. We derive an explicit variance formula for the difference of correlated kappa statistics and conduct hypothesis testing for the equality of kappa statistics. Simulation studies show that the method performs well with realistic sample sizes and may be superior to a method that did not take into account the measurement dependence structure. The practical utility of the method is illustrated on data from an eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) study.

  10. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts.

  11. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of novel carboxymethyl cellulose/k-carrageenan blends as an enteric delivery vehicle for probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafe, Alireza; Etemadi, Hossein; Zarredar, Habib; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a novel carrier based on blends of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and k-carrageenan (k-Carr) for probiotic colon delivery. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC:13643 (L. plantarum) cells were encapsulated in CMC/k-Carr blends by extrusion method. k-Carrageenan was used as a coating agent to improve encapsulation of L. plantarum cells in carboxymethyl cellulose biopolymer. K-Carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose were ionically cross-linked with K(+) and Ca(2+) ions, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopy obviously showed the random distribution of L. plantarum cells throughout the blend network. The viability of encapsulated cells in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and bile salt solution were conducted. Results indicated that CMC/k-Carr blends could successfully protect L. plantarum cells against adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract and bile salt solution. After sequential exposure to SGF for 2h almost complete death of free cells was observed. However, the number of surviving cells was 5.20 and 7.30 Log CFU/g for uncoated free CMC and CMC/k-Carr blends, respectively. Cumulatively the results of this research offer a suitable media to potentially deliver probiotics to colon site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formulation and characterization of novel composite semi-refined iota carrageenan-based edible film incorporating palmitic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Giovani, Sarah; Manuhara, Godras Jati; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji

    2017-09-01

    Novel composite films based on semi-refined iota-carrageenan (SRIC) incorporating palmitic acid (PA) were prepared by an emulsification method. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined iota-carrageenan edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. Composite SRIC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (10%, 20%, and 30% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused a significant increase (p water vapor barrier properties of the films. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the composite semi-refined iota-carrageenan-based edible film decreased significantly (p water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 10% and 20% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 30% w/w palmitic acid promoted films with a highly beneficial to improve water vapor barrier properties and it has the potential for food packaging applications.

  14. Heterogeneity in iota-carrageenan molecular structure: insights for polymorph II→III transition in the presence of calcium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Chandrasekaran, Rengaswami (Purdue)

    2008-06-24

    Iota-carrageenan is used in pharmaceutical and food applications due to its ability to complex with other hydrocolloids and proteins. Six distinct cation dependent allomorphs, consistent with its versatile functionality, have so far been observed in the solid state. In this contribution, X-ray structural details of calcium iota-carrageenan (form III) are reported. The polysaccharide retains the half-staggered, parallel, 3-fold, right-handed double helix stabilized by interchain hydrogen bonds from O-2H and O-6H in the Galp units. Results show that there are four helices, rather than one in I or three in II, organized in a larger pseudo-trigonal unit cell of dimensions a=27.44, c=13.01 A, and gamma=120 degrees . The four helices have similar core structures, but their sulfate group orientations are quite different. Fifteen calcium ions and 64 water molecules hold the helices together and promote helix-helix interactions. The results portray how the helices would shuffle around in an orchestrated manner to yield calcium iota-carrageenan III from II.

  15. The general dielectric tensor for bi-kappa magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelzer, Rudi; Meneses, Anelise Ramires

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we derive the dielectric tensor for a plasma containing particles described by an anisotropic superthermal (bi-kappa) velocity distribution function. The tensor components are written in terms of the two-variables kappa plasma special functions, recently defined by Gaelzer and Ziebell [Phys. Plasmas 23, 022110 (2016)]. We also obtain various new mathematical properties for these functions, which are useful for the analytical treatment, numerical implementation and evaluation of the functions and, consequently, of the dielectric tensor. The formalism developed here and in the previous paper provides a mathematical framework for the study of electromagnetic waves propagating at arbitrary angles and polarizations in a superthermal plasma.

  16. The Present Status on sigma and kappa Meson Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, M

    2003-01-01

    The recent experimental data of both pipi / Kpi scattering and production processes, suggesting the existence of scalar sigma and kappa mesons, are reviewed. In many pipi /Kpi production processes the direct effects of their productions are observed, while they are, because of chiral symmetry, hidden in scattering processes, and now sigma(500--600) and kappa(800--900) are considered to be confirmed experimentally. The recent criticism on our method of analyses, which is based on the long believed prejudice of universal pipi / Kpi phase through scattering and production amplitudes, is explained not to be valid.

  17. Regularization of Kepler Problem in $\\kappa$-spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Partha; S., Zuhair N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we regularize the Kepler problem on $\\kappa$-spacetime in several different ways. First, we perform a Moser-type regularization and then we proceed for the Ligon-Schaaf regularization to our problem. In particular, generalizing Heckman-de Laat (J. Symplectic Geom. 10, (2012), 463-473) in the noncommutative context we show that the Ligon-Schaaf regularization map follows from an adaptation of the Moser regularization can be generalized to the Kepler problem on $\\kappa$-spacetime.

  18. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  19. Localization of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF kappa B) and inhibitory factor-kappa B (I kappa B) in human fetal membranes and decidua at term and preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X; Sun, M; Gibb, W

    2002-04-01

    The human fetal membranes and decidua are thought to be involved in the onset of human parturition. These tissues produce and respond to various cytokines, which may be involved in preterm labour and possibly term labour. They also show increasing production of prostaglandins (PGs) with advancing gestation and labour. The expression of PGHS-2, a rate limiting enzyme in PG synthesis, is increased in the fetal membranes at labour. The gene for PGHS-2 and many of the cytokine genes (e.g. TNFalpha, IL-1, IL-6) are stimulated by the transcription factor NF kappa B. This factor is composed of two subunits, p50 and p65, which are localized in the cytoplasm bound to I kappa B. When activated I kappa B is metabolized, and p50, p65 translocate to the nucleus to activate various genes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the tissue and cellular distribution of p65 and I kappa B in the human fetal membranes and decidua throughout gestation. Term tissues were obtained prior to labour by elective caesarean section (n=10) or following vaginal delivery (n=10) and 10 preterm tissues were obtained following labour prior to 37 weeks gestation. None of the tissues had any evidence of infection. The immunoreactive NF kappa B and I kappa B were localized in the tissues. p65 protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in the amnion, chorion laeve and decidua. In the amnion and chorion laeve, no changes occurred in subcellular localization with advancing gestation or term labour. However, in the decidua, there was a marked increase in the nuclear localization of i.r. p 65 in tissues obtained at term when compared with tissues delivered preterm. In the case of I kappa B, it was localized to the cytoplasm of cells in all tissues and there was an increase i.r. I kappa B in decidua at term compared to preterm but no change occurred in the amnion or chorion. The increase in nuclear localization of p65 in the decidua that occurs with advancing gestation, highlights the

  20. Mustard NPR1, a mammalian I{kappa}B homologue inhibits NF-{kappa}B activation in human GBM cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesanakurti, Divya [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India); Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy [Department of Bio-technology and Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India); Babu, Phanithi Prakash, E-mail: ppbsl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Bio-technology and Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India); Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja, E-mail: pbksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (India)

    2009-12-18

    NF-{kappa}B activity is tightly regulated by I{kappa}B class of proteins. I{kappa}B proteins possess ankyrin repeats for binding to and inhibiting NF-{kappa}B. The regulatory protein, NPR1 from Brassica juncea possesses ankyrin repeats with sequence similarity to I{kappa}B{alpha} subgroup. Therefore, we examined whether stably expressed BjNPR1 could function as I{kappa}B in inhibiting NF-{kappa}B in human glioblastoma cell lines. We observed that BjNPR1 bound to NF-{kappa}B and inhibited its nuclear translocation. Further, BjNPR1 expression down-regulated the NF-{kappa}B target genes iNOS, Cox-2, c-Myc and cyclin D1 and reduced the proliferation rate of U373 cells. Finally, BjNPR1 decreased the levels of pERK, pJNK and PKC{alpha} and increased the Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 activities. These results suggested that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation by BjNPR1 can be a promising therapy in NF-{kappa}B dependent pathologies.

  1. Development of immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells, but not editing of immunoglobulin kappa-chain, depends on NF-kappaB signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derudder, Emmanuel; Cadera, Emily J; Vahl, J Christoph; Wang, Jing; Fox, Casey J; Zha, Shan; van Loo, Geert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Schlissel, Mark S; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Rajewsky, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    By genetically ablating IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in the B cell lineage and by analyzing a mouse mutant in which immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells are generated in the absence of rearrangements in the locus encoding immunoglobulin kappa-chain, we define here two distinct, consecutive phases of early B cell development that differ in their dependence on IKK-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. During the first phase, in which NF-kappaB signaling is dispensable, predominantly kappa-chain-positive B cells are generated, which undergo efficient receptor editing. In the second phase, predominantly lambda-chain-positive B cells are generated whose development is ontogenetically timed to occur after rearrangements of the locus encoding kappa-chain. This second phase of development is dependent on NF-kappaB signals, which can be substituted by transgenic expression of the prosurvival factor Bcl-2.

  2. Dissociation between skeletal muscle inhibitor-{kappa}B kinase/nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway activity and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest a link between increased activity of the inflammatory inhibitor-kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) pathway in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. Objective: We aimed to study the regulation of skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity...... as well as the association with glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Methods: The study population included a metabolically well-characterized cohort of young and elderly predominantly nondiabetic twins (n = 181). Inhibitor-kappaBbeta (IkappaBbeta) protein levels are negatively...... associated with IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity and were used to evaluate pathway activity with p65 levels included as loading control. This indirect measure for IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity was validated by a p65 binding assay. Results: Evaluating the effects of heritability, age, sex, obesity, aerobic...

  3. 家蚕Bm30Kc6蛋白对过氧化氢诱导的家蚕细胞凋亡的抑制作用%The Protective Effect of Silkworm(Bombyx mori) Bm30Kc6 on BmN Cells Apoptosis Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应慧慧; 余海鹏; 寿鑫; 全滟平; 张耀洲; 童富淡; 于威

    2013-01-01

    30K蛋白是一类家蚕(Bombyx mori)血淋巴中具有最强抗细胞凋亡活性的蛋白,家蚕Bm30Kc6蛋白作为30K蛋白家族的成员之一,也具有较强的抗细胞凋亡作用,但其抗细胞凋亡的作用机制还不十分清楚.本研究将本实验室成功构建的重组病毒Bacmid-Bm30Kc6接种家蚕BmN细胞大量表达后,利用Ni-NTA蛋白亲和层析柱纯化重组蛋白Bm30Kc6.SDS-PAGE和Western blot检测结果显示纯化蛋白的纯度较高.然后利用不同浓度(0.1、1、5和10 mmol/L)的H2O2处理家蚕BmN细胞,诱导细胞发生凋亡,结果表明,在培养基中加入终浓度为5 mmol/LH2O2孵育4h后即可成功诱导BmN细胞凋亡.在上述建立的H2O2诱导的家蚕BmN细胞凋亡体外损伤模型的基础上,分析了Bm30Kc6蛋白的抗细胞凋亡的活性及作用机制.首先利用Cell death Detection ELISA试剂盒检测了细胞内的DNA片段化程度,检测结果表明,Bm30Kc6蛋白(终浓度5μg/mL)可明显降低H2O2诱导的家蚕BmN细胞内的DNA片段化程度.然后利用Cell proliferation ELISA试剂盒检测了细胞的增殖情况,结果表明,Bm30Kc6蛋白可以显著增强家蚕BmN细胞的活力.进一步利用8-isoprostane EIA试剂盒检测细胞内氧化应激标志物8-isoprostane的浓度变化,结果显示,家蚕Bm30Kc6蛋白可以显著降低胞内8-isoprostane的浓度.此外,Western blot分析结果显示,Bm30Kc6蛋白可显著抑制家蚕BmN细胞中细胞色素c从线粒体中释放进入细胞质.Bm30Kc6蛋白一方面可以通过降低BmN细胞内的氧化应激水平从而起到抑制细胞凋亡的作用;另一方面,Bm30Kc6蛋白也可以通过阻断H2O2诱导激活的线粒体通路来抑制细胞发生凋亡.本研究将为进一步深入研究家蚕Bm30Kc6蛋白的抗凋亡机制提供基础资料.%It has been clear that silkworm (Bombyx mori) 30K protein in larval hemolymph has the highest apoptosis inhibition activities. As one of the member of 30K apolipoproteins family, Bm30Kc6

  4. MECHANISM OF THE CONTROLLED HYDROLYSIS OF (NPCL2)(2)NSOCL - CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF [KC12H24O6](+)[NHPO2NPCL2NSOCL](-)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, H; MEETSMA, A; VANDEGRAMPEL, JC; SPEK, AL

    1994-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of controlled hydrolysis of the inorganic ring system (NPCl2)(2)NSOCl in the presence of KCl and 18-crown-6 has been revised and is explained from steric constraints rather than from electronic considerations. The X-ray structure of one of the hydrolysis products, [KC12H24O6](

  5. Improvement of Emulsifying Properties of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate λ-Carrageenan Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shui Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluten hydrolysate was prepared through limited enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten resulting from the byproducts of wheat starch. The enzyme applied in the present study was Protamex. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH, gluten hydrolysate (GHPλ-carrageenan (C ratio and reaction time on emulsifying properties of the GHP-C conjugate. The regression model for emulsion activity index (EAI was significant at p=0.001, while reaction time had a significant effect on EAI of the conjugate with regression coefficient of 4.25. The interactions of pH and GHP/ C ratio, and GHP/C ratio and reaction time significantly affected the EAI of the conjugate. Both the emulsifying property and nitrogen solubility index (NSI of GHP-C conjugate prepared under the optimal conditions increased more remarkably, compared to the control. The denaturation temperature of GHP-C conjugate obviously increased compared to wheat gluten. The addition of GHP-C conjugate had different effects on dough characteristics. Moreover, this conjugate can delay the increase in the bread crumb firmness during storage. It demonstrated that this conjugate couldimprove the dough characteristics and had anti-staling properties of bread.

  6. Fabrication of κ-Carrageenan Fibers by Wet Spinning: Spinning Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Kong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general, the ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break both increased for KCl concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 M with and without ethanol, with no significant change above 0.5 M. Spinning rate affected the dope flow and thus the polymer orientation (apparent viscosity and fiber morphology. At spinning rates between 0.25 mL/min and 0.33 mL/min, the fiber diameter reached a minimum and the fiber surface was smooth. Both an increase and decrease from this spinning rate range increased the fiber diameter and roughness of the fiber surface. Post-spinning drawing of the fiber resulted in even smaller fiber diameter.

  7. Thrombolytic effects in vivo of nattokinase in a carrageenan-induced rat model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Du, Ming; Yang, Xiulin; Chen, Qingquan; Chen, Hong; Lin, Dong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis during the fermentation of the soybean product natto. The fibrinolytic activity and thrombolytic effects of nattokinase have been observed in vitro, but the effect in vivo has still to be researched. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the activity of nattokinase in vivo. To establish a rat model of thrombosis, κ-carrageenan was injected subcutaneously into the toes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Histological examination confirmed thrombosis. The rats were then treated with varying doses of nattokinase and the resulting thrombolysis was histologically assessed. ELISA was used to determine the levels of the fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer, which are sensitive indices of fibrinolytic activity. Vermis kinase, a known thrombolytic agent, was used as a positive control. Biopsy results revealed partial thrombolysis in the tail vessels of the rats treated with nattokinase or vermis kinase. FDP and D-dimer levels were higher in rats treated with high-dose nattokinase than in those treated with saline. No difference in FDP or D-dimer levels was observed between rats treated with high-dose nattokinase and those treated with vermis kinase. Both the histological and physiological evidence from this study indicate that nattokinase exerts thrombolytic effects in vivo.

  8. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  9. Synergistic effects of mixed salt on the gelation of κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach T; Nicolai, Taco; Benyahia, Lazhar; Chassenieux, Christophe

    2014-11-04

    The effect of the addition of calcium or sodium ions on the potassium induced gelation of κ-carrageenan (κ-car) is investigated using oscillatory shear rheology and turbidimetry. Both the gelation kinetics and the steady state shear moduli are investigated. Gelation in mixed salt solutions is compared with that in pure potassium and calcium solutions. It is shown that the elastic shear modulus increases with increasing pure KCl concentration, but decreases with increasing pure CaCl2 concentration. In mixed salts, gelation of κ-car is induced by potassium and addition of CaCl2 leads to an increase of the elastic modulus with increasing CaCl2 concentration. κ-Car gelled at low mixed salt concentrations for which it remained liquid in pure salt. At equivalent ionic strengths, the effect of adding NaCl on potassium induced gelation is much weaker. In pure KCl solutions, κ-car gels are transparent, but in pure CaCl2 they become increasingly turbid with increasing CaCl2 concentration. The turbidity of gels formed in mixed salts is intermediate.

  10. Fabrication of κ-Carrageenan Fibers by Wet Spinning: Spinning Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyan; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2011-10-11

    This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general, the ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break both increased for KCl concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 M with and without ethanol, with no significant change above 0.5 M. Spinning rate affected the dope flow and thus the polymer orientation (apparent viscosity) and fiber morphology. At spinning rates between 0.25 mL/min and 0.33 mL/min, the fiber diameter reached a minimum and the fiber surface was smooth. Both an increase and decrease from this spinning rate range increased the fiber diameter and roughness of the fiber surface. Post-spinning drawing of the fiber resulted in even smaller fiber diameter.

  11. Controlled release of thiamin in a glassy κ-carrageenan/glucose syrup matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyoyai, Naksit; Bannikova, Anna; Small, Darryl M; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-01-22

    The work dealt with the diffusional mobility of thiamin embedded in a high-solid matrix of κ-carrageenan with glucose syrup. It utilized thermomechanical analysis in the form of modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The structural properties of the matrix were assessed in a temperature induced rubber-to-glass transformation. A thiamin-dye binding assay was employed to monitor the diffusion process of the vitamin from the high-solid preparation to ethylene glycol. The relationship between mechanical properties of the carbohydrate matrix and vitamin mobility was assessed via the application of the combined framework of the free volume theory and the predictions of the reaction rate theory. Results argue that the transport of the micronutrient is governed by the structural relaxation of the high-solid matrix. These were further treated with the concept of Fickian diffusion coefficient to provide the rate of the bioactive compound mobility within the present experimental settings.

  12. 2,3-butanediol production by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1133 with k-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, J.W.; Erarslan, A.; Kinoshita, S.; Taguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Enterbacter aerogenes IAM1133 was selected for 2,3-butanediol fermentation among 13 strains known to be 2,3-butanediol producers. This strain produced 11 mg/ml of 2,3-butanediol on 24-hr fermentation with 5% glucose. The cells were entrapped with k-carrageenan, which was activated in the medium to permit the growth in the matrix. It took one day to obtain the maximum activity of production and this activity was kept stable. The incubation conditions, such as pH, temperature, liquid volume (dissolved oxygen), and glucose concentration, for immobilized cells were not as sensitive as those for native cells. The production of 2,3-butanediol by the immobilized cells was carried out at pH 7 and at 30/sup 0/C with 5% glucose and 40 ml of medium in a 100 ml-flask. The long term production by immobilized cell was carried out by sequential replacement culture and continuous culture and they were stable without any loss of activity for at least 10 days. The production of acetoin was decreased by immobilization and the production of 2,3-butanediol by the cells released from the gel was negligible.

  13. A tumor-associated antigen specific for human kappa myeloma cells

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (K-1-21) raised against a kappa Bence Jones protein exhibits unique binding properties to malignant plasma cells. K- 1-21 is an IgG1 kappa antibody that reacts with human kappa light chains in free form, but shows no reactivity with heavy chain- associated kappa light chains. By immunofluorescence, K-1-21 binds to the surface of LICR LON/HMy2 (HMy2) kappa myeloma cells and to plasma cells from a majority (8/11) of patients with various types of kappa myeloma; it did not ...

  14. Association of Activation of Induced COX-2, iNOS and Cytokines with NF-kappa B Depression by Taiwan Wild Grape Ethanolic Extract in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Yi-Han; Lin, Yu-Chin; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2017-08-31

    Taiwan wild grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana; VTT) is an important traditional herbal medicine used to treat muscle injuries and acute and chronic pain of the ligaments. Information on its bioactivity and the underlying mechanisms, which have not been elucidated thus far, is needed to demonstrate its value for pharmacological and clinical use. This study presents evidence to clarify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an ethanolic extract of VTT stem (VTTEtOH) and the possible molecular mechanisms involved in such biactivities. In the mice, VTTEtOH significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing response (P < 0.01), formalin-induced licking time (P < 0.01), and edema paw volume at 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. VTTEtOH obviously decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.001), nuclear factor-kappa B (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), cyclooxygenase-2 (P < 0.001) and Nitric oxide (P < 0.001) in edema-paw tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects might involve significant inhibition of the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 through suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of the levels of various inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide. Our findings provided pharmacological and histopathological evidences that VTTEtOH alleviates inflammatory pain-related diseases.

  15. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S Mizokami

    Full Text Available Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14,15-dien-19-oic acid is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation.

  16. On the mechanisms of kappa-opioid-induced diuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T. P.; Borkowski, K. R.; Friend, J.; Rance, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    In conscious saline loaded rats, the kappa-opioid agonists tifluadom, U50488, and ethylketocyclazocine, given subcutaneously, induced a characteristic diuresis which could be antagonized by naloxone. Bilateral adrenal demedullation significantly reduced adrenal gland catecholamine content and plasma adrenaline levels, but did not significantly affect plasma corticosterone levels, indicating that the adrenal cortex remained both intact and functional. Seven days following bilateral adrenal demedullation, the subcutaneous administration of the kappa-agonists no longer induced diuresis. However, demedullation did not affect the diuretic response to frusemide or clonidine, nor did it affect the antidiuretic response induced by the mu-opioid agonists morphine and buprenorphine. Adrenal catecholamines do not appear to be involved in kappa-opioid-induced diuresis, since pretreatment with propranolol, prazosin and idazoxan did not affect the diuretic response in intact animals. The results indicate a link between the adrenal medulla and kappa-opioid-induced diuresis and suggest that a peripheral mechanism may also be involved in mediating this effect. PMID:3542107

  17. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  18. Remarks on differential calculus over $\\kappa$-Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Juric, Tajron; Strajn, Rina

    2013-01-01

    Unified graded differential algebra, generated by $\\kappa$-Minkowski noncommutative (NC) coordinates, Lorentz generators and anticommuting one-forms, is constructed. It is compatible with $\\kappa$-Poncar\\'e-Hopf algebra. For time- and space-like deformations, the super-Jacobi identities are not satisfied. By introducing additional generator, interpreted as exterior derivative, we find a unique algebra that satisfies all super-Jacobi identities. It is universal and valid for all type of deformations (time-, space-, and light-like). For time-like deformations this algebra coincides with the one in [hep-th/9409014]. Different realizations of our algebra in terms of super-Heisenberg algebra are presented. For light-like deformations we get 4D bicovariant calculus, with $\\kappa$-Poncar\\'e-Hopf algebra and present the corresponding twist, which is written in a covariant way, using Poncar\\'e generators only. In the time- and space-like case this twist leads to $\\kappa$-Snyder space. Our results might lead to applica...

  19. A crucial role for TNF-alpha in mediating neutrophil influx induced by endogenously generated or exogenous chemokines, KC/CXCL1 and LIX/CXCL5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S M; Lemos, H P; Grespan, R; Napimoga, M H; Dal-Secco, D; Freitas, A; Cunha, T M; Verri, W A; Souza-Junior, D A; Jamur, M C; Fernandes, K S; Oliver, C; Silva, J S; Teixeira, M M; Cunha, F Q

    2009-10-01

    Chemokines orchestrate neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory foci. In the present study, we evaluated the participation of three chemokines, KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2 and LIX/CXCL5, which are ligands for chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), in mediating neutrophil recruitment in immune inflammation induced by antigen in immunized mice. Neutrophil recruitment was assessed in immunized mice challenged with methylated bovine serum albumin, KC/CXCL1, LIX/CXCL5 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Cytokine and chemokine levels were determined in peritoneal exudates and in supernatants of macrophages and mast cells by elisa. CXCR2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression was determined using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antigen challenge induced dose- and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment and production of KC/CXCL1, LIX/CXCL5 and TNF-alpha, but not MIP-2/CXCL2, in peritoneal exudates. Neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by treatment with reparixin (CXCR1/2 antagonist), anti-KC/CXCL1, anti-LIX/CXCL5 or anti-TNF-alpha antibodies and in tumour necrosis factor receptor 1-deficient mice. Intraperitoneal injection of KC/CXCL1 and LIX/CXCL5 induced dose- and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment and TNF-alpha production, which were inhibited by reparixin or anti-TNF-alpha treatment. Macrophages and mast cells expressed CXCR2 receptors. Increased macrophage numbers enhanced, while cromolyn sodium (mast cell stabilizer) diminished, LIX/CXCL5-induced neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages and mast cells from immunized mice produced TNF-alpha upon LIX/CXCL5 stimulation. Methylated bovine serum albumin induced expression of ICAM-1 on mesenteric vascular endothelium, which was inhibited by anti-TNF-alpha or anti-LIX/CXCL5. Following antigen challenge, CXCR2 ligands are produced and act on macrophages and mast cells triggering the production of TNF-alpha, which synergistically contribute to neutrophil recruitment through induction of the expression of ICAM

  20. Kappa-distributions and coronal heating. (Slovak Title: Kappa-distribúcie a ohrev koróny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudík, J.; Dzifčáková, E.; Kulinová, A.; Karlický, M.

    2010-12-01

    Particle energy kappa-distributions (distributions with non-thermal tails) have been diagnosed in plasma of the transition region and also in solar flares. Theoretical models suggest a link between kappa-distributions and dynamic heating of the corona. Since the presence of non-thermal distributions leads to changes in intensities of emission lines, we have examined their effect on the total radiation losses of the corona as well as responses of the EUV and X-ray filters. Temperature responses of the filters are wider for kappa-distributions than in the case of the Maxwell distribution, and their respective maxima are shifted towards higher temperatures. On the other hand, the total radiation losses of the corona are lower compared to the Maxwell distribution except for the extreme non-thermal case. This means that lower heating energy is needed to reach the same corona temperature in case of kappa-distributions. In this work we discuss the effect of element abundances and specific ions on the total radiation losses of the corona.

  1. Schild (apparent pA2) analysis of a kappa-opioid antagonist in Planaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Baron, David A; Tallarida, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    Previous investigators have provided radioimmunological and immunocytochemical evidence for an enkephalinergic (opioid) system in Planaria and described naloxone-sensitive qualitative behavioral responses to kappa-opioid receptor agonists. We report the application of Schild-analysis to the antagonism of a selective kappa agonist (U-50,488H) by a selective kappa antagonist (nor-BNI) in a quantitative in vivo endpoint. The results provide further evidence of a kappa-opioid-like receptor in planarians.

  2. Foaming Properties of Whey Protein Isolate and λ-Carrageenan Mixed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-08-01

    Heating protein with polysaccharide under neutral or near neutral pH can induce the formation of soluble complex with improved functional properties. The objective of our research was to investigate the effects of λ-carrageenan (λC) concentrations and pH on foaming properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and λC soluble complex (h-cpx) in comparison to heated WPI with added λC (pWPI-λC), and unheated WPI with λC (WPI-λC). In all 3 WPI-λC systems at pH 7, increasing λC concentration led to improved foamability until a certain concentration before it decreased. Despite their higher viscosity, both heated systems (pWPI-λC and h-cpx) showed significantly better foamability and foam stability compared to WPI-λC. Rheological results of foams with 0.25% λC suggested that higher elasticity and viscous films were produced in h-cpx and pWPI-λC systems corresponding to better foam stability. Foam microstructure images indicated that foams produced from h-cpx had thicker film and consisted of smaller initial bubble area and more uniform bubble size. Results from the effect of pH (6.2, 6.5, and 7.0) further confirmed that stronger interactions between WPI and λC during heating contributed to the improved foaming properties. Foam stability was higher in h-cpx system at all 3 pH levels, especially under pH 6.2 where there were strongest interactions between the biopolymers.

  3. Calea uniflora Less. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; de Mello, Silvana Virginia Gagliotti Vigil; Vicente, Geison; Moon, Yeo Jim K; Daltoé, Felipe Perozzo; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Jesus Souza, Rafaela; Biavatti, Maique Weber; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Calea uniflora Less. (family Asteraceae), also named "arnica" and "erva-de-lagarto", is a native plant to the South and Southeast of Brazil. This species was used to treat rheumatism, respiratory diseases, and digestive problems in Brazilian folk medicine. In vitro studies have shown the important biological effects of C. uniflora. However no studies have focused on the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory activity of C. uniflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract, its fractions, and isolated compounds obtained from of C. uniflora, using mouse model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. The following inflammatory parameters: leukocyte influx, degree of exudation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB (p-p65 NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) levels were determined. The crude extract of C. uniflora, its fractions and its isolated compounds reduced the leukocyte influx, degree of exudation, MPO and ADA activities, NOx, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-6 levels (p<0.05). The isolated compounds reduced p-p65 NF-κB and p-p38 MAPK levels (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that C. uniflora exhibits a significant anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of the leukocyte influx and degree of exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the levels of several proinflammatory mediators. The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of C. uniflora may be, at least in part, via the inhibition of p65 NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation by the isolated compounds.

  4. Profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN- ? , TNF- ? and KC-like cytokines in pregnant bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05. However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.

  5. Evaluation of the antithrombotic effects of Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus davisii in the carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Rana; Bektas, Nurcan; Bor, Zeynep; Sener, Erol

    2015-02-01

    Crataegus species are widely used as herbal medicines for preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, there are no studies on the effects of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae) and C. davisii Browicz on thrombosis, which is an important mechanism in CVDs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antithrombotic effects of ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna (CMEx) and C. davisii (CDEx) leaves by using the carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis model. The hind paw of each mouse was injected with 1% Type I carrageenan to induce thrombosis. CMEx was tested at the doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg and CDEx at the dose of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg in comparison with heparin. The lengths of tail thrombosis were measured at the 24, 48, and 72 h. Does of 200 and 300 mg/kg CMEx showed significant effects (p < 0.01; p < 0.001) at 24 h when compared with the control group. The antithrombotic activity of 200 and 300 mg/kg CMEx showed a decrease at 48 and 72 h but the activity of 300 mg/kg dose of CMEx was still significant (p < 0.01). The activities of 50 and 100 mg/kg doses of CDEx were significant (p < 0.001; p < 0.01) between 24 and 72 h whereas 200 and 300 mg/kg CDEx did not show any significance. CMEx and CDEx significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis. Based on these results, it was concluded that CDEx and CMEx may potentially be used as therapeutic agents or complementary treatments against thrombosis.

  6. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-03-09

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  7. Applications of Carrageenan in food industry%卡拉胶在食品工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋战鹰

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces mainly applications of carrageenan in food industry as additive. It is used for solidifier, thicker, emulsifier. Suspender, binder. shaper and stabilizer in food making.%介绍了卡拉胶在食品工业中的一些主要作用.卡拉胶作为一种添加剂在食品制作过程中,可用作凝固剂、增稠剂、乳化剂、悬浮剂、粘合剂、成型剂和稳定剂.

  8. Sigma, Kappa, fo(980) and a0(980)

    CERN Document Server

    Bugg, D V

    2005-01-01

    Both sigma and kappa are well established from E791 data on D->3pi and Ds->Kpipi and BES II data on J/Psi -> omega pi pi and KKpipi. These fits are accurately consistent with pipi and Kpi elastic scattering when one allows for the Adler zero which arises from Chiral Symmetry Breaking. The phase variation with mass is consistent between elastic scattering and production data. Possible interpretations of sigma, kappa, fo(980) and ao(980) are explored. The experimental ratio g^2(fo(980)->KK)/g^2(ao(980)->KK) = 2.7+-0.5 suggests strongly that fo(980) has a large KK component in its wave function. This is a natural consequence of its pole lying very close to the KK threshold.

  9. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  10. Radio Emissions from Plasma with Electron Kappa-Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, G. D.; Kuznetsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Gregory Fleishman (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, USA)Alexey Kuznetsov (Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk, Russia), Currently there is a concern about the ability of the classical thermal (Maxwellian) distribution to describe quasisteady-state plasma in the solar atmosphere, including active regions. In particular, other distributions have been proposed to better fit observations, for example, kappa-distributions. If present, these distributions will generate radio emissions with different observable properties compared with the classical gyroresonance (GR) or free-free emission, which implies a way of remotely detecting these kappa distributions in the radio observations. Here we present analytically derived GR and free-free emissivities and absorption coefficients for the kappa-distribution, and discuss their properties, which are in fact remarkably different from the classical Maxwellian plasma. In particular, the radio brightness temperature from a gyrolayer increases with the optical depth τ for kappa-distribution. This property has a remarkable consequence allowing a straightforward observational test: the GR radio emission from the non-Maxwellian distributions is supposed to be noticeably polarized even in the optically thick case, where the emission would have strictly zero polarization in the case of Maxwellian plasma. This offers a way of remote probing the plasma distribution in astrophysical sources, including solar active regions as a vivid example. In this report, we present analytical formulae and computer codes to calculate the emission parameters. We simulate the gyroresonance emission under the conditions typical of the solar active regions and compare the results for different electron distributions. We discuss the implications of our findings for interpretation of radio observations. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-1250374 and AGS-1262772, NASA grant NNX14AC87G to New Jersey Institute of Technology

  11. Inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) pathway by tetracyclic kaurene diterpenes in macrophages. Specific effects on NF-kappa B-inducing kinase activity and on the coordinate activation of ERK and p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, A; de Las Heras, B; Hortelano, S; Rodriguez, B; Villar, A; Bosca, L

    2001-05-11

    The anti-inflammatory action of most terpenes has been explained in terms of the inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. Ent-kaurene diterpenes are intermediates of the synthesis of gibberellins and inhibit the expression of NO synthase-2 and the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in J774 macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide. These diterpenes inhibit NF-kappaB and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation in vivo but failed to affect in vitro the function of NF-kappaB, the phosphorylation and targeting of IkappaBalpha, and the activity of IKK-2. Transient expression of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) activated the IKK complex and NF-kappaB, a process that was inhibited by kaurenes, indicating that the inhibition of NIK was one of the targets of these diterpenes. These results show that kaurenes impair the inflammatory signaling by inhibiting NIK, a member of the MAPK kinase superfamily that interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors, and mediate the activation of NF-kappaB by these receptors. Moreover, kaurenes delayed the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and ERK2 MAPKs, but not that of JNK, in response to lipopolysaccharide treatment of J774 cells. The absence of a coordinate activation of MAPK and IKK might contribute to a deficient activation of NF-kappaB that is involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of these molecules.

  12. Synaptic localization of. kappa. opioid receptors in guinea pig neostriatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomary, C.; Beaudet, A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Gairin, J.E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France))

    1992-01-15

    Distribution of {kappa} opioid receptors was examined by EM radioautography in sections of guinea pig neostriatum with the selective {sup 125}I-labeled dynorphin analog (D-Pro{sup 10})dynorphin-(1-11). Most specifically labeled binding sites were found by probability circle analysis to be associated with neuronal membrane appositions. Because of limitations in resolution of the method, the radioactive sources could not be ascribed directly to either one of the apposed plasma membranes. Nevertheless, three lines of evidence favored a predominant association of ligand with dendrites of intrinsic striatal neurons: (1) the high frequency with which labeled interfaces implicated a dendrite, (2) the enrichment of dendrodendritic interfaces, and (3) the occurrence of dendritic profiles labeled at several contact points along their plasma membranes. A small proportion of labeled sites was associated with axo-axonic interfaces, which may subserve the {kappa} opioid-induced regulation of presynaptic dopamine and acetylcholine release documented in guinea pig neostriatum. These results support the hypothesis that in mammalian brain {kappa} opioid receptors are conformationally and functionally distinct from {mu} and {delta} types.

  13. On Hopf algebroid structure of kappa-deformed Heisenberg algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Woronowicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The $(4+4)$-dimensional $\\kappa$-deformed quantum phase space as well as its $(10+10)$-dimensional covariant extension by the Lorentz sector can be described as Heisenberg doubles: the $(10+10)$-dimensional quantum phase space is the double of $D=4$ $\\kappa$-deformed Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra $\\mathbb{H}$ and the standard $(4+4)$-dimensional space is its subalgebra generated by $\\kappa$-Minkowski coordinates $\\hat{x}_\\mu$ and corresponding commuting momenta $\\hat{p}_\\mu$. Every Heisenberg double appears as the total algebra of a Hopf algebroid over a base algebra which is in our case the coordinate sector. We exhibit the details of this structure, namely the corresponding right bialgebroid and the antipode map. We rely on algebraic methods of calculation in Majid-Ruegg bicrossproduct basis. The target map is derived from a formula by J-H. Lu. The coproduct takes values in the bimodule tensor product over a base, what is expressed as the presence of coproduct gauge freedom.

  14. MEKANISME PROSES TAHAP EKSTRAKSI KARAGENAN DARI Eucheuma cottonii MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKALI (The Mechanism of Carrageenan Extraction from Eucheuma cottonii Using Alkaline Solvent)

    OpenAIRE

    Sperisa Distantina; Rochmadi Rochmadi; Wiratni Wiratni; Moh. Fahrurrozi

    2013-01-01

    Carrageenan recovery process was developed for Eucheuma cottonii by investigating the effects of distilled water, KOH (0.1-0.5 N) and NaOH (0.1-1.0 N) as the solvent on carrageenan yield and gel properties. Extraction process was carried out with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume (1: 50; g/mL) at 80oC.  A certain amount of the liquid sample was withdrawn at regular interval time for analysis. Filtrate was separated from residue by pouring ethanol. The precipitated carrageen...

  15. KC-46 Tanker Modernization: Delivery of First Fully Capable Aircraft Has Been Delayed over One Year and Additional Delays Are Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Boeing was awarded a fixed price incentive (firm target) contract for development. The contract is designed to hold Boeing accountable for costs ...ceiling price . The government is not responsible for the additional cost . The KC-46 program is meeting total acquisition cost and performance...possible requirements changes, based on its experience with prior major acquisition programs. Military construction costs have also come in below

  16. Pro-apoptotic role of NF-kappaB: implications for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Senthil K; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan

    2006-08-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is generally viewed as anti-apoptotic and oncogenic, leading to a quest for its inhibitors. However, recent evidence suggests that in some situations NF-kappaB may promote apoptosis. Depending on the specific cell type and the stimulus involved, NF-kappaB activation may lead to either anti- or pro-apoptotic response. Both these effects can be mediated by NF-kappaB in a context-dependent manner by selectively regulating its target genes. In this review, we discuss the evidence for NF-kappaB's pro-apoptotic role and explore the possible mechanisms behind it. We emphasize that rather than trying to inhibit NF-kappaB in cancer therapy, agents should be developed to unleash its pro-apoptotic ability.

  17. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Association with mutual regulation of RelA (p65)/NF-{kappa}B and phospho-I{kappa}B in the CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Insun; Ha, Danbee [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ginnae [Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eunjin; Joo, Haejin [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Youngheun, E-mail: yhjee@jejunu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} The phosphorylation of RelA's inhibitory factor I{kappa}B and subsequent RelA activation are important to the disease process of EAE. {yields} The expression of RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B was markedly increased in the initiation and during the progression of EAE. {yields} TPCK-treated EAE mice showed lower incidence of EAE with less severe symptoms and quicker recovery than vehicle-treated EAE mice. {yields} TPCK significantly suppressed the MOG{sub 35-55}-specific T cell proliferation by reducing the production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-17 cytokines in EAE. {yields} The NF-{kappa}B cascade's activity increased gradually with the development of symptoms and brain pathology of EAE. -- Abstract: Recently emerging evidence that the NF-{kappa}B family plays an important role in autoimmune disease has produced very broad and sometimes paradoxical conclusions. In the present study, we elucidated that the activation of RelA (p65) of NF-{kappa}B and I{kappa}B dissociation assumes a distinct role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) progression by altering I{kappa}B phosphorylation and/or degradation. In the present study of factors that govern EAE, the presence and immunoreactivity of nuclear RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B were recorded at the initiation and peak stage, and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} progressed rapidly at an early stage then stabilized during recovery. The immunoreactivity to RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B occurred mainly in inflammatory cells and microglial cells but only slightly in astrocytes. Subsequently, the blockade of I{kappa}B dissociation from NF-{kappa}B reduced the severity of disease by decreasing antigen-specific T cell response and production of IL-17 in EAE. Thus, blocking the dissociation of I{kappa}B from NF-{kappa}B can be utilized as a strategy to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal pathway thereby to reduce the initiation, progression, and severity of EAE.

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases affects KC/CXCL1-induced intraluminal crawling, transendothelial migration, and chemotaxis of neutrophils in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Najia; Hossain, Mokarram; Liu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling is critical in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory processes. Leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation is a multistep process governed by specific signalling cascades. After adhesion in the lumen, many leukocytes crawl to optimal sites at endothelial junctions and transmigrate to extravascular tissue in a Mac-1-dependent manner. The signalling mechanisms that regulate postadhesion steps of intraluminal crawling, transmigration, and chemotaxis in tissue remain incompletely understood. The present study explored the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on various parameters of neutrophil recruitment triggered by chemokine KC (CXCL1) gradient. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle were determined using intravital microscopy and time-lapsed video analysis. SB203580 (100 nM) did not change leukocyte rolling but significantly attenuated neutrophil adhesion, emigration, and transmigration and impaired the initiation of neutrophil crawling and transmigration. In response to KC chemotactic gradient, SB203580 significantly reduced the velocity of migration and chemotaxis index of neutrophils in tissue. The upregulation of Mac-1 expression in neutrophils stimulated by KC was significantly blunted by SB203580 in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK significantly impairs multiple steps of neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

  19. Pharmacological Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Affects KC/CXCL1-Induced Intraluminal Crawling, Transendothelial Migration, and Chemotaxis of Neutrophils In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najia Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling is critical in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory processes. Leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation is a multistep process governed by specific signalling cascades. After adhesion in the lumen, many leukocytes crawl to optimal sites at endothelial junctions and transmigrate to extravascular tissue in a Mac-1-dependent manner. The signalling mechanisms that regulate postadhesion steps of intraluminal crawling, transmigration, and chemotaxis in tissue remain incompletely understood. The present study explored the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on various parameters of neutrophil recruitment triggered by chemokine KC (CXCL1 gradient. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle were determined using intravital microscopy and time-lapsed video analysis. SB203580 (100 nM did not change leukocyte rolling but significantly attenuated neutrophil adhesion, emigration, and transmigration and impaired the initiation of neutrophil crawling and transmigration. In response to KC chemotactic gradient, SB203580 significantly reduced the velocity of migration and chemotaxis index of neutrophils in tissue. The upregulation of Mac-1 expression in neutrophils stimulated by KC was significantly blunted by SB203580 in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK significantly impairs multiple steps of neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

  20. Interaction between small GTPase Rab7 and PI3KC3 links autophagy and endocytosis: A new Rab7 effector protein sheds light on membrane trafficking pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mary Grace; Zhong, Qing

    2011-03-01

    Endocytosis and autophagy are both membrane trafficking pathways vital for cell survival. Endocytosis, the primary means by which cells internalize material such as cell-surface receptors and their protein ligands, is essential for proper cell growth and communication. Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades cargo ranging from organelles to protein aggregates to bacteria, and it is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Defects in both endosome and autophagosome maturation lead to an array of human diseases, including cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying endosome and autophagosome maturation are not well characterized. In the case of endocytosis, small GTPases, key players in membrane organization, are required for endosome maturation. Specifically, activation of the small GTPase Rab7 is required for the initiation of the early-to-late endosome transition, although how this is regulated is largely unknown. Now recent findings from our laboratory show that Rubicon, a component of the PI3KC3 complex, inhibits endosome maturation by preventing activation of Rab7. Not only do our results clarify the molecular link between PI3KC3 and Rab7 function in endosome maturation, they lead us to propose new models for PI3KC3 involvement in membrane trafficking, particularly at the convergence between the endosome and autophagosome pathways.

  1. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E

    1997-07-01

    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  2. Treatment of kappa in Recent Western US Seismic Nuclear Plant Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, G. R.; Di Alessandro, C.; Al Atik, L.

    2015-12-01

    The three operating nuclear plants (Diablo Canyon, Palo Verde, and Columbia Generating Station) in the western United States recently performed SSHAC Level 3 seismic hazard studies in response to a Request for Information by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear facility. The treatment of zero-distance kappa, referred to as kappa_0 and commonly attributed to material damping and scattering in the shallow crust, was given extensive consideration in these studies. Available ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) do not typically include kappa_0 as a prediction parameter and are developed for an average kappa_0 of the host region. Kappa scaling is routinely applied to adjust for the differences in average kappa between the GMPEs host regions and the target regions. The impact of kappa scaling on the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analyses is significant for nuclear and other facilities that are sensitive to high frequency ground motions (frequencies greater than about 10 Hz). There are several available approaches for deriving kappa scaling factors to GMPEs, which all require estimating kappa_0 at the target site. It is difficult to constrain the target kappa_0 empirically due to the scarcity of ground-motion data from hard-rock sites in ground-motion databases.The hazard studies for the three nuclear power plants had different data, faced different challenges in the estimation of kappa_0, and used different methods for the estimation of the effect of kappa_0 on the site-specific ground motions. This presentation summarizes the approaches used for the evaluation of kappa_0 and for their incorporation in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Emphasis is given to the quantification of the kappa_0 uncertainty, and on the evaluation of its impact to the resulting seismic hazard at the different sites.

  3. Effect of Hautriwaic Acid Isolated from Dodonaea viscosa in a Model of Kaolin/Carrageenan-Induced Monoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Sánchez, David Osvaldo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Pérez, Salud; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Tortoriello, Jaime; González-Cortazar, Manasés; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the antiarthritic activity of hautriwaic acid is reported. This ent-clerodane diterpene isolated from Dodonaea viscosa was evaluated in mice using a kaolin/carrageenan-induced monoarthritis model. The inflammation observed in the joint (knee) on days 1-8 ranged from 50-70 %. After 10 days of treatment with different doses of hautriwaic acid (5, 10, 20 mg/kg), a decrease in knee inflammation was detected. This recovery was observed with both reference drugs, methotrexate (1 mg/kg) and diclofenac (0.75 mg/kg). In these groups of mice, the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the joint was significantly lower than that of the negative control group (animals with damage without any treatment). The negative control group presented a decrease in the concentration of interleukin-10, while the groups that received hautriwaic acid at different dose exhibited an increase in this interleukin. This anti-inflammatory cytokine was not modified in the joint of mice with diclofenac, but in mice that received methotrexate, a significant decrease was observed. Hautriwaic acid isolated from D. viscosa diminished the joint edema induced by this mixture of polysaccharides (carrageenan), possibly by acting as immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride and carrageenan on heart microsomes: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Deleris, G

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of rat heart microsomes to free radical attack using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. This physico-chemical method seemed a valuable technique: quite sensitive to changes in the vibrational spectra. The spectral variations observed between normal and treated rats were in great part due to reactive oxygen species that led to changes in protein conformation involving beta-sheets, aggregation of proteins, and modification of protein synthesis. Carrageenan-induced inflammation slightly enhanced the total lipid content; rearrangement of acyl chains and accumulation of cholesterol esters and phospholipids also occurred in the treated rats. Carbon tetrachloride induced a decrease in both lipid and protein contents. The level of glucidic substrates was diminished with carbon tetrachloride and enhanced with carrageenan; these changes were due to metabolic interactions between cell components and drugs. FT-IR spectroscopy provided an accurate means to monitor, in rat heart, the in vivo effects of inflammatory and peroxidative damages, to discriminate and classify the affected cells, and to correlate the findings with known physiological and biochemical data in close relationship with metabolic disruptions induced by the two xenobiotics.

  5. Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomash, V; Parihar, S K; Jain, N K; Katiyar, A K

    2010-02-09

    We studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and Ricinus communis root bark using chicken skin as model. Leaves of these plants were dried under shade and powdered. 5% Ethanol extracts were prepared using Soxhlet and injected intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg) 1 hour prior to the induction of inflammation. Inflammatory lesion were induced by intradermal injection of 0.02 ml 0.05%w/v histamine (0-2 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and 6 hr) and 1% w/v carrageenan (0-2 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 48 hr) in different group of birds. Increase in vascular permeability was studied using Evans blue as a permeability marker both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cellular events were studied in skin lesions at various time intervals and cells were counted at high power objective under microscope. Both, extracts exhibited significant decrease in permeability response at an early stage (0-2 min) of histamine as well as in carrageenan induced inflammatory lesions. There was a significant (pRicinus communis pretreated chicken skin lesions as compared to the control. The present study suggested antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis.

  6. ExoU activates NF-κB and increases IL-8/KC secretion during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Diettrich Mallet de Lima

    Full Text Available ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin injected into host cytosol by type III secretion system, exhibits a potent proinflammatory activity that leads to a marked recruitment of neutrophils to infected tissues. To evaluate the mechanisms that account for neutrophil infiltration, we investigated the effect of ExoU on IL-8 secretion and NF-κB activation. We demonstrate that ExoU increases IL-8 mRNA and protein levels in P. aeruginosa-infected epithelial and endothelial cell lines. Also, ExoU induces the nuclear translocation of p65/p50 NF-κB transactivator heterodimer as well as NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity. ChIP assays clearly revealed that ExoU promotes p65 binding to NF-κB site in IL-8 promoter and the treatment of cultures with the NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 led to a significant reduction in IL-8 mRNA levels and protein secretion induced by ExoU. These results were corroborated in a murine model of pneumonia that revealed a significant reduction in KC secretion and neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage when mice were treated with Bay 11-7082 before infection with an ExoU-producing strain. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ExoU activates NF-κB, stimulating IL-8 expression and secretion during P. aeruginosa infection, and unveils a new mechanism triggered by this important virulence factor to interfere in host signaling pathways.

  7. Coeficiente de cultura (Kc do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. no período de outono-inverno na região de Lavras - MG Crop coefficient (kc for coffee (Coffea arabica L. during the winter-fall seasons in Lavras region - MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A. Sato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O balanço hídrico é de elevada importância para avaliar a intensidade das entradas e saídas de água em um volume de solo explorado por uma cultura, permitindo, ainda, estimar parâmetros característicos das suas necessidades hídricas, como a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultura (Kc, que se apresentam como indicadores com significados físicos e biológicos da planta, sobretudo quando associados com o seu ciclo fenológico. Dessa forma, neste trabalho, monitorou-se o regime hídrico e climático, de abril a setembro de 2004, e estimou-se a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc e o Kc do cafeeiro Catuaí, após quatro anos de recepa, utilizando-se do método do balanço hídrico. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o cafeeiro, após quatro anos de recepa, apresentou ETc entre 1,23 e 4,39 mm dia-1 e Kc variando de 0,59 a 1,16. O coeficiente de cultura mostrou sintonia com a fenologia do cafeeiro, sinalizando, entretanto, para a redução do período de dormência e a antecipação do período de formação de frutos e de desenvolvimento vegetativo.Water balance is very important for evaluating inflow and outflow water in a soil block explored by a crop. This situation allows to estimate parameters associated to crop water schedule such as evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc, which are present as physical and biological indicators, especially when associated to the phenologic cycle. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to monitor water and climatic regime from April to Setember/2004 of an adult coffee crop of the cultivar Catuaí pruned four years before, and to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and Kc, applying the water balance method. The results allowed concluding that the coffee crop presented ETc values between 1.23 and 4.39 mm day-1 and Kc from 0.59 to 1.16. Kc showed a relationship with coffee crop phenology; however, it indicated a decrease of the dormancy period and an anticipation of the coffee

  8. A crucial role for TNF-α in mediating neutrophil influx induced by endogenously generated or exogenous chemokines, KC/CXCL1 and LIX/CXCL5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, SM; Lemos, HP; Grespan, R; Napimoga, MH; Dal-Secco, D; Freitas, A; Cunha, TM; Verri Jr, WA; Souza-Junior, DA; Jamur, MC; Fernandes, KS; Oliver, C; Silva, JS; Teixeira, MM; Cunha, FQ

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chemokines orchestrate neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory foci. In the present study, we evaluated the participation of three chemokines, KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2 and LIX/CXCL5, which are ligands for chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), in mediating neutrophil recruitment in immune inflammation induced by antigen in immunized mice. Experimental approach: Neutrophil recruitment was assessed in immunized mice challenged with methylated bovine serum albumin, KC/CXCL1, LIX/CXCL5 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Cytokine and chemokine levels were determined in peritoneal exudates and in supernatants of macrophages and mast cells by elisa. CXCR2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression was determined using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Key results: Antigen challenge induced dose- and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment and production of KC/CXCL1, LIX/CXCL5 and TNF-α, but not MIP-2/CXCL2, in peritoneal exudates. Neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by treatment with reparixin (CXCR1/2 antagonist), anti-KC/CXCL1, anti-LIX/CXCL5 or anti-TNF-α antibodies and in tumour necrosis factor receptor 1-deficient mice. Intraperitoneal injection of KC/CXCL1 and LIX/CXCL5 induced dose- and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment and TNF-α production, which were inhibited by reparixin or anti-TNF-α treatment. Macrophages and mast cells expressed CXCR2 receptors. Increased macrophage numbers enhanced, while cromolyn sodium (mast cell stabilizer) diminished, LIX/CXCL5-induced neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages and mast cells from immunized mice produced TNF-α upon LIX/CXCL5 stimulation. Methylated bovine serum albumin induced expression of ICAM-1 on mesenteric vascular endothelium, which was inhibited by anti-TNF-α or anti-LIX/CXCL5. Conclusion and implications: Following antigen challenge, CXCR2 ligands are produced and act on macrophages and mast cells triggering the production of TNF-α, which synergistically contribute to

  9. KC56 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  10. KC04 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  11. Neuroadaptations in human chronic alcoholics: dysregulation of the NF-kappaB system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Okvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-kappaB (p65/p50 heterodimer and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-kappaB proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant kappaB binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB target DNA sites, kappaB elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with kappaB elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-kappaB, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of kappaB regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism.

  12. The coupling between enhancer activity and hypomethylation of kappa immunoglobulin genes is developmentally regulated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, D.E.; Pollok, B.A.; Atchison, M.L.; Perry, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that immunoglobulin enhancers are essential for establishing transcriptional competence but not for maintaining the activity of constitutively transcribed genes. To understand the basis for this developmental shift away from dependence on enhancer function, the authors investigated the relationship between transcriptional activity and methylation status of the immunoglobulin kappa-light-chain genes (kappa genes) in mouse cell lines representing different stages of B-cell maturation. Using pre-B-cell lines in which the level of a critical kappa enhancer-binding factor, NF-kappaB, was controlled by the administration of withdrawal of lipopolysaccharide and plasmacytoma lines that either contain or lack this factor, they studied the properties of endogenous kappa genes and of transfected kappa genes which were stably integrated into the genomes of these cells. In the pre-B cells, the exogenous (originally unmethylated) kappa genes, as well as the endogenous kappa genes, were fully methylated and persistently dependent on enhancer function, even after more than 30 generations in a transcriptionally active state. In plasmacytoma cells, the endogenous kappa genes were invariably hypomethylated, whereas exogenous kappa genes were hypomethylated only in cells that contain NF-kappaB and are thus permissive for kappa enhancer function. These results indicate that the linkage of hypomethylation to enhancer-dependent activation of kappa transcription occurs after the pre-B-cell stage of development. The change in methylation status, together with associated changes in chromatin structure, may suffice to eliminate or lessen the importance of the enhancer for the maintenance of the transcriptionally active state.

  13. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  14. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs.

  15. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive; Potencial radioprotetor do acido ascorbico sobre a carragenana utilizada como aditivo alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against {sup 60} Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  16. Synthesis of graft copolymer (k-carrageenan-g-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and studies of metal ion uptake, swelling capacity and flocculation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, D.K.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-03-15

    Graft copolymer of k-carrageenan and N,N-dimethylacrylamide has been synthesized by free radical polymerization using peroxymonosulphate/glycolic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The grafting parameters i.e. grafting ratio, add on and efficiency decrease with increase in concentration of k-carrageenan from 0.6 to 1.4 g dm{sup -3} and hydrogen ion from 3 x 10{sup -3} to 7 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}, but these grafting parameters increase with increase in concentration of N,N-dimethylacrylamide from 16 x 10{sup -2} to 32 x 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}, and peroxymonosulphate from 0.8 x 10{sup -2} to 2A x 10{sup -2} Mol dm{sup -3}. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour and flocculation properties have been studied. The intrinsic viscosity of pure and grafted samples has been measured by using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. Flocculation capability of k-carrageenan and k-carrageenan-g-N,N-dimethylacrylamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer has been characterized by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. Spectroscopy of a \\kappa-Cygnid fireball afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Madiedo, José M

    2015-01-01

    A bright fireball with an absolute magnitude of -10.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 was recorded over the South of Spain on August 15, 2012. The atmospheric trajectory, radiant and heliocentric orbit of this event are calculated. These data show that the parent meteoroid belonged to the \\kappa-Cygnid meteoroid stream. The emission spectrum of this bolide, which was obtained in the wavelength range between 350 and 800 nm, suggests a chondritic nature for the progenitor meteoroid. Besides, the spectrum of the meteoric afterglow was also recorded for about 0.7 seconds. The evolution with time of the intensity of the main emission lines identified in this signal is discussed.

  18. Cardiorenal Effects of Kappa Opioid Peptides During Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the physiological roles for kappa opioid receptors (KORs in adult animals and humans, as well as in the developing newborn animal. Our recent findings have provided new information that under physiological conditions in conscious newborn animals, activation of KORs with the selective agonist, U-50488H, results in an aquaresis, as previously observed in adult animals and humans. In addition, we have shown in conscious lambs that KORs modulate systemic and renal haemodynamics as well as the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate, providing a previously unidentified role for KORs.

  19. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  20. Solar wind driven dust acoustic instability with Lorentzian kappa distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Kashif [National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad and University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040 (Pakistan); Ehsan, Zahida, E-mail: Ehsan.zahida@gmail.com [National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Universita degli Studi del Molise, 86090 Pesche - IS (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 86090 (Pakistan); Khan, S. A. [National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTEC, PO Box Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    In a three species electron-ion-dust plasma following a generalized non-Maxwellian distribution function (Lorentzian or kappa), it is shown that a kinetic instability of dust-acoustic mode exists. The instability threshold is affected when such (quasineutral) plasma permeates through another static plasma. Such case is of interest when the solar wind is streaming through the cometary plasma in the presence of interstellar dust. In the limits of phase velocity of the waves larger and smaller than the thermal velocity of dust particles, the dispersion properties and growth rate of dust-acoustic mode are investigated analytically with validation via numerical analysis.

  1. Assessing agreement on classification tasks the kappa statistic

    CERN Document Server

    Carletta, J

    1996-01-01

    Currently, computational linguists and cognitive scientists working in the area of discourse and dialogue argue that their subjective judgments are reliable using several different statistics, none of which are easily interpretable or comparable to each other. Meanwhile, researchers in content analysis have already experienced the same difficulties and come up with a solution in the kappa statistic. We discuss what is wrong with reliability measures as they are currently used for discourse and dialogue work in computational linguistics and cognitive science, and argue that we would be better off as a field adopting techniques from content analysis.

  2. Kappa distributions: theory and applications in space plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V

    2010-01-01

    Particle velocity distribution functions (VDF) in space plasmas often show non Maxwellian suprathermal tails decreasing as a power law of the velocity. Such distributions are well fitted by the so-called Kappa distribution. The presence of such distributions in different space plasmas suggests a universal mechanism for the creation of such suprathermal tails. Different theories have been proposed and are recalled in this review paper. The suprathermal particles have important consequences concerning the acceleration and the temperature that are well evidenced by the kinetic approach where no closure requires the distributions to be nearly Maxwellians. Moreover, the presence of the suprathermal particles take an important role in the wave-particle interactions.

  3. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G

    2007-12-05

    The parameter kappa was defined by Anderson and Hough (1984) to describe the high-frequency spectral roll-off of the strong motion seismic spectrum. In the work of Su et al., (1996) the numerical value of kappa estimated for sites near Yucca Mountain was small (~20 ms). The estimate obtained from these events has been applied through a rigorous methodology to develop design earthquake spectra with magnitude over 5.0. Smaller values of kappa lead to higher estimated ground motions in the methodology used by the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain. An increase of 10 ms in kappa could result in a substantial decrease in the high frequency level of the predicted ground motions. Any parameter that plays such a critical role deserves close examination. Here, we study kappa and its associated uncertainties. The data set used by Su et al (1996) consisted of 12 M 2.8 to 4.5 earthquakes recorded at temporary stations deployed after the June 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The kappa elements of that study were revisited by Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) and substantially confirmed. One weakness of those studies is the limited data used. Few of these stations were on tuff or on Yucca Mountain itself. A decade of Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) recording has now yielded a larger body of on-scale, well calibrated digital ground motion records suitable for investigating kappa. We use the SGBDSN data to check some of the original assumptions, improve the statistical confidence of the conclusions, and determine values of kappa for stations on or near Yucca Mountain. The outstanding issues in kappa analysis, as they apply to Yucca Mountain, include: 1. The number itself. The kappa estimate near 20 msec from Su et al. (1996) and Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) is markedly smaller than is considered typical in California (Silva, 1995). The low kappa value has engineering consequences because when it is applied in ground

  4. Semi-refined κ-carrageenan: Part 1. Chemical modification of semi-refined κ-carrageenan via graft copolymerization method, optimization process and characterization of its super absorbent hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Mohd. Daud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for the preparation of super absorbent polymer hydrogel from semi-refined κ-carrageenan originated from Kappaphycusalvarezii (Doty Doty ex P. Silva through graft copolymerization method with acrylic acid. The reaction was carried out in an aqueous solution in the presence of N,N-methylene bis-acrylamide as a crosslinker and ammonium persulphate as an initiator. The effect of the amount of cross linker, monomer, initiator and alkali on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel was investigated for optimum conditions.After preparing the desired hydrogel according to optimum conditions, the hydrogel was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM microscopy and swelling capacity measurement.

  5. Global gene expression analysis in the mouse brainstem after hyperalgesia induced by facial carrageenan injection--evidence for a form of neurovascular coupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Kay-Wee; Lutfun, Nahar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Ong, Wei-Yi; Yeo, Jin-Fei

    2009-03-01

    The present study was carried out to examine global gene expression in the brainstem, in a mouse facial carrageenan injection model of orofacial pain. Mice that received facial carrageenan injection showed increased mechanical allodynia, demonstrated by increased responses to von Frey hair stimulation of the face. The brainstem was harvested at 3 days post-injection, corresponding to the time of peak responses, and analyzed by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarrays. We sought to identify common genes that are changed in the respective sides of the brainstem after either right- or left-sided facial carrageenan injection. The result is a relatively small list of genes (22 genes), which were then classified using DAVID software. Many of them fell into the categories of "response to stress", "defence response", "response to biotic stimulus", "cell adhesion" and "leukocyte adhesion". Of these, increased expression of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and CCL12 after carrageenan injection could be verified by real-time RT-PCR on both the right and left sides, and increased in P-selectin and ICAM-1 further verified by Western blot analysis. P-selectin and ICAM-1 were immunolocalized to endothelial cells, and were double labelled with von Willebrand factor. Intraperitoneal injection of the P-selectin inhibitor KF38789 significantly reduced mechanical allodynia in the facial carrageenan-injected mice. P-selectin mediates the capturing of leukocytes from the bloodstream and rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial surface. We hypothesize that increased nociceptive input to the brainstem could attract circulating macrophages into the brain, resulting in neuroinflammation and pain.

  6. Influence of maltodextrin and environmental stresses on stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsaard, E; Putthanimon, J; Singthong, J; Thammarutwasik, P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of maltodextrin with different concentrations (0-30%) and dextrose equivalent (dextrose equivalent 10 and dextrose equivalent 15) under different environmental stresses (pH 3-8, NaCl 0-500 mM, and sucrose 0-20%) on the stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, microstructure, and viscosity. Sesame oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic droplets stabilized by interfacial membranes comprising whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan/maltodextrin (15% sesame oil, 0.5% whey protein concentrate, 0.2% κ-carrageenan, 0.02% sodium azide and 0-30% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 and 15, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7) were produced using a homogenizer. The primary emulsion (1°) containing whey protein concentrate-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing. The secondary emulsion (2°) containing whey protein concentrate-κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin was produced by mixing the 1° emulsion with an aqueous κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin solution. There were no significant changes in mean droplet diameter and ζ-potential of droplets at any maltodextrin concentration (0-30%) or dextrose equivalent (10 and 15) after 24 h storage. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased when the maltodextrin concentration increased. The 2° emulsion containing 15% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 had the stability to aggregation at pH 6-8, NaCl ≤ 300 mM, and sucrose 0-20%. The addition of maltodextrin to emulsion can be used to form emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing (for example, encapsulation).

  7. NF-kappaB inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Marco A; Bacher, Susanne; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2007-01-01

    The NF-kappaB/Rel signaling system is a paradigm for gene activation in response to inflammatory and menacing stimuli. Given the growing body of evidence showing an important involvement of NF-kappaB for the onset of autoimmune diseases and different types of cancer, NF-kappaB is an important drug target for the adjuvant therapy of these diseases. Great efforts have been made for the development of highly specific NF-kappaB inhibitors, some of them being currently tested in phase II clinical trials. Here we discuss recent progress in the identification of druggable components of the NF-kappaB signaling system and the development and potential use of novel NF-kappaB inhibitors.

  8. Realizations of $\\kappa$-Minkowski space, Drinfeld twists and related symmetry algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Juric, Tajron; Pikutic, Danijel

    2015-01-01

    Realizations of $\\kappa$-Minkowski space linear in momenta are studied for time-, space- and light-like deformations. We construct and classify all such linear realizations and express them in terms of $\\mathfrak{gl}(n)$ generators. There are three one-parameter families of linear realizations for time-like and space-like deformations, while for light-like deformations, there are only four linear realizations. The relation between deformed Heisenberg algebra, star product, coproduct of momenta and twist operator is presented. It is proved that for each linear realization there exists Drinfeld twist satisfying normalization and cocycle conditions. $\\kappa$-deformed $\\mathfrak{igl}(n)$-Hopf algebras are presented for all cases. The $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e-Weyl and $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e-Hopf algebras are discussed. Left-right dual $\\kappa$-Minkowski algebra is constructed from the transposed twists. The corresponding realizations are nonlinear. All known Drinfeld twists related to $\\kappa$-Minkowski space are obtained...

  9. Colloidal gas-liquid condensation of polystyrene latex particles with intermediate kappa a values (5 to 160, a > kappa(-1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masamichi; Kitano, Ryota

    2010-02-16

    Polystyrene latex particles showed gas-liquid condensation under the conditions of large particle radius (a > kappa(-1)) and intermediate kappa a, where kappa is the Debye-Hückel parameter and a is the particle radius. The particles were dissolved in deionized water containing ethanol from 0 to 77 vol %, settled to the bottom of the glass plate within 1 h, and then laterally moved toward the center of a cell over a 20 h period in reaching a state of equilibrium condensation. All of the suspensions that were 1 and 3 microm in diameter and 0.01-0.20 vol % in concentration realized similar gas-liquid condensation with clear gas-liquid boundaries. In 50 vol % ethanol solvent, additional ethanol was added to enhance the sedimentation force so as to restrict the particles in a monoparticle layer thickness. The coexistence of gas-liquid-solid (crystalline solid) was microscopically recognized from the periphery to the center of the condensates. A phase diagram of the gas-liquid condensation was created as a function of KCl concentration at a particle diameter of 3 microm, 0.10 vol % concentration, and 50:50 water/ethanol solvent at room temperature. The miscibility gap was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 250 microM. There was an upper limit of salt concentration where the phase separation disappeared, showing nearly critical behavior of macroscopic density fluctuation from 250 microM to 1 mM. These results add new experimental evidence to the existence of colloidal gas-liquid condensation and specify conditions of like-charge attraction between particles.

  10. Binding of kappa- and sigma-opiates in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolozin, B.L.; Nishimura, S.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1982-06-01

    Detailed displacements of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine by ketocyclazocine and SKF 10,047, (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine by SKF 10,047, and (/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 by ketocyclazocine are all multiphasic, suggesting multiple binding sites. After treating brain tissue in vitro with naloxazone, all displacements lose the initial inhibition of /sup 3/H-ligand binding by low concentrations of unlabeled drugs. Together with Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments, these studies suggest a common site which binds mu-, kappa, and sigma-opiates and enkephalins equally well and with highest affinity (KD less than 1 nM). The ability of unlabeled drugs to displace the low affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine (KD . 3 nM), (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine (KD . 4 nM), (/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 (KD . 6 nM), and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-(/sup 3/H)enkephalin (KD . 5 nM) remaining after treating tissue with naloxazone demonstrates unique pharmacological profiles for each. These results suggest the existence of distinct binding sites for kappa- and sigma-opiates which differ from those sites which selectively bind morphine (mu) and enkephalin (delta).

  11. Inhibition of the canonical IKK/NF kappa B pathway sensitizes human cancer cells to doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Maria A; González-Navarrete, Irene; Dalmases, Alba; Bosch, Marta; Rodriguez-Fanjul, Vanesa; Rolfe, Mark; Ross, Jeffrey S; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristobal; Bachs, Oriol; Gascón, Pere; Rojo, Federico; Perona, Rosario; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan

    2007-09-15

    The NF kappa B family is composed by five subunits (p65/RelA, c-Rel, RelB, p105-p50/NF kappa B(1), p100-p52/NF kappa B(2)) and controls the expression of many genes that participate in cell cycle, apoptosis, and other key cellular processes. In a canonical pathway, NF kappa B activation depends on the IKK complex activity, which is formed by three subunits (IKKalpha and IKKbeta and IKKgamma/NEMO). There is an alternative NF kappa B activation pathway that does not require IKKbeta or IKKgamma/NEMO, in which RelB is a major player. We report in a panel of human breast cancer cells that the IKK/NF kappa B system is generally overexpressed in breast cancer cells and there is heterogeneity in expression levels of individual members between different cell lines. Doxorubicin, an anticancer agent used in patients with breast cancer, activated NF kappa B and appeared to be less effective in cells expressing predominantly members of the canonical IKK/NF kappa B. Two NF kappa B inhibitors, bortezomib and NEMO-Binding Domain Inhibitory Peptide, prevented doxorubicin-induced NF kappa B activation and increased doxorubicin antitumor effects in BT-474 cells. Transient down-regulation of members of the canonical pathway (p65, p52, c-Rel and IKKgamma/NEMO) by siRNA in HeLa cells increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity. In contrast, silencing of RelB, a key subunit of the alternative pathway, had no evident effects on doxorubicin cytotoxicity. To conclude, NF kappa B inhibition sensitized cells to doxorubicin, implying directly p65, p52, c-Rel and IKKgamma/NEMO subunits in chemoresistance, but not RelB. These findings suggest that selective inhibition of the canonical NF kappa B pathway is sufficient to improve doxorubicin antitumor effects.

  12. Quaternized chitosan/κ-carrageenan/caffeic acid-coated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fibrous materials: Preparation, antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Markova, Nadya

    2016-11-20

    Novel fibrous materials with antioxidant and antibacterial properties from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), quaternized chitosan (QCh), κ-carrageenan (Car) and caffeic acid (CA) were obtained. These materials were prepared by applying electrospinning or electrospinning in conjunction with dip-coating and polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formation. It was found that the CA release depended on the fiber composition. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that CA incorporated in the fibers was in the amorphous state, whereas CA included in the coating was in the crystalline state. In contrast to the neat PHB mats, the CA-containing mats and the PEC QCh/Car-coated mats were found to kill the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and were effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of the fibrous materials containing both CA and QCh/Car coating was observed.

  13. Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel beads combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine.

  14. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  15. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  16. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    g/day) and placebo. Treatment was started 2 days before initiation of carrageenan administration. The drugs were administered through a chronic gastric fistula. At the end of the study concentrations of 5-ASA and acetylated 5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA) in cecal contents and in plasma were determined....... In the placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly...... fewer ulcerations (4/cm2). The concentrations of 5-ASA and/or its acetylated metabolite were several times higher in the cecum content and twice as high in plasma in the SASP group, indicating a difference in the absorption patterns of 5-ASA and the two drugs. These results and the etiological...

  17. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan- or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-Induced Edema and Hypersensitivity in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Animal models of inflammation are used to assess the production of inflammatory mediators at sites of inflammation, the processing of pain sensation at CNS sites, the anti-inflammatory properties of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the efficacy of putative analgesic compounds in reversing cutaneous hypersensitivity. Detailed in this unit are methods to elicit and measure carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced cutaneous inflammation. Due to possible differences between the dorsal root sensory system and the trigeminal sensory system, injections into either the footpad or vibrissal pad are described. In this manner, cutaneous inflammation can be assessed in tissue innervated by the lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons (footpad) or by the trigeminal ganglion neurons (vibrissal pad). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. The (\\lambda, \\kappa)-Freese-Nation property for boolean algebras and compacta

    CERN Document Server

    Milovich, David

    2012-01-01

    We study a two-parameter generalization of the Freese-Nation Property of boolean algebras and its order-theoretic and topological consequences. For every regular infinite \\kappa, the (\\kappa,\\kappa)-FN, the (\\kappa^+,\\kappa)-FN, and the \\kappa-FN are known to be equivalent; we show that the family of properties (\\lambda,\\mu)-FN for \\lambda>\\mu form a true two-dimensional hierarchy that is robust with respect to coproducts, retracts, and the exponential operation. The (\\kappa,\\aleph_0)-FN in particular has strong consequences for base properties of compacta (stronger still for homogeneous compacta), and these consequences have natural duals in terms of special subsets of boolean algebras. We show that the (\\kappa,\\aleph_0)-FN also leads to a generalization of the equality of weight and \\pi-character in dyadic compacta. Elementary subalgebras and their duals, elementary quotient spaces, were originally used to define the (\\lambda, \\kappa)-FN and its topological dual, which naturally generalized from Stone space...

  19. Ion-cyclotron instability in plasmas described by product-bi-kappa distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    The dispersion relation for parallel propagating waves in the ion-cyclotron branch is investigated numerically by considering that the velocity distribution of the ion population is a function of type product-bi-kappa. We investigate the effects of the non-thermal features and of the anisotropy associated with this type of distribution on the ion-cyclotron instability, as well as the influence of different forms of the electron distribution, by considering Maxwellian distributions, bi-kappa distributions, and product-bi-kappa distributions. The cases of ions described by either Maxwellian or bi-kappa distributions are also considered, for comparison. The results of the numerical analysis show that the increase in the non-thermal character associated with the anisotropic kappa distributions for ions contributes to enhance the instability as compared to that obtained in the Maxwellian case, in magnitude and in wave number range, with more significant enhancement for the case of ion product-bi-kappa distributions than for the case of ion bi-kappa distributions. It is also shown that the ion-cyclotron instability is decreased if the electrons are described by product-bi-kappa distributions, while electrons described by bi-kappa distributions lead to growth rates which are very similar to those obtained considering a Maxwellian distribution for the electron population.

  20. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiollah Hajhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP and intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

  1. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  2. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Calculation of Boil-Off Gas (BOG Generation of KC-1 Membrane LNG Tank with High Density Rigid Polyurethane Foam by Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hyeonwon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new type of LNG tank named “KC-1 membrane LNG tank” has been developed by Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS, and Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI is currently building KC-1 membrane type LNG carriers. Unlike other LNG tanks, the KC-1 membrane LNG tank has a single-insulation structure rather than a double-insulation structure. For a given tank’s boundary condition, heat transfer analysis is performed from the external to the internal environment of the LNG tank by numerical simulation for three tanks. In each tank, the main thermally resistant layer of insulation is assembled with a High density rigid Polyurethane Foam (H-PUF, which is blown with one of three different types of hydrofluorocarbons-namely-HFC-365mfc, 245fa, and 245fa-e (enhanced. Advantage of such blowing agents is that it has a lower Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP than HCFC-141b or carbon dioxide (CO2 that has been used in the past as well as having low thermal conductivity. A Reduced Order Model is utilized to a 3-dimensional section of the insulation to calculate equivalent thermal conductivity. The equivalent thermal conductivity of the insulation is then applied to the rest of LNG tank, reducing the size of tank simulation domain as well as computation time. Tank’s two external and internal boundary conditions used are those defined by the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC and the United States Coast Guard (USCG conditions. Boil-off Rate (BOR of the tank that has the insulation with H-PUF blown with HFC-245fa resulted in 0.0927 %/day and 0.0745 %/day for IGC and USCG conditions, respectively.

  5. Use of KC-135 parabolic flights to determine if brief changes in the gravity field can influence the phase and/or period of the circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Fred W. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In February 1994 a total of 10 hampsters flew on two separate KC-135 flights. On one flight, 25 animals experienced 31 parabolas, thus going through 31 cycles of hypergravity (up to about 1.8 G). On the other flight, the animals were exposed to 43 parabolas. fifty additional animals served as ground based controls and were treated in the same fashion as the experimental animals. The profiles of plasma GH, corisol and coricosterone from representative parabolic flight and ground control animals during pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions are depicted.

  6. Protein kinase C{eta} activates NF-{kappa}B in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Hai, Naama; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Shahaf, Galit [The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Gopas, Jacob [The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); The Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Livneh, Etta, E-mail: etta@bgu.ac.il [The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Protein kinase C-eta (PKC{eta}) is an upstream regulator of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. {yields} PKC{eta} activates NF-{kappa}B in non-stressed conditions and in response to DNA damage. {yields} PKC{eta} regulates NF-{kappa}B by activating I{kappa}B kinase (IKK) and inducing I{kappa}B degradation. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) family of transcription factors participates in the regulation of genes involved in innate- and adaptive-immune responses, cell death and inflammation. The involvement of the Protein kinase C (PKC) family in the regulation of NF-{kappa}B in inflammation and immune-related signaling has been extensively studied. However, not much is known on the role of PKC in NF-{kappa}B regulation in response to DNA damage. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PKC-eta (PKC{eta}) regulates NF-{kappa}B upstream signaling by activating the I{kappa}B kinase (IKK) and the degradation of I{kappa}B. Furthermore, PKC{eta} enhances the nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B under non-stressed conditions and in response to the anticancer drug camptothecin. We and others have previously shown that PKC{eta} confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our present study suggests that PKC{eta} is involved in NF-{kappa}B signaling leading to drug resistance.

  7. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  8. NF-kappaB regulatory mechanisms in alveolar macrophages from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, P; McIntyre, R; Schwartz, M D; Kaneko, D; Shenkar, R; Le Tulzo, Y; Moore, E E; Abraham, E

    2000-02-01

    Activation of the nuclear regulatory factor NF-kappaB occurs in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may contribute to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in this setting. Because of the important role that NF-kappaB activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kapppaB counterregulatory mechanisms, involving IkappaB proteins, in alveolar macrophages obtained from 7 control patients without lung injury and 11 patients with established ARDS. Cytoplasmic levels of the NF-kappaB subunits p50, p65, and c-Rel were significantly decreased in alveolar macrophages from patients with ARDS, consistent with enhanced migration of liberated NF-kappaB dimers from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of IkappaBalpha were not significantly altered in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS, compared with controls. In contrast, nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were significantly decreased in patients with ARDS compared with controls (P = 0.02). No IkappaBgamma, IkappaBbeta, or p105 proteins were detected in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages from control patients or patients with ARDS. The presence of activated NF-kappaB in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS implies the presence of an ongoing stimulus for NF-kappaB activation. In this setting, appropriate counterregulatory mechanisms to normalize nuclear levels of NF-kappaB and to suppress NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, such as increased cytoplasmic and nuclear IkappaBalpha levels or decreased Bcl-3 levels, appeared to be induced. Nevertheless, even though counterregulatory mechanisms to NF-kappaB activation are activated in lung macrophages of patients with ARDS, NF-kappaB remains activated. These results suggest that fundamental abnormalities in transcriptional mechanisms involving NF-kappaB and important in the

  9. Modulating temporal control of NF-kappaB activation: implications for therapeutic and assay selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J; Ustyugova, Irina V; Brundage, Kathleen M; Barnett, John B

    2008-06-01

    The activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) plays a central role in the induction of many inflammatory response genes. This process is characterized by either oscillations or stable induction of NF-kappaB nuclear binding. Changes in dynamics of binding result in the expression of distinct subsets of genes leading to different physiological outcomes. We examined NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IC-21 cells by electromobility shift assay and nonradioactive transcription factor assay and interpreted the results using a kinetic model of NF-kappaB activation. Both assays detected damped oscillatory behavior of NF-kappaB with differences in sensitivity and reproducibility. 3,4-Dichloropropionaniline (DCPA) was used to modulate the oscillatory behavior of NF-kappaB after LPS stimulation. DCPA is known to inhibit the production of two NF-kappaB-inducible cytokines, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, by reducing but not completely abrogating NF-kappaB-induced transcription. DCPA treatment resulted in a potentiation of early LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. The nonradioactive transcription factor assay, which has a higher signal/noise ratio than the electromobility shift assay, combined with in silico modeling, produced results that revealed changes in NF-kappaB dynamics which, to the best of our knowledge, have never been previously reported. These results highlight the importance of cell type and stimulus specificity in transcription factor activity assessment. In addition, assay selection has important implications for network inference and drug discovery.

  10. KAPPA: A Package for Synthesis of optically thin spectra for the non-Maxwellian kappa-distributions based on the CHIANTI database

    CERN Document Server

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Kotrč, Pavel; Fárník, František; Zemanová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    The non-Maxwellian $\\kappa$-distributions have been detected in the solar transition region and flares. These distributions are characterized by a high-energy tail and a near-Maxwellian core and are known to have significant impact on the resulting optically thin spectra arising from collisionally dominated astrophysical plasmas. We developed the KAPPA package (http://kappa.asu.cas.cz) for synthesis of such line and continuum spectra. The package is based on the freely available CHIANTI database and software, and can be used in a similar manner. Ionization and recombination rates together with the ionization equilibria are provided for a range of $\\kappa$ values. Distribution-averaged collision strengths for excitation are obtained by an approximate method for all transitions in all ions available within CHIANTI. The validity of this approximate method is tested by comparison with direct calculations. Typical precisions of better than 5% are found, with all cases being within 10%. Tools for calculation of syn...

  11. 高强度卡拉胶纤维的制备及性能测试%Preparation and characterization of high strength carrageenan fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付永强; 薛志欣; 夏延致; 王士财

    2011-01-01

    通过卡拉胶与环氧氯丙烷交联反应制得改性卡拉胶;并将改性卡拉胶溶于热水制得纺丝液,采用湿法纺丝制备高强度卡拉胶纤维.红外光谱测试及粘度提高证明交联反应的发生;用单因素实验法找到影响因素的最佳范围,通过正交实验法得到最佳合成条件为温度90℃、交联剂加入量为6.25%、反应时间2.0h、pH值为10.0;利用万能材料试验机测得纯卡拉胶纤维的断裂强度为2.17cN/tex,改性卡拉胶纤维的最大断裂强度为3.99cN/tex,交联后断裂强度提高85%.%Modified carrageenan was prepared by carrageenan cross-linked with epoxy chloropropane. Then the modified carrageenan went through wet-spinning frame to get the high strength carrageenan fibers. The compo-sition of carrageenan and modified fibers were characterized by FT-IR. The viscosity was investigated by vis-cometer. The range of influencing factors was investigated by experiments of single factor. The optimum syn-thesis condition of the crosslinking was obtained by orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the reac-tion temperature was 90℃, the amount of crosslinking agent added was 6. 25% , the reaction time was 2.0h and the pH value was 10. 0. The mechanical property of the modified/unmodified carrageenan fibers were investiga-ted with strength tester. The breaking strength of the former is 3. 99cN/tex, compared with the latter 2. 17cN/ tex.

  12. Effect of carrageenan on texture properties of Choerospondias axillaris pastilles%卡拉胶对南酸枣糕质构性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双双; 梁瑞红; 刘伟; 刘继延; 陈军; 王召君

    2012-01-01

    The effect of addition of carrageenan on the texture of Choerospondias axilluris pastilles was evaluated by texture profile a-nalysis, and its internal structure was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). On the basis of addition of carrageenan, the differences and the correlation of texture parameters ( hardness, springiness, chewiness and adhesiveness) of samples containing different amount of carrageenan was compared. The results showed that the hardness and springiness of Choerospondias uzillaris pastilles basically remain unchanged when carrageenan concentration was 0. 0%~0. 6%, but when the addition was 0. 6%~1. 0% , the hardness and springiness increased remarkably. A well linear correlation was found between the hardness and springiness. The springiness was found to increase with increasing addition of carrageenan, and the adhesiveness was firstly increased and then decreased. The maximum value of the adhesiveness was found when addition of car- rageenan was 0. 8%. From SEM pictures, we can obviously find out that Choerospondias axillaris pastilles has formed thick gel with more closely texture, and more evenly appearance characteristics increasing amounts of carrageenan.%通过质构仪分析,研究卡拉胶添加量对南酸枣糕质构性质的影响,并利用扫描电镜分析其内部结构,比较不同卡拉胶添加量,各参数(硬度、弹性、咀嚼性、黏性)的差异性和相关性.结果表明:卡拉胶添加量为0.0%~0.6%时,南酸枣糕的硬度、咀嚼性基本不变,而添加量为0.6%~1.0%时,硬度、咀嚼性增加比较显著,且硬度和咀嚼性之间具有良好的线性相关性.弹性随着卡拉胶添加量的增加而增加,而黏性随着卡拉胶的增加先增加后降低,且在卡拉胶添加量为0.8%时达到最大值.从电镜扫描图中可看出,随着卡拉胶的增加,南酸枣糕能形成较厚实的凝胶,质地更紧密,外观特征更均匀.

  13. Landau damping of Langmuir twisted waves with kappa distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Kashif, E-mail: kashif.arshad.butt@gmail.com; Aman-ur-Rehman [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Shahzad [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-11-15

    The kinetic theory of Landau damping of Langmuir twisted modes is investigated in the presence of orbital angular momentum of the helical (twisted) electric field in plasmas with kappa distributed electrons. The perturbed distribution function and helical electric field are considered to be decomposed by Laguerre-Gaussian mode function defined in cylindrical geometry. The Vlasov-Poisson equation is obtained and solved analytically to obtain the weak damping rates of the Langmuir twisted waves in a nonthermal plasma. The strong damping effects of the Langmuir twisted waves at wavelengths approaching Debye length are also obtained by using an exact numerical method and are illustrated graphically. The damping rates of the planar Langmuir waves are found to be larger than the twisted Langmuir waves in plasmas which shows opposite behavior as depicted in Fig. 3 by J. T. Mendoça [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112113 (2012)].

  14. Brane Effective Actions, Kappa-Symmetry and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Simón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a review on brane effective actions, their symmetries and some of their applications. Its first part covers the Green–Schwarz formulation of single M- and D-brane effective actions focusing on kinematical aspects: the identification of their degrees of freedom, the importance of world volume diffeomorphisms and kappa symmetry to achieve manifest spacetime covariance and supersymmetry, and the explicit construction of such actions in arbitrary on-shell supergravity backgrounds. Its second part deals with applications. First, the use of kappa symmetry to determine supersymmetric world volume solitons. This includes their explicit construction in flat and curved backgrounds, their interpretation as Bogomol’nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS states carrying (topological charges in the supersymmetry algebra and the connection between supersymmetry and Hamiltonian BPS bounds. When available, I emphasise the use of these solitons as constituents in microscopic models of black holes. Second, the use of probe approximations to infer about the non-trivial dynamics of strongly-coupled gauge theories using the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT correspondence. This includes expectation values of Wilson loop operators, spectrum information and the general use of D-brane probes to approximate the dynamics of systems with small number of degrees of freedom interacting with larger systems allowing a dual gravitational description. Its final part briefly discusses effective actions for N D-branes and M2-branes. This includes both Super-Yang-Mills theories, their higher-order corrections and partial results in covariantising these couplings to curved backgrounds, and the more recent supersymmetric Chern–Simons matter theories describing M2-branes using field theory, brane constructions and 3-algebra considerations.

  15. Nonlinear plasma processes and the formation of electron kappa distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The goal of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is to establish fundamental relationship between the time irreversible macroscopic dynamics and the underlying time reversible behavior of microscopic system. The paradigm of achieving this seemingly paradoxical goal is through the concept of probability. For classical systems Boltzmann accomplished this through his H theorem and his kinetic equation for dilute gas. Boltzmann's H function is the same as classical extensive entropy aside from the minus sign, and his kinetic equation is applicable for short-range molecular interaction. For plasmas, the long-range electromagnetic force dictates the inter-particular interaction, and the underlying entropy is expected to exhibit non-extensive, or non-additive behavior. Among potential models for the non-additive entropy, the celebrated Tsallis entropy is the most well known. One of the most useful fundamental kinetic equations that governs the long-range plasma interaction is that of weak turbulence kinetic theory. At present, however, there is no clear-cut connection between the Tsallis entropy and the kinetic equations that govern plasma behavior. This can be contrasted to Boltzmann's H theorem, which is built upon his kinetic equation. The best one can do is to show that the consequences of Tsallis entropy and plasma kinetic equation are the same, that is, they both imply kappa distribution. This presentation will overview the physics of electron acceleration by beam-generated Langmuir turbulence, and discuss the asymptotic solution that rigorously can be shown to correspond to the kappa distribution. Such a finding is a strong evidence, if not water-tight proof, that there must be profound inter-relatioship between the Tsallis thermostatistical theory and the plasma kinetic theory.

  16. Elevated expression of NF-kappaB in oral submucous fibrosis--evidence for NF-kappaB induction by safrole in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei-Feng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is considered to be important in many inflammatory and immune responses. The aim of this study was to compare NF-kappaB expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further explore the potential mechanism that may lead to induction of NF-kappaB expression. Seventeen OSF and six normal buccal mucosa specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry. Primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were established and challenged with safrole, a major polyphenolic compound in the influorescence of Piper betel, by cytotoxicity and western blot assays. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, dexamethasone, and cyclosporin A were added to find the possible mechanism. NF-kappaB expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Safrole was cytotoxic to BMFs in a dose-dependent manner (psafrole (psafrole induced-NF-kappaB expression (psafrole in fibroblasts may be mediated by ERK activation and COX-2 signal transduction pathway.

  17. Glycolytic pathway (GP), kreb's cycle (KC), and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity in myocardial subcellular fractions exposed to cannabinoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.T.; Manno, B.R.; King, J.W.; Fowler, M.R.; Dempsey, C.A.; Manno, J.E.

    1986-03-05

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (..delta../sup 9/-THC), the primary psychoactive component of marihuana, and its active metabolite 11-hydroxy-..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-..delta../sup 9/-THC) have been reported to produce a direct cardiac depressant effect. Studies in isolated perfused rat hearts have indicated a decreased force of contraction (inotropic response) when ..delta../sup 9/-THC or 11-OH-..delta../sup 9/-THC was administered in microgram amounts. The mechanism and site of action have not been explained or correlated with associated metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on major myocardial energy producing pathways, GP and KC, and a non-energy producing pathway, HMS. Cardiac ventricular tissue from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) was excised and homogenized for subcellular fractionation. KC, GP and HMS activity was assayed in the appropriate fractions by measuring /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ generation from /sup 14/C-2-pyruvate, /sup 14/C-6-glucose and /sup 14/C-1-glucose respectively. Duplicate assays (n=8) were performed on tissue exposed to saline (control), empty liposomes (vehicle) and four doses each of ..delta../sup 9/-THC and 11-OH-..delta../sup 9/-THC. Changes in metabolic activity and decreases in cardiac contractile performance may be associated.

  18. Polymorphisms in NF-kappa B, PXR, LXR, PPAR gamma and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane; Ernst, Anja

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the contribution of polymorphisms in nuclear receptors to risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Genotypes of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B (NFKB1) NF kappa B -94ins/del (rs28362491); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma (PPAR gamma) PPAR gamma Pro12...

  19. Good cop, bad cop: the different faces of NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, N D; Gilmore, T D

    2006-05-01

    Complexes formed from the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed and are induced by a diverse array of stimuli. This results in their becoming activated in a wide variety of different settings. While the functions of NF-kappaB in many of these contexts have been the subject of intense research and are now well established, it is also clear that there is great diversity in the effects and consequences of NF-kappaB activation. NF-kappaB subunits do not necessarily regulate the same genes, in an identical manner, in all of the different circumstances in which they are induced. This review will discuss the different functions of NF-kappaB, the pathways that modulate NF-kappaB subunit activity and, in contrast to its more commonly thought of role as a promoter of cancer cell growth and survival, the ability of NF-kappaB, under some circumstances, to behave as a tumor suppressor.

  20. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  1. DMPD: Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18267068 Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Hayden MS, Ghosh S. Cell. 2008 F...eb 8;132(3):344-62. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. PubmedID 18267068 Title Shared

  2. Relative locality in a quantum spacetime and the pregeometry of $\\kappa$-Minkowski

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new description of the much-studied $\\kappa$-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime, centered on representing on a single Hilbert space not only the $\\kappa$-Minkowski coordinates, but also the associated differential calculus and the $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e symmetry generators. In this "pregeometric" representation the relevant operators act on the kinematical Hilbert space of the covariant formulation of quantum mechanics, which we argue is the natural framework for studying the implications of the step from commuting spacetime coordinates to the $\\kappa$-Minkowski case, where the spatial coordinates do not commute with the time coordinate. The empowerment provided by this kinematical-Hilbert space representation allows us to give a crisp characterization of the "fuzziness" of $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime, whose most striking aspect is a relativity of spacetime locality. We show that relative locality, which had been previously formulated exclusively in classical-spacetime setups, for a quantum spaceti...

  3. $\\kappa$-deformed Landau levels and implications on the integer quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Fabiano M; Assafrão, Denise; Filgueiras, Cleverson

    2016-01-01

    In this letter the $\\kappa$-deformed Dirac equation is used to study the relativistic generalization of the $\\kappa$-deformed Landau levels and the consequences of the deformation on the Hall conductivity. The isolated solutions for the first order differential equations, excluded from the Sturm-Liouville problem, are investigated. They do exist, but are independent of the deformation parameter. An expression for the $\\kappa$-deformed relativistic Landau levels is obtained. It is observed that the deformation parameter breaks the Landau levels degeneracy. Considering the $\\kappa$-deformed Landau levels in the nonrelativistic regime the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron system is obtained. The expression obtained recovers the well-known result for the usual Hall conductivity in the limit $\\varepsilon=\\kappa^{-1}\\to 0$. It is also observed that deformation generates new plateaus of conductivity in a such way that the plateaus widths of the deformed system are less than the undeformed one.

  4. Relationship between the Expression of NF-kappa B and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqun Ma; Zhenfa Zhang; Shidong Xu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC),to explore the apoptotic ratio in NSCLC related to different NF-kappa Bs,and to understand the clinical significance of NF-kappa B in NSCLC apoptosis.METHODS NF-kappa B expression in 45 new samples of NSCLC,collected during a period from October to December,2005,was assayed using Western blots,and the apoptotic ratio of NSCLC was determined by the Tunel method.RESULTS Of the 45 patients,the average relative expressxon of NF-kappa B was 0.6047±0.3572.The expression of NF-kappa B was higher in the poorly differentiated lung cancer cells than in the well-differentiated tumors (P<0.05).The apoptotic ratio was 56.4%in the lung cancer cells with higher NF-kappa B expression,and was 76.7%in those with lower NF-kappa B expression(P<0.05).CONCLUSION The expression of NF-kappa B is correlated with the differentiation of NSCLC.NF-kappa B inhibits apoptosis in NSCLC.AS a transcription factor,NF-kappa B plays a very important role both in formation and in development of NSCLC.NF-kappa B might serve as a target for NSCLC gene therapy.

  5. Anti-inflammation effects of Sardinella longicep oil against paw oedema on Rattus novergicus induced by 1% carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Parwati Sari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: People usually used non steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID such as aspirin in chronic inflammation treatment. However, using NSAID at long term therapy will cause many effects such as nausea and vomiting. Sardinella longiceps oil, on the other side, is reported as an alternative treatment for anti-inflammation since it is natural and also contained eicosapentaenoid acid (EPA and decohexaenoic acid (DHA. Thus, it may reduce paw oedema. Purpose: The aim of this study was to know anti-inflammation effects of Sardinella longiceps oil against paw oedema of Wistar rats induced by 1% carrageenan. Methods: The samples of this research were 32 Wistar rats which were divided into four groups, in group 1, the rats were given aquadest; in group 2, the rats were given aspirin; in group 3, the rats were given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil; in group 4, the rats were given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil. All of the rats, nevertheless, were given intraplantar induction of 1% carrageenan into the paw of rats to induce the inflammation condition. Results: All data were tested with normality test. The normal data were then analyzed with Homogenity of Variances and also ANOVA test which result showed significant differences. The data which showed significant differences were tested again with LSD test. result then showed that group given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil had no significant differences from group given aspirin, but there were significant differences between group given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil, and also between group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given aquadest. Conclusion: Sardinella longiceps oil could reduce paw oedema in Wistar rats induced with 1% carrageenan.Latar belakang: Penggunaan obat anti-inflamasi non steroid (OAINS seperti aspirin sering digunakan dalam pengobatan inflamasi kronis. Namun penggunaan OAINS

  6. Specific effects of BCL10 Serine mutations on phosphorylations in canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation following carrageenan

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Katyal, Shivani; Pradeep K Dudeja; Joanne K. Tobacman

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of B cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL) 10 on the phosphorylation of crucial mediators in NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways, human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to carrageenan (CGN), a sulfated polysaccharide commonly used as a food additive and known to induce NF-κB nuclear translocation by both canonical and noncanonical pathways. Phosphorylations of intermediates in inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) at Thr559, transforming growth fact...

  7. Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Barbara; Colleoni, Mariapia; Conti, Silvia; Parolaro, Daniela; Franke, Chiara; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Giagnoni, Gabriella

    2004-03-01

    Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana, has various pharmacological actions of clinical interest. It is reportedly effective as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of cannabidiol, administered orally (5-40 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days after the onset of acute inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v in saline) in the rat. At the end of the treatment prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed in the plasma, and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, production of nitric oxide (NO; nitrite/nitrate content), and of other oxygen-derived free radicals (malondialdehyde) in inflamed paw tissues. All these markers were significantly increased following carrageenan. Thermal hyperalgesia, induced by carrageenan and assessed by the plantar test, lasted 7 h. Cannabidiol had a time- and dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect after a single injection. Edema following carrageenan peaked at 3 h and lasted 72 h; a single dose of cannabidiol reduced edema in a dose-dependent fashion and subsequent daily doses caused further time- and dose-related reductions. There were decreases in PGE2 plasma levels, tissue COX activity, production of oxygen-derived free radicals, and NO after three doses of cannabidiol. The effect on NO seemed to depend on a lower expression of the endothelial isoform of NO synthase. In conclusion, oral cannabidiol has a beneficial action on two symptoms of established inflammation: edema and hyperalgesia.

  8. Study on effects of carrageenan on pork quality%不同浓度卡拉胶对猪肉品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了不同浓度卡拉胶对猪肉的感官品质、色泽、保水性、蒸煮损失率及嫩度等品质指标的影响。结果表明,添加不同浓度的卡拉胶后,对猪肉的感官品质有一定的影响,对猪肉的色泽有负面的影响,不同浓度影响效果不同,一般高浓度的对猪肉感官品质的负面影响较大。卡拉胶浓度与猪肉的感官评分、剪切力之间的回归方程均具有统计学上的显著意义,与猪肉的色差、保水性及蒸煮损失率之间的回归方程不具有统计学上的显著意义。%The effects of different concentration of carrageenan on the sensory quality, color, water retention, cooking loss rate and tenderness of pork were investigated in this paper. The results showed that different concentration of carrageenan affected the sensory quality of pork and with negative effect on color. The regression equation between sensory evaluation, shear force and concentration of carrageenan had statistical significance, but regression equations between concentration of earrageenan and the indexes of color, water retention and cooking loss rate were not significant with the concentration of carrageenan had no statistical significance.

  9. in vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Degraded larnbda-Carrageenan%λ-卡拉胶降解组分的体外免疫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元臣; 周革非; 李树福; 王长海

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究微波法降解得到的不同分子量角叉菜λ-卡拉胶的免疫活性.方法:以离子交换纤维素色谱DE52柱对微波降解所得λ-卡拉胶PC2(product of carrageenan 2)进行分级;从实验动物体内获取免疫细胞,采取体外与多糖共同培养的方式,通过淋巴细胞、巨噬细胞增殖实验,中性红吞噬实验以及NO释放实验评价其免疫活性.结果:纯化得到三个硫酸基含量和分子量依次增大的均一多糖分级组分CF1(carrageenan fraction 1)、CF2(carrageenan fraction 2)、CF3(carrageenan fraction 3).实验结果表明,CF1、CF2、CF3组分均能显著的促进巨噬细胞和ConA诱导的脾细胞增殖,并能增强巨噬细胞吞噬能力和NO的释放.结论:在体外培养研究条件下,λ-卡拉胶降解组分对正常小鼠的免疫能力有促进作用.

  10. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken.

  11. Requirement of NF-kappaB/Rel for the development of hair follicles and other epidermal appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Aebischer, T; Hülsken, J; Birchmeier, W; Klemm, U; Scheidereit, C

    2001-10-01

    NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors and IkappaB kinases (IKK) are essential for inflammation and immune responses, but also for bone-morphogenesis, skin proliferation and differentiation. Determining their other functions has previously been impossible, owing to embryonic lethality of NF-kappaB/Rel or IKK-deficient animals. Using a gene targeting approach we have ubiquitously expressed an NF-kappaB super-repressor to investigate NF-kappaB functions in the adult. Mice with suppressed NF-kappaB revealed defective early morphogenesis of hair follicles, exocrine glands and teeth, identical to Eda (tabby) and Edar (downless) mutant mice. These affected epithelial appendices normally display high NF-kappaB activity, suppression of which resulted in increased apoptosis, indicating that NF-kappaB acts as a survival factor downstream of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family member EDAR. Furthermore, NF-kappaB is required for peripheral lymph node formation and macrophage function.

  12. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Kumar Khare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA, tyrosine value (TVextract release volume (ERV, Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV, instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  13. 卡拉胶的生物活性及分子修饰研究进展%Research Progress on Biological Activity and Chemical Modification of Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀芳; 李平

    2012-01-01

    Carrageenan,as a family of sulfated polysaccharides with unique structure,had many kinds of biological activity.However,its application in biomedicine field was limited because of large molecular weight.Research on the biological activity of carrageenan in antivirus,antitumor and anticoagulant were synopsis introduced,emphasizing to introduce the research progress on the chemical modification and derivatives of carrageenan.%卡拉胶作为一种结构独特的硫酸多糖,具有多种生物活性,但因分子量过大,使其在生物医药领域的应用受到限制。文章简要介绍了近年来有关卡拉胶抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗凝血等生物活性的研究,进一步介绍了卡拉胶分子修饰及其衍生物生物活性的研究进展。

  14. Inhibitory effect of amygdalin on lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA expression and carrageenan-induced rat arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Shim, Insop; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside plant compound found in the seeds of rosaceous stone fruits. We evaluated the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of amygdalin, using an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell line and a rat model with carrageenan-induced ankle arthritis. One mM amygdalin significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNAs in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Amygdalin (0.005, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) was intramuscularly injected immediately after the induction of carrageenan-induced arthritic pain in rats, and the anti-arthritic effect of amygdalin was assessed by measuring the weight distribution ratio of the bearing forces of both feet and the ankle circumference, and by analyzing the expression levels of three molecular markers of pain and inflammation (c-Fos, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta) in the spinal cord. The hyperalgesia of the arthritic ankle was alleviated most significantly by the injection of 0.005 mg/kg amygdalin. At this dosage, the expressions of c-Fos, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the spinal cord were significantly inhibited. However, at dosage greater than 0.005 mg/kg, the painrelieving effect of amygdalin was not observed. Thus, amygdalin treatment effectively alleviated responses to LPStreatment in RAW 264.7 cells and carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats, and may serve as an analgesic for relieving inflammatory pain.

  15. DMPD: Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16982211 Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Wullaer...vg) (.html) (.csml) Show Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. PubmedID 1698221...1 Title Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Author

  16. Purinergic signaling is required for fluid shear stress-induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genetos, Damian C., E-mail: dgenetos@ucdavis.edu [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Karin, Norman J. [Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Geist, Derik J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Donahue, Henry J. [Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Duncan, Randall L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Fluid shear stress regulates gene expression in osteoblasts, in part by activation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. We examined whether this process was under the control of purinoceptor activation. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts under static conditions expressed the NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and exhibited cytosolic localization of NF-{kappa}B. Under fluid shear stress, I{kappa}B{alpha} levels decreased, and concomitant nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B was observed. Cells exposed to fluid shear stress in ATP-depleted medium exhibited no significant reduction in I{kappa}B{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B remained within the cytosol. Similar results were found using oxidized ATP or Brilliant Blue G, P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists, indicating that the P2X{sub 7} receptor is responsible for fluid shear-stress-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B. Pharmacologic blockage of the P2Y6 receptor also prevented shear-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation. These phenomena involved neither ERK1/2 signaling nor autocrine activation by P2X{sub 7}-generated lysophosphatidic acid. Our results suggest that fluid shear stress regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through the P2Y{sub 6} and P2X{sub 7} receptor.

  17. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  18. Structure of the human [kappa]-opioid receptor in complex with JDTic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huixian; Wacker, Daniel; Mileni, Mauro; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Vardy, Eyal; Liu, Wei; Thompson, Aaron A.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Carroll, F. Ivy; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C. (VCU); (Scripps); (UNC); (Res. Tri. Inst.)

    2013-04-25

    Opioid receptors mediate the actions of endogenous and exogenous opioids on many physiological processes, including the regulation of pain, respiratory drive, mood, and - in the case of {kappa}-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) - dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Here we report the crystal structure of the human {kappa}-OR in complex with the selective antagonist JDTic, arranged in parallel dimers, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals important features of the ligand-binding pocket that contribute to the high affinity and subtype selectivity of JDTic for the human {kappa}-OR. Modelling of other important {kappa}-OR-selective ligands, including the morphinan-derived antagonists norbinaltorphimine and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole, and the diterpene agonist salvinorin A analogue RB-64, reveals both common and distinct features for binding these diverse chemotypes. Analysis of site-directed mutagenesis and ligand structure-activity relationships confirms the interactions observed in the crystal structure, thereby providing a molecular explanation for {kappa}-OR subtype selectivity, and essential insights for the design of compounds with new pharmacological properties targeting the human {kappa}-OR.

  19. Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvia Abramson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.

  20. Dichotomous actions of NF-kappaB signaling pathways in heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rimpy; Shaw, James A; Aviv, Yaron; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A

    2010-08-01

    Despite the substantial progress in heart research over the past two decades heart failure still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in North America and is reaching pandemic proportions worldwide. Though the underlying causes are varied, the functional loss of contractile myocytes through apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy has emerged a central unifying theme to explain diminished cardiac performance in individuals with heart failure. At the molecular level, there has been considerable interest in understanding the signaling pathways that regulate cell death in the heart with specific interest in the extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways. The cellular factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of a wide range of genes involved in cellular process including inflammation, immune cell maturation, cell proliferation, and, most recently, cell survival. NF-kappaB signaling is important for the normal cellular growth and is a major target of inflammatory cytokines. Several studies have highlighted a protective role of NF-kappaB in the heart under certain circumstances including hypoxic or ischemic myocardial injury. The diverse nature and involvement of NF-kappaB in regulation of vital cellular processes including cell survival notably in the post-mitotic heart has sparked considerable interest in understanding the signaling pathways involved in regulating NF-kappaB in the heart under normal and pathological conditions. However, whether NF-kappaB is adaptive, maladaptive or is a homeostatic response to cardiac injury may simply depend on the context and timing of its activation. In this forum we discuss NF-kappaB signaling pathways and therapeutic opportunities to modulate NF-kappaB activity in heart failure.

  1. Prefrontal Cortical Kappa Opioid Receptors Attenuate Responses to Amygdala Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Hugo A; Hanks, Ashley N; Scott, Liam; Mejias-Aponte, Carlos; Hughes, Zoë A; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-12-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have been implicated in anxiety and stress, conditions that involve activation of projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although KORs have been studied in several brain regions, their role on mPFC physiology and on BLA projections to the mPFC remains unclear. Here, we explored whether KORs modify synaptic inputs from the BLA to the mPFC using in vivo electrophysiological recordings with electrical and optogenetic stimulation. Systemic administration of the KOR agonist U69,593 inhibited BLA-evoked synaptic responses in the mPFC without altering hippocampus-evoked responses. Intra-mPFC U69,593 inhibited electrical and optogenetic BLA-evoked synaptic responses, an effect blocked by the KOR antagonist nor-BNI. Bilateral intra-mPFC injection of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI increased center time in the open field test, suggesting an anxiolytic effect. The data demonstrate that mPFC KORs negatively regulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the BLA-mPFC pathway and anxiety-like behavior. These findings provide a framework whereby KOR signaling during stress and anxiety can regulate the flow of emotional state information from the BLA to the mPFC.

  2. NF-kappaB Signaling in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schuliga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are obstructive airway disorders which differ in their underlying causes and phenotypes but overlap in patterns of pharmacological treatments. In both asthma and COPD, oxidative stress contributes to airway inflammation by inducing inflammatory gene expression. The redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF-kappaB (NF-κB, is an important participant in a broad spectrum of inflammatory networks that regulate cytokine activity in airway pathology. The anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs, a mainstay treatment for asthma, involve inhibition of NF-κB induced gene transcription. Ligand bound GC receptors (GRs bind NF-κB to suppress the transcription of NF-κB responsive genes (i.e., transrepression. However, in severe asthma and COPD, the transrepression of NF-κB by GCs is negated as a consequence of post-translational changes to GR and histones involved in chromatin remodeling. Therapeutics which target NF-κB activation, including inhibitors of IκB kinases (IKKs are potential treatments for asthma and COPD. Furthermore, reversing GR/histone acetylation shows promise as a strategy to treat steroid refractory airway disease by augmenting NF-κB transrepression. This review examines NF-κB signaling in airway inflammation and its potential as target for treatment of asthma and COPD.

  3. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The kappa opioid receptor (KOR and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  4. PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates the inflammation caused by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Ziliani da Silva; Medeiros, Yara S; Fröde, Tania S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of rosiglitazone (ROSI) in a pleurisy model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. Efficacy was monitored in the mouse pleural cavity by evaluating leukocyte migration, exudate concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities concomitantly with nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), and vascular endothelial growth factor-alpha (VEGF-α) levels 4 and 48 h after pleurisy induction. In both phases (4 and 48 h) of pleurisy, ROSI inhibited all the inflammation parameters that were tested (p<0.05). These results provide evidence that ROSI was efficacious in inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators. These anti-inflammatory effects are assumed to mainly result from the inhibition of products released from activated leukocytes, such as MPO, ADA, NOx, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A, and VEGF-α.

  5. Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rahul; Saberi, Bahareh; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John; Stathopoulos, Costas; Scarlett, Christopher; Bowyer, Michael; Vuong, Quan

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop rice starch (RS), ι-carrageenan (ι-car) based film. Different formulations of RS (1-4%, w/w), ι-car (0.5-2%, w/w) was blended with stearic acid (SA; 0.3-0.9%, w/w) and glycerol (1%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The effect of film ingredients on the thickness, water vapour permeability (WVP), film solubility (FS), moisture content (MC), colour, film opacity (FO), tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EAB) of film was examined. Interactions and miscibility of partaking components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrocolloid suspension solution of mix polysaccharides imparted a significant impact (p<0.05) on the important attributes of resulting edible film. TS and EAB of film were improved significantly (p<0.05) when ι-car was increased in the film matrix. Formulation F1 comprising 2% ι-car, 2% RS, 0.3% SA, Gly 30% w/w and 0.2% surfactant (tween(®)20) provided film with good physical, mechanical and barrier properties. FT-IR and XRD results reveal that molecular interactions between RS-ι-car have a great impact on the film properties confining the compatibility and miscibility of mixed polysaccharide. Results of the study offers new biodegradable formulation for application on fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anethole and eugenol reduce in vitro and in vivo leukocyte migration induced by fMLP, LTB4, and carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Kummer, Raquel; Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Grespan, Renata; Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcântara; Baroni, Silmara; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anethole (AN) and eugenol (EUG) on leukocyte migration using in vitro chemotaxis and in situ microcirculation assays. BALB/c mice were used for the in vitro chemotaxis assay, and Wistar rats for the in situ microcirculation assay. We evaluated (a) the in vitro leukocyte migration in response to chemotactic factors (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP] and leukotriene B4 [LTB4]) and (b) the rolling, adhesion, and migration of leukocytes induced by an injection of carrageenan (100 µg/cavity) into the scrotum of the animal. In the in vitro chemotaxis assay, AN and EUG at doses of 1, 3, 9, and 27 µg/ml significantly inhibited leukocyte migration when stimulated by the chemotactic agents fMLP and LTB4. In the in situ microcirculation assay, AN at doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg and EUG at a dose of 250 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to perivascular tissue. The results indicate that AN and EUG exert inhibitory effects on leukocyte migration, highlighting their possible use to diminish excessive leukocyte migration in the inflammatory process.

  7. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), which employed a broadband through-transmission substitution technique. The mean speed of sound across the measured frequencies was found to be 1551.7 ± 12.7 and 1547.7 ± 3.3 m s−1, respectively. The attenuation exhibited a non-linear dependence on frequency, f (MHz), in the form of a polynomial function: 0.009787f2 + 0.2671f and 0.01024f2 + 0.3639f, respectively. The characterization of this tissue-mimicking material will provide reference data for designing phantoms for preclinical systems, which may, in certain applications such as flow phantoms, require a physically more robust tissue-mimicking material than is currently available. PMID:25438864

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Marrubium vulgare L. Methanol Extract on Carrageenan- Induced Paw Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fathiazad, Maryam Rameshrad, Samira Asghari, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Alireza Garjani, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The upward desire in using traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of different diseases has led the scientists to be thoughtful on plants as alternative sources of conventional drugs. Methods: Herein, anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium vulgare methanolic extract was evaluated in carrageenan- induced paw edema in rats through examining paw thickness, histological studies and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO. The antioxidant activity of M. vulgare extract and its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated by folin-Ciocalteau, and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, separately. Results: The results showed that M. vulgare alleviated paw inflammation as indexed by reduction paw thickness (p<0.001 as well as MPO activity (p<0.001, which was associated with a marked decrease in tissue edema. Moreover, the extract RC50 value for DPPH and nitric oxide antioxidant activity was 177 µg/mL and 370.5 µg/ml, besides, the total phenolic and flavonoids were as 625 mg gallic acid equivalent and 1.62 g quercetin equivalent per 100 g of dried plant material. Conclusion: In the main, the observed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of M. vulgare could be attributed to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content identified in the extract.

  9. Digestive fate of dietary carrageenan: Evidence of interference with digestive proteolysis and disruption of gut epithelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahoum, Lulu; Moscovici, Alice; David, Shlomit; Shaoul, Ron; Rozen, Geila; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G; Lesmes, Uri

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to interrogate two mechanisms by which commercial Carrageenans (E407) (CGN) may adversely affect human health: (i) Through modification of gastric proteolysis and (ii) Through affecting gut epithelial structure and function. Three commercial CGN samples with distinct zeta-potentials (stable at the pH range of 3-7 and varied with physiological levels of CaCl2 ) were mixed with milk, soy or egg protein isolates, then subjected to a semi-dynamic in vitro digestion model and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. This revealed varying levels of interference with gastric digestive proteolysis and a significant decrease in pepsin activity. Further, a Caco-2 cell model was used to explore various effects of physiologically digested CGN (pdCGN) on various epithelial cell functions and characteristics. Samples of pdCGN (0.005-0.5 mg/mL) affected the epithelial barrier function, including redistribution of the tight-junction protein Zonula Occludens (Zo)-1, changes in cellular F-actin architecture and increased monolayer permeability to the transfer of macromolecules. Moreover, pdCGN induced elevation in the levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 receptor CXCR1. This work raises the possibility that CGN may reduce protein and peptide bioaccessibility, disrupt normal epithelial function, promote intestinal inflammation, and consequently compromise consumer health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  11. kappa+lambda+ dual receptor B cells are present in the human peripheral repertoire

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    It is a common notion that mature B lymphocytes express either kappa or lambda light (L) chains, although the mechanism that leads to such isotypic exclusion is still debated. We have investigated the extent of L chain isotypic exclusion in normal human peripheral blood B lymphocytes. By three-color staining with anti-CD19, anti-kappa, and anti-lambda antibodies we could estimate that 0.2-0.5% of peripheral blood B cells from healthy adults express both kappa and lambda on the cell surface. T...

  12. Theoretical and Experimental studies of aerodynamic interference effects. [aerodynamic forces on winglets and on wing nacelle configurations for the YC-14 and KC-135 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettie, I. H.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical studies of aerodynamic forces on winglets shed considerable light on the mechanism by which these devices can reduce drag at constant total lift and on the necessity for proper alignment and cambering to achieve optimum favorable interference. Results of engineering studies, wind tunnel tests and performance predictions are reviewed for installations proposed for the AMST YC-14 and the KC-135 airplanes. The other major area of aerodynamic interference discussed is that of engine nacelle installations. Slipper and overwing nacelles have received much attention because of their potential for noise reduction, propulsive lift and improved ground clearance. A major challenge is the integration of such nacelles with the supercritical flow on the upper surface of a swept wing in cruise at high subsonic speeds.

  13. Identification of the Genome Segments of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 26 (Isolate KUW2010/02 that Restrict Replication in a Culicoides sonorensis Cell Line (KC Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian D Pullinger

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV can infect most ruminant species and is usually transmitted by adult, vector-competent biting midges (Culicoides spp.. Infection with BTV can cause severe clinical signs and can be fatal, particularly in naïve sheep and some deer species. Although 24 distinct BTV serotypes were recognized for several decades, additional 'types' have recently been identified, including BTV-25 (from Switzerland, BTV-26 (from Kuwait and BTV-27 from France (Corsica. Although BTV-25 has failed to grow in either insect or mammalian cell cultures, BTV-26 (isolate KUW2010/02, which can be transmitted horizontally between goats in the absence of vector insects, does not replicate in a Culicoides sonorensis cell line (KC cells but can be propagated in mammalian cells (BSR cells. The BTV genome consists of ten segments of linear dsRNA. Mono-reassortant viruses were generated by reverse-genetics, each one containing a single BTV-26 genome segment in a BTV-1 genetic-background. However, attempts to recover a mono-reassortant containing genome-segment 2 (Seg-2 of BTV-26 (encoding VP2, were unsuccessful but a triple-reassortant was successfully generated containing Seg-2, Seg-6 and Seg-7 (encoding VP5 and VP7 respectively of BTV-26. Reassortants were recovered and most replicated well in mammalian cells (BSR cells. However, mono-reassortants containing Seg-1 or Seg-3 of BTV-26 (encoding VP1, or VP3 respectively and the triple reassortant failed to replicate, while a mono-reassortant containing Seg-7 of BTV-26 only replicated slowly in KC cells.

  14. Manipulation of Nf-KappaB Activity in the Macrophage Lineage as a Novel Therapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    alveolitis in mice is largely determined by expression of the CXC chemokines MIP-2 and KC (23), we measured levels of these mediators in lung lavage fluid...mokine IL-8 correlates with neutrophilia in BAL, and pro- longed neutrophilic alveolitis is associated with increased mortality in patients with ARDS...J. E. DeLarco, and J. W. Christman. 1994. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant mediates neutrophilic alveolitis in rats: association with

  15. Some Features of Scattering Problem in a $\\kappa$-Deformed Minkowski Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Khodadi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The doubly special relativity (DSR) theories are suggested in order to incorporate an observer-independent length scale in special theory of relativity. The Magueijo-Smolin proposal of DSR is realizable through a particular form of the noncommutative (NC) spacetime (known as $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime) in which the Lorentz symmetry is preserved. In this framework, the NC parameter $\\kappa$ provides the origin of natural cutoff energy scale. Using a nonlinear deformed relativistic dispersion relation along with the Lorentz transformations, we investigate some phenomenological facets of two-body collision problem (without creation of new particles) in a $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime. By treating an elastic scattering problem, we study effects of the Planck scale energy cutoff on some relativistic kinematical properties of this scattering problem. The results are challenging in the sense that as soon as one turns on the $\\kappa$-spacetime extension, the nature of the two-body collision alters from elastic to in...

  16. Electrostatic Korteweg-deVries solitary waves in a plasma with Kappa-distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.-R.; Min, K.-W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, T.-N. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation that describes the evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with Kappa-distributed electrons is derived by using a reductive perturbation method in the small amplitude limit. We identified a dip-type (negative) electrostatic KdV solitary wave, in addition to the hump-type solution reported previously. The two types of solitary waves occupy different domains on the {kappa} (Kappa index)-V (propagation velocity) plane, separated by a curve corresponding to singular solutions with infinite amplitudes. For a given Kappa value, the dip-type solitary wave propagates faster than the hump-type. It was also found that the hump-type solitary waves cannot propagate faster than V = 1.32.

  17. Misestimation of temperature when applying Maxwellian distributions to space plasmas described by kappa distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaou, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the misestimation of temperature when observations from a kappa distributed plasma are analyzed as a Maxwellian. One common method to calculate the space plasma parameters is by fitting the observed distributions using known analytical forms. More often, the distribution function is included in a forward model of the instrument's response, which is used to reproduce the observed energy spectrograms for a given set of plasma parameters. In both cases, the modeled plasma distribution fits the measurements to estimate the plasma parameters. The distribution function is often considered to be Maxwellian even though in many cases the plasma is better described by a kappa distribution. In this work we show that if the plasma is described by a kappa distribution, the derived temperature assuming Maxwell distribution can be significantly off. More specifically, we derive the plasma temperature by fitting a Maxwell distribution to pseudo-data produced by a kappa distribution, and then examine the d...

  18. Whistler-Mode Waves Growth by a Generalized Relativistic Kappa-Type Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qing-Hua; JIANG Bin; SHI Xiang-Hua; LI Jun-Qiu

    2009-01-01

    The instability of field-aligned Whistler-mode waves in space plasmas is studied by using a recently developed generalized relativistic kappa-type (KT) distribution. Numerical calculations are performed for a direct compar-ison between the new KT distribution and the current kappa distribution. We show that the wave growth for the KT distribution tends to occur in the lower wave frequency (e.g., ω 0.1Ωe) due to a larger fractional num-ber of the resonant electrons ηrel (which controls the wave growth), while primarily locating in the higher wave frequency for the kappa distribution. Moreover, the relativistic anisotropy Arel by the KT distribution is found to be smaller than that by the kappa distribution, leading to a smaller peak of wave growth. The results present a further understanding of plasma wave instability particularly in those plasmas where relativistic electrons are present.

  19. Observer variability in the assessment of type and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas, analyzed using kappa statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Krogsgaard, M R; Christiansen, J

    1995-01-01

    of adenomas were assessed twice by three experienced pathologists, with an interval of two months. Results were analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: For agreement between first and second assessment (both type and grade of dysplasia), kappa values for the three specialists were 0.5345, 0.9022, and 0....... The kappa values for Observer A vs. B and Observer C vs. B were 0.3480 and 0.3770, respectively (both type and dysplasia). Values for type were better than for dysplasia, but agreement was only fair to moderate. CONCLUSION: The interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect, but the intraobserver...... agreement was only fair to moderate. A simpler classification system or a centralization of assessments would probably increase kappa values....

  20. Electronic transmission and switch effect in kappa-component Fibonacci nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Ruili; Li, De; Peng, Ruwen; Wang, Mu

    2010-11-01

    We present the electronic transport in the k-component Fibonacci (KCF) nanowires, in which kappa different incommensurate intervals are arranged according to a substitution rule. For the KCF nanowires with an identical kappa, by increasing the length of the nanowire, the minima in transmission extend gradually into the band gap over which the transmission is blocked. Meanwhile more transmission peaks appear. For finite KCF nanowire, by increasing the number of different incommensurate intervals kappa, the width of electronic band gap is enlarged. Moreover, when the value of kappa is sufficiently large, the transmission is shut off, except at a few resonant energies. These properties make it possible to use the KCF nanowires as switching devices. Furthermore, a dimensional spectrum of singularities associated with the transmission spectrum demonstrates that the electronic propagation in the KCF nanowire shows multifractality. These investigations open a unique way to control quantum transport in nanodevices.